How big are green tree frogs
A Guide to Caring for American Green Tree Frogs as Pets
American green tree frogs are native to the southeast U.S. from Florida to Virginia, and as their name indicates, they are a bright green color, which helps them camouflage in the wild with the surrounding foliage. They have a light white or cream-colored stripe from the side of the head down to the flanks.
American green tree frogs are small. Their skin is porous and not recommended for much handling, but they are one of the easier frogs to care for even for a novice. Maintaining the right environment for these hardy amphibians is not too difficult, but you will need to devote at least an hour each week to clean out the habitat.
Common Name: American green tree frog
Scientific Name: Hyla cinerea
Adult Size: Up to 2 1/2 inches long
Life Expectancy: 2 to 5 years
American Green Tree Frog Behavior and Temperament
These small frogs are timid and do not tolerate handling; they are squirmy and will resist it. Some frogs, after many years in captivity, may grow to accept it. But like most frogs, their skin is delicate and continuous hand contact can damage their skin.
Do not plan on keeping this frog's habitat in your bedroom. As nocturnal creatures, the males are especially active and vocal at night. American green tree frogs are not cuddly pets, but they are fun to watch. Their big eyes seem to look longingly at a spot, and their mouths always appear to be perpetually smiling.
Click Play to Learn More About the Cute and Shy American Green Tree Frog
Housing the American Green Tree Frog
A minimum 10-gallon tank is suitable as a terrarium for green tree frogs, although larger works well too. Frogs are arboreal, spending most of their time in trees. The height of the cage is more important than the floor space, so a tall tank is best. Get a secure mesh or wire cover to prevent escape.
Climbing is essential for this species. Provide a variety of branches, live plants, or artificial vegetation. Ensure any wood collected from the outdoors is pesticide-free. You will need to treat or sanitize harvested wood to remove harmful bacteria or bugs. Driftwood and cork bark also make suitable cage furnishings.
Unlike many other frog species, the American green tree frog doesn't require any special heating considerations, unless it drops lower than 70 degrees Fahrenheit in your home. It's entirely nocturnal, and no supplemental ultraviolet light is needed. It will, however, need a humid environment.
Thoroughly clean the enclosure once a week. Do not use soap as detergents can kill your frog. Make sure your hands are clean (but not recently soap-cleaned) or use latex-free gloves. Gently place the frogs in a small container.
Take everything out, rinsing and scrubbing under hot water. The tank itself will need to be cleaned too (with hot water, no soap). As for the bedding, use washable liners, such as reptile carpeting or washable coconut fiber mats. You can use a gentle laundry detergent for the liner, but it must be rinsed thoroughly with cold clean water. To cut your cleaning time, have two pieces of tank liners, so when one is dirty, you will always have a clean one ready for use.
The temperature needs of this frog are similar to humans; they thrive at temperatures from 70 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. As these creatures are cold-blooded, they need to regulate their internal body temperature. They do this by moving around in their cage to cool down or get warm. Provide a thermal gradient or range of temperatures in the cage. You can do this by putting a ceramic heat emitter in one corner or end of the cage. The temperature should not exceed 82 degrees Fahrenheit in that warm spot.
This animal is nocturnal and will likely sleep during the day. It does not require lights, but a UVB fluorescent light tube (5.0) can be beneficial but not necessary for this species. The invisible ultraviolet rays may help your frog metabolize calcium.
Humidity should be around 50 to 60 percent during daytime and spike to 80 to 100 percent at nighttime. Never let the humidity level fall below 50 percent at any time. A hygrometer or humidity gauge will help you check moisture levels. Automated misters and foggers can provide moisture on a timer if you are not home to mist your cage regularly with a spray bottle.
Substrate is the bedding or lining for the bottom of your pet's cage. The safest, easiest, and most economically efficient choices are reptile carpet or a coconut fiber mat. These are easily washable and safer since your frog cannot mistakenly ingest it.
However, you can still use other substrates, such as cypress mulch or organic soil, moss, cork bark, or smooth gravel. You can try to clean small gravel every week, but it would require boiling to sanitize it adequately, so it's best to replace it entirely every week. If your frog seems to be eating some of its substrate with its insect meal, consider switching to a reptile carpet or a coconut fiber mat which can prevent health issues down the road.
When selecting plants for your frog's cage, get plants that thrive in a similar climate: temperatures in the 70s, high humidity, and lower light. Also, make sure your plant selections are not toxic to amphibians. Your best options will be sturdy ferns or Philodendron.
Live Terrarium Plants With Reptiles and Amphibians
Food and Water
What Is a Tree Frog's Diet?
A tree frog's diet includes the food and nutrients it needs to thrive. As insectivores, tree frogs can eat insects like crickets, fruit flies, houseflies, ants, moths, and worms to maintain a healthy diet.
American green tree frogs are generally good eaters and exclusively eat insects. Crickets can make up the bulk of a green tree frog's diet. The crickets should be gut-loaded—fed a high-protein, nutritious meal before being offered to the frog—and dusted with a calcium and multivitamin supplement a couple of times a week.
Tree frogs will likely eat more in the spring and summer months than in the winter. Feed smaller frogs daily, while larger frogs can be fed daily or every other day. Expect to feed three or four insects per feeding. Do not overdo it. Frogs are opportunistic feeders and can grow obese. If it appears that your frog is getting obese, cut back on the number of feedings per week. If your frog appears overweight, it could also benefit from more space to move around and get exercise.
Provide a large, shallow, sturdy water dish with dechlorinated water. It must be shallow since these frogs are not good swimmers. Mist the cage daily with dechlorinated water to maintain humidity. Frogs absorb water from the habitat's ambient moisture through their skin. They also may drink water droplets on plants or tank walls.
Common Health Problems
As with most amphibians, bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and eyes are common ailments. Pus (which may look cheesy), swelling, or redness are signs of disease. Although less common in frogs than in other reptiles and amphibians, respiratory infections can occur in frogs that have enclosures with inadequate or too much humidity. Symptoms of a respiratory infection include wheezing, drooling, and general lethargy.
If your frog is not eating well and shows no other apparent symptoms, it may have a parasitic infection. Usually, this needs to be diagnosed by an exotics veterinarian who specializes in reptiles and amphibians.
The vet should take a yearly fecal sample to check that your frog doesn't have an overgrowth of usual parasites. Also, pet frogs are susceptible to ammonia poisoning, which is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when wastes accumulate in an animal's enclosure. Ammonia build-up can be prevented by regular, weekly cleaning.
All of these ailments can be treated by a qualified vet if caught early.
Choosing Your American Green Tree Frog
Frogs can make lovely pets, but frogs in the wild are facing population declines and extinction due to human encroachment. If you take in a wild-caught frog as a pet, it may have diseases or health issues.
Buy a locally captive-bred frog from a reputable breeder and make sure it is tested free of disease. You can usually find a breeder through an exotics veterinarian, another frog owner, or a reptile expo. Reptile shows typically have amphibians on display and for sale, too. Most American green tree frogs cost about $10.
Look for an active, alert animal that has clear eyes with skin that looks free of bumps or cuts. If you can watch it eat before deciding, that's ideal; most frogs will not refuse food unless they're unwell. Likewise, if the frog you are considering seems lethargic or is having trouble breathing, or if its abdomen seems bloated, these may be signs of illness.
100 Names for Pet Frogs and Toads
Similar Species to American Green Tree Frogs
If an American green tree frog interests you, you may want to look into related species:
Otherwise, check out all of our other frog profiles.
Green Treefrog Care Sheet - Reptiles Magazine
Green Treefrog (Hyla cinerea)
The green treefrog is common throughout the southeast United States, and their presence is best known by their call, which can be heard from nearly a mile away on a still night. Their breeding season is quite extensive, and in Florida I have seen them breeding from April until October. They prefer more permanent water than some of the other treefrogs, and will even breed in water that contains fish.
Often they will call during a falling barometer, such as before a rain. Like most treefrogs breeding takes place at night, but intermittent choruses can be heard in the daytime, especially in the late afternoon, and during the actual breeding they will call continuously deep into the night, often in the company of other species of frogs and toads.
Herping for Frogs in Florida
Green Treefrog Availability
The green treefrog is relatively inexpensive to buy. Also if you live in their range they are easy to locate by their singing, and a couple can easily be collected. Please check the local regulations for the area you might be collecting in since they may be protected in some regions, especially in fringe areas of their range. If you do wild-collect, and you have many to choose from, please feel free to look them over first, since some have lovely yellow or orange spots, and some may be larger or greener than others.
Besides worms and crickets, moths are a favorite, and despite the small size of the frog, it can eat a pretty big moth.
Also be aware of their possible croaking – which could occur at any hour of the day or night in captivity, especially ahead of stormy weather. If you live in their range you can always be on the lookout for females (since they're silent), but if females are taken during the breeding season, or if you find a pair, it's better to collect them both, or add a couple males to the mix, so she'll be able to lay her eggs. The males as well as her tadpoles can always be released later, and you'll have a nice "silent" female or two! We'll take a look at the care and hatching of the eggs shortly. Also if you buy a female from a list or a store, more than likely she'll have no eggs, and the artificial light of captivity will prevent her from producing any.
Green Treefrog Size
The average length of green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) is about two inches from snout to anus, but from personal experience these will reach about three inches in captivity. I have never seen them this large in the wild. The tadpole length is about two inches as well. They usually lay several hundred eggs, and these are attached to sticks, leaves, or other debris on the bottom. In captivity they're attached to plants, aquarium gravel, or to the aquarium itself. They hatch in less than a week and like most tadpoles, they remain with the eggs for several days.
The green treefrog is a great frog for the beginner and pro alike, and they will give you five or six years of fun and trouble-free care.
Captive Care Tips
Of the species I have kept over the years, this is one of the most colorful, and one of the easiest to keep! When compared to other treefrogs, these feed very well, and will react very quickly to food. They will turn to snatch an insect the moment it is dropped in with them, and aren't too picky as to the type of setup you decide to go with. We all like free food. Right? Here's a way to feed them for free – in the summertime at least. Collect insects from your porch light, or you can flip a few boards for a couple crickets. Most pet stores offer crickets for sale, so feeding is inexpensive at best, and some can be trained to eat small worms.
Besides worms and crickets, moths are a favorite, and despite the small size of the frog, it can eat a pretty big moth. They'll also eat beetles, pillbugs, sowbugs, small spiders, even tiny frogs, in addition to other similar-size foods. Pretty much if they can fit it into their mouth, they'll eat it. From personal experience, when I have mixed these with other treefrogs, the green treefrogs will usually get to the food first. Concerning their temperature, they like it anywhere between 70-82 degrees, and these do well with a reflector over them with a 60-watt bulb. Besides the heat they seem to readily enjoy, it makes it easy to see them, and they are pretty to look at.
For housing, a 10 gallon aquarium makes a great "home," and one aquarium will comfortably hold up to four frogs, but two or three are better, since some may be faster than the other at snatching the food. I have used several different setups for these, but the one that seems to work best for these is large, natural "creek gravel" (available in many pet shops and garden stores), and large gravel is less likely to be swallowed during a feeding frenzy! Anyway on top of the gravel I place a shallow bowl of water for them to hop into. Stoneware bowls seen in the pet shops look better than the standard round bowls, and there are even decorative bowls designed to fit into a corner of your aquarium. A few plastic plants are nice to have, but to overdo any aquarium decor may hide some of their food. A nice piece of driftwood also works well, and I often use this in place of plastic plants.
The green treefrog is common throughout the southeast United States, and their presence is best known by their call.
When Fall arrives, they can be kept feeding right through the winter by keeping them under a heat lamp, but if you prefer (especially if you live in area where insects are scarce during cold weather), you can hibernate them. To do this, rather than make a mess of their home aquarium, I have a separate aquarium and I fill it about half-full with dead leaves taken from the forest floor and add the frogs. Keep this moist but not too wet, and when it's cool enough they'll hide beneath the leaves. If the leaves are moist enough a water bowl may not be needed, but from experience I put a bowl in there for them anyway, since I do see them using it from time to time. Several months is usually good enough, and around April I return them to the light and warmer temperatures and after a week or so, they'll resume their feeding. As for hibernation, I usually keep them in the mid-40s and 50s, but they must not be exposed to freezing temperatures. If it is in the 60s for any length of time they may want to become active.
I have never bred these, but have raised the tadpoles, which are similar to other tadpoles. They are easily trained to eat fish food and Repto-Min, as well as soft lettuce. The tadpoles grow to around two inches and once the back legs are full-sized, the body will begin to turn green, and the froglets will eat fruit flies or baby crickets. It takes about two months for the tadpoles to transform. The frogs reach maturity in about one year.
This is a great frog for the beginner and pro alike, and they will give you five or six years of fun and trouble-free care.
"Nature" Joe (Myers) has been working with groups of people of all ages in an outdoor educational setting since 1986, and can be followed on Facebook, and his nature photography is displayed there publicly. https://www.facebook.com/n.joe.myers
View Archived Comments90,000 Flying frogs (rhacophorus). For everyone and everything The Java frog builds a nest
There are over 4800 different types of frogs that can be found all over the world.
The varied habitats in which these frogs live have contributed to the strange looking species that we can find today.
This list features ten of the most interesting and unusual frogs known to science today.
10. Brazilian Horned Frog
This amazing frog lives in the Amazon rainforest in South America. The Brazilian slingshot, Ceratophrys aurita, has a distinctive appearance compared to other amphibians. Evolution has done a good job of camouflaging this creature, making it look like a leaf so that the frog can blend in with the surroundings.
The frog can grow to a large size, and reach twenty centimeters in length. She buries herself in the leaves so that only her head is visible, and when someone from her menu walks by, she quickly grabs and eats them. This is a very aggressive animal and locals often wear high leather boots to protect their feet from powerful bites. Despite their aggressive nature, some people keep these frogs as pets.
9. Helen's Flying Frog
This newly discovered frog was first recorded in January of this year, so little is known about it. However, this frog is known to be able to fly using its huge webbed feet. A frog glides across the forest canopy of South Vietnam, hiding from predators. Females have patches of skin on their paws that look like a kind of wings that help them in flight. Their large paws help them attach themselves to tree branches after their flight is over. Helena's flying frog - Rhacophorus helenae is quite large in size, sometimes reaching ten centimeters in length.
It was discovered by an Australian scientist in Vietnam, near Saigon. The scientist named the frog after his mother. Biologists have been puzzled that such a large frog, living so close to Saigon, has gone unnoticed for so long.
8. Harlequin Toad
Atelopus varius is endemic to Costa Rica and over the past few years, due to the spread of the fungus and climate change, the population of this frog species has declined rapidly. At the moment, only one isolated population remains. This species is now dangerously close to extinction.
7. Goliath Frog
Goliath frog - Conraua goliath is the largest frog in the world. It can grow up to thirty-three centimeters in length, and its weight can reach three kilograms. The goliath frog is twice the size of the giant African bullfrog.
The creature is endemic to western Africa. It feeds on crabs, small snakes and even other frogs. The Goliath frog does not make any sounds due to the lack of vocal glands. She has huge, powerful legs that allow her to jump long distances, up to three meters. Unfortunately, like many other frog species, the goliath frog is vulnerable to human activities such as hunting, deforestation, and the animal trade. These factors have already made this species of frog an endangered species.
6. Morogoro Tree Toad
Endemic to the rainforests and grasslands of Tanzania, the ovoviviparous toad, Nectophrynoides Viviparus, has large glands on its body near the eyes and limbs. These glands come in all sorts of colors, including orange, gray, green, red, and white. The color of the gland usually contrasts with the rest of the frog's skin.
The eggs hatch while still inside the female and are born as small but fully formed toads. This type of pregnancy is quite rare in amphibians.
5. Pebble Toad (Venezuela Pebble Toad)
Pebble toad, as a rule, lives in mountainous areas with a lot of steep slopes. In case of danger, such as a tarantula (one of the main predators that prey on this type of toad), it hides its head and limbs under its body, and then tenses its muscles. Thus, it forms a ball, and then rolls down from the nearest hill into a puddle or gap at its foot.
The Pebble Toad does not take any damage from rolling and bouncing because it is very light and its muscles are very strong. The frog uses this defense mechanism because rolling down is much faster for it than jumping, and it cannot jump long distances.
4. Vietnamese Mossy Frog
The lichened copepod - Theloderma corticale, lives in tropical forests and swamps of northern Vietnam. The frog got its name because of its distinctive camouflage pattern, which looks like moss and lichen. When predators approach, the frog hides its paws under itself so that only the mossy areas of its body are visible. This frog has large pads on its feet with which it stays in trees, and its diet consists entirely of insects. The frogs lay their eggs on the walls of the caves, and the tadpoles fall into the water below, where they spend the rest of their lives. The lichened copepod is a popular pet in Asia.
3. Turtle Frog
The turtle frog, Myobatrachus gouldii, lives in the semi-arid regions of Western Australia. She has a very unusual appearance - she looks like a turtle without a shell, with a round pink-brown body, a small head and short limbs. Their limbs are short and muscular, allowing them to dig in sand and break open termite mounds, which are the frog's main food source.
The turtle frog does not go through the tadpole stage, instead it grows into a fully formed little frog while still inside the egg. Therefore, turtle frog eggs are the largest among the eggs of all frogs in Australia, their size reaches 5 - 7 millimeters in length.
2. Glass Frog
Unusual looking glass frog - Centrolenidae, endemic to the Amazon.
The main body of these frogs is green, but they have transparent skin on the underside. This allows you to clearly see their liver, heart and intestines. In pregnant females, you can even see frog eggs located inside. It is believed that the transparent skin of the frog serves as protection, and allows the light reflected from the leaves to shine through it. This makes it much less visible to predators. They live in trees in humid mountain regions and lay their eggs on leaves. The tadpoles then fall down into the water and continue to grow into adulthood.
1. Surinam Toad
The first place in this list is occupied by the Surinamese pipa - Pipa pipa. Like many other frogs, it lives in the Amazon rainforest. This is a large frog that can grow up to twenty centimeters in length. Compared to other species, this frog has a very flat body and tiny eyes. These frogs are usually muddy brown and have no tongue or teeth. When looking for a partner, the Surinamese pipa does not croak like normal frogs, instead it makes a shrill clicking sound with the help of two bones located in the throat.
Even stranger are the spawning and reproduction of the pipa. The male attaches to the female in a pond, forming an amplexus, a peculiar form of pseudocopulation. The pair then jump out of the water several times. After each jump, the female releases several eggs, which are implanted on her back through the skin. These eggs then burrow deeper into the body, and within these pockets develop into fully formed pipas. Then, during childbirth, they break out of the skin of the female.
The purple frog - Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis, is a unique frog species and the only member of the Nasikabatrachidae family that lives in the mountains of southern India. The frog has smooth, purple skin and a large, round body with squat limbs. The head of this frog is small, and the nose looks like a pig's snout. The purple frog spends most of its life underground and emerges from its tunnel for only two weeks each year. This species has evolved independently over 130 million years and its closest living relatives are the Seychelles frogs (Sooglossidae frogs) of the Seychelles
The life of our amphibians is not easy, the winters are too long and frosty and our northern summer is short, and the farther to the north, the shorter and cooler it is. That is why, as soon as the snow begins to settle under the gentle spring rays of the sun and the first streams murmur merrily on the ground, the frogs begin to come to life little by little. They need to hurry in order to have time to acquire offspring, to give him the opportunity to grow up and get stronger, so that by the fall, having matured and gained a little fat, he could successfully endure the long northern winter. Therefore, frogs begin breeding at the first sign of spring, when the snow has not yet melted in the forest, and the first thaw patches have just appeared on the edges of the lakes.
The grass and moor frogs are the first to rush to the pond. In warm sunny weather, they cover a distance of almost half a kilometer, merrily splashing right on the muddy snow. Males are more energetic and often the first to come to spawning grounds. In the shallow waters of forest lakes, well warmed by the sun, they sometimes accumulate in huge quantities - up to 25 pieces per 1 m 2 and spend 2-3 weeks here, that is, the entire breeding season, announcing the surroundings with a monotonous gurgling muttering. Females, on the contrary, stay in the reservoir for a short time, a day or two, spawn and go into the forest.
Frogs usually have their favorite places in every locality, where they breed year after year. Scientists still do not know how they are looking for these reservoirs. There is an assumption that they are guided by the smell of microscopic algae. It is possible that tadpoles feed on them, or their presence indicates that the conditions for the development of eggs and larvae are quite favorable in this reservoir.
It is quite natural that in our harsh northern climate, frogs can breed once a year. Some southern women adhere to the same rule, some due to the fact that only a certain time of the year, the rainy season, is favorable for the development of offspring, others due to some circumstances of their own, not yet known to us. Inhabitants of tropical rainforests breed at any time of the year. Many of them are very prolific. A charming little banana frog of Cameroon makes 4-5 ovipositions during the year. The disco-lingual frog, living in southern Europe, lays up to 6,000 eggs in total throughout the summer. Such fertility indicates that most of the offspring die before reaching puberty. When survival is high, offspring are small. The females of the African viviparous toad, which is yet to be discussed, breed only twice in their lives, giving the world no more than 20 offspring.
The absence of sexual dimorphism forced the frogs to acquire sound alarms, which are absolutely necessary for creating mating pairs. The meaning of frog concerts, which, as a rule, are set by males, is to attract the attention of females ready for spawning. The song is both a gender and a specific sign. If both the male and the female are capable of generating sounds, then their song usually has significant differences. Females sing quieter, and their song is poorer. It is worse for frogs living in conditions where sound signals are not applicable. Smooth-footed, living in fast and noisy mountain streams, would hardly be able to hear each other, apparently, therefore they are completely devoid of a voice. The male has to actively search for his mate in the depths of his native stream.
Sex and readiness for mating are finally determined by direct contact of mating individuals. The male, by waist size alone, easily distinguishes a "pregnant" female from an already spawning female or simply from a male. In addition, a sound alarm helps him. If a male hugs a female ready for breeding, she obediently remains silent. The swept female or male will respond to a similar girth with a special sound, and they will be immediately released. Sometimes the readiness for mating is signaled by special postures.
If there are few females, males become so excited that they are ready to embrace any animate creature or inanimate object: fish, stones, twigs, stems of water plants, and since they are silent, they do not immediately notice the mistake.
During the period of sexual excitement, when the male managed to find a female, he almost does not react to external influences, even to pain. He may not pay attention to another male if he takes him for a female and hugs him.
Amphibians are peaceful creatures, but fierce fights can occur between males during breeding. The winner gets the female. Large old male midwife toads can mate with 2-3 females, but younger and weaker females may not get it at all. As a result of rivalry, males of some amphibian species secure a certain territory for themselves. The male of the yellow-bellied toad protects the territory with a radius of 0.5-0.75 m, the red-bellied toad 1-1.5 m. The other males are notified that this territory is occupied by a special song.
To effect mating, the male must induce mating mood in his partner. For this, all the same songs, and sometimes marriage dances, serve. Representatives of the stronger sex of the banana frog, sitting on the branches, arrange cheerful concerts and at the same time dance to the sound of their own melodies, deftly patting themselves on the face with their long hind legs. The female is especially strongly excited by grasping, so the males of most species of tailless amphibians do not bother with special courtship.
All anurans have external fertilization. There is no real mating. During spawning, the female simply spawns eggs into the water, and in order for each egg to be fertilized, the male immediately waters it with a stream of sperm. Therefore, during spawning, the male is behind the female. On the mucus-covered back of the female, the males are held with the help of special "marriage" devices - rough calluses located on the outer or inner surface of the first finger, on the forearm or on the shoulder.
Calluses are the most characteristic feature by which a male can be distinguished from a female, they exist throughout life or only during the breeding season. Only male spadefoot and toads do not have nuptial calluses, since they are much shorter than females and wrap around the female in the lumbar region.
External fertilization can be reliable only with large amounts of reproductive products, but even in this case, the parents are forced to look for quiet water bodies for spawning, where the current would not interfere with the spermatozoa to find the egg. Only smooth-legged (tailed frogs) are able to lay eggs in fast-moving mountain streams. Using the rudiment of the tail - the remainder of the two tail muscles as a copulatory organ, smooth-legged perform internal fertilization. Due to internal fertilization, smooth-legged lay only 50 eggs. Parents hide masonry somewhere under the stones. A lot of time passes between mating and spawning. In Canada, mating takes place in the autumn, and eggs are spawned only in the spring.
Unlike our northern frogs, tropical frogs are more caring parents. Some of them make nests for their offspring. The blacksmith tree frog builds his nest, or rather, a small bath, somewhere in shallow water from silt and clay. The female grabs the silt with her front paws, on the fingers of which there are discs in the form of tiny scoops, and lays a shaft on the bottom of the reservoir, leveling it from the inside with her belly and chin, until it rises above the water and fences off a tiny pool no more than 30 cm in diameter from the reservoir. The male does not participate in the construction of the nest. Having found a suitable reservoir, he impatiently begins to scream until the female comes to the call. The tadpoles hatched from eggs spend their childhood in the parental bath, inaccessible to fish and other underwater predators.
A Brazilian tree frog builds a tree bath for her children. Finding a suitable hollow, she coats it with resin to make it waterproof, and lays her eggs in the water accumulated during the rainy season.
Tree frogs, unable to build nests, are looking for a ready-made bath. There is always a lot of moisture in the rainforest. In the axils of wide leaves, in hollows, under the lagging bark, there is always a little water. Tree frogs find these micro-reservoirs and use them as nests. Here, high above the ground, tadpoles grow and develop, then turning into young frogs.
The reader has obviously noticed that the frog's nest is just a miniature body of water. Its task is to protect the caviar from drying out. In this regard, the most original nests of South American swamp toads, built of foam on the surface of the water of small reservoirs. The foamy mass protects the eggs from direct sunlight, from drying out and creates ideal conditions for supplying the eggs with oxygen. If the spawning falls on hot, dry days and all water bodies have dried up nearby, then the swamps build a nest at the bottom of dried puddles in the hope of an early rain. And if there is no rain, the tadpoles are content with the moisture of the nest.
The baleen whistler from Paraguay digs small holes under stones or in other secluded places to build a nest. If by the time the tadpoles hatch, puddles appear, then they go into the water. If the rains pass earlier and flood the eggs, they may die.
Banana tree frog attaches foam-covered clumps of roe to the inside surface of banana leaves. Spoiled by an abundance of oxygen, the larvae die in the water due to respiratory failure. The Javan paddle frog places its foamy nest, which it builds by whipping up mucus with its hind legs, on leaves hanging over the water. The born tadpoles finish their development in the reservoir.
It takes only 2 hours for a grabbing frog to spawn and build a foamy nest, since the female is assisted by 3 males: one sits on her back, the other two are located on the sides. A nest is built on the branches. After the release of the first portion of mucus, all four, hanging on their front legs, knock it down with their hind legs, as if making swimming movements, and then spawning begins.
The Antilles leaf frog lays its 15-25 eggs directly in the nest - a bag filled with liquid, which a caring mother attaches somewhere in a secluded place. The aeration in the bag is much worse than in the foam flakes, and the tadpoles are deficient in oxygen. For a whole two weeks, necessary for the transformation of the larva into a tiny frog, she presses her tail against the inner wall of her dwelling, making up for the lack of gill breathing with its help.
Philomedusa tree frogs make hanging nests from plant leaves. Having found a suitable branch at a height of 1-7 m, comfortably leaning over the water, the female hangs on it, firmly clinging to her front paws, and with her hind legs she rolls a tube of leaves around her belly, where she lays 300-600 eggs in small portions. If the nest turned out to be small and all the caviar does not fit into it, you have to twist the second one. The male sits on her back all this time, but does not take part in the construction of the nest. After emerging from the eggs, the larvae fall into the water and finish their development there.
There is always enough moisture in the rainforest, so many frogs lay their eggs directly on the ground. The whistler, who lives in Brazil, lays her eggs on dry ground in the hope that in the next 5 days, that is, by the time the babies appear, it will rain and create a reservoir for them. Parental hopes are most often justified. It is much more difficult for amphibians of arid regions. The false toad of Bibron, living in Australia, breeds in summer or autumn. The female hides her eggs under stones, in cracks in the soil, between bumps. If there is no rain in the coming days, the eggs do not die, their development continues, and when it does rain, even after several months, well-developed tadpoles are born. The eggs of our common tree frog can also remain viable for a long time, waiting for the spring rains.
A small urchin living in southern Africa manages completely without water. The female digs a small hole, where she lays 1-2 dozen eggs enclosed in a thick capsule. After 10 days, tadpoles hatch, and after another two weeks, without leaving the hole, they turn into tiny frogs and leave their native land. If the larvae are not able to complete the entire development cycle outside the water, they must be transported to the reservoir in time. In many Australian toads, water takes over this function. Stormy streams during heavy rains pick up eggs laid in tiny holes and carry them to the nearest pond or lake.
The schlegelli copepod in Japan does not risk leaving its offspring to chance. The female ready for breeding, having found a suitable partner, allows him to climb onto her back and goes to the reservoir, looking for steep steep banks, in which, working all night with a rider on her back, she digs a rather large hole, where she lays her eggs, surrounding it with foamy mass. After some time, the foam liquefies and, flowing into the pond, carries away the tadpoles.
In the coloring poison dart frog from Costa Rica, the male takes care of the offspring. He remains to guard the eggs swept right on the ground, and the tadpoles that come out into the world stick to his skin, and the father transfers them to the water. His closest relative, the leaf climber from Venezuela, does the same.
The female African marbled frog, having buried her eggs in the ground, remains to incubate them. The purpose of this strange behavior is not to provide warmth to the eggs, for the female's body temperature is lower than the ambient air temperature. It's just that the mother supplies her offspring with moisture, abundantly wetting the eggs with her mucus.
Male frogs from New Guinea incubate the eggs. All development of tadpoles takes place in eggs. At this time, their tail takes on a significant role in the respiratory function.
Anuran eggs are small in size. That's why the frogs don't need to sit on top of them, it's much more convenient to carry them around. So many do. The midwife toad, living in Central and Western Europe, lays its eggs on land in the form of two cords, in which 20-50 eggs are located quite far from each other. The male helps his mate to get rid of the eggs. Grasping the cords with the toes of his hind legs, he pulls them out and wraps them around himself. Midwives are purely land animals, the process of caviar development lasts several weeks, and all this time the father carries it with him. However, the eggs do not suffer, since the multi-layered shell of the eggs protects them well from drying out and, in addition, you can replenish water supplies by borrowing them from the father's skin. Only when the time comes for the larvae to leave the egg shells, the father goes in search of a reservoir and there, having given the children the opportunity to move into the water, is freed from the empty cords.
Göldi female tree frogs incubate eggs by carrying them on their backs (Fig. 8), and a female netted copepod from Ceylon carries her offspring on her belly. In the first, tadpoles hatch with sufficiently developed legs, in the second, development ends in water.
Seychelles spadeworts lay their eggs on moist soil, where the baby tadpoles are born. One father nurses children. The babies climb onto his back and, absorbing moisture from the parent's wet skin, calmly complete the metamorphosis.
Incubation of eggs provides a very high survival rate of offspring. Only midwives and paddlefish are dilettantes in this business. They don't have any equipment for this. The back of the Suriname pipa toad is an excellent cradle. It is covered in wrinkles and folds, forming deep, up to 15 mm, cells. During mating, the large cloaca of the female bulges outward and folds over her back. The male one by one squeezes out the eggs from the ovipositor and distributes them among the cells. Soon, the upper part of the egg shells hardens, forming a kind of cap over each cell, and the walls of the cells acquire a hexagonal shape, which makes them very similar to honeycombs. The partitions between the cells and the skin underlying them are very rich in blood vessels, from which the eggs receive the moisture they need, and possibly nutrients. In any case, by the end of development, they increase in weight by 15%. Pipa needs 80-82 days for 40-120 babies to grow enough. Then they lift the lids of the cells with their paws and jump out into the wild.
Representatives of the genus of marsupial tree frogs, in imitation of kangaroos, acquired a brood pouch located on their backs. In dwarf tree frogs, the brood pouch is formed by two longitudinal folds that stretch across the entire back. The male during the mating season pushes 5-7 large eggs there. The pouch of the common marsupial toad has a small opening located in the region of the sacrum. During mating, her cloaca, like that of a pipa, is bent onto her back, which helps the male to push about 200 fairly large eggs into the brood pouch. In tree frogs that lay a large number of small eggs, tadpoles complete their development in water; if there are few eggs, then they are large and contain a lot of yolk, and the whole metamorphosis ends inside the egg.
Tiny African viviparous toad living in high mountain meadows and mountain slopes, the only anuran amphibian that has mastered intrauterine development: 1-15 eggs undergo embryogenesis in the lower part of the oviduct. Unlike mammals, larvae receive only water and oxygen from their mother, which they extract with the help of a tail rich in vessels, the rest of the nutrients are stored in the egg. The period of false pregnancy falls on the dry season, when in the mountains all reservoirs dry up.
In the tiny Darwin's rhinoderm frog, which rarely exceeds 30 mm in length, the male is "pregnant". He takes the swept and fertilized eggs into his mouth, but does not swallow it, but pushes it into the throat sac. Since the bag is small, it first fits 1-2 eggs. As the eggs develop, the sac stretches and the male sends the next eggs into his mouth. Most of them get there only on the 10th - 15th day, when the embryos in the eggs will already begin to move. Interestingly, this typically aquatic frog leaves the pond during the mating season and lays its eggs in wet moss.
The hatched larvae move freely inside the throat pouch for the first time until the entire supply of nutrients is used up. Then they turn their backs to the wall of the bag and grow to it first with their tail, and then with their backs. As a result, two layers of larvae are formed inside the bag, lying with their bellies to each other. Their skin has a special structure and ensures a successful exchange between children and their father. This is more reminiscent of the intrauterine development of mammalian embryos than the development of viviparous toad eggs. When the metamorphosis is over and the reduction of the tail occurs, they lose contact with the wall of the sac and, just as they got here, one by one, at different times, part with their father.
Somewhat similar to rhinoderm is the care of offspring in South African copepod frogs, the females of which carry eggs in their mouths. However, their eggs have no connection with the mother's body.
We got acquainted with the mating habits of the parents, now let's get back to the children. Let's start, of course, from the very beginning, that is, from the egg. Sex products are found in amphibians in paired glands: eggs in the ovaries, spermatozoa in the testes. Mature eggs are shed from the ovaries into the body cavity of the female. Further, in order to be outside, the egg must fall into the oviduct, a special tube, which, with its end expanded in the form of a funnel, opens into the body cavity, and with the other it flows into the cloaca. In sexually mature frogs, funnels adhere to the heart sac, so the contractions of the heart cause them to contract and straighten and suck the egg into the inside. Passing through the oviduct, they are covered with a mucous membrane. Now the egg can be swept out at any time.
Spermatozoa develop in the testes - rather large glands that are in close contact with the kidneys. Numerous seminiferous tubules pass through the kidney and flow into the ureters, which have a special pocket, the so-called seminal vesicle, where mature spermatozoa are stored.
In water, the mucous membrane of the egg quickly swells and becomes impassable for spermatozoa, so they must hurry and cross it before this happens, otherwise the egg will remain unfertilized. Vigorously working with long tails, they move towards the egg and make their way through its gelatinous walls.
The eggs of most anurans have little yolk, and it is concentrated in one place. The yolk pole, as the heaviest part of the egg, always faces down.
The upper, dark part of the egg is a screen that protects it from harmful ultraviolet rays, and for northern frogs it is a light-absorbing surface that heats up well in the sun. To a certain extent, this is also facilitated by the outer gelatinous shell, which, on the one hand, like a lens, focuses the sun's rays on the dark pole of the egg, and on the other, being heat-capacitive, somewhat protects the egg from heat loss.
Southern frogs, whose eggs develop in the perpetual twilight of tropical forests, do not need a light shield, so they are colorless or have a protective coloration. For example, the Abbotty leaf frog has green eggs.
The higher the water temperature, the faster the development of the egg. However, laws are not written for northerners. The development of the larvae of the moor frog living in the middle lane requires 60-65 days; on the extreme northern border of its range, development lasts only 45-55 days. Forest frogs during the spawning period gather in limited areas of the reservoir, developing tremendous activity, and therefore intensively consuming energy: as a result, they slightly warm themselves and locally increase the temperature of the water. The developing caviar also warms itself. Inside the lump of eggs of the forest frog, the temperature is 1 ° higher than the temperature of the surrounding water, and in the moored frog it is as much as 3 ° higher. This is why northern frogs spawn all their eggs in one batch.
In large accumulations of eggs, the respiration of eggs is difficult. But the water in the north is rich in oxygen, and the swollen outer shells do not allow the eggs to stick together into a too dense lump, leaving a network of branched channels between the eggs through which water circulates freely. Common frog eggs find an additional source of oxygen by entering into symbiosis with microscopic algae, which settle in abundance on their shells. This is especially interesting, since egg shells usually contain poisonous substances that kill any lodgers. Ranidin - the poison of the egg shells of the moored frog is so strong that it kills the simplest microorganisms faster than carbolic acid. No wonder dried egg shells have long been successfully used in folk medicine for erysipelas.
No matter how afraid the amphibians are of the cold, northerners had to adapt to low temperatures. Unlike the more southern lake frog, whose eggs and larvae can easily tolerate water temperatures up to +43°C, but die at 1-2°C, the eggs of the moor frog will survive even if the reservoir is temporarily covered with ice, while in the grass frog it tolerates cooling up to -6 °, but at + 24-25 ° it dies.
Penetration of the sperm into the egg causes a number of changes in it. First, liquid is secreted under the yolk membrane, and it lags behind the egg. This facilitates the rotation of the egg inside the shell and makes it difficult for new sperm to enter it. After 3-4 hours, it begins to break up: the first two grooves of crushing divide the egg along the meridian into equal parts, and the third - in the equatorial plane into the upper, smaller and lower, larger parts. Later, crushing is less regular, and the lower part of the egg lags behind the upper; the resulting blastula has smaller cells in the upper half and larger cells in the lower half. Gradually, the upper small-cell part creeps onto the lower one, and that, in turn, is pressed inward, a double-walled ball appears, the cavity of which is filled with large cells that form the yolk plug. On the 3-4th day, the embryo begins to lengthen, then it becomes clear where its head is and where its tail is, and it is almost ready to leave the egg. The pigment covering the upper pole of the egg is at first evenly distributed between the upper blastomeres, but later it appears only in the cells of the epidermis and sensory organs.
Breaking out of the egg for a tiny embryo, almost devoid of the ability to actively move, is not an easy task. The strong shells of the egg could easily become a prison for it, if the embryo did not have special unicellular glands, the secret of which dissolves them, giving freedom to an amazing creature.
Now we come to the most interesting question of amphibian reproduction. In all vertebrate animals, whether they are born alive, whether they hatch from an egg or a caviar, the young always resemble their parents in some way. Well, in tailless amphibians, tadpoles that have just hatched from eggs are most similar to their fish ancestors. Therefore, they are not called baby frogs, but larvae that have yet to turn into small frogs.
However, frogs are not original in this respect. Each organism, developing from an egg, that is, from a single cell, in its individual development briefly repeats all the stages that its ancestors, the animals of our planet, passed through. Only in most animals the development of the embryo is hidden from view, and we usually forget about it.
Newly born tadpoles have a small body and a tail surrounded by a swimming membrane. However, they cannot actively move and therefore hang on nearby plants or the remains of egg shells, attaching to them with the help of a horseshoe-shaped sucker located on the underside of the head. During this period, they do not need to look for food, as the intestines are clogged with residual yolk. The tadpole doesn't even have a mouth yet, but the anus already exists. It is necessary, since the ducts of the excretory organs - the head kidneys - open into the intestinal lumen.
Tadpoles have no stomach, but the intestines are very large, as they feed on plant foods. When the tadpole of a short-legged frog grows up to 5 cm, the length of its intestines is 20 cm.
The absence of a stomach is not accidental. Vegetable food has an alkaline reaction, and gastric juice is capable only in an acidic environment. To use it, babies would have to produce huge amounts of hydrochloric acid to neutralize the alkali, which is quite burdensome.
By the time the reserve of residual yolk is completely used up, the tadpole's mouth erupts, a beak and lips begin to grow, surrounding it in the form of a proboscis and richly equipped with tiny horny teeth. Such a device of the mouth organs allows tadpoles to scrape off food: microscopic diatoms and green algae, eat mud, bacteria and plant detritus.
The mouthparts of clawed frog tadpoles are arranged differently. They do not develop horny beak jaws and lips with numerous teeth, therefore babies are able to eat only food suspended in water. To provide himself with lunch, the tadpole draws water into his mouth and releases it through the gill slits, which have a filtering apparatus that traps food particles.
Tadpoles usually eat leftover egg shells as their first meal. Having eaten the walls of their former dwelling, the kids go in search of food, and it is in abundance, they don’t have to look for it for a long time, so the eyes and hearing organ are not developed. Only the lateral line organ functions. The olfactory organ helps to find food - paired pits in front of the eyes, and tactile papillae located on the lips.
During the first days after hatching, the tadpole breathes with three pairs of external gills. Those who like to gather in dense flocks have very long gills. Otherwise, they would suffer greatly from a lack of oxygen in cramped quarters. Later, the internal gills begin to function. The water collected in the oral cavity washes them and, having given up oxygen, flows out through the gill slits. As the internal gills develop, the external ones decrease in size until they disappear altogether. External gills are less reliable. When moving, they easily catch on different objects and can get injured. The skin also takes part in supplying the body with oxygen, especially the skin of the tail, which is richly supplied with blood vessels.
The spine of a newly hatched tadpole is replaced by a notochord. Gradually, it ossifies, and along with the formation of the bone skeleton, the development of the muscles of the body occurs. Finally, limbs appear, first hind, then front. In the heart, which until then had been two-chambered like in fish, a septum begins to grow, dividing the atrium into two parts, the lungs and pulmonary veins develop. The childhood period ends, the tadpoles enter adolescence, i.e., they begin metamorphosis, the meaning of which is the transformation of a typically aquatic creature, which the tadpole has been until now, into an animal capable of living in the air. During this relatively short period, some organs die off, while others develop no less intensively. Therefore, the metamorphosis of tailless amphibian larvae was called necrobiotic.
The beginning of metamorphosis coincides with the appearance of the forelimbs, which extend outward, tearing the gill slits. After some time, joints appear in the limbs, the head changes greatly, the mouth becomes large, the eyes, still covered with skin, finally appear, the tail gradually dissolves - and the tadpole becomes an exact copy of its parents, yielding to them only in size. At the same time, the digestive tract is reorganized, the gills disappear, the lungs take over the respiratory function, the lateral line organ disappears, but the inner and middle ears are formed, the formation of the skeleton and brain ends, in which the cerebellum and large hemispheres appear.
In the period of metamorphosis, tadpoles stop eating - the restructuring of the intestines and the change of food objects is a sufficient reason for this. It should not be thought that at this time the tadpole lacks food. The organs that are subject to extinction, and primarily the tail, provide the body with a sufficient amount of building and energy materials.
As a rule, development ends in one season, but sometimes in the north, tadpoles do not have time to metamorphose and remain children until the next spring. In the tailed frogs living in Canada, and in the midwife toad, larval development is often delayed for 3 years.
Fully formed young frogs leave their cradle - the aquatic environment and go to land. This is not the end of their development. In order to turn from children into parents, it is necessary to grow up and wait for the maturation of the gonads. This takes a different amount of time. Females of viviparous toads reach puberty and mate at the age of three months, our lake and pond frogs become sexually mature in the third year of life, and then, having waited for warmth and spring sun, they rush to spawning grounds to give the world thousands of new tiny tadpoles.
Family Copepoda unites 2 subfamilies (Burgeries, Buergeriinae – 4 types; Paddlepods, Rhacophorinae – 217 species) with 12 genera and more than 320 species widely distributed in tropical zone of Africa, South and East Asia, including many adjacent islands, including Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Philippines, islands of Japan (except Hokkaido) and the Sunda Archipelago. The taxonomy of the family is extremely complex and debatable to date. Many modern researchers based on data from special molecular genetic research, offer to consider copepods frogs as a subfamily in the composition family True frogs Ranidae.
Annam copepod, Rhacophorus annamensis . Inhabits forest biotopes in the foothills and mountains of southern Vietnam, adhering to stream and river valleys. Reaches the limit body length about 9 cm, males are smaller and slimmer than females. Feeds predominantly flying forms of insects. breeds twice a year: in spring (March-May) and autumn (October - November), however, some spawning events have also been reported in other seasons. Couple in amplexus on oblique surfaces (rock outcrops, trunks and tree branches) above the surface water builds a foamy nest into which lays 150–200 eggs. hatching the larvae from the nest are washed out by rain and fall into the pond, where they pass further development to metamorphosis. Annam paddlefish - narrow range species, the actual number of which difficult to assess due to the extremely secretive way of life outside the breeding season.
Javanese Flying frog, Rhacophorus reinwardtii . Males are slimmer and brighter than females. Your name received for the ability to perform gliding flight from branch to branch to distance over 10 m using enlarged interdigital membranes. Inhabits rainforests of an indonesian island Java. Avoids Transformed territory man. Eats predominantly flying forms insects. Like other representatives genus Rhacophorus, spends most of the year in crowns trees. At the beginning of the rainy season moves to the shores of forest reservoirs. On hanging above the surface of the water branches and leaves steam in amplexus builds a foamy nest into which lays eggs. hatching from eggs the embryos are washed away by the rain from the nest and fall into the water where it passes their further development to metamorphosis. Javanese flying frog in natural biotopes - a common species. Popular content object in collections terrariumists.
Rough copepod, or marbled teloderma, Theloderma asperum . Small copepod frog reaching length 3.7 cm. Females and males do not have significant differences in body length. Widespread in forest biotopes of southern China, East India and Indochina countries within the altitude range from sea level to 2400 m a.s.l. y. m. Adults live in pairs or harems in hollows filled with water trees, and in anthropogenic landscapes - in flooded cellars and barrels with water. Spawning portioned during throughout the year with a pause between spawnings from 1 to 5 weeks. Couple in amplexus laying down up to 11 eggs on vertical surfaces, located above the water. Embryogenesis lasts 1-2 weeks. Hatching larvae fall into the reservoir, where they develop to metamorphosis depending on temperature and nutrition from 2.5 to 4 months. Rough paddlefish - a secretive little-studied species, basic information about the biology of which were obtained under artificial conditions. Pioneers in technology development breeding teloderm are Tula regional exotarium and zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Bicolour copepod, or teloderm Bure, Theloderma bicolor . Medium sized teloderm reaching maximum body length 5.7 cm. Inhabits very limited mountain area forests in the Vietnamese province of Tonkin at an altitude of 1200–2400 m a.s.l. y. m. Like others representatives of the genus, two-colored copepod forms stable harems inhabiting tree hollows filled with water caves. Breeds from spring to autumn attaching above the surface of the water in portions up to 20 eggs per spawning. The embryos break through the shell of the eggs 1.5–2 weeks of development and fall into the water. On the exogenous (external) nutrition is transferred 3 days after hatching. Larval development lasts about 3 months. Two-colored copepod - narrow range underexplored view.
Lichen copepod, or moss frog, Theloderma corticale . Modern literature mentions also called "Tonkinese giant teloderm. largest member of the genus reaching length 7.6 cm. Lives in the mountain forests of the central and northern Vietnam, and possibly also surrounding areas of China in high-rise within the range from 300 to 1500 m a.s.l. y. m. In natural biotopes adult teloderms settle in pairs or harems in water-filled tree hollows where they breed and spend the day. At dusk they go out hunting, eating mostly flightless insects. At risk of teloderm hiding at the bottom of a pond, burrowing into a layer of leaf litter or silt deposits, and being caught, skillfully pretend dead. They breed from spring to autumn. Spawn at intervals of 1.5 to 3 weeks throughout the breeding season. Masonry for one spawning has up to 70 eggs. After 2 weeks of embryo development break through the shell of the eggs and fall into the water, and after another 3 days they switch to external food. larval development up to metamorphosis lasts 3–3.5 months. Lichen copepod in artificial conditions well lives and breeds, and thanks to the original shape of the body and coloration has earned recognition among European terrariums.
Hollow paddlefish, or stellate teloderm, Theloderma stellatum . Small teloderm with body length up to 3.6 cm. Widely distributed in Indochina in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. Inhabits the plains and mountain forests, populating filled void water, mostly hollows trees. The adults form harems. They reproduce throughout year, with the exception of winter. Spawning is portioned, in one clutch females up to 14 eggs. Embryogenesis takes about 2 weeks. larval development continues up to 3 months. In nature, this teloderm species are the most numerous representative of the genus. Hollow paddlefoot in artificial conditions - unpretentious, a regularly reproducing species led to its widespread in terrarium collections. Also seems promising use as laboratory and feed animal.
Giant copepod, Polypedates ( Rhacophorus ) dennisii . The largest of the tree frogs, reaching a maximum length of more than 13 see Females are larger and more powerful than males. Widespread in mountains and foothills Southeast Asia in the South China, North Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Myanmar. Adheres to moist forests within the altitude range from 200 to 1500 m a.s.l. y. m. It feeds on a variety of flightless, invertebrates, eats also small amphibians, lizards and mouse rodents. breeding season sprawled with a peak in the spring months. Males attract females with loud vocalization. Lays 200-300 eggs per ground nest at the edge of stagnant or slow-flowing forest water bodies. The hatching larvae are washed out downpours from the nest into the water where they begin eat and grow fast. Giant copepod - a spectacular large frog, which made her popular terrariumists in Europe.
House paddlefish, Polypedates leucomystax . Medium sized tree frog up to 9 cm long. Females are larger than males. Widespread species inhabiting the most diverse biotopes in the South and Southeast Asia, including adjacent large archipelagos, such as the Philippines and the Greater Sunda Islands. As a result reintroduction formed numerous population on the Japanese island of Okinawa. It rises to the mountains up to a height of 3000 m above sea level. y. m., but avoids dense forests and fast-flowing rivers and streams. Willingly settles in settlements and agricultural lands, reaching they are significantly larger in number, than in natural landscapes. Eats all available land invertebrates, mostly insects. The breeding season is extended. Males vocalize loudly to attract females. Spawns in all standing and slow-flowing water bodies, including - in roadside ditches and fountains. How and in many other copepods, a couple adults in amplexus builds foamy nest, whipping with hind legs secreted by special glands secret. House paddlefish nest settle down as on the soil near the edge water, and on vertical surfaces - grass, tree branches, stones. Often there are group nests in which several pairs lay eggs. Hatching tadpoles in streams rainwater is carried into the reservoir. Brownie the copepod is the most common species in anthropogenic landscapes.
"Born to crawl - cannot fly" - this is clearly not about our hero of the note. Of course, real flight is possible only for birds, and all other animals (mammals, reptiles and amphibians) can only soar in the air, using all kinds of devices for this.
Some species of tree frogs have acquired them. Thanks to the huge membranes on the hind and front legs, they can glide in the air for a distance of several tens of meters. The area of the membranes of the Javan flying frog from the islands of Java and Sumatra can reach 19sq. see
But this is not the only frog that can fly. Many members of the copepod or copepod family are capable of this. We already wrote about one of them - this is Wallace's flying frog from the island of Borneo. In total, this family includes 231 species included in 10 genera. All of them live in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia, in the Malay Archipelago, in Central and South Africa, as well as on the island of Madagascar. Almost all lead an arboreal lifestyle.
Photo by Jodi J. L. Rowley
Our heroine lives in the mountainous regions of the islands of Sumatra and Java, in connection with which, in fact, she got her name.
Outwardly, it is very similar to that famous flying frog from the island of Borneo, but still has its own distinctive features. Firstly, the presence of a leathery keel along the ridge, and secondly, in adults, the membranes on the hind and fore legs do not have dark stripes or spots.
Photo by Takeshi Ebinuma
The length of adults does not exceed 7.5 centimeters. Females are larger than males. The body is slender, the legs are long. The color is bright - the back is painted in rich green, and the abdomen is bright yellow or orange. In young individuals, the webs on the paws and axillary areas are covered with dark purple or blue spots, which disappear with age (sometimes there are barely noticeable spots between the 4th and 5th toes of the hind legs).
The fingers have special swellings that act as suction cups during landing on a vertical surface. An important role is also played by intercalary cartilage-shock absorbers between the last phalanxes of the fingers, which help to soften the landing.
Photo by Tim Laman
Their larvae also have a slightly unusual structure. They have suction cups on the front half of the abdomen, just behind the mouth opening. The tadpoles themselves are very long and can almost reach the size of their parents. The length of the tail alone reaches 4.5 centimeters. Above and below it is covered with a wide leathery crest.
Java frogs can hibernate.
Their breeding period lasts quite a long time - from January to August, but it reaches a special peak in the spring months - in March-April. After mating, the female moves closer to coastal plants. The place for laying eggs is chosen directly above the water, so that immediately after hatching the tadpoles are in the water. But before that, alone, and sometimes together with a partner, with the help of her paws, she whips up a special foamy substance, where she lays her eggs. There are about 60-70 eggs in a clutch.
"One of the rarest and most interesting amphibians," says Alfred Wallace ( Alfred Russel Wallace ) - which I found in Borneo, was a large tree frog brought to me by a Chinese worker. He said that he saw a frog, as if swimming, flew obliquely from a tall tree. Upon closer examination of the animal, I found that the very large toes of its hind feet were webbed to their outermost ends, so that, being splayed out, they represented an area greater than that of the body. The toes of the front paws were similarly connected by a membrane, and finally the body could swell considerably. The back and limbs had a brilliant dark green color, the legs had dark transverse stripes, the underside of the body and the inner finger were yellow, the swimming membranes were shaded with yellow and black stripes. Body length was approximately 19cm, while the area of a completely splayed membrane of each of the hind legs was 28, and all the swimming membranes taken together was 81 cm 2.
Since the ends of the toes of the hind legs had special trailing pads that helped the animal to hold on and proved that it belonged to tree frogs, it is not entirely believed that these extensive webs of the hind legs served only for swimming, and the Chinese story that this frog flew off tree, acquires a known probability. Since then, this has been repeatedly confirmed by other European travelers.
As far as I know, this is the first example of a flying frog that deserves attention, as it shows that the change in the organization of fingers, which could already be adapted for swimming and climbing, can go further and allows some species of amphibians to be airborne, like flying squirrels or flying lizards.
With Russian translation.0003 Bornean flying frog (Rhacophorus partialis), member of genus of copepod frog, or flying frog (Rhacophorus), of which 42 species are now known: 30 from south and east Asia and 12 from Madagascar.
They are all distinguished from green frogs by a false bone between the last and before the last joint of the toes of the hind legs; the outer end of the penultimate joint is also outside and, moreover, at the top along the back of the finger, is characterized by the presence of a tubercle; the toes of the forelegs are also almost always interconnected by swimming membranes. The fingers of both pairs of limbs are always equipped with trailing circles. In all other respects, these frogs do not have any significant differences in internal organization, although in appearance they look exactly like tree frogs and, like them, live in trees and bushes. The male has one or two internal resonator bubbles.
One form related to the species described by Wallace is Javan flying frog (Rhacophorus reinwardti), a species not uncommon in the mountain forests of Java and Sumatra. This frog differs from its closest relative in a leathery keel along the ridge and hind legs, uncovered stripes, in young animals large, in life, dark blue spots on the swimming membrane of both the front and hind legs and the same spots behind the elbow under the armpits. In animals that have reached 7.5 cm in length, the remains of these dark spots are present only between the fourth and fifth, and at most between the third and fourth toes of the hind legs, in other places the spots disappear. In life, this beautiful frog is painted dark green and has a bright yellow belly.
According to Boulanger, the larva of this animal is very interesting, since there are round suckers on the front half of its abdomen behind the mouth opening. Its muzzle is elongated like a trunk, the respiratory gap lies on the right side of the body, closer to the end of the tail than to the end of the muzzle. The tail of this tadpole, equal to 4.5 cm, has a wide leathery crest below and above. Nothing is known about the lifestyle of this larva.
1) Gliding in this way, copepods can fly over a distance of 10-12 m. When jumping on branches and trees, they use suction discs to hold onto them. Intercalary cartilage-shock absorbers between the last phalanxes of the fingers also play a certain role in the "landing".
2) Currently, flying frogs are isolated in an independent family, which includes 231 species from 10 genera.
Toad difference. Similarities and differences between toads and frogs
Toads and frogs, many people want to know how these amphibians differ and whether there is at least some difference between them. People confuse them due to the fact that they are similar in appearance, are amphibious and not very pleasant to look at. In fact, the difference is very large. They have their own characteristics by which they can be distinguished. How can they differ?
What is the difference between a frog and a toad?
More about frogs
The frog is an animal of the Anura order that inhabits almost all countries. Lives up to fifteen years. This tailless creature loves a bright, good, sunny day more than a dark evening. Why hunt for insects at night, when you can hunt during the day, and rest at night and in the evening. The individual has long legs that are designed for jumping. She is quite shy, seeing a threat, immediately runs away at the first opportunity. To get to your food, you just need to pull out a long tongue and guess the moment when to eat. The frog has its own uniqueness, it is can breathe through skin . Despite the fact that her body is small, her head is large and she is always in an elevated position.
The color of the animal consists of a combination of colors
Caviar looks like small round lumps wrapped in a slimy layer. An individual always starts its frog life in the water. From the eggs that she laid in the water, develops a small tadpole , and when he is born, he looks very much like a fry. For example, an amphibious bull species, whose individuals are capable of laying more than twenty thousand eggs, from which tadpoles appear. Only when the little frog becomes more like an adult frog does it come out onto land.
Frogs never go far from bodies of water . Tailless babies move in different ways. In the natural habitat of these animals, they can jump, swim and dig holes. The skin of these amphibians is naked and covered with mucus, so the activity of this animal is highly dependent on humidity and air temperature.
Who are toads
A toad is a large amphibious animal. They can live for more than thirty-nine years. In various fairy tales, this ugly animal is a bad symbol and is often associated with a freak character. The main injustice is that people are compared with this disgusting creature. And if you remember how much benefit this unfortunate creature brings, then you really feel sorry for the animal. Toads have a rather dense physique. Scattered on the skin poison glands . The parotid glands are located behind the eyes, they are safe for humans, as they do not emit poison.
When she sees a person, she stays in place thanks to her skin, which protects her. The toad, of course, is different from the frog, it is larger than it, but the head of this person is smaller than that of a small frog. The difference between the toad is that it cannot deftly jump and moves very slowly.
Toad goes hunting in the evening , hiding in the grass and looking for delicious insects. After all, she does not like the heat of the day. She has a short tongue, so she will have to get close enough to the food and somehow push it into her mouth. It is much more difficult for a person to eat an insect, because you have to make slow movements to catch food. And in the event that the insect flies away, the toad will have to chase after it while it is in its field of view.
The individual does not have a chest, that is, if you touch it behind the front paws, you can find a special softness.
They spread the caviar in the form of small strings. Caviar is located at the bottom of reservoirs or shrouded in underwater plants. Their tadpoles are also at the bottom, as are the eggs. When the tadpoles have already grown up, they come out onto land and come in only when they need to lay eggs. In one year, a toad can lay 90,003 ten thousand eggs. .
Its coloration is dull and dull, so it is almost impossible to find it at night.
Differences between a toad and a frog
Even our ancestors knew the difference between a toad and a frog. And they knew that all individuals are useful for life, as they catch insects. And even now, some people use animals as a mosquito repellant.
Frogs and toads belong to the category of amphibians and look similar to each other. However, even with the naked eye you can see the differences between them.
Differences in appearance
Both the toad and the frog belong to the order Anura, which means “tailless” in Greek. The tail falls off in tadpoles in the second week of life. In this order, there are more than 5,200 species of individuals, most of which are similar. Biologists classify the species into two subspecies:
- true toads;
- true frogs.
The toad has a more squat body and a short round head, the frog has an elongated body and head. Unlike the pushing off with its hind legs and jumping frog, the toad moves awkwardly on four legs. The toad's skin is drier and has characteristic bumps called warts. This is because, unlike frogs, toads can only breathe through their noses.
Sometimes there are frogs much larger than their relatives. For example, Goliath, whose weight reaches three kilograms (habitat - West Africa).
Despite the fact that both toads and frogs are amphibians, the latter need more water, so they always live near water bodies. The habitat of toads is fields, forests, steppes and even arid deserts. During the breeding season, the toad needs water to lay eggs, so it often travels hundreds of kilometers in search of a pond or lake. Toads use minks dug in the ground as a house for toads. Frogs try not to leave the water place. The exception is the tree species. Such individuals live quietly in the forests and even climb trees.
For normal functioning and reproduction, individuals are forced to feed, independently obtaining food. However, the nutrition of frogs and toads is different. Active green inhabitants of reservoirs hunt in the daytime, sleep in the evening and at night. Hunting and feeding time for toads is evening or night. Moving in the grass, they eat bugs, butterflies, slugs. Toads' favorite delicacy is mosquitoes. The method of catching prey in the Anura squad is the same. A flying or crawling "victim" falls not into the paws, but into a long tongue, sticky at the end. The food capture movement is lightning fast. Chewing does not occur, prey is immediately swallowed, although frogs, unlike toads, have small teeth in the upper jaw.
Both toads and frogs reproduce by laying eggs, but the process is different. Frog caviar is located in a bunch on the surface of the water and resembles jelly. The toad lays eggs in the form of a cord, the end of which is wound around algae. Sometimes the cord is wound around the toad's foot. She is forced to sit patiently in the thickets and wait for the hour when the tadpoles should hatch. Only then does movement occur towards the reservoir. Species of toad inhabitants of Latin America carry their future offspring on their backs.
There is a misconception that toads are poisonous and frogs are not. For example, from the poison of a coco frog and a toad, yeah, a person can die as soon as he touches them.
Prepared and edited by: surgeon
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For many of us, the appearance of toads, like frogs, is not the most pleasant sight. But, nevertheless, it must be recognized that toads are indispensable helpers in the garden during the ripening of berries and fruits, during the harvest of vegetables. So which of them, a toad or a frog, is useful for humans? How does a frog differ from a toad - in appearance, size or other characteristics?
Similarities between a toad and a frog
Before considering how a frog and a toad are similar to each other, it is necessary to mention that they both belong to the amphibian family. Both the frog and the toad are very fond of dampness and water. Both the toad and the frog have webbed feet, thanks to which they can swim fairly well. The main food of frogs and toads is insects, which they swallow whole without chewing. That is, the method of digesting food in toads and frogs is the same.
This is where the similarities between frogs and toads end, except for one more fact - frogs and toads lay their eggs in water. But, the way of laying offspring is somewhat different. Yes, the toad does not live in water, but only returns there to lay eggs.
Differences between a toad and a frog
Since there are much more differences between a toad and a frog than similarities, let's dwell on them in more detail.
- The first difference between a frog and a toad is in their appearance. The toad has short hind legs, it is squat. The toad is larger than a frog, with a flatter and heavier body, with a head close to the ground. The frog has a larger head, although its size is much smaller than that of toads. Moreover, the frog's head is always in a raised form.
- The toad's skin has a warty texture, and this creature does not jump like a frog. Please note that the skin structure of these amphibians is completely different - the skin of a toad is dry, while that of a frog is slippery. By color, you can also distinguish where the toad is and where the frog is, since the toads on the tummy have light skin, and the frog has a color similar to aquatic vegetation.
- Another significant difference between a toad and a frog is their habitat. It was mentioned above that both amphibians prefer water, but if the frog constantly lives in water, then the toad lives on land, in a damp and humid place. She returns to the water (where, by the way, she is born) to lay eggs for breeding. According to experts, the frog never leaves the place of its birth. She will “until old age” live in the reservoir where she was born. Therefore, most often a frog can be found on the banks of rivers and lakes, and not in the garden, like a toad.
- It should be noted that the toad lays eggs in a completely different way than the frog, therefore this characteristic is also a distinguishing feature between these amphibians. In addition, toads lay much fewer eggs in one season than frogs, since the reproductive functions of the body of toads are much lower than that of frogs.
- Toads have no teeth. Some species of frogs have teeth, but not all, and if the frog does have teeth, they are located only on the upper jaw. It is for this reason that both the toad and the frog swallow their food whole. Thus, comparing a toad and a frog showed us how different these amphibians are from each other.
Is the toad useful for humans
It turns out that even our descendants knew how useful the toad could be in the household. They knew the difference between a frog and a toad, so they never put a frog instead of a toad in a vessel of milk. The fact is that on the skin of a toad there are substances that are deadly for insects, but are absolutely harmless to humans. It turns out that the skin of the toad has bactericidal properties, which our ancestors used to store milk in hot weather. They put the toad in a vessel with milk, and it did not sour for a long time. Today, no one holds such an event, but, nevertheless, this property is very interesting for a modern person.
It is clear that the frog and the toad are different amphibians. But very often they are confused, as they are very similar in appearance. But still, what is the difference and similarity between frogs and toads?
- The frog has powerful long hind legs for long jumps, while the toad's hind legs are short only for walking.
- Frog eggs are laid in clusters, their firstborn live in water. Toads lay their eggs in very long chains, but there are toads that do not lay eggs at all, but give birth to living children. The firstborn also live in the water.
- The frog has smooth, even pleasant, moist skin. The skin of the toad is dry and quite uneven.
- Frogs live mainly in water, while toads prefer to live on land. They can adapt to water conditions, but they still prefer dry land.
- Toads have no teeth at all; frogs have teeth in the upper jaw.
- A frog can be distinguished by its eyes, they bulge out, while in toads, on the contrary, they do not bulge and have poisonous glands behind the eyes.
- Frogs feed mainly on insects, snails, small fish, fry, worms, spiders. Toads feed more on invertebrates: larvae, slugs, insects, worms.
Similarities and differences between frogs and toads in physical characteristics
Size of frogs approximately 10 to 300 millimeters. The skin hangs loosely on their body and is moist and smooth. Frogs that live preferably in water have webbed toes. Light toxins are released from the skin, which makes them unpalatable to predators.
Toad has dry and uneven skin (warty). Toads are not characterized by the separation of eyes from the body, and they also have short legs.
The life span of frogs and toads is approximately the same and varies from 7 to 14 years. But a life expectancy of 40 years has been recorded.
The golden frog is the most venomous vertebrate in the world.
For many people, the appearance of a frog and a toad causes the same hostility. And, meanwhile, toads are indispensable as helpers in the garden when it is time for fruits, berries and vegetables to ripen. But what about the frogs? They can also often be seen among the beds. Are they useful to humans? And what is the difference between a toad and a frog, if they look similar in appearance, but they have different sizes only?
Frog and toad – similarity
Frog and toad belong to the class of amphibians (order - anurans). Both animals are amphibians, that is, creatures that reproduce and undergo initial development in the aquatic environment. And in a mature state, the main part of their existence takes place on land. They have characteristics common to the entire class.
- These are cold-blooded creatures, their body temperature is unstable. It is always the same as the current ambient temperature (or 1-2°C higher).
- Metabolism is not intensive.
- The skin of both these amphibians plays the role of an organ for gas exchange; it is penetrated by a dense capillary network.
- Both amphibians have webs between their toes, which allow them to swim well.
- These animals are hunters and eat only moving prey. Their diet is also the same - worms, insects, fry, small crustaceans, plankton.
- On average, depending on the species, life expectancy is 7-14 years. Some representatives live up to 40 years.
- Both amphibians (most of their species) breed in the aquatic environment. The life cycle consists of four distinct stages: egg, tadpole, metamorphosis, and adult.
The difference between a toad and a frog
Despite the fact that these creatures have a lot in common, there are many differences between them:
- in appearance,
- body structure,
- and even a way to care for future offspring. It differs in essential details.
The toad has short hind legs, it looks squat, its body is flat, larger than that of a frog, its head is lowered low. In the latter, the head is larger, and is constantly in an elevated position, and the body is much smaller.
Almost all types of frogs have clearly defined eyes against the background of the head, but this is not typical for toads. On the head of the latter, behind the eyes in the parotid region, there are large glands (parotids) that produce a secret containing poison. For human health, this secret is not dangerous.
- Frogs are jumping creatures, they jump both up and down, pushing off the surface with long, powerful paws. Toads have short legs, which is why they cannot jump, but clumsily roll over, moving on all four legs.
- Frogs are graceful - the silhouette is elongated, they make deft movements. Visually, they cause more sympathy, while many are not only afraid to touch the toad, but do not even want to look at it - it is so warty. She has dry, uneven skin, and the frog is slippery to the touch.
- These animals also differ in color - the color of the belly of the toad is light, and that of the frog is of the same greenish-brown hue as marsh vegetation.
- There are species of frogs that have teeth - they are located on the upper jaw. Toads do not have teeth. Therefore, both amphibians swallow food - they are not able to chew.
- - funny and playful, with an unusual and bright color, they make ideal pets and do not require serious care.
During the day, these amphibians are active in different ways. The toad goes out in search of food at night and is nocturnal. And frogs are active only during the day.
A frog and a toad choose different habitats. The first spends most of its life in water bodies, the second - on land, but in dampness - in grass, foliage, loose soil.
Frogs usually settle on the very shore near marshes or ponds, in which they metamorphosed from tadpoles to adults. And toads, leaving the reservoir on land, tend to live in vegetable gardens, orchards, and shrublands. They return to water only during the mating season - to lay eggs.
Both amphibians breed in water bodies where they lay eggs. But in the process of laying eggs is the main difference between these animals from each other.
During the mating season, the number of eggs laid by a toad is significantly less than that of a frog, since it has a weaker reproductive capacity. Their caviar looks different.
Toad eggs are connected by cords, in some species their length reaches 8 meters. The cords lie at the bottom of the reservoir, braiding the shoots of aquatic vegetation. For a year, this amphibian lays about 10 thousand eggs. After hatching, the tadpoles stay closer to the bottom in flocks. After metamorphosis, they emerge from the water.
The eggs laid by frogs move freely on the surface of the water in small slimy clumps. The number of eggs there is an order of magnitude greater than that of a toad. For example, in one seasonal clutch of a bull frog there are about 20 thousand eggs. Tadpoles, having been born, also continue to live in the aquatic environment, and only after metamorphosis do the frogs get out onto land.
There are species of toads in which males are responsible for the viability and development of eggs laid by the female. Thus, males of one of the species found on European territory wrap cords with eggs around their paws and guard them in holes dug in moist soil, and not at the bottom of the reservoir, until the time comes for the larvae to hatch. As soon as it is time for them to hatch, the males transfer the eggs to the aquatic environment.
What benefits do toads and frogs bring to humans
Those who grow agricultural products and are interested in large yields (small farmers, agricultural enterprises) are advised to maintain and maintain the natural number of toads for the area, minimizing the use of chemical fertilizers and means pest control. And on the territory of a private suburban area, you can arrange a small artificial pond with aquatic plants.
Myths about frogs and toads
It is not true that the size of the toad is always larger. In western Africa (in Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon) there is a goliath frog. The mass of an adult individual reaches a little more than 3 kg, the body length is about 32 cm. In a jump (including the length of the limbs), the total body length of a goliath is almost 90 cm.
It is not true that toads are poisonous animals, and frogs cannot harm human health no harm. It all depends on the species: a person risks dying only by touching a toad called Aga (range - Central and South America) or a Kokoi frog (its correct name is Terrible leaf climber, found in the tropics in southwestern Colombia).
Toads living in Europe and Asia are absolutely harmless to humans. The poisonous secret secreted by them contains bufotenin, but this substance has an effect only on their natural enemies in nature: an animal that tries to squeeze a toad with its teeth begins to salivate profusely.