How big do cedar trees get


How Fast Do Cedar Trees Grow? Average Growth Rates Explained

The giant coniferous cedar trees (Cedrus), which can reach 180 feet easily, take their time to reach that height.

Native to the Himalayas and the mountains of the Mediterranean, the tree grows best at high altitudes.

If you’re worried that your cedar tree isn’t growing at the rate you expect, the growing conditions around the tree might be behind this slow growth rate.

How fast do cedar trees grow? In ideal conditions, a cedar tree will grow about 25 inches per year. However, it’s common for cedars to only grow 12 to 15 inches yearly. It largely depends on the variety of cedar and growing conditions. High temperatures can impede growth as well.

Not all cedar varieties grow at the same pace or reach the same height at maturity. Read on to find out how to keep your cedar tree growing at the expected rate.

Cedar Tree Growth Rate

The word “cedar” has been used with many plants, even those that don’t actually belong to the Cedrus genus.

Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) are two examples of species that are not even remotely related to cedars despite the confusing name.

That means that unless your tree is a true cedar, it will not have the fast growth rates that you expect. Before you buy the cedar sapling, make sure it’s not a false cedar.

Average Cedar Tree Growth Rate

Once you have planted the cedar tree and its roots are established, you can expect it to grow around 25 inches every year, but that rate is not set in stone.

It’s common to see your cedar growing from 12 to 20 inches per year on average. Even true cedar varieties have varying growth rates.

If two different cedar species are growing in the same spot, one could grow at a 20-inch-per-year pace while the other would take its time growing only 12 inches every year.

Factors That Affect Cedar Tree Growth

A slow-growing cedar is not a cause for concern unless the tree appears to be stunted. In that case, you should look for factors such as air and soil temperature, fertilizer, and watering patterns. 

  • Temperature: As trees that grow best in the mountains, cedars are used to freezing temperatures in the winter. The cold-hardy cedars have a low tolerance to high temperatures that could lead to their demise.
  • Fertilizer: For the cedar to grow at 25 inches a year, it needs constant feeding. Apply a high-nitrogen fertilizer with an 18-8-8 label from the early spring onwards. Water immediately after each application to prevent root burn.
  • Water: The young cedar tree needs regular watering. However, you should allow the soil to dry out between irrigations. Mulching can help with water retention, especially in the summer. Make sure the mulch doesn’t touch the trunk.

Growth Rate of Common Cedar Trees

Common Questions About Cedar Trees

Are Cedar Trees Evergreen?

Cedar trees are coniferous evergreen trees with lush foliage that doesn’t change color across seasons.

However, the color of the needle-like leaves varies depending on how thick the resinous layer is that covers them.

Thin resin leads to bright green leaves. If the foliage is bluish-green, that means the leaves are covered with a thick layer of wax.

How Tall Do Cedar Trees Grow?

Cedar trees are giants among other coniferous trees. A true cedar can reach 180 feet tall. However, the average height of the cedar tree is between 60 to 120 feet.

False cedars vary in height depending on their species. Since the cedar tree grows at a rate of 12-24 inches a year on average, it would take the tree many years to reach its maximum height. 

How Long Do Cedar Trees Last?

Cedars are known for their longevity. They take years to reach maturity, which means they will live for centuries.

The average lifespan of the true cedar is around 300 years or longer. Some Lebanon cedar trees can live up to 1,000 years. 

Where Do Cedar Trees Grow?

True cedar trees (Cedrus genus) grow mainly in the mountains of the Mediterranean as well as the Himalayas. They thrive in high altitudes and are hardy to cold or even freezing conditions.

The species that grow in North America with “cedar” in the title are faux cedars, but they are hardy to Zones 2-9.

True Cedar vs. False Cedar

True cedars are those species that belong to the Cedrus genus. They are not native to North America.

In fact, they only grow in the eastern Mediterranean in the mountains of Lebanon and the Himalayas. They reach heights between 120 and 180 feet and live for hundreds of years. Their cones are barrel-shaped.

False cedars are trees that have nothing to do with the Cedrus genus. Many of the “cedars” that grow in North America are false cedars. They vary in height and growth rate as well as the cones they produce. 

How Big Do Cedar Trees Get?

Cedar trees are giants that require a lot of space. They average between 60 to 180 feet tall and around 35 feet wide.

That makes them suitable as border trees and as windbreakers. If you have a small yard, the cedar tree is not the ideal choice to grow. 

Do Cedar Trees Have Deep Roots?

For being such tall trees, cedars have relatively shallow root systems. The average depth the roots will reach is between 6 to 8 feet. 

Conclusion

Cedar trees grow on average between 12 to 24 inches a year. Make sure they’re well fed and watered to keep them growing at this rate.

True cedars are native to the Himalayas and the eastern regions of the Mediterranean. The “cedars” growing in North America are false cedars.

9 Types of Cedar Trees & Their Uses [Identification Guide]

Updated: | Categories: Lawn Care

Being able to identify the types of cedar trees when out in the wild not only makes you look smart, but you can then find the right saplings to transplant to your own yard, or grow a bonsai, or sell in your nursery.

Cedar trees are found quite frequently in nearly every part of the world too where the climate is mild to moderate. These are evergreen trees with leaves that grow all through the year. They have a strong and intense smell which is one of their defining traits.

While there are many cedar tree types, they're mostly categorized into true and faux cedar trees. All of them are evergreen, coniferous, and grow in mountainous regions all around the planet.

All mature cedar trees grow large and tall. Their leaves are sharp like needles and come in different colors. They need well-draining soil and typically grow in areas with good rainfall. Let's take a look at the different types of cedar trees now.

9 Types of Cedar Trees

There are four types of true cedar trees, which belong to the cedar genus. The faux cedar trees belong to the cypress family. The true cedars have woody pegs and needle clusters for leaves.

Whereas the faux cedars have soft and scaly leaves that resemble feathers. They look spiky and have bright-colored leaves. As the tree matures, they turn scaly and the cones on these trees look like small berries.

1) Deodar Cedar

Scientific name: Cedrus deodara

These plants get their name from the Sanskrit word "devadaru" which means "the timber of gods" and they are famously known for their "weeping". You can find them in open spaces like parks and gardens because they make the landscape around them very pretty with their beautiful leaves.

Identifying the deodar cedar is quite easy thanks to their striking appearance. Their gorgeous blue and green-colored leaves grow about one or two inches and look like needles.

They grow up to a height of 40 to 50 feet. And like the other cedar tree varieties, they need a lot of sunlight and grow really well in sandy and moist soil. This variety has also been given the Award of Garden Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society.

2) Atlas Cedar

Scientific name: Cedrus atlantica

This one is another coniferous tree that grows well to a height of 40 to 60 feet on large properties. Its trunk has an impressive diameter of five to six feet. When you're out and about, see if you can spot any of the types of aspen trees when you see a cedar tree.

The tree is native to Morocco’s Atlas mountains that it gets its name from and grows at a pace of slow to moderate. It's wide and grows in the shape of a pyramid which makes its shadow look wide.

Its leaves are silvery-blue in color and are typically about an inch long. Unlike the deodar cedar, this variety can grow just fine in partial sunlight although the soil must be well drained.

The tree can tolerate heavy wind and drought well but it does get affected by pests. If you’re growing this tree, you need to make sure it is fertilized with stuff that encourages sturdy growth. To avoid shedding, trim the tree while it is still young.

3) Cyprus Cedar

Scientific name: Cedrus brevifolia

As the name indicates, this cedar tree species is native to the mountains of Paphos, Tripylos, and Troodos in Cyprus. It's a relatively small area which makes this variety a rare species. In fact, it is one of the rarest true cedar tree varieties.

It looks a lot like the cedar tree types of Lebanon but smaller. The stature, leaves (or needles), and the pine cones are all smaller. The leaves are dark blue-green and are neat and compact.

This variety must also be exposed to full sunlight but does not need as much space as the other cedar trees. When fully grown, the tree is medium to large size. So, it still needs a good amount of space to grow.

When in its native habitats, it grows 80 feet tall. But ornamental varieties only grow up to 50 feet. It can grow in different types of soil as long as they are well draining. The Cyprian cedar needs to be watered only occasionally as it can handle a little bit of a dry spell.

4) Cedar of Lebanon

Scientific name: Cedrus libani

This is not the rarest but is quite a unique species of true cedar. It grows on the mountains of Cyprus, Turkey, and some parts of Syria.

Also called yellow cedar, this variety is quite famous for its tiny leaves and a crown that resembles an umbrella. It's even compared to the Cyprian cedar sometimes because of the resemblances.

But both species do have some differences in terms of their physical attributes. One of the main differences is that the cedar of Lebanon has elongated leaves whereas the Cyprian cedar has short and round leaves.

Faux cedar trees, on the other hand, are not from the cedar genus but have a lot of resemblances to cedar and hence the name. They too are evergreen and coniferous trees.

5) Western Red Cedar

Scientific name: Thuja plicata

These types of cedar trees are native to parts of Canada and the US and belongs to the Cupressaceae family. Also called the Pacific cedar, it's one of the most common species of cedar found in the Pacific northwest.

These trees are humongous and grow up to 200 feet in height. Some of these trees have been known to live for as long as 1,000 years. Their bright green leaves release a beautiful pineapple-like aroma when you crush them with your fingers.

Western Red cedar wood is typically used in outdoor construction like fences, posts, decks, and sheds because of its impressive resistance to decay. They work well as part of a living fence, a DIY wattle fence, and any of the fence alternatives.

6) Eastern Red Cedar

Scientific name: Juniperus virginiana

The second of the faux cedar tree varieties is scientifically called Juniperus virginiana and belongs to the Cypress family. This tree is native to the eastern areas of the US and grows from 65 to 130 feet tall.

In some exceptional cases, it is known to grow up to 100 meters or higher too. It's popularly called the aromatic cedar because of its intense smell.

The wood is used in making organic oils and also used in lining closets because of its resistance to insect infestation. This tree produces some of the most durable and versatile variants of wood that are used in making furniture.

7) Northern White Cedar

Scientific name: Thuja occidentalis

A narrow pyramid-shaped tree with dense branches, the Northern White cedar is blessed with an abundance of green needle-like foliage which has a truly great earthy fragrance. The tree grows slowly but can handle many types of soil.

But if you help it, plant it in moist and well-draining soil. The species is native to North America but it grows in many other parts of the world like Europe.

8) Spanish Cedar

Scientific name: Cedrela odorata

This cedar tree species is native to Central and South African regions and is known to be extremely lightweight. A lot of builders and wood cutters use it in the construction of windows, cabinets, and tables, etc. for that reason.

It's hard to spot these trees in Europe and the US. But it’s quite popular in these regions, mainly because of its resistance to moisture and pets. It is also used in making oils.

The tree itself is planted in straight-lined areas so that it is easy to cut it using machines. It's typically found in pink or brown colors but can darken over time. This is a durable and versatile plant that can fight off pests and decay on its own. It's also easy to maintain.

9) Alaskan Yellow Cedar

Scientific name: Cupressus nootkatensis

The Alaskan yellow cedar, the last of the faux cedar species, belongs to the Cypress family and is native to coastal regions of North America. The tree grows slowly and has drooping branches that are filled with dark green foliage.

This tree produces wood that used to be considered one of the finest and was used to build ships and in high-end flooring. When it comes to coveted timber varieties, this one is still quite popular because of its resistance to insects, splintering and even the weather.

Of course, that makes it one of the most expensive types of wood. Since it grows slowly, it's used in finishing carpentry while building cabinets and panels. Of the types of cedar trees, this one is among the most valuable.

Which of the Types of Cedar Trees Do You Prefer?

Cedar trees are pretty easy to identify. Apart from looking magnificent, true cedars have bluish-green needles for leaves and they grow in groups with woody branches.

They also have large cones that look like barrels and grow upwards on the branches. Once a tree matures, you'll find the bark to be reddish-brown with scales that can be easily peeled.

Many cedar tree varieties produce durable and strong wood that's often red in color and is used in construction. And that has been the case since the Middle Ages. It was used in building ships, weapons and so much more.

If that doesn’t impress you, well, then you’re going to be looking for a while. The types of cedar trees can be discussed forever, especially when it comes to their uses.

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Rick is a home design consultant and enthusiast, whose life is consumed by all things home and garden. Started as a hobby, Worst Room has grown into an information and inspiration wheelhouse for professionals and home owners alike. Rick serves as owner and editor for our many content contributors. Learn more about Rick & the Worst Room operation here.

What is cedar, its photo and description © Geostart

Topic: World of Plants

Cedar is not a deciduous or flowering plant that can often be found in the gardens of Russian citizens. There are not so many real cedar trees in the country, of course, if we talk about a real tree, and not about substitute concepts, like cedar pine. So what exactly should be meant by the concept of "cedar", how such a tree differs from other conifers and what species exist today - this will be discussed in this article.

What is cedar

Like pine, cedar is a member of the Pine family, but it belongs to the genus Cedar, class Coniferous and is a gymnosperm plant, distributed mainly in the Mediterranean and the Himalayan mountains. This is a powerful and fairly tall tree, with needle-shaped leaves of a bluish or rich green color.

Monoecious, but heterosexual plant, therefore both male and female generative organs are found on one species specimen . The former are single ovoid cones of small size, framed by bunches of needles, while the latter are slightly longer and often reach a length of 10 cm with a width of 6 cm. The resinous, triangular seeds that form inside grow up to 12–18 cm. The wood of an adult plant is highly valued in construction and industry, which is not surprising, because in the old days whole temples and royal palaces were built from it, which, according to legend, promised well-being and prosperity to their owners.

Features

Representatives of the genus Cedar are truly gigantic trees, the height of which often reaches 40-60 m in the wild . The crown is massive and spreading, the bark is dark gray in color, smooth on young plants and scaly on older ones. Branches can be shortened and elongated, and on the latter there are spiral needles. To the touch, it is hard and prickly, with three or four edges, united in bundles of five needles. Depending on the type of plant, its color can vary from blue or dark green to gray-silver.

Spikelets of the tree are placed singly at the ends of short branches. All of them are erect, in the lower part supplemented with bunches of needles. Female specimens reach a length of 5 cm and have numerous, spirally placed stamens, with two interconnected anthers covered with cracks. The pollen itself is enclosed in air sacs.

Barrel-shaped or oblong buds of the plant - upright, solitary . They mature in the 2nd or 3rd year of tree growth, and the distribution of planting material stored in them occurs mainly in autumn or winter. The weight of the seed wings is approximately 10% of the total weight of the seeds. After falling into the ground, young plants germinate only after three weeks. The flowering of cedar falls on the autumn period.

1 - needles, 2 - female cone, 3 - male cone, 4 - tree . Presumably, the place of appearance of different species is consonant with their name, which means that the Himalayan cedar (C. deodara) will be home to the Himalaya mountains, the Atlas cedar first grew on the rocky territory of northwestern Africa in the Atlas mountains, the Lebanese began to spread around the world from Lebanon, and people first met the Cypriot or short-coniferous cedar on the island of Cyprus.

No less interesting is the history of the origin of the name "cedar" . According to one of the most common theories, the first Cedar is a European plant that grows during the existence of Ancient Rome in what is now Italy. Having landed on the island of Crete, the Roman soldiers saw a tree growing there, very similar to those that are near their homes - cedar pines. Later it became known that they are not quite identical. In Russian history, there is no exact data on the origin of the name of the tree, but it is known that in Russia they grew on the territory of the eastern part of Novgorod the Great.

Distribution

In their natural habitat, cedars grow in the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean territory and in the western Himalayas . In the south of Crimea, trees "take root" in the territory from Sevastopol to Kara-Dag, that is, where the minimum temperature values ​​do not reach -25°C. The Lebanese cedar also grows in the botanical garden in Odessa, giving self-sowing and withstanding temperature drops to -27 ° C (just like the Crimean specimens).

What a tree looks like

A mature tree of any kind of cedar is a powerful plant with dense and massive brown-brown branches, thick warping and tapering towards the end. You can’t call it small, dwarf or undersized, because even the seedlings show how massive their parts are. At a young age, the crown is more conical, but after 5–10 years of cedar growth it becomes flat-topped or sharp-pyramidal.

In some varieties (for example, the Lebanese cedar), the top almost immediately acquires a conical shape . In addition, a significant role in describing the appearance of plants is played by a specific area of ​​​​their growth: with a limited amount of space and a small area of ​​\u200b\u200bnutrition, trees often stretch upwards, and in single plantings they are more sprawling, with several peaks.

Annual branches of the crop have a yellowish color with a reddish coating and are covered with triangular needles, serrated at the edges, collected 5 pieces on short shoots (in total, there are up to 50 dark green needles on one branch). Despite their needle-like shape, such leaves can be called soft, especially in young plants. In general, needles up to 14 cm long live for 7–10 years, after which they turn yellow and fall off. It is noteworthy that no more than two of the five needles in the bundle die at the same time.

Cedar blossoms mainly in spring, but its cones reach their full maturity closer to autumn, already next year

Types of cedars

Real cedar trees are divided only into 4 main types: Atlas, Lebanese, Himalayan and Cypriot, which is also called short-leaved cedar. The remaining plants are not representatives of this genus and can only be similar to them from a distance. In general, all true representatives of the genus have many similar characteristics, but at the same time it is worth knowing how to distinguish them from each other.

Atlas

This variety of cedar is found on the slopes of the Atlas Mountains and in Algeria, and in the most remote regions, at an altitude of 1300-2000 m above sea level . In appearance, these are large trees with a trunk height of 50 m and a diameter of at least 1.5–2 m. Gray-brown branches are covered with blue-green needles, with needles bundled into bundles, up to 2.5 cm long. cylindrical cones, reaching 10 centimeters. They contain seeds that reach 10–12 cm and have a wing up to 15 mm.

The wood of the plant is always resinous, with a strong smell of sandalwood . Both the cones and the needles of the Atlas cedar are slightly shorter than those of the Lebanese variety, and they easily tolerate winter temperatures down to -20 ° C and a short drought. Like other types of cedar, the Atlas plant begins to bloom in the fall, which is expressed in the appearance of unique blue-violet flower cones.

Lebanese

This evergreen conifer, under favorable growing conditions, often reaches 40–50 m in height with a trunk diameter of up to 2.5 m . The crown of young plants has a conical shape, but as it grows, it changes to a flattened, wide and umbrella-shaped version. The color of the needles forming bunches (30-40 pieces in one collection) ranges from green to gray-blue-green color and lasts for two years (the entire life of the needles).

Fruiting - once every two years, but only after 25-30 years of tree life . The fruits are cylindrical, light brown cones, up to 12 cm long and at least 4–6 cm wide. Inside them, seeds are hidden about 15–18 mm long and 5–7 mm wide. They are not suitable for food, and in many cases can lead to poisoning.

The bark of the trunk and shoots of the Lebanese cedar is dark gray in color and scaly in texture. Wood - red, durable, light and soft, with a pleasant aroma (smells like pine). This species grows very slowly, but at the same time it is characterized by a fairly high level of frost resistance (it withstands short temperature drops to -30 ° C), it is tolerant of a short drought and soil composition . The Lebanese cedar is one of the symbols of Lebanon, therefore it is displayed on the flag and coat of arms of this country.

Himalayan

Trees of this variety are most commonly found in eastern Asia, northern or western Himalayas, mountains of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal and India . The plant develops well at an altitude of 3600 m above sea level and can form entire forests, combining well with spruce, pine and fir (it is also relevant for taiga coniferous regions). Externally, the Himalayan cedar is a massive tree, which often reaches 50 meters in height, with a trunk diameter of 3 m. The crown of adult plants is wide-conical, with horizontally arranged branches.

The wood is strong but soft and very fragrant, light yellow on the outside and red-brown in the central part of the heartwood . The needles are thin, soft to the touch, light gray-green in color, with a slight bluish tinge. In coniferous bundles, there are 30–40 needles, each of which has 3–4 faces and reaches a length of about 56 cm. The life span of needles is 3–6 years.

Maturation of cones begins only 1.5 years after the start of their formation, but already in the second and third year they crumble (they sit on the shoots from above, upwards). The seeds inside are white, about 16–17 mm long, resinous and inedible. Compared to other varieties, cedars of this group tolerate partial shade much better and, under suitable growing conditions, can reach an age of 1000–3000 years.

Short coniferous

Short coniferous, aka Cypriot cedar, is a medium-sized tree, the height of which is limited to 12 m with a trunk diameter of 2 m (only individual specimens reach 30 m in height). In its natural habitat, this plant is found only on the territory of the island of Cyprus, mainly in the highlands . Powerful shoots grow horizontally, slightly rushing down, which is why the young pyramidal crown resembles a huge umbrella. Under the sprawling wide branches, densely covered with needle needles, a gray-brown bark of the shoots is visible.

Short coniferous this plant is called because of the small length of the needles, which often do not exceed 5–8 mm (in extreme cases, specimens with needles up to 12 mm long can be found). Their color is blue-green in the warm season and slightly gray in the cold season. Collected in numerous bunches of needles make the plant fluffy.

The flowering of the short-coniferous cedar occurs at the beginning of autumn , and a little later, pale brown male cones and reddish female cones appear on it, which, after pollination, ripen only after a year (they throw out winged seeds). The maximum length of the cones is 7 cm. Under suitable growing conditions, the life span of the Cypriot cedar will be more than one hundred years, which is only slightly inferior to the values ​​of other species.

The difference between cedar and other conifers

In addition to cedar pine, there are some other plants that look like real cedar . In order not to confuse them with each other, it is worth knowing about the main possible differences between these conifers. For example, the fruiting of pine is annual, but on cedars, cones ripen no more than once every four years. The needles of an adult pine tree are collected in bundles of 2 pieces, and of a cedar - 5 each, and in the latter case they are slightly longer. The color of pine needles depends on where the tree grows, but usually has a yellowish or silvery tint, while most cedar leaves have a rich green color.

The needles of cedar seem to be longer in comparison with spruce needles, which are always greener, harder and more prickly . Needles are arranged both spirally and singly, well strengthened on leaf cushions. Every year, spruce trees shed up to 1/7 of all their needles, but replacing it with cedar is smoother and less frequent.

Differences between spruce and cedar trees can also be traced in the form of their crown : in the first case, it resembles a cone (shoots are slightly lowered), and in the second case, it is extended to the sides. The main distinguishing characteristics of the cedar are its relatively large size and not so sharp needles, therefore, with a careful visual inspection of both plants, it is easy to determine which species is in front of you.

Useful properties of needles and its use in folk medicine

  • The benefits of various parts of the cedar tree in the fight against a variety of ailments are confirmed not only by folk, but also by traditional medicine, because essential oils and coniferous extracts are often included in preparations for eliminating problems of the following organs and systems of the human body:
  • respiratory system;
  • digestive systems;
  • kidney and liver;
  • genitourinary system;
  • organs of the cardiovascular system.

With proper preparation of medicinal infusions and decoctions, they will be effective in the treatment of anemia, hypertension, tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, mastitis, arthritis, gastritis and stomach ulcers . Scientifically confirmed today is the effectiveness of cedar medicines in the prevention of cardiovascular pathologies, and the resin of the plant is a good antiseptic that inhibits the growth of bacteria that cause diphtheria and staphylococcus aureus.

If necessary, infusions with the addition of resin can also be used as an external agent in the treatment of furunculosis, purulent wounds and abscesses. Of course, essential oils, infusions and decoctions will have different levels of useful properties, therefore, before preparing this or that medicine, it is worth deciding on its most preferred form: , as well as a good remedy in the treatment of bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, inflammatory processes in the respiratory system, prostatitis and uterine bleeding, not to mention arthritis, rheumatoid pain and gout (alcohol tincture perfectly warms up the body). In addition, this tincture can be added to the water when taking a bath, which will help relieve fatigue, increase the body's immune forces and improve the emotional state.

  • Essential oil from the seeds of the plant is a nutritious product that helps to remove sputum from an unproductive cough and eliminate the unpleasant symptoms of stomach ulcers and other gastrointestinal diseases. Outwardly, it is used in the preparation of compresses and solutions for lotions in the process of treating burn wounds.
  • Decoctions of needles are often used for bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, stomatitis and even a runny nose, instilled into the nostrils.
  • Cedar gum camphor can be used to treat nervous system ailments and even schizophrenia, while turpentine baths will be appropriate in case of large amounts of salt deposits in the joints.
  • Medicinal properties

    Considering the above ailments, which various infusions and decoctions based on different parts of the cedar tree help to cope with, it is easy to guess about the specific healing capabilities of the plant.

    • The list of which includes such effects on the human body:
    • anti-inflammatory;
    • diuretic;
    • expectorant;
    • antibacterial;
    • antiscorbutic;
    • antimicrobial;
    • haemostatic;
    • sedative;
    • immunomodulatory;
    • anti-asthma;
    • blood purifier;
    • general tonic.

    In addition, with the regular use of various products prepared using cedar raw materials, there is every chance of improving blood composition, increasing the elasticity of vascular walls, lowering cholesterol levels in the body, lowering blood pressure and reducing excess body weight, while simultaneously promoting increased production of juice in the stomach and reduce its acidity . Not only needles, but also cedar wood can release substances that help purify the air in the room . This means that even wooden products from the described plant can benefit a person, and not only aesthetically.

    Contraindications

    There are no significant contraindications to the use of cedar in folk medicine. The undesirable effects of such treatment are mainly due to individual intolerance to the chemical constituents of the plant and the tendency of the body to allergic reactions to needles . However, you should not uncontrollably take prepared infusions and decoctions in large quantities.

    It is advisable to start formulations with small doses, eg ½ teaspoon tincture or 2-3 tbsp. spoons of infusion. The use of cedar pine nuts requires the same responsible approach, even if they are mistaken for the fruits of real cedar.

    Cedar is a truly interesting and majestic representative of the plant world, which, with certain knowledge, may well become a valuable storehouse of healing properties for many people, and the ability to distinguish false plants from real ones will only help in this. In addition, detailed information about the external features and requirements of a particular species for growing conditions will be very relevant even if you want to grow a tree in your garden.

    author

    Moiseev Ivan

    Siberian cedar pine. Cedar - in fact, it is different

    Few people know that Canadian or Siberian cedar, which we have long been accustomed to consider cedars, are not this type of tree and belong to the genera of arborvitae and pine. And such a name was assigned to them because they belong to the same Pine family.

    A real cedar is a coniferous tree of the Pine family, the genus of which contains only four species. The height of the trees is from 25 to 50 meters, they have a sprawling, pyramidal or umbrella-shaped and superficial root system. The needles are collected in bunches, each of which consists of thirty to forty needles that have a three- or four-sided shape.

    The bark is dark gray, the wood is fragrant, and therefore the essential oil of cedar is of extremely high quality, yellowish or reddish in color, resistant to decay, and due to its strong resinousness, insects bypass it.

    Cones solitary, erect, ovoid or barrel-shaped, 5 to 10 cm long and about six wide. They ripen in the second or third year after their appearance, and it is interesting that they do not crumble immediately, but during the autumn-winter period. Cedar seeds are triangular, thin-skinned, resinous, 12 to 18 mm long and inedible.

    All cedars are heat-loving plants, distributed in subtropical latitudes, and do not take root in temperate zones (therefore, the cedars of Russia are actually pines). They prefer to grow in loamy soils, in mountainous areas, at an altitude of 1.3 to 4 km from sea level, next to spruce, fir, pine and other coniferous plants. But the strong sea wind does not tolerate well and almost does not take root on dry calcareous slopes.

    In total, the genus of cedars has four species:

    • Atlas - has a pyramidal crown, needles of bluish-green or dove-colored flowers, grows in northwestern Africa, in the Atlas mountains;
    • Lebanese - is a symbol of Libya, depicted on the national flag, at present, only a few trees remain in the country, which was previously considered the main exporter of timber;
    • Himalayan - has a pyramidal shape and thin bluish-green needles, grows in southern Asia, from it, like from other trees of the genus, fragrant essential oil of cedar is obtained;
    • Short-coniferous - has pubescent or bare shoots and shorter dark green needles than other species, can be seen in Cyprus.


    Members of the pine family

    On the territory of Russia, real cedars can only be seen in the botanical gardens of the Caucasus. But the cedar pine grows here: the trees known as the cedars of Russia are actually pines and are represented in the country by three species: Siberian cedar, Korean cedar and cedar.

    It is no coincidence that pines are called cedars. According to one of the legends, Peter I, returning to Russia from Holland, ordered to find a tree that would not be inferior in properties to cedar, from which the highest quality and strongest ships were built. A similar plant was found in Siberia. It turned out to be a pine, which from that moment received a new name - Siberian cedar.

    Under natural conditions, cedar pine grows in Siberia, the Urals and Altai, in addition, the plant is artificially bred in all corners of Russia: it is very hardy and perfectly takes root in temperate latitudes.

    Cedar pine is a coniferous tree about 40 m high and about 2 m in diameter. The bark is grayish in color and changes color with age: at first, young pines are ash-silver in color, then gradually become gray-brown.

    The length of the needles is from 5 to 12 cm, it is triangular in pine, dark green in color with a bluish tint, collected in small bunches - from 2 to 5 needles. Ripe cones 6 to 13 cm long and about 8 cm wide are egg-shaped, light brown in color and contain from 80 to 140 seeds, known to us as pine nuts. The seeds of these cones are edible, very tasty and nutritious.

    How different real cedars and Siberian pine are from each other is also indicated by the fact that it is almost impossible to cross them with each other. And if a tree sprouts, it does not live long and is quickly broken by the wind. This happens primarily at different growth rates: in the first few years, the cedars of Russia grow in height, while real species grow in thickness. Therefore, at the age of thirty years, the diameter of the cedar is 20 cm, pine - 14, which cannot but be reflected in the hybrid tree.

    Canadian thuja

    Also trees that have nothing to do with real cedars are thuja growing in Canada (many sellers of building material often deceive buyers in this matter):

    cypress. The tree has become popular thanks to wood, which is characterized by durable properties in use. The red Canadian cedar is also an ornamental plant: alleys are equipped from taller plants, dwarf ones are planted on rocky areas.

    White Canadian cedar - it is more correct to call the plant western thuja. The height is from 12 to 20 meters, it has a compact ovoid or pyramidal shape and in appearance the white Canadian cedar is similar to other members of the cypress family. The wood of the tree is reddish in color, it is characterized by such properties as strength, pleasant aroma, and since it does not rot, people have found it used in various fields of activity.

    Use

    People have long noticed the beneficial properties of cedar wood and have found its use in all spheres of human activity: houses, furniture and other wooden crafts are made from wood. Cedars of Russia are also used in medicine and cooking: food is prepared from seeds, vegetable oil of cedar, from the bark of needles, resin - they prepare medicinal decoctions, essential oil of cedar.

    Oil

    Cedar oil is so unique that there is no oil equal to it in properties. Pine nut oil is made by pressing from the seeds of Siberian pine, and it contains all the beneficial properties inherent in olive, coconut, sea buckthorn and burdock oils. For example, pine nut oil contains five times more vitamin E than olive oil.

    Essential oil of cedar is obtained both from a real tree and from Siberian pine, Canadian thuja and other coniferous plants (the properties differ little from each other and the main difference is in the ratio of components).


    Unlike vegetable oil, cedar essential oil is made from crushed bark, wood, young shoots. Cedar essential oil has excellent antiseptic, soothing, antiviral properties, it is successfully used in cosmetology. The only thing is that cedar essential oil is not used inside: it is inhaled, applied to the skin, healing baths and other procedures are made.

    Resin

    Cedar oleoresin (tree resin) is also successfully used in the treatment, which undergoes preliminary processing: it cannot be used in its pure form, because it quickly hardens.

    In general, cedar oleoresin is also successfully used in solutions that you can either prepare yourself or buy in a store. It is easy to make: cedar resin dissolves well in any vegetable oil at a temperature of 50 degrees, and since the components do not overheat, it does not lose its healing properties and, if used correctly, cures.

    Cedar oleoresin is also sold in stores, but the person purchasing the solution should take into account that he is likely to buy a fake. For example, a solution called “Reviving oil” is made from corn and nut oils, and “Turpentine oil” is gum turpentine, since it is obtained when cedar gum is distilled with water or steam (in terms of its useful properties, such a solution is very different from that dissolved in resin oil).

    Seeds

    If you figure out what a pine nut is, it turns out that cedar seeds have nothing to do with real nuts, which are the fruits of shrubs and trees of the walnut family. The seeds of true cedar are inedible, and the nuts known to us are the seeds of the cedar pine.

    However, this does not at all reduce the beneficial properties of seeds: they, as well as pine nut oil and tincture made from them, are used in medicine, dietetics, cosmetology, and aromatherapy sessions. For example, pine nuts are often used to improve immunity, vision, to prevent cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and anemia.

    Pine nuts are rich in vitamins A, B, C, D, E, P, and contain a huge amount of minerals, including manganese, copper, magnesium, zinc, iron, phosphorus, iodine. Despite the fact that the pine nut kernel contains a lot of fats, protein and amino acids such as tryptophan, methionine, lysine, it is actively used for weight loss: pine nuts are not only nutritious, but also stimulate the activity of the hormone cholecystokinin, which signals the brain to be full. Pine nut oil made from seeds brings particular benefits to the body.

    Pine nut tincture is used not only as an alcoholic drink, but also as a remedy for diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Interestingly, in addition to the kernel, pine nut shells are often used to prepare tinctures and balms: the resulting remedy is an excellent anti-inflammatory medicine.

    Let's not forget that when we talk about pine nuts, benefits and harms go hand in hand. Firstly, if you eat more than 50 g per day, it can harm the body. Also, they should not be consumed together with meat and dairy products, the protein of which prevents the absorption of food. Pine nuts are not recommended for young children, as they can clog the airways.

    It is necessary to purchase only unpeeled kernels, because when they come into contact with light and oxygen, they become rancid and absorb harmful substances. This means that if nuts and dishes that were made from them are bitter, such food should be thrown away, since rancid oil is the strongest poison and it may take from two days to two weeks to restore the body.

    It would seem that everyone has long known where the cedar grows. The seeds of this tree, known as pine nuts, are a very tasty and healthy delicacy loved by many. But in fact, it turns out that the tree, which in Russia is considered a cedar, is scientifically called a cedar pine. The seeds of a true representative of this genus of conifers are inedible. But there are common signs by which this tree began to be called that. Spruce, cedar, pine and some other representatives of conifers belong to the same family. All of them have useful properties and have long been used by man for various purposes. But it stands out among the cedar. Several species of it are now growing in the world.

    True cedar

    Photos of these trees show how they differ from pine and spruce. But in botany, only four species growing in the south are considered real cedar. They have been known since antiquity and are mentioned in the Bible.

    1. is a symbol of this country, and it was its valuable wood that was used to build temples and make icons.

    2. Atlas cedar is common in North Africa. It is very unpretentious and grows in the highlands, withstanding frost and drought.

    3. There is also Cypriot cedar. His photo shows that he differs from other relatives in small needles. Therefore, it is also called short coniferous. This rare tree is found only in the mountains on the island of Cyprus.

    4. grows not only in the Himalayas, but also in the mountainous regions of India, Afghanistan and Pakistan. This tree is very beautiful and unpretentious, therefore it is often used for landscaping.

    Features of cedar

    It has many useful properties and has been widely used by man since ancient times, like all conifers. Cedar is one of the most unpretentious and beautiful trees of this class. What features made him so famous?

    This tree has very strong, beautiful wood, which also has antiseptic properties and is resistant to rot and insects. Furniture, musical instruments, ships and much more are made from it.

    Cedar needles are soft and release phytoncides that disinfect the air.

    All cedar trees are very beautiful. Their needles are painted in silver or light green, the branches are very fluffy, and the crown is most often pyramidal in shape.

    All parts of cedar have a strong, pleasant smell that is considered beneficial to humans.

    Where true cedar grows

    In nature, trees of this genus are found in the southern mountainous areas. Cedars are common in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East. They are quite unpretentious, but do not withstand frosts below 25 degrees. Cedars need well-moistened, lime-poor soils, best of all sandy or loamy. But they do not like stagnant water and severe drought.

    Cedar trees grow best on mountain slopes well lit by the sun, but are also found in shady areas. In the last two hundred years, these trees have been used for landscaping in many countries. Especially often in the south cedar is planted. Where this tree grows in Russia, those who went on vacation to the Crimea or the Caucasus know. Beautiful, fluffy trees, along with cypresses, are now a symbol of many resorts on the Black Sea coast.

    Description of cedar

    It is an evergreen tree growing up to 50 meters. It has a dark gray smooth bark and a spreading crown. The needles are trihedral, prickly, collected in bundles up to 30-40 needles. Their color is different: light or dark green and even silver-gray or blue. Cones ovoid or barrel-shaped, large. The tree begins to bear fruit after 50 years. True cedar seeds are inedible. This tree is one of the most ancient on Earth, its pollen was found in a layer that is 200 million years old. Cedar is long-lived, its Himalayan species can stand for about 3,000 years. But usually there are trees aged 250-300 years. Their wood has a pleasant yellow or reddish tint, very strong and durable.

    What trees are also called cedar

    If you ask any resident of Russia where cedar grows, everyone will answer that it is in Siberia. But scientifically this tree is called cedar pine. Although the name has already taken root in many books, it is believed that this was the name of the pine, the wood of which had a strong pleasant aroma. It also looked like a real cedar with its spreading fluffy crown, large cones and height. But the main difference between the cedar pine is that its seeds, called nuts, are edible and very useful. And their lovers are sure that it is cedar that gives them. Where does this tree grow in Russia? most common in Siberia, Altai and Transbaikalia. But it is also found in the north of European Russia and even beyond the Arctic Circle. In the south of the Far East, in China and Japan, a pine tree with larger seeds is common. Cedar elfin also grows in these places - a shrub no more than 5 meters high. But its seeds are also edible and eaten. And in the mountainous regions of Europe, European cedar is found - a very ancient and rare cedar.

    Useful properties of Siberian cedar

    Its main advantage is nuts. They are nutritious, tasty and have long been used to produce healing oil. contain many vitamins, amino acids and minerals necessary for a person. They improve blood composition, prevent tuberculosis and increase efficiency. Nutshell tincture is used for hemorrhoids and stomach diseases. Healing properties and has cedar needles. It contains phytoncides, a lot of ascorbic acid and carotene. It is used for restorative baths and preparation of vitamin infusions. Cedar needles contain five times more essential oils than pine needles. Therefore, it is widely used in the cosmetic and perfume industries. Cedar resin, also called resin, has long been used to heal wounds. Scientists have determined that it has an antiseptic and anesthetic effect. Cedar wood also has valuable qualities. It is easily processed and releases phytoncides and a pleasant aroma for a long time. Therefore, it is often used in construction and furniture manufacturing.

    How to grow cedar

    This tree was brought to Russia two hundred years ago. But real cedar can only grow in the southern regions.

    Cedar pine is more unpretentious. Its heavy seeds cannot be carried by the wind; they are spread by nutcrackers, carrying nuts over long distances. Everyone knows where the cedar grows, but this tree can be grown in any region of Russia. It requires sandy or loamy soils with good drainage, moderate watering and weeding. Most often, the cedar tree is grown from seeds, sowing them in the fall and covering them with spruce branches. It will be important to protect seedlings from birds and rodents in the spring. This tree grows slowly and only after 10-15 years will it be able to please you with a fluffy crown, and cones will appear even later.

    The cedar plant is well known as a strong and hardy tree. In most cases, cedar conifers grow wild in certain areas. But this does not prevent them from being used in the landscape design of personal plots. These large scales are quite expensive. Therefore, you need to know how to grow a cedar on your own from a seed obtained from a cone or by rooting a cutting brought from the forest. The material tells about how to grow cedar in the country, using the simplest methods of agricultural technology of this crop. In addition, you can learn about common tree species that grow not only in Russia, but throughout the world. A detailed description of needles, wood, seeds and cones will allow you to properly organize tree care on your site, saving it from possible diseases and pest damage.

    How cedar grows

    The genus belongs to the pine family. In the family Pine cedars - one of the most ancient plants. For more than 100 million years, they have grown abundantly on large expanses of land on our planet. At present, four species of cedar have been preserved in nature: Lebanese, Cypriot, or short-coniferous, Himalayan and Atlas. How the cedar grows can be seen in the numerous pictures illustrating this material.

    In colloquial speech and in popular names, the word "cedar" from antiquity to this day has meant various things. The point, apparently, is that the “real cedar” is the Lebanese cedar, which to this day attracts the attention of local residents and travelers in the mountains of Lebanon as a traditional sacred tree, a stylized image of which appears on the coat of arms of this country. It was behind this cedar that King Solomon equipped expeditions in order to build his temple from its precious and fragrant wood.

    There is absolutely reliable archaeological evidence of the use of real Lebanese cedar wood for furniture, various wooden crafts and sacred wooden objects in the distant past, but it should be remembered that numerous references to cedar, both in the literary monuments of antiquity, and in various later works not necessarily related to the wood of species of the genus Cedar (Cedrus), but can refer to any coniferous wood with a brown-red heart and a pleasant smell.

    A similar confusion exists in Russian, where Siberian pine is called "cedar" not only in colloquial speech, but also in silvicultural and even botanical literature. (Pinus sibirica) .

    All this confusion is connected with the influence of Christian sacred books, especially the Old Testament, where the name "cedar" is used without a botanical description. Therefore, the discoverers of the Siberian and North American forests in the simplicity of their hearts called any tree with a pleasantly smelling wood a cedar.

    Where does the real Siberian cedar tree grow in Russia and the world

    The Siberian cedar tree is otherwise called the Siberian cedar pine. The first of these names is a literal translation of its Latin scientific name. Cedars in Russian began to be called completely different trees growing in Africa, Arabia and the Himalayas and called in Latin cedar (Cedrus), and not cedars.

    The second of the existing names of the Siberian cedar is an analogy of the scientific Latin name of the European cedar - cedar pine (Pinus cembra) . Until our time, only 4 types of cedars have survived in the world: Lebanese, Himalayan, Atlas (in the mountains of Morocco and Algeria), Cypriot. Currently, there are few places in the world where real cedar grows, but they still survive. Only in Russia there are more than a hundred places where cedar grows.

    3 species (Atlas, Lebanese, Himalayan) are bred as ornamentals in the Crimea, Transcaucasia, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in the south of Central Asia. The Lebanese cedar is depicted on the state emblem of Lebanon. Cedars are thermophilic, evergreen trees. There are very few groves of these trees left on earth. The largest cedar grove (Lebanese cedar) has only 8 trees, its age is more than 1,500 years.

    Through artificial cultivation, the cedar came to Europe, France, took root in the Caucasus and Crimea. And these are far from all the territories where the cedar tree grows, in the general list there will be a large number of regions.

    Cedar trees do not produce edible seeds, although their triangular shape resembles the nuts of the pine pine. Cedar pine is the name given to trees growing in the coniferous-taiga zone of the northern part of Eurasia, China, Japan, North Korea, Mongolia, and also in North America. The total area of ​​forests formed by these trees is 120 million hectares. The following types of cedar pine are known: (Siberian cedar), elfin cedar, silkflower in Japan, in China - Armand pine, in North America - white-barrel pine and California cedar pine. On the territory of the Russian Federation, 3 types of cedar pine are mainly distributed: these are the so-called Siberian cedar, elfin cedar and Korean (or Manchurian) cedar.

    Forests where cedar pine grows are called cedar forests (or cedar forests). In Northeast Asia, subarctic and subalpine bushy creeping thickets of dwarf pine are called cedar forests. Cedar forests are a special taiga world. Because of the dense, dense crowns of trees in such a forest, it is rather dark, and the fluffy branches of giants and young growth give the forest twilight a mysterious charm. In winter and summer, the cedar forest has its own microclimate. This is a kind of oxygen factory, saturated with negative ions and phytoncides, an ideal environment for healthy human recreation. Under the canopy of such a forest, in 1 m3 of air, on average, there are only 200–300 microbial cells, since cedar phytoncides have an antimicrobial effect against bacteria. The air of the cedar forest can be considered practically sterile: according to medical standards, even for operating rooms, 500-1,000 non-pathogenic microbes are allowed.

    In addition to true cedars and cedar pines, on all continents, excluding Antarctica, there are many tree species, not only conifers, but also deciduous, which are also called cedars by the local population.

    In South America it is cedar, or Brazilian, or Guyanese, or Peruvian cedar; large-leaved luminescence, or simply cedar. In Asia - cedrela - toona, or Burmese cedar, in Africa - Thompson's guard, among the many synonyms of which there is this one: fragrant cedar. All these so-called cedars are hardwoods.

    Cedar grows in Western, Middle and Eastern Siberia. But it is found only in some of its parts - in places with high relative humidity. It forms forests in the upper part of the forest belt on the Eastern Sayan, Khamar-Daban, the Baikal and Primorsky ridges, as well as on the uplands (the Lena-Angara plateau, the Angarsk ridge). In the Angara region, cedar forests occupy small areas. Siberian pine occurs somewhat more widely here as an admixture in the dark coniferous taiga of mixed composition. In the past, the cedar was much more widely distributed, but was destroyed by forest fires and predatory logging to collect cedar seeds and obtain valuable timber.

    In the Irkutsk region, cedar forests occupy only the 4th place in terms of prevalence (12% of the forested area). The ability to tolerate dry soils in a humid climate and vice versa is due in Siberian pine, as in other plants, not by biological compensation of some environmental properties by others, but by the ability to absorb moisture and meteorological conditions. At the northern border of its distribution in a humid and cold climate, Siberian stone pine is sensitive to soil permafrost and occupies heated slopes with drier soils. In places with sufficient heat supply for it and optimal moisture (for example, on Khamar-Daban), cedar grows everywhere. Cedar is demanding on high relative humidity, especially in winter. In this it is similar to Siberian fir, from which it differs significantly in other ecological properties. This exactingness is due to the very large surface of the needles of cedar and fir. Therefore, in places with a dry climate, cedar cannot grow, which limits its resettlement in the forest-steppe.

    A large group of conifers classified as false cedars, or commercial, grows mainly in the forests of North America:

    cypress (white cedar) and Nutkan cedar (Alaskan yellow) ;

    giant thuja (red cedar) and western thuja (northern white cedar) ;

    Virginia cedar (eastern red) and California cedar , or incense , so named for its unusually odorous wood.

    In addition, slender juniper grows in Africa , or African pencil cedar , whose name itself speaks of a specific use of wood.

    In the Far East, namely in Japan, cryptomeria is growing , which is more commonly referred to as Japanese cedar. It is said that one cryptomeria that grows on one of the small islands of Japan is over 7,200 years old! Much younger is another long-lived Japanese cedar that adorns one of the parks in Chiba Prefecture - it is over 400 years old.

    What a cedar tree looks like: photo and description

    Judging by the description, cedars are powerful trees reaching a height of 25-50 m, with a sprawling umbrella-shaped or pyramidal crown, consisting of whorled and intermediate branches. The leaves are hard, needle-shaped, three-, four-sided, from dark green to silver-gray, sometimes with a bluish tint. Starting the description of the cedar tree, it is worth saying that on elongated shoots the leaves sit singly and in a spiral, on short ones they are collected in bunches of 30-40. They stay on the tree for 3-6 years. Microstrobili are quite large (up to 5 cm long), solitary, surrounded at the base by bunches of needles. Microsporophylls numerous, almost sessile.

    Studying the description of the cedar, it is worth looking at the photos that demonstrate its characteristic appearance:

    Cedar is a monoecious tree, i.e. female cones and male spikelets grow on the same tree. Usually the cones are found on the thicker branches and predominantly in the upper part of the crown, while the cherry-red male spikelets are on the lower parts. In the middle part of the crown are both cones and spikelets.

    How cedar blossoms (with photo)

    It is interesting how the cedar looks like in preparation for seed propagation. The so-called flowering usually occurs in June, but flowering, and pollination, and fertilization, and the timing of ripening and fall of cones significantly depend on the conditions of the growing area, climatic conditions.

    See how the cedar looks like in the photo illustrating the period of the active phase of preparation for flowering:

    You can see how the cedar blossoms only at certain times of the year. Pollination occurs in June, fertilization - 11–12 months after pollination. Pollen has air sacs, so with the help of the wind it scatters far away. The amount of pollen is so great that it is almost equal in mass to the seed yield. Cedar pollen is carried by the wind to streams and lakes, and here it is a valuable food for feeding fish fry. During late spring frosts, the flower spikes are often damaged near the tree, and this affects the fertility of the trees.

    See how the cedar blossoms in the photos below - they show the process of preparing for seed dispersal in all its glory:

    What cedar seeds and cones look like (with photo)

    Before you know what cedar seeds look like, you should understand that after flowering they ripen only in the 2nd year. Cedar bears fruit once every 2 years, but good harvests occur every 4–5 years, and excellent harvests occur once every 10–15 years. In the cedar forests of the northern regions, the cones ripen much later. The taiga cedar forests of the Urals begin to produce a large commercial harvest not earlier than 100 years after planting. The average yield of pine nuts varies from 150–170 to 220–250 kg per hectare of forest. Any inhabitant of this region knows what a cedar cone looks like and how to process it to obtain nuts.

    In wetlands, the yield is much lower - 50–70 kg, and in sphagnum bogs - up to 10–20 kg per hectare. But on good soils with a sufficient amount of light in harvest years, 400–650 kg of nuts per hectare are harvested in cedar plantations, and sometimes up to 1,000 kg! Local residents in the village cedar forests know and protect highly fruitful “rich” cedars and usually remember such trees that died from lightning or fire for many years as living beings. The yield of cedar seeds depends on many factors: primarily on forest conditions, weather conditions during pollination, fertilization and seed maturation, species, typological and age composition of forest stands, crown density, sanitary condition of trees.

    The trunk of the Siberian cedar is straight and even. The bark on young trunks is ash-silver, gray-green, later brown, brown-warty, on very old trees the bark is brown-wrinkled, thick. The crown of a young tree is sharp-pyramidal, in adults it is widely spreading, often multi-topped. The upper branches are candelabra-shaped, raised up. Young shoots are yellowish and covered with long red hairs.

    The needles on the branches are collected in bunches of 5 needles, they give the cedar fluffiness. The needles die off gradually, while the bunch loses 1-2 needles, and the rest remain green. The needles change after 3-7 years, some needles turn green and 9-10 years. The length of the needles is 60-140 mm, the width is approximately 0.8-1.2 mm. They have a trihedral shape, 3 resin passages and are slightly jagged, as it were. The kidneys are pointed, non-resinous, they are covered with red-brown scales, the length of the kidneys is from 6 to 10 mm.

    Cones (mature) - light brown, egg-shaped (in other species they are cylindrical, elongated-ovoid). The cone is 6–13 cm long and 5–8 cm wide. Each cone contains 80 to 140 brown seeds. On the branches of cedar, 4–5 cones are formed, sometimes up to 10.

    Cedar wood (with photo) red tone, and the color of the core is associated not so much with the species as with the growing conditions. A characteristic feature of cedar wood is a pleasant smell, somewhat reminiscent of the aroma of juniper wood.

    A peculiar feature of the microscopic structure of cedar wood is the fringing of the fringed pores of the tracheids associated with the uneven edges of the torus. This is a very rare feature in conifers in general, and although it is not clearly expressed in all tracheids and not in all samples of cedar wood, nevertheless it often provides a reliable basis for determining the smallest particles of wood of these species. There are no normal resin ducts in the wood of cedars, but they are extremely capable of forming pathological (mainly vertical) resin ducts, which are found in almost every studied sample of wood.

    Cedars are long-lived, live up to 1000 years.

    Yellowish or reddish aromatic cedar wood is recognized as one of the best building materials. It is almost not damaged by insect pests, it is also not afraid of fungal infections. The sarcophagi of the Egyptian pharaohs, made of cedar wood, remain unchanged for centuries.

    Wild cedars are distributed in the mountainous regions of the Mediterranean and in the Himalayas. In total, there are four types of cedar, three of them are often found in the southern regions of the Caucasus, in Central Asia in decorative plantings of gardens and parks. They grow well in aerated, well-drained soils.

    Cedars are valued for their good quality timber used in buildings, furniture, and shipbuilding. Cedars are propagated by spring sowing of seeds, cuttings take root poorly, garden forms are propagated by grafting.

    Cedars - magnificent powerful, tall trees - are the pride and decoration of those countries in whose territory they grow. It is no coincidence that the Lebanese cedar (Cedrus libani), depicted on the flag of Lebanon, has become the national symbol of this country.

    Conditions for growing cedar on the site and caring for it

    When growing cedar, care should be taken only within the framework of the agricultural technology of this crop. In autumn, for growing cedar, buy a fresh cone on the market, put it on paper in a warm place. As soon as the cone opens, the nuts can be planted. It is better to immediately go to the place where cedar is grown on the site, but you can also go to school. Nuts can be dug up and eaten by rodents, in addition, it is necessary that there is a humid environment around them all the time. Therefore, having dug shallow holes, about 5–6 cm, line each with sphagnum moss, put 2–3 nuts in them, wrap them with moss and sprinkle with soil.

    In the best case, next spring, shoots will appear in the form of a single needle. But more often, seedlings appear after a year, so the landing site must be fenced off and ensure that there are no weeds there. A year after germination (a bunch of 3-5 needles will stick out of the soil), seedlings can be transplanted by carefully digging them out so as not to damage the stem root.

    Cedar needs a sunny place. Starting to talk about the conditions for growing cedar, it is worth saying that the distance between adult plants should be at least 6–7 m. In the initial period, other crops can be planted between cedars, but you just need to remember that in a few years they will have to be transplanted. At first, the cedar grows slowly, but, starting from the age of 7–8, it will quickly grow and by the age of 15–20 it will become powerful and great.

    Is one cedar enough to get cones?

    No, not enough. Cedars are dioecious plants, that is, they have female plants that yield crops and male plants that do not. But you will discover this only after 25 years, when the cedars begin to bear fruit.

    Is it possible to accelerate the fruiting of cedar?

    Cedar trees can be made to bear fruit much faster if a cutting taken from a fruit-bearing cedar tree is grafted into the crown of a mature pine tree. Before cutting cedar, learn how to cut and graft ordinary pines, because it is not at all easy. It is better to vaccinate at the very beginning of summer with last year's growths.

    Types of cedars in the world (with photo)

    There are four types of cedar in the genus: three of them are confined to the Mediterranean countries: North Africa (Morocco and Algeria) - Atlas cedar (C. atlantica), Western Asia (mainly the mountains of Turkey, Lebanon and Syria) - Lebanese cedar (C. libani), to the mountains of the island of Cyprus - Cypriot cedar (C. brevi- folia). The fourth species lives in the Himalayas (in the mountains of Afghanistan, Pakistan and North India). This is the Himalayan cedar (C. deodara).

    Atlas cedar.

    C. atlantica

    Dimensions. Tree up to 40 m high.

    Crown. Cone-shaped, formed by branches extending from the trunk at an acute angle and branching in different planes.

    Bark. Dark gray, smooth on young shoots, scaly on old shoots, cracking.

    Shoots. Rigid, young with dense short pubescence.

    Needles. Up to 25 mm long, bluish green or silver grey.

    Cones. Cylindrical-ovate, 5–7 cm long, 4 cm wide, light brown, shiny.

    Origin. Northern Africa in the mountains at an altitude of 1350–2000 m above sea level. It grows together with oak, pine, juniper on stony, basalt, calcareous, granite soils.

    Cultivation of these types of cedar in the world: in Europe since 1842, in the Crimea since 1850. Suitable for cultivation on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.

    Reproduction. Seeds.

    Growing conditions. Insufficiently winter-hardy, drought-resistant, does not tolerate close groundwater, prefers slightly calcareous soils.

    Use. Planted in solitary and in groups, used to create alleys. It has decorative forms: with gray needles 'Glauca', with silver-gray needles 'Argentea', with hanging branches 'Glauca Pendula'.

    Himalayan cedar.

    C. deodara

    Dimensions. Tree up to 50 m high.

    Crown. Cone-shaped, upper shoot and ends of branches drooping.

    Bark. Dark grey, cracked, scaly.

    Shoots. Densely pubescent.

    Needle. Straight, thin, 25–30 mm long, sharp, light green or bluish green to silver gray.

    Cones. Ovate or ovate-oblong, 7–10 cm long, 5–6 cm wide, bluish when young, red-brown when mature.

    Origin. Afghanistan, Himalayas, rises to mountains up to 3600 m, forms forests with spruce, pine, fir.

    Cultivation. In Europe since 1822, in Russia since 1842, there is on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.

    Reproduction. Seeds.

    Growing conditions. Low winter-hardy, suitable for cultivation not north of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, grows on weakly calcareous, moderately aerated moist loose soils, quite shade-tolerant.

    Usage. In single, group plantings, alleys, clipped hedges. There are forms: weeping 'Pendula', with golden ends of shoots 'Aurea' and others.

    Lebanese cedar.

    C. libani

    Dimensions. Tree 25–40 m tall, slow growing.

    Crown. Cone-shaped when young, umbrella-shaped when old.

    Bark. Dark grey, cracked.

    Escapes. Branching horizontally, prostrate, upper shoot stiff, straight or procumbent, young shoots glabrous or slightly hairy.

    Needle. 15–35 mm long, dark green, lighter only in some forms.

    Cones. Barrel-shaped, 8–10 cm long, 4–6 cm wide, light brown.

    Origin. Asia Minor, at an altitude of 1300–2000 m above sea level forms forests with fir and juniper.

    Cultivation. In Europe since 1683, in the Crimea since 1826. In Russia, it grows on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.

    Reproduction. Seeds.

    Growing conditions. Tolerates winter temperatures down to –25 °C, is the most cold-resistant compared to other types of stone pine, photophilous, grows well on calcareous soils with sufficient moisture.

    Use. Solitary planted, in groups, in alleys. Particularly decorative forms: with silver gray needles - ’Glauca’ , weeping - 'Pendula' , dwarf - 'Nana' .

    All four types of cedar are very decorative and widely used throughout the world for landscaping. Cedars are quite thermophilic, which limits the use of these really remarkable plants. It is curious that they are able to endure sometimes significant temperature drops (down to -30 ° C in their homeland, up to -25 ° C in the conditions of introduction), but they do not put up with the long winters of the North very badly. Therefore, the introduction of stone pines in Russia is limited to the Black Sea coast (including primarily the Crimea), the Caucasus and Central Asia. Although cedars are quite drought-resistant, they do not grow well in habitats that are too dry. The Lebanese cedar is the most cold-resistant, the Himalayan cedar is less.

    Of all four types of cedar, the Lebanese cedar is the most remarkable. It is to him that those legends and traditions that made these plants so famous mainly belong. It usually grows in Asia Minor, on the Taurus ridge, forming mixed forests with Cilician fir and juniper at an altitude of 1300-2000 m. And although at these heights the snow sometimes lasts up to five months, in winter there are significant frosts (down to -30 ° C), and in summer there are severe droughts, the cedar feels good. The human ax is much more dangerous for him.

    See all types of cedars in the photo, which shows these mighty and majestic trees:

    There are very few cedar forests in Syria and Lebanon, and they are under strict protection. In natural stands, the cedar reaches a huge size.

    Some specimens in the grove of Bsherra - the most famous of the natural cedar forests that have survived to this day - reach a circumference of up to 7 m. , nevertheless, it is very widely used for the manufacture of various kinds of souvenirs - caskets, small figurines and other small crafts that are in great demand among tourists. Cedar wood products, which are sometimes found in archaeological excavations, are mostly made from Lebanese cedar. Such, for example, are the wooden details of the sarcophagus of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen (1356-1350 BC), which were in excellent condition at the time of their discovery, approximately 3200 years after they were made. Widely known are the carved gates in one of the rooms of the Palace of Versailles, which at one time were delivered to France from the island of Rhodes.

    Cedar of Lebanon is one of the first introducers in Western Europe, to which, again, it owes its historical reputation. Its oldest plantings date back to the second half of the 17th century, and some of the trees from this era have survived in Italy and southern France. In Russia, it has been known in culture since 1826, when it was planted in the Crimea.

    Atlas cedar - one of the main trees of Morocco and Algeria, generally very poor in woody vegetation. This is also a mountain plant, mainly growing in the Atlas and Reef mountains at an altitude of 1300 to 2000 m. It is found in the most inaccessible places, as it is cut down by the local population for fuel. In addition, the shortage of arable land leads to the destruction of forests, everywhere retreating before the hoe of the farmer.

    Cypriot cedar , or short coniferous, is a relatively low tree (up to 12 m), much shorter than other types of cedar. In Cyprus it also grows in the mountains along with other trees; rarely found in cultivation, mainly in botanical gardens.

    Himalayan cedar usually grows in a mixture with spruce, fir and evergreen oaks. In India, it is also known as a sacred tree. Of particular importance in India in the past and now is the Himalayan cedar wood, which is characterized by a beautiful color, pleasant and persistent smell. Deodar wood is used in historical monuments of India, for example, in Kashmir, in the mosque of Shah Hamadan in Srinagar, you can admire the cedar columns, installed as early as 1426.

    Like other types of cedar, the Himalayan cedar has been widely introduced into cultivation, being distinguished by high drought tolerance and shade tolerance. It is especially successfully cultivated in Georgia, where it is widely used for landscaping the streets of Tbilisi and its environs.

    Geological history of cedar is extremely peculiar. Fossils attributed to this genus have been known since the end of the Cretaceous (about 100 million years ago). However, pollen similar to Siberian pine pollen was found in Upper Permian deposits (about 250 million years ago). Thus, it can be assumed that this genus is one of the oldest in the family. Having been widespread for long geological periods, it gradually lost ground. Its present natural distribution is those modest refuges where the cedar has been able to survive. And only at the present time, a person, attracted by the majestic appearance of this patriarch of the forests of the past, again returns him to the territories he has long lost.

    Use of cedar.

    Siberian cedar has been introduced into culture for its beauty and grandeur, for its manifold usefulness in the national economy. It adorns the parks of Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities. Near Yaroslavl, for example, is the Tolga cedar grove, planted in the 16th century. The oldest cedar grove in the Urals is Verkhoturskaya.

    Seeds (nuts), their shells, needles, young tops, buds of branches and resin (resin) are medicinal raw materials of cedars.

    Pine buds are harvested in early spring (March-April) during swelling, when the covering scales are pressed tightly against the bud. Blooming buds are not suitable for medicinal purposes. Dry them in the open air or in a warm room at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. The needles of the first year are collected in late autumn and winter along with branches, stored in a cold place, under the snow. In this case, vitamins are stored for up to 2-3 months, at room conditions, in a bowl of water - for several days. When dried branches are stored indoors or outdoors in summer, the content of vitamin C in the needles decreases to 42% of the original value within 2–7 days. Pollen is collected during flowering. Store in a glass container, sealed well.

    Watch how to grow cedar in the video, which shows the basic steps for planting and organizing the subsequent care of a seedling:

    Cedar - a tree from the Pine family. Our post will cover it in detail.

    Appearance description

    Cedar is a giant evergreen coniferous tree that grows up to 60 meters in height. The plant has a wide spreading crown, slender trunk, dark gray bark, which is smooth on young trees and cracked on old ones. The wood is very fragrant and resinous, strong, does not rot. The needles are short, stiff and prickly, dark green or silvery gray. Needles live from 3 to 6 years. The roots are located close to the soil surface, so a strong wind can knock down even a powerful tree.

    Cedars live for a very long time - up to 3000 years!

    Where the cedar grows. Its twins

    In fact, there are only 4 species that are really cedars:

    • Atlas - grows in the mountains in northwestern Africa;
    • Lebanese - found in Asia, most often in Libya and Syria;
    • Cypriot - inhabits the island of Cyprus;
    • Himalayan - grows in the Western Himalayas.

    Siberian cedar is widespread in Russia, which is actually a cedar pine.

    Other trees are also often confused with cedar:

    • European and Korean - in fact, they are European and Korean pine;
    • Canadian red is thuja folded;
    • Canadian white - western thuja;
    • oriental red - the juniper virginian is correctly called;
    • Alaskan Yellow is actually Nootkan Cypress.

    There are also other plants in the world that are called cedars, but in fact they are not.

    Russian Siberian cedar (cedar pine) grows in Siberia, the Urals, Altai, even in the Arctic.

    True cedar and, for example, Siberian cedar have the following differences:

    • the seeds of real cedar are inedible, while the nuts of cedar pine are tasty and very healthy;
    • cedar lives up to 3000 years, cedar pine - 600-800 years;
    • real cedar is a heat-loving plant, in Russia it does not grow at all, while cedar pine is widespread in our country, it tolerates cold well.

    How it reproduces

    Cedar - monoecious plant, i.e. male and female cones are on the same tree. Cones look like barrels, scattered throughout the crown, 6-10 cm long, up to 6 cm wide.

    Cedar blossoms in autumn. Fertilized female cones remain on the mother tree to mature. After 2 years, they will ripen and crumble. Resinous seeds 12-17 mm long have one wing, with the help of which they are carried with the wind over long distances.

    In nature, cedar reproduces only by seeds, although botanists can breed them vegetatively.

    The forest in which Siberian cedars mainly grow is called the cedar or cedar forest. Most often, these forests are mixed. Nearby grow, pine, and aspen.

    There are no true cedar forests left on the planet. There are only cedar groves, which are also very few. The Lebanese cedar grove of only 8 trees is the largest on Earth.

    Benefits

    Cedars have a very strong and valuable wood, from which they build houses and ships, make expensive furniture. The ancient Egyptians buried their pharaohs only in cedar sarcophagi.

    These trees are very decorative , therefore they are planted in parks and gardens, used for landscape design.

    Aromatic resin of cedar (resin) used in perfumery and when creating cosmetics, in aromatherapy for calming, getting rid of feelings of anxiety.

    The beneficial properties of cedar oil have long been known. This is a strong antiseptic, an active fat splitter.

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    Siberian cedar appeared in Russia at the end of the 17th century. Despite the fact that the tree is called cedar, it has nothing to do with real cedars: Himalayan and Lebanese.

    Description

    Siberian cedar is an evergreen tree that belongs to the genus Pine. In height, the cedar can reach 44 meters, the trunk of old trees in diameter can reach 2 meters. The lifespan of a cedar is about 500 years. The needles of the tree have a dark green color, can reach a length of 14 cm. The needles grow in bunches, five needles each. The root of the tree is short, taproot, branching.

    Distribution

    Siberian pine is especially common in Western Siberia, the Urals, Eastern Siberia, Altai, Mongolia, Northern China, and in the Sikhote-Alin mountains. There are also artificial plantations of cedar in the European Northern part of Russia: in the Arkhangelsk region, Vologda, Yaroslavl, Kostroma regions. Siberian cedar is often confused with Korean and European cedar, but these trees have some differences.

    Collection and storage

    Siberian pine blossoms in July, and the seeds ripen in August - early September, when they are collected by cones. To extract seeds from a cone, the latter is heated in a special drying machine, where, under the influence of temperature, the scales are bent, and the seeds themselves fall.

    In case of poor separation of seeds from the cone, mechanical treatment is used. After the seeds are pulled out, they are laid out in the sun to dry. It is very important not to miss the moment when the peel is already dry, but the seed inside is still soft. It is during this period that the seeds must be removed from the sun.

    Seeds can be stored for a maximum of 6 months. After this period, their composition begins to change dramatically: poisonous products appear. The seed changes shape, color, taste. Seeds are also susceptible to moisture. Accordingly, they need to be stored in a ventilated place, in a fabric bag, periodically pouring into a container and allowing the accumulated moisture to evaporate.

    Application

    Cedar forests are famous for their fresh air and pleasant aroma. The thing is that cedar releases substances such as phytoncides into the air. They disinfect the air. Walking through the cedar forests is also very useful for mental disorders, nervous diseases.

    Decoctions and tinctures are used for bronchial asthma, pneumonia and other respiratory diseases. Also, with various diseases of the oral cavity, to improve the quality of blood, to cleanse blood vessels, with uterine bleeding, it is recommended to use a decoction of pine needles. Tincture of needles is used for skin inflammation.

    For rheumatism and similar diseases, alcohol tinctures and turpentine baths are used as rubbing. To relieve fatigue, it is recommended to take baths with infusion of cedar needles. In the treatment of gastrointestinal inflammation, they drink a tincture of cones. Camphor oil of Siberian cedar is excellent in the treatment of diseases of the nervous system as an aromatherapy.

    Siberian cedar, or rather its fruits and needles, are used for the following diseases:

    • Asthma
    • Bronchitis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Tracheitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Inflammation of the lungs
    • Angina
    • Stomatitis
    • Runny nose
    • Purulent skin lesions
    • Mastitis
    • Rheumatism
    • Arthritis
    • Gout
    • Peptic ulcer of the stomach or intestines
    • Pneumonia
    • Nervous disorders
    • Schizophrenia
    • scurvy
    • Uterine bleeding
    • Chronic fatigue
    • Inflammation of the gums

    Benefits

    Recipes

    Infusion of cedar needles for rinsing the mouth with inflammation of the gums is prepared according to the following recipe: Siberian cedar, needles, in the amount of 5 grams, are ground in a mortar. Pour in a glass of warm water. Put on fire and cook for 20 minutes. After that, it is removed from the stove, infused for another half an hour and filtered. Rinsing must be carried out several times a day, in addition, the same solution can be used orally to saturate the body with vitamin C, which is so necessary for inflammatory processes in the oral cavity.

    For external use, infusion of cedar needles prepared as follows: 0.5 kg of needles are poured with 3 liters of boiling water. Insist about 6 hours, filter. Add to warm water bath. Take this bath for 30 minutes every other day.

    For diseases of the respiratory tract prepare an infusion of cedar buds: crushed buds in the amount of 10 grams are poured with a liter of boiling water, insisted in a warm place, for example, in a thermos, for 3 hours. Filter. Take 3 times a day for a tablespoon, after meals.

    As a diuretic and cholagogue prepare a decoction according to the following recipe: Siberian cedar, kidneys, 2 tbsp.


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