How big do lime trees grow

Lime Trees for Sale - Buying & Growing Guide

Lime Trees – Buying & Growing Guide

by Mary Van Keuren | Gardener (30+ Years Experience) – last update on December 2, 2021

Lime trees are easily grown outside in the southern parts of the U.S., but they also adapt well to pots, and are a fruitful edition to the indoor garden. An indoor lime tree may, in fact, bloom and set fruit just as well as its outdoor cousin, and provide a small but tasty harvest throughout the year.

How to Grow Lime trees

How to plant lime trees

Plant your lime tree in a location that gets at least six to eight hours of full sun per day. Choose a site that drains well, or — if you’re planting your sapling in a pot or planter — choose a light soil mix that is sandier than usual so that water won’t pool around the plant.

Dig a hole for your tree twice as wide as the root ball and a bit deeper. Remove your tree from its container and tease out any circling roots so they don’t girdle the tree and eventually strangle it. Place the tree in the hole so the top of the root ball is level with the soil. Backfill (replace the dirt you removed from the hole) with soil that’s mixed with compost and tamp down well.

Water the sapling well after planting. Give it enough that the ground seems saturated, wait until the water has seeped down, then give it another drink. Water your sapling several times a week until the tree has acclimated to its new home, which will take several months.

How to achieve maximum results

Handle your sapling carefully before you plant it. Keep it in a shady location and give it a good watering when you bring it home. If you live in a northern climate (anything north of zones 9-10), you’ll want to plant your lime tree in a pot so you can bring it inside in the winter. Lime trees can’t handle temperatures that are lower than about 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep your tree in a sunny window through the winter, or under grow lights, and it should be fine.

How to Care for Lime Trees

Watering and nutrients

For the first few months, water your lime tree at least once a week as it gets used to its new location. After that, give it a drink if you get less than one inch of rain during the week. If the tree’s leaves begin to fall off, it may be because it needs supplemental watering, so check it carefully every few days, especially during drought conditions.

Lime trees need regular nutrients. You can top-dress the area with enriched compost every few months, or you can feed your tree regularly (follow package directions for frequency) with a fertilizer formulated for citrus trees. In the winter, you can scale back on fertilizer. In the spring, give your tree the suggested dose of a fertilizer formulated with micronutrients such as iron and magnesium.


Unlike many types of fruit, lime trees do not need to have multiple trees near each other to provide fruit. Each flower on a lime tree contains male and female parts, so pollination happens with just one tree. Bees and other small insects transfer the pollen from one flower to another. If you are growing your lime tree indoors, you will need to pollinate by hand, using a paintbrush or cotton swab to transfer pollen from flower to flower.


Lime trees don’t require a great deal of pruning. Trim back diseased or broken limbs, or any branches that are rubbing against each other. If you are trying to keep your lime tree to a certain size, you can prune back any branches that are too high. If you are hoping to keep your tree small, consider planting a dwarf or semi-dwarf variety.

Pests and diseases

Lime trees may be susceptible to citrus canker, a bacterial infection you can control by using a copper fungicide. This fungicide will also control melanose, greasy spot, and sooty mold, which causes blackened leaves. Trim any infected leaves before applying the fungicide.

Common insects that may be found on lime trees include aphids, citrus whitefly, and citrus thrips. You can handle these insects with an insect spray that includes spinosad. This type of insect spray is approved for use in organic settings.


When your lime tree forms fruit, prune out any more than two or three limes per cluster. To know when it’s time to harvest, pick one lime and cut it open. You want fruit that is juicy and light green. Limes that are wrinkled have been left on the tree too long.


Lime trees are sun lovers, and they should ideally be grown in a position of full sun. Lime trees grown in even partial shade may become straggly as they search out a light source. Take care when planting in the ground that you choose a location where the tree will get full sun, as lime trees can become stressed and suffer if you attempt to dig them up and move them in the future.

Many types of lime trees, especially dwarf varieties, are ideal for growing in containers. The benefits of container-grown lime trees are that you can move them to a sunnier spot if you find they are struggling, and you can also move them inside if the weather gets cooler.


Lime trees like warm temperatures and can only grow year-round in temperate climates. The minimum temperature it can tolerate is around 50º F, so if temperatures are likely to dip below this, you will need to bring your lime tree inside in order for it to survive.

If you live in a region when temperatures typically drop to lower than 50º F, it is essential to growing your lime tree in a container pot so that you have the benefit of it being portable. As the weather gets colder, you can move your lime tree indoors to get through the winter, moving it back outside as spring returns.


Lime trees can be grown from seed, air layering, or stem cuttings. While growing a lime tree from seed takes the longest, it is a very easy and reliable method of propagation. If you sow the seeds indoors, you can begin the propagation process at any time of year. Propagating from air layering or stem cuttings will need to be done in the summer. Both methods require roots to form from a healthy lime tree stem, with the difference being that air layering is done with the stem still attached to the mother tree. It can take anywhere from weeks to months for roots to develop from a lime tree stem, but once it begins to grow independently, it can bear fruit as soon as the following season.

Lime Tree Varieties

There are many varieties of lime tree, though often, lime trees found in garden centers are sold under the generic name of lime tree. For a particular variety of lime tree, you may have to seek out a specialist nursery. Some of the most popular types of lime tree include the following.

Citrus hystrix

Commonly known as the Kaffir lime tree, this variety of lime tree is popular for its use in Asian cuisine. It can be grown outdoors in mild climates, but its dwarf size of just five feet tall makes it ideal for growing inside. The foliage of this plant is dark green and glossy, and the leaves are harvested for use in recipes, adding flavor to Asian dishes such as curries and soups. In cooking, Kaffir leaves can be used fresh, dried, or frozen. The fruit of this tree is a similar size to the common lime, but the skin is a darker green and more heavily textured. The Kaffir lime is less juicy than its common counterpart and so is not typically grown for its fruit.

Citrus aurantifolia

This tree is commonly known as the Mexican key lime tree, West Indian lime tree, Omani lime tree, or bartenders’ lime tree. It grows easily and rapidly if ideal water and lighting requirements are met, to medium size of around eight to sixteen feet tall. The fruits of this tree are small and round and are especially juicy and flavorsome, making them popular for use in drinks and pies. This tree is especially sensitive to cold temperatures and should not be subjected to temperatures of less than 60º F. You should aim to provide this tree with around ten hours of full sun each day for it to thrive and feed it with a heavy nitrogen fertilizer.

Citrus × latifolia

Known as the Persian lime tree or the Tahiti lime tree, this plant is a hybrid between the Key lime tree and the lemon tree. It produces fruit which is seedless and green in color, though they become yellow as they age. The fruits of this tree are the most widely cultivated type of lime for commercial purposes, and most limes sold across the world are from this type of tree. It is often preferred to key limes because the fruits are larger and have no seeds, and the trees do not have thorns (University of Florida Extension).

How Big Do Persian Lime Trees Get? | Home Guides

By M.T. Wroblewski Updated March 28, 2022

As longtime gardeners know, sometimes, choosing a plant isn't so much a matter of “ticking all the boxes” but “unticking” a box, too. Case in point: Persian lime tree (Citrus x latifolia, USDA zones 9 and 10​)​ height. Since this tree can stand about 15 to 20 feet tall (and between 10 and 15 feet wide), its frame can give almost anyone second thoughts about whether it will fit in an outdoor space. That can change once you learn an “inside secret” that many lime tree lovers are eager to share.


A Persian lime tree can grow to between 15 and 20 feet tall. But it's simple to limit it to about 6 feet tall by growing it in a pot.

Grow a Persian Lime Tree in a Container

There's no reason to forgo the luscious limes you crave when you learn that you can grow a lime tree in a pot and keep it to about 6 feet tall, according to the Tree Center Plant Supply Company. Call it your own dwarf lime tree, and with regular pruning, you can make it even shorter if you like.

Despite the fact that a smaller tree will produce less fruit, a good argument can be made that a tree grown in a pot (and placed on wheels) offers the advantage of mobility. So if you decide that you'd rather look at your lime tree from across the patio instead of sitting right next to it, you can easily slide it to the other side. You can't do this when a tree is planted in the ground.

And if you're trying to restrain your enthusiasm because you're worried about thorns, you can “untick” another box. Unlike other citrus trees, a Persian lime tree has no thorns. So you don't have to inspect those rich green, glossy, Persian lime leaves before you move the tree unless you choose to admire its graceful, arching form.

Learn About Persian Lime Tree Care

Now that you know you can grow a smaller Persian lime tree in a pot, be sure to use the right potting soil. One designed for citrus trees is optimal. But combining 2 parts of regular, well-draining houseplant soil with 1 part cactus soil will work, too. Be sure to water the soil when you discover that the top 2 inches have gone dry. And use a citrus fertilizer regularly.

Like all citrus trees, a Persian lime tree loves full sun but should be brought indoors when overnight temperatures drop to about 45 degrees Fahrenheit, U.S. Citrus Nursery says. Then it's time to bring it indoors (another time when wheels make a difference) to a brightly lit but cool room.

Once nighttime temperatures climb to 45 or 50 degrees Fahrenheit, the tree can go back outdoors. But still stay alert for high winds as the seasons change. Citrus trees tend to recoil in the wind, and the branches can break if the tree is knocked over. Although limes typically are made of tougher stuff than lemon trees, it may be a good idea to avoid the stress (on you and the tree) until warmer, calmer conditions return.

Collect Persian Lime Recipes

As much as you may enjoy the ambiance of your Persian lime tree, an entirely new phase of enjoyment will begin when you can finally pluck limes from the branches. The process begins some time between January and early spring, when flowers begin to bloom on the tree. The flowers eventually develop into fruit. And when they turn dark green, they're ripe enough to pick. (The coloring also infers that the limes are amply filled with juice, though the juice content will increase the longer the limes remain on the tree.)

It's a good idea to store the limes in paper, not plastic, bags so they don't “sweat” and succumb to rot. The limes should remain good on your counter, unless you prefer to keep them cool in your refrigerator.

You may already have plans for your limes, but you can find a treasure trove of Persian lime recipes, ranging from drinks such as daiquiris and mojitos, main courses like roasted lime chicken, and steak with chipotle-lime chimichurri, to cool desserts like key lime blondie bars. Adding to your recipe collection of Persian lime recipes is yet another way you can “tick all the boxes.”


  • The Tree Center Plant Supply Company: Persian lime tree
  • U.S. Citrus Nursery: Persian (Bearss) Lime Tree

Writer Bio

<p><font>Mary honed her journalism skills in two of Chicago's scrappiest newsrooms: The Daily Herald and then the Chicago Sun-Times. She took this knowledge, combined it with her experience in running two marketing communication companies and now writes about communication, marketing, careers and other timely business topics for myriad national publications. </font> </p><p><font><br></font></p>

Linden: planting, care, varieties (species)

Linden appeared on earth in the era of dinosaurs. She survived global warming and the Ice Age, witnessed great historical events. Under the shade of lindens, high-society ladies made dates for their gentlemen, and two centuries ago, in honor of the victory of the great French revolution, thousands of linden trees were planted in Paris. Since then, the linden has been considered the tree of freedom and happiness.

Linden has existed since time immemorial

In our country, linden groves stretch from the western foothills of the Urals, through the entire central strip of Russia - to the foothills of the Carpathians. In addition, some types of lindens, for example, Amur and Manchurian, feel very good in the harsh climate of the Far East and Siberia. Linden looks great in hedges, alleys, berso (green tunnel), but it is no less attractive in single plantings.

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Features of linden trees

Linden trees are long-lived, they are able to grow and live in one place up to 600 years. Linden fashionista easily tolerates forming pruning, is not capricious and does not get sick after it, for which she is especially loved by gardeners. The linden family has about 30 representatives of the species, among which there are trees, from 20 to 40 m high with various crown shapes: pyramidal, round, oval and others. But in places where the linden lacks space and sun, it grows stunted and looks like a fluffy shrub.

Linden loves the sun and space

Linden trees always grow straight, they can be both single-stemmed and multi-stemmed. The leaves are large (up to 30 cm long), heart-shaped, with a graceful serrated edge, and fragrant flowers are collected in numerous umbrella inflorescences.

Linden has been helping people in trouble since ancient times, relieving them of various diseases. Everything about this wonderful tree is healing: from bark and branches to leaves and flowers, from which healing decoctions and infusions are made in folk medicine.

Selecting a location for linden

Linden is a shade-tolerant tree, but if you plant it in an open sunny place, it will thank you: it will please you with its fast growth and lush crown. It is undemanding to soils, but prefers sandstones, well flavored with humus. Does not tolerate groundwater lying close to the surface. Mature trees easily tolerate drought, but seedlings need regular watering.

Linden confidently "stands on its feet": its powerful root system, with a taproot deeply penetrating the soil, allows the tree not to be afraid even of strong winds. The crown is quite dense and if you plant lindens in a row along the windward side, then in a few years not a single breeze will look at your site) But, keep in mind that the linden reaches its full development only by 20-40 years (depending on the species).

Well, let's plant a "freedom tree" in the countryside?

Linden propagation

Linden is well propagated by seeds, stem cuttings, root shoots and seedlings. The ideal soil for it: soddy land (1 part), humus (2 parts), sand (2 parts), and the optimal soil reaction: pH 6.5-7.5.

Propagation of linden by seeds

Propagation of linden by seeds is a long process. From the moment of sowing to obtaining a young tree, 10-12 years can pass. If the deadlines are “not pressing”, proceed)

Linden seeds must first be stratified (cold kept). To do this, they are placed in a box with wet sand or sawdust, put in a cold dark place for 5-6 months, moistened periodically. Or the second way: you can place the seeds for stratification in a peat-sand mixture (1:1), deepening them by 2-3 cm.

Linden seedlings they will germinate, and after a while the plant can be planted for a permanent place of residence, carefully caring for them, covering the "young growth" for the winter. To obtain full-fledged seedlings that are guaranteed to take root in open ground, linden seedlings can be grown indoors.

Propagation of linden by layering

To propagate with stem layers , you need to bend the lower branches to the ground, lay them in shallow trenches and dig in, and then nature will do everything for you. After 1-2 years, the branches will take root, they will be ready to be separated from the mother tree and planted in a permanent place of residence. Reproduction of linden by layering is done in the spring, before the foliage appears.

Propagation of root layers is even easier - adult lindens abundantly produce young growth, which can be carefully separated from the mother root and planted linden "baby" wherever your darling wants) If you still do not have linden in the country to propagate it layering, you can dig up a young linden tree from the nearest forest plantation or buy ready-made seedlings in a nursery.

Planting linden seedlings

Linden easily tolerates slight damage to the root system, but still be careful when planting. The best option is to buy a plant with a closed root system, the tree will not even notice the transshipment.

Linden seedlings with a closed root system

Make a planting pit for standard linden seedlings (50-70 cm) at least 50 cm deep and with a diameter of at least 50 cm. Fill the bottom with a drainage layer 10-15 cm high - pebbles, crushed stone or broken brick. Cover the drainage layer to the width of your palm with humus mixed with superphosphate (50-60 g for each tree). Then a seedling is placed in the hole, covered with a soil mixture: soddy land, humus, sand (in a ratio of 1:2:2).

Try to place the root neck of the seedling at the level of the soil, but if you bury it a little lower, it's okay, this is not critical for linden. After planting, the seedling is watered abundantly, for the next 2 years it is fed with nitrogen fertilizers three times a season. To do this, you can use mullein infusion (1 kg of manure per 10 liters of water).

Linden care

Literally the next year after planting seedlings, you can do their cultivation, that is, cutting the crown. Only in the first pruning do not shorten the linden branches by more than 1/3, and engage in the formation of a tree in early spring, before bud break. And in the fall, an overgrown plant can be “trimmed” again)

It is enough to feed mature trees twice a season. In early spring, such a solution is introduced under each: 1 kg of cow manure, 20 g of urea and 25 g of ammonium nitrate are added to 10 liters of water. In autumn, 20 g of nitroammophoska are added to 10 liters of water.

Only seedlings and young trees need constant soil moisture, while mature lindens tolerate drought very well. They need to be watered only during the driest periods. The volume of water required for an adult tree: 20 liters of water per 1 m² of crown projection.

Loosening the near-stem circle is carried out 2-3 times per season, simultaneously with the removal of weeds. In winter, they mulch (with a layer of 10-12 cm) with peat, wood chips, fallen leaves (preferably linden) or sawdust.

Linden species

As mentioned above, the family includes about 30 species, but, of course, it is impossible to list everything in one article. Therefore, we will limit ourselves to those that can most often be found in summer cottages.

Manchurian linden

A very ornamental frost-resistant tree up to 20 m high. Often multi-stemmed.

Manchurian linden

Manchurian linden is most common in the Amur Region and Primorye.

Caucasian linden

Tall (up to 40 m) tree with spreading round crown and very decorative purple-brown young shoots.

Caucasian linden

Frost-resistant and durable. Distributed in the northeastern part of Asia and the Caucasus.

Silver linden

Silver linden is often called felted linden due to the peculiarity of the leaves: on one side they are slightly pubescent, and on the other side the pubescence is dense, very similar to felt.

Silver linden

Silver linden grows up to 30 m in height, wide pyramidal crown. Grows in the central regions of Russia.

All types of lindens are distinguished by their exquisite decorative effect and are widely distributed in garden and park plantings. And also - in the design of wonderful hedges that adorn our suburban areas.

Linden is a golden tree. Description, planting and care, cultivation. Useful properties, application. Linden honey. Photo - Botanichka

Linden (lat. Tilia ) is a genus of woody plants. It unites about forty-five species of trees and large shrubs, as well as over a hundred hybridogenic species. Since the time of Carl Linnaeus, over 350 species have been described, many of which were later reduced to synonyms of currently existing taxa. Folk names of linden: lutoshka, washcloth, lubnyak

Linden blossom. © Evgeniy Manokhin

Linden tree description

Linden leaves are alternate, oblique heart-shaped, heart-shaped, oblique-oval with a more or less pronounced serrated edge. When the leaves bloom, there are stipules that quickly fall off. Extrafloral nectaries are often present at the base of the leaf.

Linden flowers, two to many, are collected in cymose umbellate inflorescences, which depart from a special bract - unlike ordinary leaves, half growing to its plate. Calyx and corolla are five-membered. Stamens in large numbers, fused at the base into more or less visible five fascicles. At the same time, in some species of lindens, some of the stamens do not have anthers, turning into staminodes. The ovary is whole, five-nested, each nest contains two ovules.

Linden flower formula: *K 5 C 5 A 5+5+5 G ( 9004 5 9005 ) nut-like, due to undergrowth of ovules of one-seeded or two-seeded. Embryo in seeds with leaf-shaped, lobed or incised cotyledons.

Linden blossom. © Evgeny Manokhin

Linden species

There are about 45 species of linden. In European Russia and in Western Siberia, the species Linden is common ( Tilia cordata ). In Siberia, in addition, there are Siberian linden ( Tilia sibirica ) and Nashchokin linden ( Tilia nasczokinii ), in Europe - flat-leaved linden ( Tilia platyphyllos ), felted linden ( Tilia tomentosa 90 woolly columnar ( Tilia dasystyla subsp. caucasica ), in the Far East - Amur linden ( Tilia amurensis ), Take linden ( Tilia taquetii ), Manchurian linden ( Tilia mandshurica ), Lip Maksimovich ( Tilia maximowicziana ). Tilia europaea L., described by Linnaeus, is a hybrid of heart-shaped and flat-leaved lindens (Tilia cordata x T. platyphyllos). There are many other hybrid species and even varieties of linden.

In their typical representatives, both lindens are distinguished by the following features:

  • Tilia cordata - heart-shaped linden (winter small-leaved linden). The leaves are bare, with a bluish underside, they carry bundles of red hairs in the corners of the nerves, the inflorescences are directed upwards, contain from 5 to 11 flowers, the fruits are thin-walled, with obscure ribs. They are up to 30 m high, 120 years old, but can reach much older age. Lindens are known, which are up to 800 and even 1,000 years old. Linden in Russia reaches central Finland, and from there the northern limit of its distribution drops to the northern tip of Lake Onego, passes through the Arkhangelsk region, then drops almost to Ustyug, and then to 60 ° north latitude; passing through the Ural Range, the northern limit of the linden falls very strongly to the south, rising again in Siberia.
  • Tilia platyphyllos - flat-leaved linden , or summer linden, or large-leaved linden - blooms and has spring sap flow earlier than the previous one, its leaves are larger and fluffy, the underside is not gray. Inflorescences drooping, fruits (nuts) with a hard shell and 5 sharp ribs. Its distribution in Russia is poorly known. In Russia, apparently, it wildly comes across only in the southwestern outskirts, then it goes beyond its borders to Poland, just like in the Caucasus, it reaches the same size as the winter one. In parks and gardens, she is successfully bred with us.
  • Felt linden (Tilia tomentosa) grows in the Caucasus and southwestern Russia, and in the rest of Europe - in its eastern part.
  • In some places in the Caucasus and in some places in the Crimea there is also Red Linden Tilia rubra, in gardens and parks American Linden (Tilia americana L.).

Among the species of linden known in Eurasia (including introduced ones), we can indicate:

  • Tilia americana - American linden
  • Tilia amurensis
  • Tilia begoniifolia (branded as synonyms to T. dasystyla subsp. caucasica)
  • Tilia caroliniana
  • Tilia chinensis
  • Tilia chingiana
  • Tilia cordata - Linden heart-shaped (small-leaved, winter)
  • Tilia dasystyla
  • Tilia henryana
  • Tilia heterophylla
  • Tilia hupehensis
  • Tilia insularis - island linden
  • Tilia intonsa - bare linden
  • Tilia japonica
  • Tilia mandshurica
  • Tilia maximowicziana
  • Tilia mexicana - Mexican linden (reduced to a variety of T. americana var. mexicana)
  • Tilia miqueliana
  • Tilia mongolica - Mongolian linden
  • Tilia nasczokinii
  • Tilia nobilis - noble linden
  • Tilia occidentalis
  • Tilia oliveri
  • Tilia paucicostata
  • Tilia platyphyllos - flat-leaved linden (large-leaved, summer)
  • Tilia rubra - Red linden (reduced to T. platyphyllos var. rubra)
  • Tilia sibirica - Siberian linden
  • Tilia tomentosa - Felt linden (silver)
  • Tilia tuan

Hybrids and cultivars (cultivars)

  • Tilia × europaea Tilia cordata x T. platyphyllos (same as Tilia × vulgaris)
  • Tilia × euchlora (T. dasystyla × T. cordata)
  • Tilia × petiolaris linden (T. tomentosa × T.?)

Distribution of linden

Representatives of the genus are distributed in the temperate and subtropical zones of the northern hemisphere. A particularly large variety of linden species is confined to Southeast Asia. For example, only in China there are 15 endemic species. In the temperate zone of Europe, Asia and North America, linden is less represented.

Grows best in warm and fairly humid areas, such as western Transcaucasia, south of the Far East - Primorye; in North Asia, as a relic of the Tertiary, pre-glacial age, it is found in continental regions remote from the oceans - the south of Western Siberia and the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Artificial range - the entire temperate zone up to 55-60 latitude. Linden is widely used in landscaping cities and villages. It is content with very diverse soils, but prefers rich ones. Easily propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

Map of ranges of the main species of linden in the former USSR

Cultivation of linden

Linden is one of the most flexible trees capable of adapting to various living conditions (especially small-leaved linden, widespread in the European part of Russia). It can exist both in the form of a large tree and in the form of a shrub (in conditions of oppression under the forest canopy). Linden is capable of vegetative propagation with the help of special underground shoots, due to which it itself “spreads” under the forest canopy.

Within its natural range, it can grow in almost any soil conditions, although, of course, it prefers fertile and well-moistened soils. Growing large linden seedlings in a nursery takes one to two years.

Stratification of linden seeds

A feature of the cultivation of small-leaved linden and other types of linden found in Russia is the absolute need for special pre-sowing seed treatment or autumn sowing. Without a long (3-6 months, depending on the type of linden and the quality of the seeds) keeping wet seeds at a temperature of about 0 °, the seeds simply do not germinate.

In order to ensure normal germination of seeds, you can either sow them in the fall (then the necessary cold preparation will take place naturally), or keep them in appropriate conditions - for example, in boxes of sawdust or wet sand placed in a cold cellar. If you have a glacier (a cellar in which a thick layer of ice freezes in winter and, as a result, the temperature remains close to 0 ° in summer), then the seeds can be stored in such a glacier until planting - again in boxes with sawdust or wet sand. After such preparation, the seeds can no longer be dried, otherwise they will die - they must immediately be sown in moist soil.

In general, linden is not the easiest tree to grow in amateur nurseries, although different types of linden are capricious to varying degrees. In addition to the need for pre-sowing preparation, linden is characterized by sensitivity to late spring frosts - seedlings that appear before such frosts can easily die. Small linden seedlings are quite difficult to transplant (one-year-old seedlings should be transplanted only in spring, autumn transplantation is much more difficult for them to tolerate).

Linden heart-shaped. © Žiga

Planting linden from seedlings

In addition to sowing seeds, transplanting linden shoots that appear under the crowns of old trees after a plentiful seed harvest can be used. Linden seedlings have cotyledons of a very characteristic lobed shape, so they are easy to find. Small shoots (not yet having true leaves, but only cotyledons) easily tolerate transplantation if it is done in cool and humid weather. Under favorable conditions, "wild" seedlings can easily be dug into a whole bed. Since the germination of linden seeds occurs rather late and unfriendly, seedlings should be sought after the first leaves begin to bloom on adult lindens.

Planting linden seeds

Sowing seeds should be carried out in rows at a distance of 15–20 cm from each other with a sowing of 100–300 seeds per 1 m of row length. Cover the grooves with sown linden seeds with a layer of soil 5-7 mm. Keep the soil moist; if it is not very wet to the touch, it is advisable to water the beds before sowing the seeds. Keep in mind that linden is vulnerable to late frosts, so it is very useful to cover crops (or plantings of "wild" shoots) with a temporary greenhouse made of film or non-woven covering material, but in such a way as to keep the ventilation of the greenhouse. After the threat of frost has passed, it is best to remove the greenhouse.

Linden seedling care

Linden, like elm, is very sensitive to soil moisture. Therefore, in dry weather, crops must be watered. In good conditions, the height of seedlings by autumn can reach 15–50 cm (depending on weather conditions, soil and type of linden). In the spring of next year, lindens should be transplanted into a "school" (the largest seedlings can be selected and transplanted to a permanent place). In the "school" rows of seedlings should be placed at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other, and seedlings within a row - at a distance of 5-10 cm.

By the autumn of the second year, the seedlings will reach a size at which they can be transplanted to a permanent place. Only in a cold and unfavorable year can growth be too small. In this case, it is advisable to leave the lindens in the “school” for another year.

Linden heart-shaped. © Waugsberg

Significance and use of the linden tree

At the mention of the linden tree, many of us have an image of a well-groomed linden alley with sprawling centuries-old trees. Indeed, this tree lives for a very long time: on average, up to 300-400 years, and some individuals live up to 1,200 years. Throughout its life, linden not only pleases the eye with its extraordinary beauty, but also serves as a source of medicinal raw materials, which have long been used in folk medicine.

Linden grows in forests, gardens, city boulevards and parks. Cultivated as an ornamental and landscaping plant. The most common species in the European part of the country is the small-leaved linden. Linden is especially good in summer, during flowering, when the tree is covered from top to bottom with fragrant yellowish flowers exuding a delicate aroma, collected in half-umbrellas, with a bract large, like a dragonfly's wing.

Linden stands out among forest trees with its dense crown. It is characterized by a mighty trunk, reaching a diameter of 2-3, and sometimes even 5 meters.

Linden blossoms in natural conditions at the age of 20, and in plantations - only after 30 years. It blooms almost every year and is very abundant in June-July. Flowering lasts 10-15 days. At the time when the linden blossoms, an amazingly thin, delicate and sweetish aroma flows in the air, which is felt far beyond the linden gardens and parks.

Small-leaved linden is a medicinal, honey-bearing, food and technical plant. In scientific medicine, only linden flowers are used as medicinal raw materials, and in folk medicine, almost all parts of the plant are used. On an industrial scale, the preparation of medicinal raw materials is carried out mainly during the felling of linden forests, when the tree reaches 90 years of age. At this time, the maximum amount of raw materials can be obtained from the tree.

Use of linden flowers as a medicinal raw material

When harvesting linden flowers from wild-growing and cultivated trees, inflorescences together with bracts are cut with ordinary scissors or garden cutters. At the same time, only benign linden inflorescences are collected, removing flowers with brown and darkened bracts. You should also not collect inflorescences affected by rust or damaged by leaf beetles.

It is forbidden to cut linden branches and collect flowers from trees located near the apiary.

The best time for collecting linden flowers is when more than half of the flowers in the inflorescence have already blossomed, and the rest are in the budding stage. The collected raw materials are dried in the shade in the air, in ventilated rooms or in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 40-45 degrees. Store dried linden flowers in paper bags or cloth bags in a dark, well-ventilated area. In pharmacies - in closed boxes, in warehouses - in bales, bales. Raw materials are easily crushed, so care should be taken during storage. Shelf life 2-3 years.

On average, about 300 g of dry raw materials are obtained from 1 kg of fresh linden flowers. This amount is enough for 1-2 years for a small family. Harvesting lime blossom for future use in large quantities so that it is enough for a longer period does not make sense, since dried raw materials can lose their healing qualities. In general, with proper storage, the raw material does not lose its properties for 3 years.

Linden blossom. © N p holmes

Useful properties of linden blossom

Linden flowers contain essential oil, bitter and tannins, flavonoids, coumarin, saponins, wax, sugar, glucose, carotene, vitamins, micro and macro elements. Preparations prepared from lime blossom increase urination, sweating, improve the secretion of gastric juice, increase the secretion of the digestive glands and facilitate the outflow of bile. They also act as anti-inflammatory and soothing.

Traditional medicine has long used lime blossom for colds, fevers, flu and bronchitis.

At home, lime blossom is most often used as a diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant in the form of a hot drink brewed like tea. Lime blossom is also used as an infusion for rinsing the mouth and throat or for lotions. Such tea has a beneficial effect on the body with all colds, diseases of the kidneys and lungs.

However, linden diaphoretic tea should not be consumed for a long time, as it excites the nervous system too much, which can adversely affect the functioning of the heart.

Linden blossom can be used to make a decoction or infusion. A hot decoction is drunk at night for coughs, colds, headaches, sore throats, lobar pneumonia, abdominal pain, rheumatism, fainting. A decoction of fresh flowers is used internally for pain in the urethra (mixed with sage herb) and in the presence of sand in the urine. If you add 5 g of purified soda to a glass of the finished broth, it can be used to gargle.

Externally, lime blossom infusion is used for rinsing with stomatitis, gingivitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, as well as lotions and poultices for inflammation of hemorrhoids, edema, ulcers, rheumatism and gout, for diseases of the female genital organs and for wiping the face with oily skin .

Lime blossom infusion is used to prepare baths in the treatment of nervous diseases.

Useful properties of linden charcoal

Linden charcoal, which is obtained from dried wood or dried linden branches, plays a special role in scientific and folk medicine. It has a remarkable ability to bind harmful substances in quantities exceeding its own volume by 90 times.

Modern scientific medicine uses lime charcoal to adsorb toxins in case of poisoning. Crushed lime charcoal is used to treat food poisoning, pulmonary tuberculosis, diarrhea, diseases of the stomach and intestines, and is also used as an external agent in the treatment of open bleeding wounds.

Linden bark. © Beentree

Other Useful Benefits of Linden

Tar is obtained from lime wood. Eczema is treated with tar by lubricating the affected areas with it. When coughing, a cloth rag the size of a palm is applied to the back between the shoulder blades, richly smeared with tar, which is changed every 2-3 days.

Linden fruit is used externally when ground in powder form and soaked in vinegar in the treatment of bleeding from wounds, nose, mouth, etc. Crushed lime buds or leaves are used as an emollient for boils. Linden leaves can be applied to boils. Our ancestors used linden leaves externally for headaches as a compress on the head, and flowers as emollient healing poultices.

Linden bark is used as a means to enhance bile formation. It is usually harvested in winter. The bark is dried, ground and taken as a powder or brewed as a tea. Boiled young linden bark, which gives a lot of mucus, is used to treat burns, gout, and hemorrhoids.

Crushed fresh linden buds and leaves are used topically as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and emollient for burns, inflammation of the mammary glands and other inflammatory processes. Cambium (the layer between the bast and wood) in powdered form is used in the treatment of burns.

Lipa. © Unuplusunu

Household linden

Linden wood is highly valued for various handicrafts and buildings (not requiring high strength). Huge linden trunks, reaching over 2 m in diameter, go beyond the Caucasus to vats for squeezing grapes.

In our country, linden is mainly used for bast, that is, for the extraction of bast, which, in addition to luboks, also gives bast, which goes to mats, mats, coolies, and also to bast shoes. The enormous use of this material (bast) has already resulted in the extermination of linden forests in many places where linden was very abundant until relatively recently. The fact is that in order to extract the bast, you have to destroy a whole tree, and the restoration of linden forests, although it happens quickly, with the help of shoots from the trunk and seedlings, but far from the extent to which they are cut down.

Linden wood is often used for the manufacture of musical instruments, in particular, for the soundboards of electric guitars.

Linden is widely used in woodcarving because it is easy to cut and has pure white wood.

Linden wood is soft, does not warp, is easy to process and therefore is used for the manufacture of plywood, furniture, drawing boards, shoe lasts, barrel containers, dugouts. Currently, linden inflorescences are used in liquor and cognac production, as a result of which alcoholic beverages acquire healing qualities.

Lime during flowering. © DurhamDundee

Linden honey

Linden is a wonderful honey plant. In areas where linden is distributed, one bee family harvests up to 10-15 kg of honey, and the honey productivity of one hectare of a continuous linden plantation reaches 700-1000 kg. Linden honey has long been considered one of the best. It is among the highest quality. Linden honey, like lime blossom, has a diaphoretic effect and is used in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases.

Linden honey is considered one of the best varieties. Freshly pumped honey is very fragrant, transparent, slightly yellow or greenish in color.

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