How big do mulberry trees get


How to Grow and Care for Mulberry Tree

Mulberry is a medium-sized deciduous tree that produces small, tasty but messy fruits in summer. There are two species commonly found in North America: red mulberry (Morus rubus), a native of eastern North America; and white mulberry (Morus alba), a native of China that is now widely naturalized in North America. Both the red and white species—as well as any hybrids—possess dark green leaves with serrated edges and feature berries that look strikingly similar to blackberries. White mulberry is a rampant spreader and hybridizer, so it's likely that the trees staining sidewalks and driveways with their fruit are this species or a hybrid form. Regardless of their issues, mulberry trees of all types can make acceptable landscape additions as long as they're selected and cared for properly. Mulberry trees are best planted in the early spring and will grow quickly.

The leaves and unripe fruit of mulberry contain a latex that is mildly toxic to humans.

Common Name Mulberry tree, red mulberry, white mulberry
Botanical Name Morus spp.
Plant Type Deciduous tree
Mature Size 30–60 ft. tall, 20–40 ft. wide
Sun Exposure Full, partial
Soil Type Rich, moist but well-drained
Soil pH Mildly acidic to neutral
Bloom Time Spring
Flower Color Yellowish-green
Hardiness Zone 4–8 (USDA)
Native Range North America, China
Toxicity Leaves, unripe fruit mildly toxic to humans

The Spruce / K. Dave

The Spruce / K. Dave

The Spruce / K. Dave

Getty Images 

Mulberry Tree Care

Mulberries are easy trees to grow, but they aren't suited to every garden. For many people, it will be best to pick one of the seedless (and fruitless) cultivars available, including Morus alba "Chapparal," which is a weeping variety, and Morus alba "Kingan," a very drought-tolerant cultivar suitable for some drier regions.

It is important to keep in mind that mulberry trees have very prolific, fast-growing roots. Plant your tree away from important structures such as your foundation, driveway, or garage, and features such as utility, septic, or sewage lines, so you don't risk the roots damaging vital elements of your property. You should also take the tree's mature height into consideration and pick a spot where it can be kept relatively free of pruning (which causes it stress) and let it do its job of producing berries and enjoy the many fruits it will offer you.

Warning

White mulberry, a native of China, is considered a seriously invasive plant in much of the Midwest and in scattered locations elsewhere. It is best to select a sterile cultivar whenever possible in these regions Controlling the spread of fruiting trees is very difficult, as birds readily spread the seeds after eating the fruit.

Light

Mulberry trees can thrive in both full sun and partial shade conditions, though as with many fruiting trees, more light equals more fruit.

Soil

Mulberry trees are somewhat adaptable and can deal with clay, loam, and sandy soil with ease, as long as the mixture can maintain sufficient drainage. The trees can thrive in a range of pH levels varying from neutral to mildly acidic.

Water

Water your mulberry tree deeply and regularly after initially planting it in order to help it establish a strong root system—two to three gallons per week for the first year is recommended. Once established, mulberry trees are fairly drought tolerant, though prolonged dry weather can lead to a reduction in fruiting or early dropping of the unripe berries.

Temperature and Humidity

Depending on the species, most mulberry trees are cold-hardy and can handle temperatures as low as minus 25 degrees Fahrenheit during dormancy. They produce the optimal amount of fruit in regions where growing-season temperatures are between 68 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit.

Fertilizer

Mulberry trees often do quite well with no fertilization, though they can benefit from a yearly application. Feed your tree once in late winter, using a balanced 10-10-10 mixture and measuring out 1 pound of fertilizer for each inch in the trunk's diameter.

Types of Mulberry Tree

There are five species of mulberry trees, three of which are likely to be seen in North America:

  • Morus alba: Also known as a white mulberry tree, this is the most common mulberry species found in North America. This native of China can be easily distinguished from other trees in the genus thanks to its blackberry-shaped fruit, which begins white but darkens to purplish red. It is available in the nursery trade in several cultivars that are ornamental and sterile, making them more suitable for landscape use.
  • Morus rubra: The native North American red mulberry tree has rough leaves that are twice as long as Morus alba and feature a coarse hairy underside. The fruit starts light green then turns to red or dark purple when ripe. Red mulberry trees are often difficult to find in the nursery trade but they can be found growing wild in eastern Canada and the U.S.
  • Morus nigra: Black mulberry trees average 40 feet tall and feature dark purple (almost black) berries that are quite large when ripe. This native of Asia is not commonly found in North America.
  • Morus australis: Also known as Korean mulberry, this species is a small tree, reaching only 20 to 30 feet at maturity. It features light green foliage that is slightly glossed and fruit that ranges in color from almost white to deep red and purple. It is not a common landscape tree in North America.
  • Morus celtidifolia: Texas mulberry trees are native to the Southwest and appear more shrub-like, growing to a maximum height of just 25 feet. The edible fruits are red, purple, or nearly black and are fantastic for drawing wildlife to your landscape, especially birds.

Pruning

Routine pruning is not necessary with this tree, but damaged or crossing shoots should be pruned away in late fall or winter while the tree is dormant, which helps avoid sap loss.

Propagating Mulberry

Mulberry trees are easily propagated by rooting semi-hardwood branch cuttings. Here's how to do it:

  1. In spring as new growth is starting, cut 6- to 8-inch long segments from the tips of 1/2-inch diameter branches—branches that are relatively new but not completely soft and green—using sharp pruners.
  2. Dip the bottom of the cuttings into rooting hormone, and plant the ends in small pots filled with commercial potting soil or seed starter mix.
  3. Water the pots well, then place them inside 1-gallon clear plastic bags bound with rubber bands.
  4. Place the pots in a full shade location until they root, checking periodically to make sure they remain moist.
  5. When the cuttings have rooted (generally after about one month), you can take off the plastic bags and continue growing them in the pots until fall, when they can be planted in the garden.

Not every cutting will successfully root, so it's a good idea to take at least four or five cuttings to increase your odds.

Growing Mulberry From Seed

Mulberry trees are incredibly easy to grow from seed, as evidenced by the rampant self-seeding they produce. Fruits collected from the tree can be dried to collect seeds for planting, or you can simply wait for volunteers to spring up and carefully transplant them to new locations.

Potting and Repotting Mulberry

Container culture is not common for these plants, since they are fast-growing and can quickly achieve a size that's too large for most containers. That said, if you are willing to prune often and willing to sacrifice the tree when it becomes too large after a few years, it's entirely possible to grow mulberry in a large container for a sunny deck or patio, though the messy fruit can be a hindrance in these locations.

Use ordinary commercial potting soil amended with plenty of compost, in the largest, widest container that's practical. It's better to start with a large pot rather than repotting as the plant grows larger, as repotting is not very practical.

Be prepared to water and feed more often with a container-grown mulberry tree. For winter, try to move the potted tree to a slightly sheltered location.

Tip

Not all mulberry trees are messy. Only the female trees produce the fruits that create the mess. If what you want is a mess-free mulberry tree, find a reputable nursery to purchase a male mulberry tree from.

Overwintering

Protecting the trunks of young trees with metal shields or hardware cloth for the first few years will shield them from rabbits, deer, and other browsing animals that gnaw on the bark. After three years or so, the trees are usually large enough to resist animal damage.

Routine fall cleanup of fallen fruit is a good idea to reduce the rampant self-seeding that occurs with mulberry trees. These hardy trees require no protection against winter cold if they are being grown within their accepted hardiness range.

Common Pests & Plant Diseases

Mulberry trees may have to contend with a variety of pest issues, including whitefly, scale, and mealybugs. The good news is that these bugs won't really cause much damage to mature trees—they're tough enough to withstand it, which is good because treating a large 50-foot tree is no easy feat. If you notice signs of an infestation on a more vulnerable young sapling, you can apply a horticultural oil such as neem oil.

These trees are relatively free of disease problems, though bacterial blights and fungal leaf spot diseases may sometimes occur. Diseased plant parts should be removed as they are noticed. Fungal diseases are rarely fatal and usually require no treatment.

Mulberry trees are more likely to incur pest and disease problems in warmer climates.

How to Get Mulberry to Bloom

Generally speaking, homeowners don't want to encourage mulberry trees to bloom, since the flowers aren't showy and they lead to messy fruits that are of no use unless you want to harvest them for jams, jellies, or other recipes. But if you want to encourage blooming and fruit production, simply make sure the tree's basic cultural needs are being met—plenty of sunlight, regular water, and annual fertilizing.

The most common reason for bloom/fruit failure on a mulberry tree is lack of soil nutrients and late spring frost that kills the flower buds.

Common Problems With Mulberry

The most often mentioned issues with mulberry trees involve their messiness and invasive spread.

Stains From Fruit

The fertile, fruiting varieties of this tree are often considered nuisance plants in urban environments, since the fallen fruit will stain pavement and cars, and the stains can easily be tracked indoors. To avoid this, it's best to plant one of the sterile cultivars that don't produce fruit. If you do want the fruit for the benefit of feeding birds or making jams, try to position the tree in an area of your yard where the fruit will not create a mess.

Rampant Spread

Mulberry trees can spread very easily through self-seeding. Garden areas immediately around a tree may see hundreds of volunteer seedlings, which, if not immediately plucked, can quickly develop root systems that make the saplings hard to eradicate. If you have a fruiting mulberry tree, learn to recognize the seedlings and pluck them out as soon as they appear.

FAQ

  • White mulberry trees were introduced to North America by the English prior to the American Revolution in an effort to establish a silkworm industry in young America's burgeoning textile industry. White mulberry is the silkworm's preferred food and the Colonies had land to spare to grow the caterpillar's favorite feast. Unfortunately, this grand scheme failed, and the white mulberry population went rampant due to its ease of germination and spread.

  • Your mulberry tree will be ready to produce fruit after approximately three years, and when it does, you better be ready to harvest. You can expect the berries to be ready between June and August, though that's not to say that they'll all hit peak ripeness at the same time. As a general rule of thumb, the darker the fruit, the sweeter the taste. Be warned that mulberries are very tender and will crush easily. The fruit can cause a sticky mess if allowed to fall to the ground, so be sure to collect it promptly to protect against insects, wildlife, and property damage.

    The two methods of picking mulberries are handpicking, which can be very tedious, or placing a tarp or old sheet under the tree and giving it a good shake. You can then collect the unbruised fruit and carefully prepare the berries as part of jelly or jam, or freeze the berries to use them periodically as desired.

  • More than a few gardeners give up on mulberry once they realize how messy and invasive the tree can be. Even if the tree is cut off at ground level and the trunk dug up and removed, small remaining pieces of the root can quickly sprout up again. The best solution is to first cut down the tree and dig up as much of the root structure as possible, then apply a concentrated non-selective herbicide (such as glyphosate) to whatever green growth sprouts up again.

    And keep an eye out for volunteer plants sprouting up; any mulberry tree in the neighborhood will spread itself by seeds in the droppings of birds that consume the fruit.

  • White mulberry trees (the most common type) are known to live for as much as 100 years, though lifespans of 25 to 50 years are more common for landscape cultivars.

  • White mulberry has glossy green leaves, while red mulberry has dull green leaves. With white mulberry, the fruit is greenish-white as it first appears, gradually darkening to reddish-purple. On the red mulberry, the fruits are reddish from the start.

  • Mulberry is a medium-sized tree with a densely rounded crown that can make a good understory tree in a big yard. But the fruit can be quite messy, so it's best to plant the tree out of the way, where it can provide fruits for the songbirds that love them but where human feet can't stomp on them. This is not a tree you want hanging over a patio, driveway, or sidewalk.

    If you wish to use mulberry as a small shade tree in more heavily trafficked areas, it's best to choose a sterile cultivar that produces neither fertile seeds nor fruit.

Article Sources

The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. White Mulberry. University of Redlands.

  2. Not All Trees Are Good Trees. University of Illinois Extension.

  3. Mulberry—Morus spp. University of California Integrated Pest Management Program. 

  4. Mulberry. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.

Everything You Need to Know About Everbearing Mulberry Trees

Everbearing mulberry trees yield abundant crops of delicious mulberries in just a few years, perfect for snacking, baking, and more.

Reviews by This Old House Reviews Team 07/22/2022 12:00 am

Everbearing mulberry trees live up to their name, yielding a bountiful crop of juicy reddish-black berries from summer to fall. The two most popular types, the dwarf everbearing mulberry and the Illinois everbearing mulberry, are both stunning specimen plants and can be a great focal point for any yard. The dwarf variety are compact and perfect for smaller gardens and privacy hedges, while the Illinois variety make a big statement. Whether you want to snack on fresh fruit, bake a tart, or dry out a goodie for later, mulberries are the fruit for you.

Everbearing Mulberry Trees at a Glance

  • Self-pollinating
  • Juicy, reddish-black berries drop from the tree with no picking needed
  • Pest-resistant
  • Can be trained as tree or shrub
  • Can bear fruit in first 1-3 years
  • Root systems can damage utility lines

Appearance

Everbearing mulberry trees can be trained into single-stemmed trees or grow in a rounded shape as multi-stemmed bushes. Their leathery green leaves fall in winter, and their tasty fruit is dark reddish-black, juicy, and about 1.5 inches long with a ripening season from late June to early fall.

Dwarf everbearing mulberry trees grow to a maximum height of 10-15 feet tall, with a spread of 15-20 feet. Illinois everbearing mulberry trees grow to 30-35 feet tall with a 30-35 foot spread.

Specifications

AppearanceNaturally shrub-like, can be trained into trees with a rounded shape. Dark, reddish-black berries and deep green foliage
HeightIllinois: 30-35 feet tall; Dwarf: 10-15 feet tall
Hardiness ZonesZones 5-10
Type of treeDeciduous
Sunlight requirementsFull sun to partial shade
Soil compositionHighly adaptable but prefers loamy, well-drained, moist soil with a pH between 5.5-7.0

Hardiness Zones

USDA Hardiness Zones indicate the regions where plants can grow based on minimum winter temperatures. Everbearing mulberry trees grow in Zones 5-10—across most of the country. They are able to tolerate cool and hot temperatures, and they are fairly drought-tolerant.

Planting

The best time to plant an everbearing mulberry tree is in spring or fall. We recommend these steps:

  • Choose a planting site that receives full sun to partial shade that is far away from buried utility lines or septic systems, as their fast-growing roots can cause serious damage.
  • Clear away any weeds, debris, or turfgrass.
  • Dig a hole twice the size and depth of the root ball.
  • Remove the root ball from its container and loosen the roots gently.
  • Place the root ball in the hole so that it is slightly above the level of the surrounding soil.
  • Backfill the hole with soil, tamping down gently as you go to make sure there are no air pockets.
  • Soak your everbearing mulberry tree when you are finished.

Growing Conditions

Everbearing mulberry trees are vigorous and low-maintenance, able to adapt to a variety of soil types.

Sun and shade

These trees thrive with six hours of direct, unfiltered sunlight per day or partial shade.

Soil

Everbearing mulberry trees prefer well-draining, moist, loamy soil with a pH between 5.5-7. However, they can also grow in sandy and clay soil.

Watering

Newly planted everbearing mulberry trees need to be watered regularly to establish a strong root system. Once established, mulberry trees are relatively drought-tolerant. They benefit from about one inch of water per week.

Fertilizing

Everbearing mulberry trees should not be fertilized the first year of planting. Once they are established, fertilize in early spring when new growth begins every year, using a slow-release, balanced fertilizer with an NPK value of 10-10-10.

Pruning

Pruning your everbearing mulberry tree can lead to a robust branch framework. Only prune in winter, when the tree is dormant. Everbearing mulberry trees are prone to “bleeding,” or leaking sap. You don’t want to prune until the tree has fully stopped sap production in winter.

Harvesting

Everbearing mulberry trees are self-fertile, so you only need one to yield a crop. In general, it can take up to two to three years for everbearing mulberry trees to fruit. However, some nurseries carry everbearing mulberry trees that will fruit the first year. The trees bear fruit from June until September.

Everbearing mulberry fruits don’t even need to be picked— if you shake the tree lightly, they simply drop to the ground when they’re ripe. Many people leave a sheet beneath their tree during these months to collect the berries as they fall.

The fruit is excellent for snacking, baking into tarts or pies, creating jams and preserves, or even fermenting sweet wine.

Frequently Asked Questions

To share feedback or ask a question about this article, send a note to our Reviews Team at [email protected].

cultivation and care, planting in the garden, pruning, grafting, types and varieties, photo

Author: Elena N. https://floristics.info/en/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19 Category: Fruit and Berry Plants Reissued: Last edited:

Contents

  • Listen to article
  • Planting and caring for mulberries
    • Botanical description Planting and caring for mulberries
        0010
      • Methods of reproduction
      • Growing from seeds
      • Propagation by offspring
      • Planting with cuttings
      • G in the mulberry vaccination
    • Milki diseases
    • Sconsils and the fight against them
    • species and sorts rubra)
    • Black mulberry (Morus nigra)
    • White mulberry (Morus alba)
    • Large varieties of mulberry
    • Mulberry varieties for the Moscow region
  • The properties of the mulberry - the benefits and harm
    • Useful properties
    • Contraindications
  • Literature

Milki, Tutoi Tutoi, or tutes or tutes or Tutoral wood, or Tutoral wood, or Tutoral wood, or tutes , which belongs to the genus of the Mulberry family and, according to data from various sources, has from 17 to 24 species. Representatives of this genus are distributed in the subtropical and temperate zones of North America, Africa and Asia. The leaves of white mulberry - one of the most popular species of the genus - are a source of food for silkworm larvae, the pupae of which are used to produce natural silk.

In Russia, mulberry was already known under Ivan the Terrible - a specially created silk-weaving manufactory cultivated the most delicate fabric for the royal court, and Peter I, due to the high value of the tree, banned its felling on the territory of the state.

Elastic, dense and heavy wood of the mulberry tree is considered very valuable - in Central Asia, musical instruments, handicrafts, barrels are made from it.

Listen to article

Planting and caring for mulberries

  • Planting: in April or September-October.
  • Flowering: mid-May.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • Soil: any, except marshy and dry sandy.
  • Watering: in very dry weather from spring to July, then stop watering. If the spring will be with rains, watering is not needed.
  • Top dressing: is also applied only from spring to July: in spring - nitrogen, in summer - potash-phosphorus fertilizers.
  • Pruning: from April to early May - shaping and sanitary, in October - sanitary.
  • Propagation: by green and lignified cuttings, layering, grafting, offspring, less often by seeds.
  • Pests: spider mites, moths, moths and Comstock mealybugs.
  • Diseases: tinder fungus, powdery mildew, cylindrosporiosis, or brown leaf spot, bacteriosis and curly small-leaved.
  • Properties: is a medicinal plant.

Read more about growing mulberry below

Botanical description

Mulberry tree grows very fast when young, but gradually slows down and eventually the plant reaches a height of no more than 15 m. Mulberry leaves are simple, often lobed, serrated along the edges, alternate . Small mulberry flowers collected in ears can be male or female (dioecious), but on some (monoecious plants) both can open at the same time. The fleshy fruits of mulberry 2-3 cm long are false berries, drupes of different colors joined together - from white to dark purple or almost black.

Mulberry is completely unpretentious and can grow without any care. The tree begins to bear fruit in the fifth year of life. Mulberry lives up to 200 years, but there are mulberry trees that are already five centuries old.

In culture, two types of mulberry are grown mainly - white and black, and they are distinguished not by the color of the fruit, but by the color of the bark: white mulberry branches have a light shade of bark - yellowish, cream or white, and black mulberry branches have a much darker bark.

Today, mulberry is just as popular among gardeners as the time-tested apple, cherry, cherry, plum and other fruit trees that have long settled in our gardens, which is why we offer you information on how to plant and care for mulberries, reproduction mulberries by cuttings and in other ways, growing and caring for mulberries in the Moscow region, protecting mulberries from diseases and pests, and we will also tell you how mulberries are useful and which varieties are most popular in amateur gardening.

Planting mulberries

When to plant

Growing mulberries begins with planting, which is best done in April, before the start of sap flow, or in September-October, before the start of the rainy season. Experienced gardeners prefer autumn planting: if the plant survives the winter, then it will have a long life.

In order to correctly determine the place for mulberries, you need to know their preferences. It is photophilous and requires protection from the cold wind, does not like dry sandy soil, saline or marshy soil, and the occurrence of groundwater should not be higher than 1.5 m. Trees with male flowers do not bear fruit by themselves, but find out what sex your seedling, you will only be able to in 4-5 years. Therefore, to avoid unpleasant surprises, purchase three-year-old mulberry seedlings that have already given their first offspring.

  • Pear: growing in the garden, types and varieties

Autumn planting

The size of the planting pit, which must be prepared at least a couple of weeks before planting, depends on the root system of the seedling: it must be located freely in the hole. The average size of the pit is 50x50x50 cm. If the soil in the area is poor, the depth of the pit should be greater, because 5-7 kg of rotted manure or compost mixed with 100 g of superphosphate, which is covered with a layer of soil, is placed on its bottom so that there is no contact between fertilizer and seedling roots.

Two weeks later, mulberry is planted: the roots of the seedling are lowered into the pit, straightened and added dropwise, slightly shaking the stem so that there are no voids in the soil. After planting, the surface in the trunk circle is compacted, watered with two buckets of water, and when it is absorbed, the trunk circle is mulched. If your seedling is too thin and fragile, drive a support into the bottom of the pit before planting it, to which, after planting, tie the tree, and if you plant mulberries in heavy clay soil, first place a broken brick on the bottom of the pit as a drainage layer.

How to plant in spring

Spring planting of mulberries is no different from autumn, except that pits are dug since autumn, a fertile mixture is laid in them and left until spring, and planting is completed in April.

Growing mulberries in the garden

Care instructions

Growing and caring for mulberries requires the usual procedures for a gardener - watering, loosening the soil in the trunk circle, removing weeds, top dressing, pruning and protection from diseases and pests.

Treatment

In order to minimize the risk of mulberry disease or pest infestation, preventive treatments of the tree and trunk circle with fungicides and insecticides are carried out. The best time for such measures is the beginning of April, when the buds are still sleeping, and October, when the plant has already stopped growing. As a remedy for diseases and pests, you can use a three percent solution of Bordeaux liquid or Nitrafen.

The best preparation for spring treatment is a seven percent solution of urea, which will not only destroy pathogenic microelements and insect larvae that have overwintered in the tree bark and in the soil under it, but also feed the plant with nitrogen fertilizer, which is so necessary for mulberry at this time of the year.

Watering

To increase the frost resistance of mulberry, it is watered from spring to July, but only in very dry weather, and then watering is stopped. If the spring is rainy, the mulberry can not be watered at all.

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Top dressing

In the same time period - from early spring to July - mulberry is fed. In spring, the nitrogen component should prevail in top dressing, and in summer - phosphates and potash fertilizers.

Mulberry in the Moscow region and in Moscow

Despite the fact that the climate near Moscow is not very suitable for the cultivation of southern plants, grapes and even apricots have long been successfully grown in the Moscow region, so mulberry in the middle lane is no longer a curiosity, because under with snow, it can withstand frosts down to -30 ºC. A tree can freeze only in a snowless winter at a temperature of -7-10 ºC. That is why, when planting mulberries in this area, the root neck needs to be buried a little in the ground.

Since the length of daylight hours in the Moscow region does not meet the requirements of culture, the Moscow Region mulberry has two growing seasons per year - spring and autumn. Its amazing ability to form a cork tissue between the mature part of the shoot and its unripened part allows the tree to drop unviable shoot segments in the fall and overwinter normally. Therefore, in autumn in Moscow and the Moscow region, one can observe not only the fall of mulberry leaves, but also the fall of shoots. In all other respects, the cultivation of mulberry in the Moscow region is no different from its cultivation in more southern regions.

Mulberry in Siberia

In order to grow mulberry in Siberia, it is necessary to increase its winter hardiness. This is not an easy task, but perseverance and purposefulness overcomes any obstacles. For those who are not afraid of difficulties, the articles of experienced gardeners V. Shalamov and G. Kazanin will help in this matter.

Pruning mulberries

When to prune

Like any other plant, it is best to prune mulberries when they are partially or completely dormant. The least painful plant tolerates pruning in the spring, before the start of sap flow - it is from the end of April to the beginning of May, until the buds on the trees have blossomed, that they carry out the forming and rejuvenating pruning of the mulberry. Sanitary pruning is best done in the fall, after leaf fall, at an air temperature of at least -10 ºC.

How to prune

Each type of mulberry requires a different approach to pruning. Pruning weeping mulberry consists mainly in thinning the crown and shortening the shoots and branches, and you don’t have to worry at all that the pruning turned out to be too strong - this type of mulberry recovers very quickly.

Pruning of stamped mulberries is aimed at forming a crown - on a long trunk without branches, a dense spherical cap or a falling cascade of branches is formed.

  • A new way of grape cuttings - 100% rooting of cuttings

The most difficult thing is to form a decorative mulberry and regularly maintain the original shape of the plant.

Spring pruning

In a young tree, the trunk at a height of up to 1.5 m is cleared of branches so that in adulthood the branches do not fall to the ground. You can keep the center guide and let it grow to 5-6m by removing competing shoots. Or you can let the crown develop naturally. If you want to grow a low tree for your own convenience, cut the apical shoot at a height of 135-170 cm and form a skeleton, like a dwarf apple tree, from 8-10 branches, then maintain the shape of the crown by plucking and cutting out unnecessary shoots. Hanging branches should not be cut, just prop them up.

Pruning in autumn

After leaf fall, it is time to prepare mulberries for winter, and one of the necessary procedures is sanitary pruning, during which all diseased, broken, dried, frostbitten, too thin shoots and branches growing inside the crown are removed. And most likely, you will not have to carry out sanitary pruning every year.

Reproduction of mulberry

Methods of reproduction

Reproduction of mulberry occurs by seeds and vegetatively - green and woody cuttings, grafting, layering and offspring.

Growing from seeds

Seeds of mulberry of the crop of the current year in the middle or end of October are cleaned of pulp and after 1-2 hours in a solution of a growth stimulator - Epin or Zircon, sown in the ground. If you decide to postpone sowing to early spring, you will have to pre-stratify the seeds for 1-2 months. You can replace stratification with pre-sowing preparation - in the spring, before sowing, hold the seeds for a day in cold water, and then for a day in water with a temperature of 50-53 ºC.

In an unshaded sunny bed, make grooves and pour water over them, adding fruit fertilizer to it. Sow small mulberry seeds as infrequently as you can, to a depth of 3-5 cm, and after planting the seeds in the ground, water abundantly and mulch the bed. When sown in autumn, the layer of mulch should be thicker than in spring so that the seeds do not die in winter.

Seedling care consists of regular watering, fertilizing and weeding the bed. By autumn, the seedlings will be large and developed enough to be planted at a distance of 3 to 5 m, depending on the variety of mulberry. After 5-6 years, the mulberry seed will begin to bear fruit. The disadvantage of seed propagation is that seedlings may not inherit or not fully inherit the characteristics of the mother plant, so they are most often used as rootstocks for budding.

Propagation by offspring

In case of freezing of mulberry in cold winter, a well-developed root offspring of the plant can replace the dead plant, on which a crown can be formed over time. Excess shoots are cut out or, having dug up with roots and shortened the shoot by one third, they are used as seedlings. The offspring retain the characteristics of the mother plant completely.

Propagation by cuttings

Own-rooted mulberries can be propagated by green cuttings, but propagation by this method is possible only with the help of a plant that forms a fine water mist in the greenhouse. In June or July, when intensive growth begins at the mulberry, you need to cut cuttings 15-20 cm long with two or three buds from shoots and plant them in a greenhouse at an angle of 45 º, deepening the lower cut into loose soil by 3 cm. Leave on the handle 1-2 top sheets, shortening the leaf plate by half, and create a high humidity environment in the greenhouse.

By autumn, the cuttings will have sprouted new shoots and have a strong root system, but they can only be planted in the ground next spring.

In addition to green cuttings, semi-lignified cuttings are also used for rooting, cutting them off at the same time. The order of growing mulberries from woody cuttings is exactly the same as from green cuttings, the only difference is that they take root more slowly. Mulberry from cuttings also completely inherits the characteristics of the mother plant.

Mulberry graft

Mulberry is grafted in all possible ways, but the simplest and most successful is copulation - grafting on a cut with a cutting. With simple copulation, a rootstock and a scion of the same thickness are spliced: on a rootstock and a scion cutting, oblique cuts are made between two buds with a length equal to four diameters of the spliced ​​plants (for example, six-centimeter-long cuts with a diameter of the scion cutting and stock of 1. 5 cm). The sections are aligned and the junction is tied with budding tape or some other elastic material.

Improved tongue copulation is performed as follows: sections of the graft cutting and rootstock, which are made as described above, are supplemented with notches-tongues. Step back from the end of the cut one third and make a cut to the middle of the cut on the rootstock down, and on the scion up. Attach the cuts and bring the tongues in so that a closer alignment is obtained, then wrap the splice with tape.

Mulberry diseases and their treatment

Mulberry is generally quite resistant to various ailments, but sometimes it also gets sick. Most often, gardeners have to deal with diseases such as powdery mildew, cylindrosporiosis, or brown leaf spot, bacteriosis and curly small-leaved. Damages mulberry and tinder fungus.

Powdery mildew is caused by a fungus and appears as a whitish coating on mulberry leaves and shoots. The disease progresses in dry weather, the disease develops especially rapidly in a thickened crown. When the first signs of the disease occur, the mulberry is treated with Fundazol, Bordeaux liquid or a suspension of colloidal sulfur. As a preventive measure, collection and burning of fallen leaves in autumn can be considered.

Cylindrosporiosis, or brown leaf spot is also a fungal disease, the symptoms of which are purple-red spots with an annular border that appear on the leaves. With the development of the disease, the leaf tissue inside the spot spills out, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. When the first signs of the disease appear, and then two weeks later, the plant is sprayed with a 1% solution of Silit, spending up to 3 liters of solution per tree.

Bacteriosis mainly affects young leaves and shoots of mulberries, disfiguring them with irregularly shaped spots that turn black with the development of the disease. Mulberry leaves curl and fall, shoots are deformed and covered with gum-like clots. Against bacteriosis, mulberry treatment with Fitoflavin or Gamair is used, but, unfortunately, this does not always help, so the best way to protect the plant from bacteriosis is preventive measures.

Small leaf curl is a viral infection transmitted by insects. The disease manifests itself by wrinkling of the leaf plate between the veins, after which granular knotting appears on them. As a result, the leaves curl up, shrink, the shoots become rough and brittle, although their number increases abnormally. Unfortunately, this disease is incurable, but as a preventive measure, it is recommended to fight against insect carriers of viral infections, which primarily include sucking pests - aphids, thrips, mites and the like.

Tinder fungus is a fungus that settles on trees and destroys their wood. Tinder fungus spores penetrate cracks and lesions in the bark and parasitize the tree, destroying its trunk. The fungus must be cut out along with part of the wood and burned, and the wound treated with a five percent solution of copper sulfate, then covered with a specially prepared mixture consisting of clay, lime and cow dung in a ratio of 1:1:2. If you find mechanical damage on a tree from which gum oozes, to avoid further problems, clean this area, disinfect it with a one percent solution of copper sulphate and treat it with a mixture of Nigrol (7 parts) and sifted wood ash (3 parts).

Pests and control of mulberries

Insect pests, which primarily include spider mites, moths, mulberry moths and Comstock mealybugs, affect mulberry trees infrequently but occasionally.

American white butterfly is the most dangerous of pests. Its greenish-brown caterpillars with black warts and yellow-orange stripes on the sides can eat all the leaves on the tree. Spider nests must be cut and burned, trapping belts should be installed on tree trunks, and the mulberry crown should be treated with Chlorophos.

The moth, or rather its caterpillars, also feed on mulberry leaves. To protect the tree from them, it is sprayed with Chlorophos in the spring, at the moment of swelling of the buds - it is at this time that moth caterpillars appear.

Spider mites, settling on mulberry, develop the thinnest web, which is a sign of the presence of these smallest, invisible to the eye, but very dangerous pests. Ticks feed on the cell sap of mulberry leaves, making punctures in them, from which the leaves turn brown and fall off after a while. But worst of all, spider mites carry incurable viral diseases. Against the tick, which is an arachnid insect, insecticides are not effective - it is destroyed by acaricidal preparations - Kleschevit, Aktellik and the like.

Comstock mealybug is also a sucking insect that settles in the bark of a tree, on its leaves and branches and feeds on their juice, weakening the plant. As a result of its vital activity, wounds and tumors are formed on the mulberry, the branches are deformed and dry, and the leaves turn yellow and fall off. Destroy worms by treating damaged plants with pesticides.

Types and varieties of mulberry

The classification of mulberry is very confusing - according to various sources, the genus includes from 17 to 200 species. This is due to the fact that there are many natural hybrids of the plant, isolated by some scientists into independent species. In culture, three types of mulberry are most often grown, with which we will introduce you.

Red mulberry (Morus rubra)

Native to North America. It is hardy, drought-resistant, cold-resistant and undemanding to growing conditions. In height, plants of this species reach 10-20 m, their crown is in the form of a tent, and the bark is brown-brown. Leaves up to 12 cm long, long-walled, rounded or ovate, rough on the upper side of the plate and felted on the bottom. On young shoots the leaves are deeply lobed. The fruits of red mulberry are juicy, up to 3 cm long, sweet and sour in taste, dark red, almost black in color - very similar to blackberries. The fruits ripen at the end of July.

Red mulberry is usually represented by dioecious plants that require a pair of the opposite sex for fruiting, although monoecious specimens are sometimes found. Red mulberry has a decorative form - felt, with leaves, the underside of which is covered with thick white pubescence.

Black mulberry (Morus nigra)

Native to Iran and Afghanistan. It is a tree up to 15 m high with a spreading crown, large wide-ovate asymmetrical leaves up to 20 cm long and up to 15 cm wide, the upper side of which is rough and the lower side is felt. Black, sweetish-sour glossy fruits reach a length of 3 cm. This species is drought-resistant, but more thermophilic than red mulberry and white mulberry.

New forms based on the basic species:

  • Remontant – dwarf compact form of mulberry that can be grown in a container;
  • Shelley No. 150 – large-fruited productive mulberry, juicy and sweet berries of which reach a length of 5.5 cm, and very large, up to half a meter long leaves are used for decorative purposes.

Popular varieties of black mulberry are Royal, Black Prince, Black Pearl, Plodovaya-4 and Nadezhda.

White Mulberry (Morus alba)

Native to the broadleaf forests of China. It is a tree up to 20 m high with brown fissured bark and a dense spherical crown. The color of the bark of young branches is from gray-green to reddish-brown. The leaves are distinguished by a variety of configurations: on the same tree, they can be not only of different sizes, but also of different shapes. The leaves are dark green in summer and turn straw yellow in autumn. Sweet fruits of various colors resemble blackberries or raspberries in shape. This species is hardy in urban conditions, frost-resistant and unpretentious. There are many decorative forms of white mulberry:

  • weeping mulberry - tree up to 5 m high with drooping thin branches;
  • pyramidal - these trees can reach a height of 8 m. They have a narrow pyramidal crown and lobed leaves;
  • spherical - tree with dense spherical crown;
  • spoon-shaped - multi-stemmed plant up to 5 m high with early ripening fruits and folded concave leaves;
  • large leaf - the leaves of trees of this form can reach a length of 22 cm;
  • ordinary narrow-leaved - bushy form of mulberry with small, very rough, notched leaves;
  • dissected-leaved is an elegant plant, the leaves of which are divided into regular narrow lobes, and the apical and two lateral lobes are strongly elongated;
  • golden yellow - leaves and young shoots of this form are golden yellow:
  • Tatar – slow-growing low-growing mulberry with increased winter hardiness and multi-lobed small leaves.

For those who are more interested not in decorative qualities, but in the yield of fruits, we offer highly productive varieties of white mulberry:

  • White honey - a tall tree with white sweet fruits up to 3 cm long;
  • Smuglyanka - productive frost-resistant variety with sweet and sour black fruits up to 3.5 cm long;
  • White tenderness is a high-yielding variety with white delicate fruiting up to 5 cm long;
  • Luganochka – highly productive variety with creamy sweet fruits up to 5.5 cm long;
  • Black Baroness - early frost-resistant variety with fragrant sweet fruits up to 3.5 cm long;
  • Staromoskovskaya - frost-resistant mulberry with a spherical crown shape and almost black sweet berries up to 3 cm long;
  • Ukrainska-6 – productive early variety with black fruits up to 4 or more centimeters long.

In addition to those described, white mulberry varieties Diana, White tenderness, Snow White and Masha are in demand in horticulture.

Large mulberry varieties

Those who strive for perfection will certainly be interested in the largest fruiting mulberry varieties - White Tenderness, Shelley No. 150, Black Pearl and Black Prince.

Mulberry varieties for the Moscow region

It makes no sense to grow black mulberry in the middle lane, but among the varieties of white mulberry there are those that have been successfully cultivated in the middle lane for a long time. Among them are Vladimirskaya, Royal, White Honey and Staromoskovskaya.

Mulberry properties - benefits and harms

Useful properties

The medicinal properties of mulberry are due to the substances that make up its composition - vitamins A, K, E and C, trace elements selenium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper, macronutrients phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium. Riboflavin, pantothenic and folic acids, tocopherol, pyridoxine and choline are contained in mature mulberry fruits.

In folk medicine, mulberries are used to treat many diseases: mature berries, which have a laxative effect on the body, treat constipation, and green ones, on the contrary, are used for diarrhea and heartburn. Mulberry juice diluted with boiled water is used as a gargle for sore throats. And the infusion of bark and berries is effective for acute respiratory infections, bronchitis, and bronchial asthma.

The diuretic property of a decoction of the roots and bark of mulberry is used for hypertension, and an infusion of the leaves is used as an antipyretic for fever. People with heart disease and myocardial dystrophy are recommended to use mulberries in large quantities - 300 g 4 times a day for a month.

In case of stress and insomnia, the use of decoction of dried mulberries is indicated, since they contain a high content of B vitamins, which affect protein and carbohydrate metabolism and support the functioning of the nervous system.

It is recommended to use mulberries during physical overload and during the recovery period after surgery, since magnesium, potassium and quercetin, which are part of its berries, have a beneficial effect on hematopoiesis.

In Vietnam, mulberry leaves are used to produce the drug Fomidol, which is used to treat rheumatism and skin diseases.

Mulberry bark powder, mixed with oil, promotes rapid healing of bruises, cuts, ulcers and wounds, and ringworm lubricated several times a day with fresh mulberry juice will disappear without a trace. But the main benefit of mulberry is that it occupies one of the first places in terms of potassium content, therefore it is used for hypokalemia - a lack of this essential element in the body.

Contraindications

The harm of mulberry may occur in case of its individual intolerance. Sometimes digestive disorders occur due to overeating or eating unripe mulberries. In addition, you should know that berries and mulberry juice do not combine well with other fruits and juices, causing fermentation in the intestines, so they, like melon, should be consumed separately - two hours before or two hours after another meal.

Literature

  1. Read related topics on Wikipedia
  2. Peculiarities and other plants of the Mulberry family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online


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Rosehip: growing in the garden, properties, species

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  • Disease and pest control
  • Fungal diseases are considered especially dangerous.
    • Fungal diseases
  • The mulberry tree, or mulberry, as it is also called, can not be found in every garden. But those who raised it enjoy the taste of its juicy, sweet, and most importantly healthy black fruits with pleasure. By planting mulberries, you will not only add variety to your garden, but also provide your children and grandchildren with the pleasure that they can get from eating compote, jam, jam, marmalade and other dishes made from berries. Do you want to try mulberry moonshine? Then roll up your sleeves and get to work.

    Is it difficult to grow this unique tree? Rather not, but in order for your work not to be in vain, you need to listen to the recommendations of gardeners and try to fulfill them.

    Meet Mulberry

    You can grow white or black mulberry, but only monoecious.

    White mulberry pleases with its flowering from May to June, the height of the tree is 8-15m. From the name it becomes clear that the berries are white, their size varies from 2 to 5 cm. But they cannot be called pure white either. White fruits may have a bright or subtle purplish, violet, or pinkish blush. Have you heard of Chinese silkworm caterpillars? So, they ate precisely white mulberry.

    Outwardly, the black mulberry tree is very similar to the white sister, only lower (its height is 8-9 m), and the leaves are rougher. Fruits that look like blackberries are sweet or sweet and sour, oblong in shape. The immunity of black mulberry is weaker, it often dies in cold winters.

    Planting

    There are no problems with growing mulberry in the southernmost regions, it grows everywhere. In our country, the southern beauty needs to be surrounded by care and attention, otherwise she will not please you with a harvest. The mulberry loves the sun, so it will be comfortable in open areas, but there should not be strong winds and drafts here. The mulberry tree will grow well on loamy, loose sandy and sandy loamy soils. Groundwater must lie at a very impressive distance, so it has no place in lowlands and depressions.

    Planting begins either in April or at the end of summer. There are no uniform recommendations regarding the time, it all depends on the natural conditions of the area where it will grow. But it is preferable to do it before winter. Such overwintered seedlings are stronger and more enduring, they will find the strength to withstand weather changes, and will grow for 100-150, and sometimes even 300 years, to the delight of more than one generation of site owners.

    First, dig a hole measuring 60x80x80 cm, sprinkle it with compost, fertile soil or humus mixed with fertilizer. The seedling is inserted in the center of the hole, the root is straightened so that all the roots, even the thinnest ones, feel free. Sprinkle the root with soil, and lightly tamp it. Planting is completed by abundant watering and covering the earth with mulch.

    Important!

    If you are interested in a specific variety of mulberry tree, you need to go to the nursery to buy, otherwise you may be deceived by unscrupulous sellers.

    Use for planting a seedling from the near-trunk circle, as practice shows, trees grow from them that are not afraid of cold winters.

    Do not assume that the mulberry is a sissy, if you plant it where, for example, you would plant a plum or an apple tree, it will be quite comfortable.

    The roots of this plant are fragile and must be handled with care.

    Growing and care

    Mulberry trees are easy to care for. Traditional activities will be enough: loosening the soil, removing weeds, timely watering, fertilizing, protecting against diseases and pests, pruning.

    The mulberry tree is tall, its height can be up to 25 meters. A properly formed crown will help stop growth and give the tree a neat, well-groomed appearance. Most often, a mulberry tree in a summer cottage grows up to three meters. Fruiting occurs at 5, and sometimes only at 8 or 10 years. With proper care from one tree in ten years it will be possible to collect up to 100 kg of berries.

    Mulberries need to be watered regularly while growing, especially when buds open. The following remedy is used as a top dressing: fermented bird droppings are mixed with water in a ratio of 1:10, if you take fermented slurry, then dilute it with water 1:5.

    Top dressing is applied only at the beginning of summer, from August, and in some areas watering is stopped even from July.

    If you cover tree trunks for the winter, the plant will only benefit from this. If in the spring it turns out that the non-lignified growth is frozen, do not worry, this will not affect the yield.

    Plants are self-pollinating (when there are both male and female inflorescences in the same inflorescence), but this is more often in the wild, female and male.

    Endurance, undemanding care and regular fruiting - this is the secret of the popularity of mulberry. A mulberry hedge, like trees in group plantings, looks spectacular and original.

    Propagation

    This plant is propagated by seeds, cuttings, grafting. The latter method is recommended if you are interested in cultivars. It is better to do this by budding, the role of the stock is performed by white mulberry. If the rootstock bark can be easily bent back, and the scion buds have already matured, then it's time to start grafting.

    Seed propagation

    This is the easiest and most affordable way. They take a handful of large, ripe berries, pour them into a bowl and put them in the sun to start the fermentation process. Then water is poured here and the seeds are ground in water. A mass of skin and pulp of berries floats to the top, it must be drained. The seeds are again poured with water, ground over a fine sieve, the remnants of the thick mass are removed. This is done until the seeds are clean. They are washed again with water, laid out on a sheet of paper and dried. Dry seeds keep well until spring.

    2 months seeds must be stratified. If you do not want to do this, then soak them in water 3 days before planting.

    In the spring, in April, early, the seeds are sown in the ground. The soil must be fertile. Seeds are dipped into the ground not deep, to a depth of 1 cm. Regular watering is a guarantee of their good germination. A dense planting should be thinned out and the seedlings allowed to grow stronger. They can only be planted in a permanent place for 2 years.

    Propagation by green cuttings

    If you want to plant mulberries in summer, this is the best method. The best time for this is June. A strong, healthy, intact grassy shoot is chosen, and several cuttings are cut from it. Each of them should have 2-3 buds, the lower leaves are carefully peeled off, and cuttings are planted to a depth of 3 cm. The best place for them is a greenhouse, the film covering it should be light.

    Poly should be moderate, do not forget about ventilation, it is enough to open the greenhouse 2-3 times a day for 15-20 minutes, it is recommended to do this in warm, dry, calm weather. Plants need to be fed, it is better to use mineral fertilizers. When you see new shoots, you can calm down, this is a sign that the rooting of the cutting has taken place. In mulberry seedlings grown in this way, the signs of the mother plant are 100% preserved.

    We use semi-lignified cuttings for propagation

    The algorithm of actions is the same as in the previous method. The only difference is that rooting will take more time - up to one and a half months.

    Using lignified cuttings

    During leaf fall, cuttings are taken from the crown of the tree and planted in the prepared soil. The height of the cutting above the ground should be no more than 5 cm, in this form it grows for two years. Only after the seedlings get stronger, they are transplanted to where they will grow constantly.

    All methods of grafting are used, the most popular method is grafting with cuttings. If you have a warm room, then the top vaccination can be done in winter or in the first days of spring.

    Trimming the Mulberry Properly

    For uniform growth and development, the crown of the tree must be kept under constant control. This is important not only for the aesthetic appearance, the fruits on such a tree will be large, juicy and sweet. The role of crown formation and proper pruning in caring for a mulberry tree cannot be overestimated. Knowledge is needed, because, guided only by intuition, a tree can be very much harmed.

    For easy harvesting, the tree must grow in one trunk, and its height must be limited. The latter is achieved by annual pinching of the tops of axial shoots.

    Trees are pruned when they are dormant, and mulberry is no exception. This allows the plant to quickly adapt in a new form to the natural conditions of the area, the adaptation process will be quick and painless. The timing for pruning is different for each locality, most often it is April-March. Later, the mulberry tree will need sanitary pruning. Branches damaged by pests, wind, old and diseased must be removed in a timely manner.

    Recommendations

    At first glance, it may seem that pruning is done intuitively, as they say "by eye", we hasten to dissuade you, this is not so.

    • The tool you plan to use while working must be sharp and disinfected. Rusty, dirty and blunt scissors and saws are strictly prohibited.
    • It is necessary to adhere to the timing of pruning, a tree pruned during sap flow may die.
    • First you need to carefully examine the tree, because in the spring it is so easy to confuse a fruit-bearing branch with an extra or affected disease.
    • Do not peel off the skin and leave protruding stumps.

    Disease and pest control

    Unfavorable factors that increase the chances of formidable diseases include: excessive fertilization, lack of nutrients, rainy cold weather, drought, etc.

    Brown leaf spot, powdery mildew, bacteriosis can appear on mulberry, mulberry can damage it, and the root system can be affected by root rot.

    Fungal diseases are considered especially dangerous.

    Fungal diseases

    Very often, especially if the summer is hot and dry, powdery mildew appears on mulberries. This disease is evidenced by the appearance of powdery white bloom on the leaves. At first, a small part of the shoot or leaf blade may be affected, with time the affected area increases.

    If the planting is overcrowded or suffers from drought, the chances of disease occurrence increase.

    Seeing the first signs of the disease, you can use a systemic fungicide, after a week the treatment will need to be repeated.

    But the main thing is preventive treatment, it is carried out in early autumn. Bordeaux liquid, foundationol or a suspension of oxygen sulfur are used. For the prevention of diseases, after the end of leaf fall, dry foliage is raked and burned.

    Seeing reddish-purple spots on the leaves, it can be assumed that the mulberry is sick with brown spotting. Very quickly, holes will appear on the sheet plates, their edges will dry out. To prevent this formidable disease in the fall, the leaves also need to be burned in a timely manner, since it is the dry foliage that is the environment that is comfortable for the wintering of the pathogen. In early spring, the trees are sprayed with a solution of Silita (1% solution, 3 liters per tree), after two weeks the treatment is repeated.


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