How big does a cherry tree get
How to Grow a Cherry Tree: The Complete Guide
Have you ever wondered how to grow a cherry tree or why you would want to grow a cherry tree at all? The answer to “why” is because cherry trees are invariably attractive and produce useful fruit. Cherries are particularly lovely fruit trees — the blossoms are beautiful (the reason for cherry blossom festivals all over the world each year), the fruit is tasty, and the trees are quite easy to grow, with just a little care and knowledge.
As for “how,” this article will share what you need to know order to grow a cherry tree and enjoy the (literal) fruits of your labor!When To Plant Cherry Trees
Cherry trees prefer sun and will grow strongly during the warmer month. When the tree is established, it will adapt its growth to the seasons, but when it is younger it may need some more tending.
To give your tree an advantage when it is young, plant it in spring, so that it can become relatively established over the spring, summer and early fall. If you live in a warmer climate, then you can plant in late winter, if the ground has not been frozen.
If the ground is frozen in the area where you live, wait until the ground is workable before planting. Always look out for the warning of a late frost. Take note of the general climate in your area and plan the planting accordingly.Where To Plant Your Cherry Trees
When you choose to plant a cherry tree, there are a few things to consider. One is the size of the tree. Cherry trees can grow tall (up to 35 feet/10 meters) and most have a broad spread of branches (12-14 feet/ 3.5-4.5 meters) and have widespread branches.
This means that you must make sure you plant your tree far enough away from other trees, or larger plants, to allow the tree room for its fully mature spread.
The other thing to consider is the root system. You don’t want the roots to cause trouble with any structure in your garden, particularly a wall or even your house. Cherry trees tend to have a relatively shallow root system, but it does grow outward quite substantially as the roots look for oxygen.
The roots of a cherry tree can spread underground over an area that is even wider than the spread of the branches. So you must consider the spread of the tree above and below ground when you choose where to plant the tree.Soil
Cherry trees prefer a soft, well-drained soil that is quite fertile. Trees with sweet fruit require better drainage, while sour cherries are not quite so fussy.
When you plant a tree, the soil should be kept moist for a few days. This will keep the soil soft and draining effectively, but the tree will have enough water to absorb.Light
Cherry trees need a lot of light, so make sure you plant your tree in a sunny spot, where they will receive at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight a day.
Once cherry trees are established, they don’t need a lot of water. However, for the first year, or so, after planting, you will need to make sure that the sapling is watered regularly, keeping the soil damp.
When you water your cherry tree, remember the broad spread of the roots and don’t only concentrate the water around the trunk. You don’t need to dampen the entire area of the roots, but do try to keep a slightly wider spread of water, possibly up to a meter around the trunk.
Because the root system of a cherry tree is relatively shallow, it will need to look for water mostly above the water table, so it is important that it receives water from above the soil as well – including rain, of course, but also from you watering it. Usually, cherry trees will be able to access water from a greater number of sources in summer, so take this into account when you water the tree.Temperature and Humidity
Cherry trees are quite hardy and different cultivars, or varieties can tolerate different temperatures and weather conditions. Generally, though, cherries prefer generally cooler, drier climates. In fact, part of their growth cycle is to have a period of dormancy during a cold winter, which they will not get in a hotter, humid climate.
Even younger trees can tolerate frost quite well, but they can be sensitive to a late frost. This is because they come out of their dormancy period as the weather warms up and are not prepared to cope with very low temperatures.
Sweet cherries, in particular, are susceptible to a late frost. If a tree has started to bud when the late frost arrives, it will be hit harder than before budding. This makes late frost an important thing to take into consideration when you plan to plant your tree. With younger trees, protect your tree by using something like a burlap tree wrap.Planting Multiple Trees: Cross-Pollination
Most cherry trees are not self-pollinating, so you need to have two trees, of different varieties, so that they can pollinate each other. Some types of cherry trees are not compatible, so you will need to do some solid research to make sure that the varieties of trees you choose will be able to cross-pollinate.
There are some varieties of sour cherries that are self-pollinating, but sweet cherries are generally not self-pollinating. However, the BlackGold and WhiteGold varieties are self-pollinating and can even be used as ‘universal pollinators’, as they are compatible with any variety of cherry.
Bees pollinate cherry trees and the period of blossoming and fertility is quite limited. Bees usually work in the earlier morning, so keep away from the trees during this period. Cooler weather may prolong the period of fertility, so keep an eye on your trees and the bees’ activity.Varieties of Cherry Tree To Plant
Where you live will determine, to a degree, what variety of cherry tree you plant.
The Benton Cherry tree is a popular variety of cherry to grow in your garden. This is mainly because it is a relatively easy tree to grow. They are quite big trees, with wide-spreading branches and are remarkably hardy, requiring almost minimal maintenance. They are also quite resistant to frost.
The Blackgold Cherry tree is another popular and hardy cherry to consider grow at home. It is quite frost-resistant and not as susceptible to diseases and pests as some other varieties. The tree needs to be watered regularly in the first year of growth. As they grow, the trees do not need to be watered very regularly.
Montmorency Cherry Tree
Lapins Cherry Tree
Rainier Cherry Tree
BUY NOWHow To Grow Your Cherry Trees
Cherry trees can be grown from three basics: the pit, a seedling/young tree, a bare root tree.Bare root trees
Bare root trees are small trees that have had the soil removed from their roots, which are covered in plastic to protect them. These trees are usually available during winter and should be planted when the weather is still cold.
The soil you plant your bare root tree into cannot be hard, so you will either have to prepare a patch by working on it and making sure it is loose before you buy the trees, or you can place the trees in a small patch of loose soil until you are ready to plant them. This should not be longer than a few days.Seedlings or young trees
You can buy cherry tree seedlings, or a young tree, to plant out. Seedlings will need more care, so keep them in a pot in a protected area until they are ready to establish themselves. Young trees can be planted out quite easily.From the pit
If you really do want to grow your own cherry tree from the beginning, then you can do so from the pit. You should begin with a few pits, as some of them may not sprout.
Make sure that the pits are clean of any trace of the fruit by soaking them thoroughly. Leave them to dry for a few days. After that keep them in a sealed container in the fridge for 7-10 days. This will simulate the dormancy period of winter.
The pits can be planted in pots that are full of loose soil, that is mixed with fertilizer. Before you do this, you must take them back to room temperature. Push the pits into the soil and water them enough so that the soil is moist. Do not over-water them. When the pits sprout and establish themselves as seedlings, you can plant them outPlanting the Trees
To plant your tree from any of these sources, you must make sure that the soil is loose. Do this by working the soil over with a garden fork. It should be loose to at least a foot (30cms) below the surface.
Dig a hole that is deep and wide enough to accommodate the root ball. This will usually be about 18 inches (45 cms) in diameter and 24 inches (60 cms) deep.
Place the roots of the plant into the hole and cover them, but keep some of the root ball showing – about 1 inch (2.5 cms) above the surface. Compact the soil around the tree gently, making sure that it does stay relatively loose. Do not tamp it down.
The level of the soil around the tree must be the same level as the surrounding area. Fruit trees must not sit in water, so there can’t be a hollow around the stem.
Make sure that you water the tree thoroughly for the first few weeks after it is planted. This does not mean keeping it in a pool of water, but making sure that the area around the stem is kept damp.
How To Grow a Cherry Tree In a Pot
There are some varieties of cherry trees that are dwarf, which can be grown in pots. Remember that these can grow to about 6 feet high, so you will need to prune and contain the trees carefully, to make sure that they don’t grow too big for your house.
One advantage that growing a cherry tree in a pot is that you will be able to move it inside during cold weather.
When you plant a young tree/seedling in a pot, make sure that you water it regularly to keep the soil damp. Do not overwater it, because if the roots sit in water, the tree’s growth will be affected. You will need to fertilize the tree at least every couple of months.Fertilizing your cherry Tree
To keep your cherry tree healthy, you need to feed it regularly, by using the appropriate fertilizer. Cherry trees are ‘light feeders’, which means that they don’t use a lot of nutrients.
Like most plants, cherry trees need nitrogen, phosphate and potassium to grow, so make sure that the fertilizer you use contains all of these (just make sure the fertilizer is low in nitrogen). Phosphate and potassium boost the tree’s ability to fight diseases.
You can use a chemical fertilizer, but you could prefer to use organic options, which are based on compost and natural additives.Pruning your cherry tree
All fruit trees need to be pruned regularly during the winter months. This promotes new growth in the spring and you’ll have a good crop of fruit in summer. For our complete guide to pruning your cherry tree, visit this link.Harvesting your cherries
The whole point of growing a cherry tree is to enjoy the fruit, isn’t it? Once you have a lovely crop on your tree, you’ll need to harvest them. Knowing when and how to pick them will keep you from damaging the fruit.
You’ll know your cherries are ripe when they turn red. The darker red they are, the riper they are. If you pull gently on a cherry and it comes away easily, then it’s fully ripe. Don’t pick cherries when they still have any green on them, because they don’t continue to ripen once picked off the tree.
For more in-depth information about harvesting cherries, read our guide on picking cherries.
However, if you’re harvesting sour cherries for cooking, you can pick them when they’re not quite ripe. Make sure you cut the fruit off the tree, though.
Put the harvested cherries into a container, but don’t over-fill it or squash the cherries because you may damage them. Keep the cherries in the fridge as soon after as picking them as possible. This will keep the fruit fresh longer.Cherry Tree Pests and Disease
Cherry tree pests and disease can come in a variety of forms and each one requires specialized action to treat and prevent them. Some pose greater threats than others to your cherry harvest, so educating yourself about each one is a necessary part of growing cherry trees in your garden.
PestsLeaf damage caused by black cherry aphids.
Here are some of the common types of pests that you may have to deal with as you grow a cherry tree.Birds
One of the greatest threats to the fruit on your cherry tree are birds, which are not easy to control. The best protection against losing your cherries to birds is to cover your tree with netting.Black Cherry Aphids
In winter, keep an eye out for tiny black bugs clustering on the stems or under the leaves on your cherry tree. If your tree is a sweet cherry, then you must be even more vigilant, because they are more susceptible to this pest.
You should treat your tree for black cherry aphids by spraying it with horticultural oil. If you notice the leaves on your tree curling, then you must treat it. It is easier to get rid of the aphids before the leaves actually curl.Borers
The American Plum Borer bores into the trunks of weakened trees.
The Peachtree borer goes for the base of the trunk of a cherry tree and affects the flow of nutrients to the tree. You can dig out the larvae, but it may be more effective to use a pesticide. You will need to get advice on what to use.
Shot hole borers dig into weakened branches in the tree, or into the trunk. If they are only in one/two branches, they can be removed. However, if the whole tree is affected, then it may not be possible to save the tree.
Pests tend to attack cherry trees that are weakened, so you keep your tree properly watered and fertilized.
Want to know more about other pests you may encounter? Click here to read our blog post on how to identify, treat, and prevent ten common cherry tree pests.DiseasesCherries suffering from brown rot caused by a fungus.
Any plant can be infected by diseases, and cherry trees are no exception.
Leaf spot, canker and brown spot are some of these diseases. You will recognize these by leaves that develop dark spots, or begin to die. You should remove any diseased leaves, or even branches. When you do this, dip the pruning shears in a bleach solution to sterilize them before making the next cut, so that the disease doesn’t spread.
You can spray your tree with a fungicide to protect against these diseases. A fungicide will also help to prevent ripe fruit rot, brown rot, or twig blight. Consult your nursery or garden center to find out what fungicide you should use. If there is a lot of rain, you may need to repeat the spray of fungicide.
Most of the diseases that affect cherry trees are the result of over-watering. Make sure that the soil is kept moist, not very wet. The soil must be well-drained and kept quite loose.
For a more in-depth read about the identification, treatment, and prevention of the ten most common cherry tree diseases, visit our blog article here.FAQsAre cherry trees easy to grow?
Cherry trees need to be established carefully. After that, they are relatively easy to look after. Keep them healthy by watering regularly, but not too much, and fertilizing them periodically.Can I grow a cherry tree at home?
Cherry trees tend to be large trees, so you’ll need a good size space in your yard to grow one of them. As long as you have the right conditions for the tree, including at least 6 hours of direct sunlight, then this is a lovely tree to have at home.What kind of soil do cherry trees prefer?
Cherry trees prefer to grow in well-drained soil that contains nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.
Make Cherry Trees Part of Your Garden!
A cherry tree makes a great (and tasty) addition to a home garden. Our guides can help you pick just the right one.
Now that you know how to grow a cherry tree, visit our Cherry Trees hub page to read about different cherry tree varieties you can grow, plus other cherry-related informational articles.
How Big Do Cherry Trees Get? | Home Guides
By Ruth de Jauregui Updated June 15, 2020
Cherry trees (Prunus spp.) range in size from 8-foot-tall tart cherry bushes to 80-foot-tall wild cherry trees. Hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 2 through 9, depending on the species, nearly every cherry tree produces fruit. The size of a cherry tree depends on its species, cultivar and dwarfing rootstock.
Sweet Cherry Tree
A standard sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium) can grow up to 35 feet tall and 25 feet wide, according to the Arbor Day Foundation. 'Bing,' hardy in USDA zones 5 through 8, is available as a standard, semi-dwarf and dwarf. A 'Bing' standard tree generally grows 18 to 25 feet tall, and it may reach 35 feet tall under ideal conditions. A 'Bing' semi-dwarf ranges from 15 to 18 feet tall, and the dwarf cultivar grows 12 to 15 feet tall and equally wide. You'll need a second, compatible tree to pollinate your 'Bing' tree to ensure a good harvest of the sweet, dark red cherries.
The 'Rainier' cherry's yellow fruits, blushed with red and with a sweet flavor, make the tree a favorite in the garden. While the size of the 'Rainier' standard, semi-dwarf and dwarf trees are comparable with 'Bing' trees, it is one of the last to bloom in spring, while 'Bing' blooms in early spring. You can grow 'Rainier' cherries in USDA zones 5 through 9.
Tart or Pie Cherry
Tart cherries (Prunus cerasus), also known as sour or pie cherries, are smaller than sweet cherry trees. Utah State University Extension reports that tart cherry trees may grow up to 20 feet tall and equally wide. The tart cherry found most often in commercial settings is 'Montmorency.' The large bright red fruit ripen in early to mid-summer. 'Montmorency' is also available to home gardeners as semi-dwarf and dwarf trees, which reach heights up to 12 and 8 feet tall, respectively.
A recent addition to the tart cherry cultivars are the tart cherry bushes developed by the University of Saskatchewan. 'Carmine Jewel' (Prunus fruticosa x Prunus cerasus), first released in Canada in 1999, produces dark red cherries on 6- to 8-foot tall bushes. In addition to the smaller size, the cherry bushes begin producing fruit two to three years after planting. Hardy in USDA zones 3 through 8, the 'Carmine Jewel' cherry plant is self-fertilizing like most tart cherries, but it will produce better with a second, compatible cultivar planted nearby.
Wild Cherry Tree
The largest of the North American native cherry trees, the black cherry (Prunus serotine), also known as rum cherry, grows up to 80 feet tall and 60 feet wide. The small, dark purple to black cherries are edible, and they can be used as a flavoring for brandy and whiskey or to make jams and jellies. Once pitted, the cherry fruit also can be eaten fresh.
The North Carolina Extension warns, however, that the seeds, leaves, stems, bark and roots contain cyanide compounds and are extremely poisonous. The black cherry tree is hardy in USDA zones 2 through 8.
Ornamental Cherry Trees
Flowering cherry trees fill spring gardens with white to pink flowers. Grown for the beauty of their flowers, ornamentals like ‘Amanogawa’ cherry (Prunus serrulata 'Amanogawa') and weeping Higan cherry (Prunus × subhirtella var. pendula) grow as tall as 25 feet in USDA zones 5 through 7 and 5 through 8, respectively.
Perhaps the best-known of the ornamental flowering cherries, the 'Yoshino' (Prunus × yedoensis), blooms every spring in Washington D.C. This is also the cherry tree often depicted in Japanese fine art. Hardy in USDA zones 5 through 8, the Arbor Day Foundation reports that mature trees may reach 40 to 50 feet tall.
- Arbor Day Foundation: Bing Cherry
- Utah State University Extension: Tart Cherries in the Garden
- North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox: Prunus Serotina
- Arbor Day Foundation: Yoshino Cherry
Ruth de Jauregui is an old-school graphic artist and writer who focuses primarily on garden topics. She writes a weekly garden column and authored 50 Fabulous Tomatoes for Your Garden. She continues to write nonfiction articles on gardening and other topics and is working on a second "50" book about plants that attract hummingbirds.
Planting spacing between cherries: gardening secrets
Selecting a site for planting cherries in the field
Recommendations for where to plant cherries in the field begin with the advice to study the characteristics of the selected variety. The main factors influencing the choice of location are the climate of the region, the size of the plant and the condition of the soil on the site. You need to plant a crop according to the rules.
The main tasks when choosing a place
The gardener is faced with the task of organizing the proper care of the plant on the site. The main factor influencing the development of culture is the landing site.
When choosing where to plant cherries, consider the following points:
- soil conditions;
- location of groundwater;
- neighborhood with other cultures;
Cherry crops quickly take root and bear fruit on loamy and sandy soils. For the full development of plants, soil is needed that allows air to pass well and does not retain moisture.
In an area with acidic soil, plants will bear little fruit and get sick. The normal pH level for cherries is 6. With an increase in this indicator, the nutrients that come through the root system from the soil become inaccessible to the plant. Even with a large amount of fertilizer, the situation does not change.
On acidic soil, the seedling will not take root, and the adult tree begins to wither. The first sign of an increase in pH is the yellowing of the foliage, because. the plant is deficient in iron. Acidity changes over time. Its level is affected by the quality of the water. When watering with soft water, the pH level rises, with hard water it decreases.
It is better to plant cherries in a garden area fertilized with organic additives. This will allow the plant to quickly adapt to a new place. Manure is applied 6 months before planting and the soil is dug to a depth of 20 cm. If the soil is not light enough, 10-20 kg of sand per square meter is applied. m. and carry out deep plowing. The root system of cherries normally develops only on loose soils.
Determination of acidity
When planting cherries, it is not necessary to order expensive services of specialists to determine the acidity. Buy litmus paper and collect soil samples from all corners of the site. Arrange them in different paper envelopes and lower them into containers with distilled water. The proportions of liquid and earth are 1:1. After 5 minutes, dip a test strip into each container for 2 seconds. Rate the result on the color scale:
- pH level 1-3 - acidic soils;
- 4-8 - neutral;
- 9-14 - alkaline.
Acidity is determined using 9% vinegar. Take 1 tsp. earth and pour it on the glass. Pour in some vinegar and see the reaction.
- A lot of foam forms - alkalized soil.
- Foam comes out, but not abundant - neutral.
- Not formed - acidic soil.
Neutralization of acidity
When placing cherries in the garden, care must be taken in advance about the condition of the soil. Preparation of the site begins 6 months before planting. You can neutralize the acidity with the help of fluff (slaked lime). For 1 sq. m. it will take 500 g for high acidity, 300-400 g for medium acidity, 200 g for weak acidity. The powder is scattered on the site and deep plowing is carried out.
Another remedy for restoring soil neutrality is dolomite flour. The drug is completely natural. It acts more slowly than lime, but it makes it possible to enrich the soil with calcium. In acidic soil, 500 g of powder per 1 sq. m., slightly acidic - 300-400 g. Contains potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus. It is best suited for neutralizing acidity on peat soils and sandy loams. Dosage per 1 sq. m. is 500 g for acidic soils, 300 g for medium acidity, 200 g for slightly acidic soil.
The amount of preparation applied will vary depending on the type of soil. For light soils, the dosage is reduced by 100 g, for heavy soils it is increased. When growing cherries, the acidity level is measured annually. This is especially important if watering is carried out with low-quality water.
Location of groundwater
When planting cherries, special attention should be paid to the location of groundwater. The landing pattern and the choice of location will depend on this. The optimum depth of groundwater is 2 m. If this figure is lower, the root system will rot.
Overmoistening causes growth to stop when the root system reaches 1 m. The growth of shoots per year decreases to 8-10 cm. In 5-6-year-old trees, the top dries up, then young shoots and large branches. The crop becomes watery, taste indicators worsen.
Sometimes the problem is not in the close location of groundwater, but in the occurrence of a clod of clay at a short distance from the root system, which in spring does not allow liquid to penetrate deeper. Due to the increased humidity, the rhizome rots and begins to decompose.
It is better to choose a place on a hillock or make an embankment of such a height that 2 m remains to groundwater. If there is a threat of an increase in the water level, a layer of expanded clay is laid on the bottom of the planting pit.
The second problem is solved by the organization of the drainage system and deep plowing. To do this, channels 60-80 cm deep are formed throughout the site, leading to the place located below everything. Sand is brought to the site and the soil is dug up to a depth of 30-40 cm using special equipment.
Neighborhood with other cultures
When planting cherries, it is necessary to take several varieties at once with a simultaneous flowering period. This applies to both self-fertile and self-fertile crops. Cherries can be used as pollinators instead of cherries. The optimal distance between trees is 5-30 m.
Among other cultivated plants, cherry gets along well next to grapes, strawberries, plums. Do not plant a tree next to:
These plants will oppress each other, which will significantly reduce the quality of the crop. It is also worth refusing to plant cherries next to large trees: oak, acacia, linden, pine. These representatives have a highly developed rhizome, so the cherry will be left without food. Neighborhood with raspberries is fraught with the spread of infection. These cultures suffer from the same diseases, so this arrangement leads to cross-infection.
Do not plant cherries in a windy area. It is better to plant it next to a fence or against the south wall of an outbuilding. This will protect the upper part of the tree from the wind, and the roots from freezing, as more snow accumulates near walls and fences in winter.
How far from the fence to plant cherries depends on the variety. Tall varieties develop a powerful root system that can destroy a fence. The optimal distance from the fence for such crops is at least 4-5 m. Compact trees can be planted at a distance of 3 m from the fence.
At what distance should cherries be planted
the fact cannot but make many owners of land plots or summer cottages think about planting their own trees in order to protect themselves from spending on berries. It is much more profitable to invest once in the purchase of high-quality seedlings and pay relatively little attention to them, so that as a result you can enjoy the beauty and pleasant smell of flowering in the spring, a rich and tasty harvest in the summer for several years. So what is the right way to plant cherries? How to choose a place for the upcoming landing? Can you plant next to a fence? How far apart should cherries be planted? Below in the article you can find answers to all these questions.
So, if you can clearly see a good harvest of healthy and incredibly tasty cherries in your head, then you must definitely go through several fairly important stages to implement this idea. Of course, planting a cherry tree cannot be called a very laborious and complicated process, but it is very important to follow some rules here, otherwise it will be somewhat difficult to get success in growing it.
The planting of cherries can be considered successful, which was based on the choice:
- Cherry varieties suitable for cultivation in a particular climate.
- Completely healthy seedling, which is distinguished by well-formed roots.
- Appropriate time for planting (for example, autumn or spring).
- A suitable place for a seedling (taking into account the type of soil, the presence of high winds, groundwater, the level of illumination).
How to choose the right cherry tree
If you want to grow a good tree with constant large fruiting and a high level of frost resistance, using a simple root shoot borrowed from a neighbor's plot is strongly discouraged. Also, you don’t need to dream about a quality harvest if you plan to just bury a cherry seed in the ground. Here the consequence will be completely unpredictable, regardless of whether the eaten berry was tasty or not.
Thus, the best and most guaranteed option is to plant cherry seedlings purchased from specialized retail outlets.
Seedlings should be purchased in autumn and planted in spring. For the winter period, they need to be slightly dug in, laying them in a dug hole in the ground in a horizontal position. The roots must be sprinkled with soil, which will allow the seedlings to be preserved until spring without problems and difficulties.
It is recommended to give preference to seedlings that have a height of about one meter, are spared all kinds of signs of disease and other damage.
When and where is the best time to plant cherries?
Experts advise choosing a place closer to the fence. Why? In winter, it is near the fences that a large amount of snow collects, which serves as an excellent shelter for the tree during frosts. In addition, the cherry will thank you with a good harvest if you plant it on a hill or slope, protected from strong winds.
The site chosen for planting the cherry tree must not be swampy. Among other things, it is worth making sure that it is well lit. It is more correct to give preference to fertile, light soil that has a neutral reaction.
Spring is the best time to plant seedlings. Until the moment when the buds appear on the trees, it is necessary to have time to deal with all planting work.
Keep in mind that cherries should be planted in autumn at least one month before the soil starts to freeze. It is also important when planting cherries in the fall not to forget to spud a tree at least 30 cm high with earth in order to protect its roots from freezing, and in spring to scatter a warm “fur coat”.
Step-by-step instructions for planting cherries
So, for planting a seedling in the soil:
- We dig a hole (80×50 cm), while the upper and lower layers of the earth recline into two separate piles.
- We carefully install a special peg, pour around it the soil from the top layer of the excavated earth, additionally fertilize.
- Pour earth on top (layer thickness - 8 cm).
- We place a seedling in the prepared soil (here it is important that the root neck is at ground level). Gently straighten the root system.
- Now we fill the seedling from above with earth, which remained in a pile with the lower soil, carefully compact it. We dig a hole near the seedling.
- Pour water into the hole (about 2 buckets), tie the seedling loosely to the pre-hammered peg.
In order for the tree to take root, it is advisable to dip the roots in a mixture of clay and manure before planting.
What is the optimal distance to plant cherries from each other
What determines the distance
Planting directly depends on the cherry variety that you have chosen to plant. Bush varieties are recommended to be placed at a distance of 2 or 2.5 meters from each other. This will provide them with optimal space to grow. Tree-like cherry tree seedlings should be placed at large intervals - from 3 to 4 meters. In addition, such varieties should be separated from other fruit trees, especially apple trees, and shrubs.
Ideally, a fairly large and free area should be chosen. Also, there should be no buildings on the site, ideally, as they will interfere with air drainage, which is the outflow of air masses.
When planting seedlings, the soil must also be assessed. What characteristics will the future garden have, how well the land is lit. This will allow you to choose the right varieties of planting on the site. Feels good on flat surfaces, well rooted on the southern sides. Planting felt cherries is also recommended on the southwestern slopes. It must be remembered that cherry trees and seedlings do not do very well in peat bog lands. Planting is also recommended in neutral to moderately sandy soils.
Optimal seating pattern
We have already figured out how far to plant cherries from each other. What is the best way to choose such a seating scheme that would be the most optimal and would allow you to get the most benefits and yields?
In order to properly plant not only cherries, but also sweet cherries, first of all, the soil should be fertilized with humus and mineral fertilizers. Plum also requires this fertilizer before planting. In one hole under a tree, you can add no more than 20 kilograms of humus mixed with the ground. It is recommended to use ashes, but use less than one kilogram per hole, especially if you need to plant cherries.
When planting in clay soil, it is customary to add 1 or 1.5 buckets of sand. It is necessary to observe a distance of approximately 3 meters when digging. You should also pay attention to the fact that there should be enough free space between the seedlings for the growth of future shoots.
When choosing a scheme, also be guided by the neighborhood of friends' varieties. When choosing cherry seedlings, you need to carefully pay attention to what other varieties it can exist with in a summer cottage. Usually country cherries are friends with other varieties of cherries, apple trees and plums.
After planting, a small roll is formed around it, which will protect against water loss. A planted cherry should be watered frequently and in sufficient quantity so that the seedling grows. There must be a constant supply of fresh air. You should also pay attention to the fact that at least a meter should remain from the fence so that the shoots can grow unhindered.
Keeping enough distance between the trees will not only give you a good result and a big harvest, but also create optimal conditions for growth. And your cherry orchard will always please the eye.
Video "How far apart to plant trees"
In this video, an expert will tell you how far apart trees should be planted.
At what distance should fruit trees be planted from each other
dream of any land owner. To do this, you need to provide all the trees with a sufficient supply of light, otherwise you can only dream of good harvests, the trees will get sick and damaged by pests. To prevent this from happening, it is required to maintain a certain distance between all fruit trees. How to do this in a limited area of \u200b\u200ba standard cottage? To solve this problem, you need to plan the placement of crops, taking into account all the needs and nuances.
How to determine the right distance
In addition to the exactingness of light, it is also necessary to take into account the fact that when planting closely, the root systems of trees come into contact with each other. As a result, some of them will not have enough nutrients. After all, a stronger plant will take them from a weaker one. Be sure to observe the distance from the house, outbuildings and the fence, at least equal to the height of the tree itself. A falling tree, even with its top, can cause serious damage to buildings.
When calculating the spacing between trees, consider how they will grow in the future. Therefore, when buying a seedling, you need to ask the seller in detail about the characteristics of the variety. It is best to buy planting material in proven places, nurseries. When purchasing a seedling “from hand”, one cannot be sure that the variety will correspond to the declared one.
So, at what distance to plant fruit trees from each other:
- tall trees, such as vigorous apple trees, pears, apricots, sweet cherries, it is desirable to plant them closer than 5-6 m from each other;
- cherries, plums, dwarf pears and apple trees - 3-4 m;
- columnar apple trees - 2 m.
At what distance to plant fruit trees from each other
As long as the trees are small, it is quite possible to occupy the aisles with berry bushes or garden crops. Often gardeners use currants and gooseberries for this, as well as strawberries, potatoes and root crops. The only nuance in this case is that it is impossible to occupy near-stem circles of trees, this is at least a meter in diameter.
How to make a planting plan
To understand how to plant fruit trees in a garden plot, you need to study the summer cottage. You need to know the location of groundwater on it, take into account your own and neighboring buildings, be sure to take into account the cardinal points, power lines, the direction of the prevailing and cold wind. Next, a sheet of paper is taken, and all of the above objects are marked in great detail. After that, you should decide what percentage of the total area of \u200b\u200bthe remaining space can be given to the garden. This is usually the more northern part of the site so that the trees do not block future beds. Next, you should decide what kind of fruit, berry crops are needed, how many early, mid-season, late varieties are needed. Choose the varieties you like and write out the approximate height of each of them.
Orchard planting scheme for bushes and trees in a stepped planting system:
- Tall trees are located to the north of all;
- closer to the south - medium height;
- further - low;
- on the southernmost side there will be strawberries, horticultural crops.
How to Plan Compatibility Plantings
The current trend in landscaping is planting curtains, hedges, solitary lawn plantings, circular gardens. When planning such a placement, more work and knowledge will be required. If possible, it is better to entrust this matter to professionals in order to avoid mistakes and get a high-level result.
Rules for the location of seedlings in the cardinal directions
Most fruit crops are photophilous. Mountain ash, barberry, gooseberry, raspberry, wild rose, blackcurrant can tolerate slight shading. Grapes are a very heat-loving plant; they can be placed near a building or hedge on the south or southwest side. Peach, apricot, pear, plum, apple tree need a lot of light. They are planted in the south and southwest. Blackcurrant can be located at the northern border of the site. Red currants and gooseberries - from the western or eastern side. Bushes can also be placed between seedlings of long-growing fruit trees, remembering the rule: the life of berries is about 12-15 years. Then the branches of the trees will close, and nothing can be placed between them.
Resistant varieties of cherries and plums can be located along the direction of the prevailing wind. They will act as a barrier to less resistant crops. In addition, taking into account the prevailing winds, self-fertile varieties are planted so that pollinators are in front of them.
Distance to the fence from neighbors
Distance to the fence from neighbors
Equally important when planting trees and shrubs is the proximity of the fence to neighbors. There is a law on “Planning and building up the territory of gardening (country) associations of citizens”, which says that the distance to the neighboring site is at least 4 m for tall trees, 2 m for medium-sized trees and 1 m for shrubs. You also need to take into account the neighbor's house: it should be at least 5 m from it to a tall tree. The law is the law, but in practice often fruit trees grow right on the border of the site. This usually suits both parties, since the neighbors are provided with fruit from them. But when the tree grows old and begins to pose a threat, then the conflict is inevitable. Therefore, it is better to keep the interval.
How to arrange trees on 10 acres
The first step is to take a sheet of graph paper and draw a site plan on a convenient scale.
It is accepted to divide the estate into the following zones:
- Residential zone. Includes house and surrounding area.
- Recreation area. Usually located within the site.
- Garden and garden. As a rule, occupies the largest space.
- Household department. Sheds for storing inventory and pets.
Existing and planned paths, fences, fences, underground utilities are also noted. It should also be noted on the plan the wind rose and the relief of the site. Planting should also be planned taking into account the border with neighbors. The garden, as a rule, occupies the northern or northeastern part, but it all depends on the location of a particular site. It is quite possible to occupy the border of the dacha with fruit trees, subject to the distance between tall apple trees, pears, cherries and a fence - 4 m, for plums and other low trees - 3 m, for shrubs - 1 m.
Compatibility of fruit trees and berries
It is good if the compatibility of crops is taken into account when planning plantings. The fact is that plants emit various substances that, if they enter the soil, can inhibit the culture growing nearby.
Trees of the same species are considered ideal neighbors. But in an amateur garden it is rarely impossible to plant pears separately, apple trees separately, etc. Moreover, each species usually grows from 1 to 3 specimens. The minimum distance to the antagonist culture is 4 m.
Compatibility chart for fruit trees and berry bushes
What to consider when planting
Do not plant crops that do not grow well in your climate. They require a lot of attention, effort and time, and the result can be disappointing. Then you have to cut and uproot them, replace them with more suitable ones and wait until they grow. It is best to initially choose the planting material that will provide a reliable future for the garden.
A maximum of 15 trees will fit on one hundred square meters with proper crown formation. If pruning is not carried out, then half as much. The exception is columnar forms, which can be planted at intervals of 1 m. The ideal arrangement of rows of horticultural crops is from south to north in height. Shade-tolerant crops can be grown in the middle between the rows.
If there is enough space in the garden, it is better to plant berry bushes separately from the trees, as there may be problems later when spraying the trees at a time when the bushes can no longer be processed.
If there were old trees on the plots that were removed, then this should be taken into account when planning new plantings. A tree during its life selects the nutrients it needs from the soil, soil fatigue occurs. In addition, diseases and pests characteristic of this type of crop accumulate in the zone of its growth. Therefore, it is important to observe the so-called garden rotation.
There are several principles for the correct circulation of crops in the garden:
- You cannot plant a new one of the same species in place of an old tree. That is, after an apple tree, you cannot plant an apple tree.
- A minimum of 5 years must elapse between planting a crop of the same species as the previous one.
- It is undesirable to plant crops from the same family one after the other. For example, after stone fruits, it is better to plant pome fruits and vice versa.
- To reduce soil fatigue, you can clean the fertile layer of earth (30 cm) from the roots of an old tree.
- Another way to restore the soil is to sow green manure in this place: rapeseed, soybeans, buckwheat.
- Vegetables, herbs or perennial grasses can be grown in the removed crop site.
How to plant a garden in a small area
Tips from experienced gardeners on growing fruit trees in a small garden:
- The most logical solution for a small garden is dwarf trees. For them, it is possible to grow at an interval of 1 m between trees and 2 meters in a row. At the same time, their fruiting begins earlier than tall varieties.
- Another option is grafting on stunted tree species. The cotoneaster is the most winter-hardy rootstock; it grows well both in the Moscow region and the Leningrad region, and in the Urals and Siberia. Even a pear on it will grow no higher than 2 m. However, a grafted tree requires a slightly different care than an ordinary own-rooted plant.
- Experienced owners of small gardens are advised to arrange trees in a checkerboard pattern. At the same time, the norm of gaps between trees is maintained, and row spacings are reduced.
- Also in a small garden with dense plantings, competent pruning is required. It is necessary to form compact crowns that will not be intertwined with branches with a number of growing trees.
- It is better to choose the most proven varieties of fruit and berry crops for a small garden. This will help to avoid "downtime" when such expensive square meters will not produce results due to the fact that the selected variety does not bear fruit for several years.
The 7 most important questions about growing cherries
We answer the most common questions that arise when growing cherries, not only for beginners, but also for experienced gardeners.
First of all, cherries don't like being alone. And all because many of their varieties are not capable of high-quality self-pollination. Therefore, planting just one tree and enjoying a bountiful harvest every year is unlikely to succeed. A tree of a different variety must certainly grow nearby, flowering at the same time.
But that's not all. If your goal is a good harvest of large and juicy berries, follow our advice.
1. When is it better to plant cherries - in autumn or in spring?
In the middle lane, it is recommended to plant cherry seedlings in the spring before the buds swell (in early-mid April), because. at this time, the trees are better rooted and acclimatized. When planting in autumn, there is a high probability of freezing of immature plants in winter.
But it is best to buy seedlings in autumn, because. at this time, planting material is dug up in nurseries and you can find seedlings of almost any variety. In the spring, they mostly sell what they could not sell in the fall. It is not difficult to save cherry seedlings bought in October until spring. To do this, they need to dig in.
The first step is to choose a place where snow stays the longest in spring. Dig a trench 30-50 cm deep and lay the seedlings with crowns to the south at an angle of 45 degrees. Properly cover the root system and about a third of the trunk with earth. Water the soil generously. To protect against the ubiquitous rodents, cover the dug seedlings with spruce branches (needles outward). In winter, do not forget to throw snow on the dig - this will help protect the seedlings from frost.
2. At what distance should cherry trees be planted?
Bush varieties of cherries are planted at a distance of 2-2.5 m from each other. Tree-like forms require more space. They should be settled approximately 3-3.5 m from each other, as well as from other trees and shrubs.
The ideal site for planting fruit and berry trees should be spacious enough and not built up around the perimeter to provide the so-called air drainage, ie. outflow of cold air. Before laying your own garden, you should evaluate the characteristics of the soil, the illumination of the site, and only then select the appropriate tree varieties. Cherries take root well on the plains, feel good on the southern and southwestern gentle slopes. They like neutral moderately sandy soils and loams, but they do not particularly like peat-bog lands, as well as areas flooded during floods.
Before planting, the soil from the dug hole is mixed with humus and mineral fertilizers. Up to 20 kg of humus, about 70 g of potash and no more than 300 g of phosphate fertilizers can be added to one planting hole. It is also recommended to add up to 1 kg of ash. If the soil is heavy clay, then you can add 1.5 buckets of sand. After planting around the stem circle of the seedling, it is desirable to form a roller that prevents the spread of water during irrigation. On average, immediately after planting, one young plant requires 20-30 liters of water.
3. Should I mulch the soil around the tree?
Mulch helps retain moisture and prevents soil from crusting. Therefore, mulched trees need less watering and better tolerate hot, dry weather. In addition, fewer weeds grow under a thick layer of mulch, which makes it much easier to care for the soil under the trees.
Cherry stems are usually mulched with humus, compost, grass clippings, hay, shredded bark, or other organic materials. Moreover, the mulch is laid out in a layer of 8-10 cm, stepping back from the trunk at least 10 cm.
Autumn mulching will protect the roots of cherries from freezing, because. under a layer of mulch, the soil does not freeze through so much.
4. How and when to feed cherries?
Feeding of young trees starts one year after planting. By that time, they will take root properly and absorb the bulk of the nutrients from the adjacent soil. It is important to observe the dosage and frequency of fertilizer application. Mineral fertilizers need to be applied every year, and organic - every two to three years.
For the second year after planting, it is recommended to add 100 g of urea to the trunk circle for digging. For the third year - 180-200 g of urea or about the same amount of ammonium nitrate must be dissolved in half a bucket of water and pour this composition over cherries that wake up after winter. For the fourth year , autumn feeding (180-200 g of urea) can be added to spring feeding. In mid-August or early September, 250-300 g of superphosphate and 110-120 g of potassium sulfate should be distributed on the surface of the near-stem circle, and then dig the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm.0087 the fifth and subsequent years 200 g of ammonium nitrate are applied in the spring, phosphorus-potassium nitrate is applied in the fall (3 tablespoons of superphosphate and 1.5 tablespoons of potassium chloride per 1 sq.m of the trunk circle), as well as organic fertilizers (20 -40 kg of humus or compost).
Fertilizers containing boron or gibberellic acid can be used to increase fruit set. Among experienced gardeners, a drug called Universal Ovary is popular, which reduces the amount of barren flowers, ensures the early formation of ovaries, and prevents them from shedding. Top dressing of this kind is carried out once a year during the flowering period at the rate of 2 g per 1. 5-2 liters of water.
To improve fruit quality and provide additional resistance to mechanical damage, some gardeners practice foliar top dressing with micronutrient fertilizers, such as calcium nitrate, at the rate of 25-30 g per 10 liters of water.
Calcium nitrate must be applied before bud break. It is important to remember that it is incompatible with superphosphate.
In case of freezing of the roots and the ground part of the tree, as well as in case of danger of infection with diseases or damage by pests, foliar top dressing is carried out with a 0.5% urea solution. The first top dressing can be carried out a couple of weeks after flowering, and the second - another two to three weeks later.
If you want to get natural and really healthy berries, you should not get too carried away with artificial dressings. Any fertilizer should be applied with caution, as an overabundance of them can be more dangerous than a lack.
5. How to water cherries correctly?
As mentioned above, rooted cherries do not require regular watering. refers to drought-resistant crops. However, additional soil moisture will certainly affect its fertility, and hence the yield of trees. But watering should not be too frequent, because. in this case, the air will be forced out of the soil, and, as a result, the growth and development of your green pets will decrease.
Irrigation phases are best correlated with the annual life cycles of trees: 1st watering - immediately after flowering, 2nd watering - during the formation of ovaries, 3rd watering - after harvest and 4 th watering - on the eve of winter, but no later than mid-October. Young trees need 2-3 buckets of water, adults will need a little more - about 5-7 buckets.
6. Do I need to trim the cherry?
If the cherry is not “registered” in your area as an ornamental plant, it is necessary to cut and thin out a dense crown, since the berries are formed mainly in bouquet twigs. Pruning cherries is necessary in the spring before flowering. If the winter was harsh, it is better to postpone the procedure until the kidneys awaken. The main task during pruning is the formation of skeletal branches and the opening of the center of the crown.
Pruning trees is a bit like construction. First, the lower tier is “laid” in the form of three main branches. A little higher, the next “floor” is formed from five or six branches, etc. Branches growing at an acute angle are either cut out or rejected with the help of special spacers, trying to give them a position close to horizontal. Most gardeners prefer to limit the tree in growth at about 2.5-3 m. At the same time, the central stem - the conductor - should be about 20 cm higher than the upper branches.
Fruiting trees are thinned only slightly, and dead or weak branches are cut off, leaving the most conveniently located side branches. This contributes to the formation of young bouquet branches and, as a result, leads to abundant fruiting.
7. How to prepare cherries for winter?
Cherry tolerates snowy and frosty winters relatively well. But frequent alternations of frost and thaw can destroy not only young, but also adult fruit-bearing plants. To avoid sad consequences due to temperature fluctuations, the preparation of trees for the cold season begins in September.
First of all, it is necessary to apply phosphorus and potash fertilizers so that the tree can properly prepare for the winter and does not experience nutritional deficiencies during the spring awakening. For this purpose, you can use ready-made mineral complexes, for example, Universal. If you prefer monopreparations, add 20-30 g of potassium chloride and 30-45 g of superphosphate to the trunk circles, then carefully water the trees. On acidic soils, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are easy to replace with ash.
Once every few years it is recommended to use organic fertilizers (for example, compost or rotted manure at the rate of 4-5 kg per 1 sq.m of tree circle). It is important to carry out top dressing no later than September, because. this procedure stimulates the movement of juice. And if you do not hurry, the tree may freeze slightly in winter. Then you should dig the ground to a depth of no more than 7-8 cm, while choosing weeds. After that, it is desirable to mulch the trunk circles. A layer of mulch will prevent the formation of a hard crust and retain life-giving moisture. It is better to cover trees for the winter no earlier than the end of October. But, of course, first of all, you should focus on weather conditions, taking into account the characteristics of your climate zone.
Take good care of your cherry trees. And then your pies and compotes will not be left without fragrant ripe berries.
When is the best time to prune cherries - in spring or autumn?
How to prune cherries correctly and when is the best time - in spring or autumn
It is difficult for beginners to care for the garden, they have questions about how to prune this or that fruit tree correctly. They are worried about when it is better to do this in autumn or spring, but is it possible to cut off old or extra side branches in the summer?
Some owners think that the more branches, the more abundant the harvest. In practice, it turns out that young shoots suck the juices from the tree and it does not have enough strength to grow fruits.
For some, without pruning, the yield from high becomes extremely small and it is no longer possible to treat yourself to cherry jam in winter. In addition, a weakened tree is susceptible to various diseases.
Nuances of pruning
A novice gardener, before pruning cherries, has many questions in his head, how to prune cherries correctly so as not to harm the tree, but to get a better harvest? Before the procedure, it is necessary to take into account whether this tree is young, middle-aged or old, what kind is it, in what condition is it now?
“Important! It is required to choose the right tool and then process the cut point so as not to infect, not to provoke rotting.
If the cherry is young, a pruning shear is often enough to trim the extra branches. When the tree is mature thick, then many branches need to be cut down. Pruning should not be done only in spring, experienced gardeners recommend doing it in the fall, at other times when the plant is heavily overgrown, even in summer.
What do you need to know before cutting?
If you just take and start cutting branches, an inexperienced owner will make a mistake in something. For fear of harming their beloved cherry, some do not cut it at all, thinking that the procedure is optional and they will consistently receive a good harvest every year.
By cutting off old branches, the owner helps the tree to get rid of harmful insects that lay their eggs under the bark. There are fewer pests, but this does not cancel the annual treatment with insecticides.
Constantly need to thin out the crown, cut off excess branches. This is useful for the tree:
- A well-formed crown is even and beautiful. She will not lean in any direction.
- Productivity will increase by 2 times.
- The cherries on the tree will be larger than last year's and more juicy.
- By cutting off old branches, the owner kills many pests, ridding the tree of them.
- After pruning, the tree is rejuvenated, which allows it not to age and bear fruit throughout its entire life cycle.
A beginner planting cherries should know when they bloom and how they set fruit. If a person understands that a tree needs juices and strength to bear fruit, then he will consciously prune, realizing help to the cherry.
Before pruning, you need to figure out which branches of the tree are vegetative (new branches come from them), and others are bouquet (for tree-like cherries). There are still growths (branches growing every year from the buds located on top). The owner must understand which branch he cut and why?
Cherries are tree-like and bushy. You need to understand which and where in the garden or near the house specifically grows? In tree-like berries, they grow on branches-growths, which are 1 g and on bouquet, fruit-bearing 2 g. In bush-like cherries, branches give fruits of 1 g.
Now it is clear that bushy plants need to be carefully pruned annually, and only old, diseased or extra branches should be removed from tree-like ones.
The photo shows the pruning of a branch. Experts recommend cherries, with plums, as well as other trees that produce fruits with stones, to be cut annually. You need to start the procedure from the youth of the trees and do it annually until old age and cutting.
How to prune young cherries?
Plums or cherries begin to grow branches very quickly in spring. If these trees are not cut in time, then the crown will become too thick, and the fruits will be small. Yields drop significantly.
“Important! Pruning is best done before the tree buds. During that time, it will have time to recover from the procedure, get stronger and let all the juices bloom, grow fruits.
After planting cherries, you need to ensure that 5 or 6 of the strongest branches remain in its crown. The rest can be cut.
If the cherry grows as a bush, then 10 main branches can be left. Others cut out without leaving stumps, but by treating wounds with a special var.
It's great when the branches grow at least 10 cm apart and point in different directions, up. The lateral branches will not draw juices and the main ones will grow with renewed vigor.
Pruning is best done before buds appear on the tree. At that time, juices do not flow so actively along the trunk, branches, and wounds lubricated with garden pitch will heal faster.
About the main pruning rules:
- At the age of 2, the cherry is already very thick and the owner must cut off the branches that are directed from the main branches to the inside of the crown. The shoots that grow on the trunk are broken off in the summer, when they turn green or are already cut out for the next spring.
- When a variety is treelike, its branches are cut off in height so that the tree is not too tall. This makes harvesting difficult. In bushy, it is enough that the shoots are 50 cm each and can be shortened.
- The cherry tree will grow and grow stronger. The owner must determine which branches will be skeletal and leave them. A large cherry tree has 12 to 15 such branches in its crown.
- It is obligatory to prune dried or damaged branches every year.
When arboreal trees are grown, it is best to use a tiered pruning system or a combination. You can choose another, known to gardeners, crown formation system.
It is important to realize that fruiting depends on how well the crown of a tree is formed. If the branches are old and too tilted to the side, then with a hurricane wind they can break off.
The main thing is to prune cherries, plums, apricots and other stone fruits annually and from a young age. Then the crown of the tree will form correctly and it will give a bountiful harvest.
Pruning difference between bushy and tree cherries
Bushy cherries will have leaf tips exposed. This means that there are too many branches on the tree and it's time to thin them out. Cut branches by 50% or 30%. Skeletal, with semi-skeletal branches, pruned to dormant buds and to branches growing on the sides (up) and well developed.
“Advice! In one year, you can cut skeletal branches, and a year later - semi-skeletal. Then the cherry will have more strength to grow fruits. Growths, which are left at 1 g. ”
If the tree is bushy and the branches are 1 g each, then they are not touched. They grow in length starting from the top kidney. If the tops are cut off, there is a high probability that the entire branch will die.
For tree-like trees, it is important that more bouquet branches grow each year, which produce a crop. To do this, cherries need to be fed annually with humus in a timely manner, and other fertilizers should be applied. If this is not done, then the tree will throw out few bouquet branches and the crop will fall.
Shoots, which are shortened at 1 year in tree-like cherries. This is done in order for shoots to grow, with new bouquet branches on the sides. They will bear fruit.
The photo shows cuttings of annual branches. All this contributes to fruition.
Recommendations on how to process treelike trees:
- If branches grow less than 15 cm per year, and skeletal trees have a bare trunk at the base, rejuvenation is required. Cut off shoots of branches, which are 3 g each.
- When the ends of the branches dry out or entire branches have dried up in the center of the crown, pruning of side branches on branches that are 5 years old is required.
- When the tree reaches 3 m, the tops of the skeletal branches are cut off and care is taken for the enhanced growth of the side branches.
How to cut cherries, see the video:
“Advice! In one pruning, you do not need to remove many branches. It is better to do it in 2 or 3 steps. After pruning, side branches grow, many of them also need to be removed.
Cherries, delicate trees. If in doubt, it is better to cut off that branch after a year than to seriously injure the tree in vain. At least 12 of the strongest skeletal branches should remain in the crown, and preferably 15. The old main branches are cut off, leaving the lateral young ones growing upwards.
It seems to the novice gardener that cutting branches every year is a big waste of time. It is worth listening to the recommendations of experts and the harvest will please with abundance.
How and when to prune cherries in autumn
In gardening circles, one can often find the belief that cherries should only be prune in spring and summer. This belief is based on a misconception, since cherries should be prepared for both the summer and winter seasons. With inaccurate processing of wood, it, of course, runs the risk of not surviving the cold season.
However, in this situation, the reason for the death of the plant is not the erroneously chosen time, but the incorrect pruning. If you remove cherry branches correctly, then such a procedure can only benefit the plant. We will talk about how and when to prune cherry branches in the fall.
Why do you need to prune cherries?
If you decide to plant cherries in your garden, you should immediately abandon the myth that any adjustment to the current state of the tree will harm it. If you do not take care of the cherry, then it will grow in different directions and will produce fewer fruits, and if infections enter the trunk, it risks completely withering.
In addition to keeping the plant healthy, cherry pruning performs the following tasks:
- By removing dried or broken branches, the tree is restored and rejuvenated;
- Creation of the correct crown contributes to the uniform distribution of sunlight over the surface of all branches;
- Shortening of branches promotes their more intensive growth and increases fruitfulness;
- Removing infected branches prevents the spread of the disease throughout the cherry.
How to prune cherries?
Depending on the type of cherry and the goals pursued by gardeners, there are two types of pruning:
- Thinning: involves the complete removal of branches and shoots. Often practiced on bush cherries in order to prevent excessive thickening, which reduces the fruitfulness of the plant;
- Cordinal cutting.
Handy tools that will be needed when processing cherries include a garden knife or pruner, which will allow you to work with smaller and thinner branches.
You can read below about the ingredients used to make garden pitch and how to make it at home.
Quality tools are the key to the correct pruning of cherries. A rusted or dull blade can easily damage wood. In addition, the improper condition of the knife will significantly complicate the procedure. In addition to sharpened blades, tools used must be thoroughly washed and disinfected before use.
Peculiarities of autumn pruning of cherries
Autumn pruning of cherries somewhat differs from spring pruning both in terms of goals and means of achieving them. Spring pruning is aimed at awakening the plant from hibernation and stimulating the growth of shoots and buds. Autumn pruning, on the contrary, aims to make the plant go into hibernation mode as comfortably as possible.
In order to do this with minimal damage to the tree, you need to catch the moment of slowing down the movement of juices or the end of the growing season, so as not to “injure” the cherry with your blades. The slices left by you should have time to drag on before the first frost, otherwise the cherry will slowly begin to dry out.
When should cherries be cut in autumn?
It is quite difficult to talk about the ideal time, because of the presence in Russia of different climatic zones, which determine the degree of readiness of cherries. In areas with a warm climate, you can not touch the cherry until November, which will not affect its “health” in any way. This plant is distinguished by its survival at relatively low temperatures.
In areas closer to the north, it is not recommended to stay longer than mid-September, because the first night frosts are unpredictable, and it is better to prepare for them in advance.
Important! If you have just planted a plant, and it is preparing to overwinter for the first time, we do not recommend adjusting its branches. Autumn shortening is a small test even for adult cherries, and young cherries can even lead to premature death.
Cherry pruning pattern
- Pruner cuts off the most overgrown branches that prevent the development of others. The skeletal branches that form the crown are not affected;
- Removal of small branches is usually done in the spring. In autumn, it is not advised to cut them and cause additional injuries to the tree;
Other notes and hints
- Shoots that grow down near the top of the head should be removed;
- In certain cases, cutting one large branch will be more useful than removing several small ones. Therefore, when adjusting cherries, one should be guided by the situation;
Types of cherries and methods of pruning
Cherries are divided into two types: bushy and tree. Depending on belonging to one of these types, the shape of the plant is adjusted taking into account its characteristics. So, in tree-like cherries, skeletal branches are more obvious, while it is not so easy to distinguish them from bush-shaped cherries.
In the cultivation of bush cherry, the main emphasis is on ensuring the active growth of shoots. Such cherries are able to bear fruit on shoots that have reached one year and are prone to thickening. Timely shortening of such shoots leads to the active development of lateral branches, while their removal threatens to dry out the entire branch.
The main recommendations for adjusting bush cherries are as follows:
- At the moment when the ends of the branches are exposed on a mature plant, they should be cut off about thirty percent of the total length, or even half;
- Skeletal branches shorten to dormant buds;
- Pruning of skeletal and semi-skeletal branches should be carried out at time intervals remote from each other, helping to improve the adaptation of the bush to external conditions and increase its fertility;
Important! If necessary, cherry thinning is extended over several seasons, because if there are too many, there is a risk that the cherry will not recover from a single removal.
Tree Cherry has pronounced skeletal branches and forms fairly large trees up to five meters in height. Cherries of this type bear fruit both on bouquet branches and on annual shoots growing from wood.
The main recommendations for correcting tree cherries are as follows:
- The main feature of caring for tree cherries is to apply not only the thinning procedure, but also shortening, which is vital for the tree. Shortening is applied mainly to young trees that have not yet formed their "backbone". They should remove the forks in time, strengthen the fruit branches and subordinate the secondary ones;
- Only long branches are subject to shortening, short ones remain unchanged;
Caring for a young cherry tree
Cherries grow very rapidly and bear fruit every year, for which they are loved by many gardeners. However, these plants also have their drawbacks, the main of which is a short life expectancy. By the age of ten, cherry trees begin to gradually wither, giving less and less fruit.
Given the short age of the cherry tree, it is necessary to start caring for its well-being immediately after planting. Seedlings are very sensitive to temperature changes and elementary careless handling, therefore they may not even live up to one year. About how to take care of the cherry, depending on its age, we tell below.
Table 1. Processing of young cherries by years
|Age of cherries||Cutting pattern|
|Up to year||Immediately after planting a seedling, you should decide on its most developed and "promising" branches, which will bear fruit in the future. Other branches should be cut under the ring, as the stumps left may begin to rot, causing damage to the young tree. The section of the cut is treated with a special compound. The remaining branches should be evenly spaced and not interfere with each other's growth|
|One year||It is possible to start shortening the cherry by the time it is one year old. You should start by cutting the top of the tree by twenty centimeters. The procedure is done closer to the second half of June, when the kidneys gradually begin to give new growths. Make sure that the shoots that are higher up are shorter than those that approach the base of the tree|
|Two years||At the age of two, the cherry is ready to form a full-fledged crown. Before shortening, branches should be selected in advance, which will be the crown skeletons. They are the most developed and strongest of all the other branches, and grow from the trunk at a forty degree angle. Shoots that are not related to such powerful branches are shortened by ten centimeters. In the event that they begin to interfere and take up too much space, it is allowed to completely get rid of them|
|Three years||In the third year, the cherry forms its more or less well-established "backbone", therefore the gardener is no longer required to frequently and radically shorten. It is enough to cut the shoots by ten centimeters to keep the fruitfulness of the cherry at the right level and thin out the branches, avoiding their overabundance. Among the shoots grown this year, leave one or two of the strongest, remove the rest|
|Four years||The main problem inherent in cherry in the fourth year of life is thickening, which occurs due to the active growth of branches. To avoid it, it is necessary to remove all shoots directed deep into the crown and cut off those branches that begin to compete with skeleton-forming ones. The main thing is to preserve the skeleton, which was planned in the second year. Of the newly grown shoots, also leave a couple of the most successful|
|Five years||Upon reaching the fifth anniversary, the cherry is in its prime. With proper care for her, she reflects the two most important criteria: subordination (weaker branches are shorter than skeletal ones) and layering (the higher the branch to the top, the shorter it is). Little is required of the gardener - cut off the excess and monitor the correct development of the tree|
As they grow older, it is allowed to leave new skeletal branches in the amount of 15-17 pieces so that the formed crown looks more harmonious. Withering and drying branches must be removed immediately.
Caring for a fruit-bearing tree
As the cherry matures, a complex of problems arises that the gardener will face sooner or later:
- The growth rate of the plant decreases;
- Shoots are exposed;
- Fruits ripen only on one crown segment;
- Lower branches begin to wilt;
- Due to the death of the skeletal branches, the crown thins and decreases in volume.
Mature and aging trees need more attention from the gardener. Rejuvenation is capable of helping a withering plant, giving a “second life” to cherries.
To determine the degree of rejuvenation, it is necessary to start from the growth given by the plant in recent years.