How big does a cherry tree grow


How to Grow a Cherry Tree: The Complete Guide

Have you ever wondered how to grow a cherry tree or why you would want to grow a cherry tree at all? The answer to “why” is because cherry trees are invariably attractive and produce useful fruit. Cherries are particularly lovely fruit trees — the blossoms are beautiful (the reason for cherry blossom festivals all over the world each year), the fruit is tasty, and the trees are quite easy to grow, with just a little care and knowledge.

As for “how,” this article will share what you need to know order to grow a cherry tree and enjoy the (literal) fruits of your labor!

When To Plant Cherry Trees

Cherry trees prefer sun and will grow strongly during the warmer month. When the tree is established, it will adapt its growth to the seasons, but when it is younger it may need some more tending.

To give your tree an advantage when it is young, plant it in spring, so that it can become relatively established over the spring, summer and early fall. If you live in a warmer climate, then you can plant in late winter, if the ground has not been frozen.

If the ground is frozen in the area where you live, wait until the ground is workable before planting. Always look out for the warning of a late frost. Take note of the general climate in your area and plan the planting accordingly.

Where To Plant Your Cherry Trees

When you choose to plant a cherry tree, there are a few things to consider. One is the size of the tree. Cherry trees can grow tall (up to 35 feet/10 meters) and most have a broad spread of branches (12-14 feet/ 3.5-4.5 meters) and have widespread branches.

This means that you must make sure you plant your tree far enough away from other trees, or larger plants, to allow the tree room for its fully mature spread.

The other thing to consider is the root system. You don’t want the roots to cause trouble with any structure in your garden, particularly a wall or even your house. Cherry trees tend to have a relatively shallow root system, but it does grow outward quite substantially as the roots look for oxygen.

The roots of a cherry tree can spread underground over an area that is even wider than the spread of the branches. So you must consider the spread of the tree above and below ground when you choose where to plant the tree.

Soil 

Cherry trees prefer a soft, well-drained soil that is quite fertile. Trees with sweet fruit require better drainage, while sour cherries are not quite so fussy.

When you plant a tree, the soil should be kept moist for a few days. This will keep the soil soft and draining effectively, but the tree will have enough water to absorb.

Light

Cherry trees need a lot of light, so make sure you plant your tree in a sunny spot, where they will receive at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight a day.

Water

Once cherry trees are established, they don’t need a lot of water. However, for the first year, or so, after planting, you will need to make sure that the sapling is watered regularly, keeping the soil damp. 

When you water your cherry tree, remember the broad spread of the roots and don’t only concentrate the water around the trunk. You don’t need to dampen the entire area of the roots, but do try to keep a slightly wider spread of water, possibly up to a meter around the trunk.

Because the root system of a cherry tree is relatively shallow, it will need to look for water mostly above the water table, so it is important that it receives water from above the soil as well – including rain, of course, but also from you watering it. Usually, cherry trees will be able to access water from a greater number of sources in summer, so take this into account when you water the tree.

Temperature and Humidity

Cherry trees are quite hardy and different cultivars, or varieties can tolerate different temperatures and weather conditions. Generally, though, cherries prefer generally cooler, drier climates. In fact, part of their growth cycle is to have a period of dormancy during a cold winter, which they will not get in a hotter, humid climate.

Even younger trees can tolerate frost quite well, but they can be sensitive to a late frost. This is because they come out of their dormancy period as the weather warms up and are not prepared to cope with very low temperatures.

Sweet cherries, in particular, are susceptible to a late frost. If a tree has started to bud when the late frost arrives, it will be hit harder than before budding. This makes late frost an important thing to take into consideration when you plan to plant your tree. With younger trees, protect your tree by using something like a burlap tree wrap.

Planting Multiple Trees: Cross-Pollination

Most cherry trees are not self-pollinating, so you need to have two trees, of different varieties, so that they can pollinate each other. Some types of cherry trees are not compatible, so you will need to do some solid research to make sure that the varieties of trees you choose will be able to cross-pollinate.

There are some varieties of sour cherries that are self-pollinating, but sweet cherries are generally not self-pollinating. However, the BlackGold and WhiteGold varieties are self-pollinating and can even be used as ‘universal pollinators’, as they are compatible with any variety of cherry.

Bees pollinate cherry trees and the period of blossoming and fertility is quite limited. Bees usually work in the earlier morning, so keep away from the trees during this period. Cooler weather may prolong the period of fertility, so keep an eye on your trees and the bees’ activity.

Varieties of Cherry Tree To Plant

Where you live will determine, to a degree, what variety of cherry tree you plant.

The Benton Cherry tree is a popular variety of cherry to grow in your garden. This is mainly because it is a relatively easy tree to grow. They are quite big trees, with wide-spreading branches and are remarkably hardy, requiring almost minimal maintenance. They are also quite resistant to frost. 

The Blackgold Cherry tree is another popular and hardy cherry to consider grow at home. It is quite frost-resistant and not as susceptible to diseases and pests as some other varieties. The tree needs to be watered regularly in the first year of growth. As they grow, the trees do not need to be watered very regularly.  

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How To Grow Your Cherry Trees

Cherry trees can be grown from three basics: the pit, a seedling/young tree, a bare root tree.

Bare root trees

Bare root trees are small trees that have had the soil removed from their roots, which are covered in plastic to protect them. These trees are usually available during winter and should be planted when the weather is still cold.

The soil you plant your bare root tree into cannot be hard, so you will either have to prepare a patch by working on it and making sure it is loose before you buy the trees, or you can place the trees in a small patch of loose soil until you are ready to plant them. This should not be longer than a few days.

Seedlings or young trees

You can buy cherry tree seedlings, or a young tree, to plant out.   Seedlings will need more care, so keep them in a pot in a protected area until they are ready to establish themselves. Young trees can be planted out quite easily.

From the pit

If you really do want to grow your own cherry tree from the beginning, then you can do so from the pit. You should begin with a few pits, as some of them may not sprout.

Make sure that the pits are clean of any trace of the fruit by soaking them thoroughly. Leave them to dry for a few days. After that keep them in a sealed container in the fridge for 7-10 days. This will simulate the dormancy period of winter.

The pits can be planted in pots that are full of loose soil, that is mixed with fertilizer. Before you do this, you must take them back to room temperature. Push the pits into the soil and water them enough so that the soil is moist. Do not over-water them. When the pits sprout and establish themselves as seedlings, you can plant them out

Planting the Trees

To plant your tree from any of these sources, you must make sure that the soil is loose. Do this by working the soil over with a garden fork. It should be loose to at least a foot (30cms) below the surface.

Dig a hole that is deep and wide enough to accommodate the root ball. This will usually be about 18 inches (45 cms) in diameter and 24 inches (60 cms) deep.

Place the roots of the plant into the hole and cover them, but keep some of the root ball showing – about 1 inch (2.5 cms) above the surface. Compact the soil around the tree gently, making sure that it does stay relatively loose. Do not tamp it down.

The level of the soil around the tree must be the same level as the surrounding area. Fruit trees must not sit in water, so there can’t be a hollow around the stem.

Make sure that you water the tree thoroughly for the first few weeks after it is planted. This does not mean keeping it in a pool of water, but making sure that the area around the stem is kept damp.

How To Grow a Cherry Tree In a Pot

There are some varieties of cherry trees that are dwarf, which can be grown in pots. Remember that these can grow to about 6 feet high, so you will need to prune and contain the trees carefully, to make sure that they don’t grow too big for your house.

One advantage that growing a cherry tree in a pot is that you will be able to move it inside during cold weather.

When you plant a young tree/seedling in a pot, make sure that you water it regularly to keep the soil damp. Do not overwater it, because if the roots sit in water, the tree’s growth will be affected. You will need to fertilize the tree at least every couple of months.

Fertilizing your cherry Tree

To keep your cherry tree healthy, you need to feed it regularly, by using the appropriate fertilizer. Cherry trees are ‘light feeders’, which means that they don’t use a lot of nutrients.

Like most plants, cherry trees need nitrogen, phosphate and potassium to grow, so make sure that the fertilizer you use contains all of these (just make sure the fertilizer is low in nitrogen). Phosphate and potassium boost the tree’s ability to fight diseases.

You can use a chemical fertilizer, but you could prefer to use organic options, which are based on compost and natural additives.

Pruning your cherry tree

All fruit trees need to be pruned regularly during the winter months. This promotes new growth in the spring and you’ll have a good crop of fruit in summer. For our complete guide to pruning your cherry tree, visit this link.

Harvesting your cherries

The whole point of growing a cherry tree is to enjoy the fruit, isn’t it? Once you have a lovely crop on your tree, you’ll need to harvest them. Knowing when and how to pick them will keep you from damaging the fruit.

You’ll know your cherries are ripe when they turn red. The darker red they are, the riper they are. If you pull gently on a cherry and it comes away easily, then it’s fully ripe. Don’t pick cherries when they still have any green on them, because they don’t continue to ripen once picked off the tree.

For more in-depth information about harvesting cherries, read our guide on picking cherries.

However, if you’re harvesting sour cherries for cooking, you can pick them when they’re not quite ripe. Make sure you cut the fruit off the tree, though.

Put the harvested cherries into a container, but don’t over-fill it or squash the cherries because you may damage them. Keep the cherries in the fridge as soon after as picking them as possible. This will keep the fruit fresh longer.

Cherry Tree Pests and Disease

Cherry tree pests and disease can come in a variety of forms and each one requires specialized action to treat and prevent them. Some pose greater threats than others to your cherry harvest, so educating yourself about each one is a necessary part of growing cherry trees in your garden.

Pests

Leaf damage caused by black cherry aphids.

Here are some of the common types of pests that you may have to deal with as you grow a cherry tree.

Birds

One of the greatest threats to the fruit on your cherry tree are birds, which are not easy to control. The best protection against losing your cherries to birds is to cover your tree with netting.

Black Cherry Aphids

In winter, keep an eye out for tiny black bugs clustering on the stems or under the leaves on your cherry tree. If your tree is a sweet cherry, then you must be even more vigilant, because they are more susceptible to this pest.

You should treat your tree for black cherry aphids by spraying it with horticultural oil. If you notice the leaves on your tree curling, then you must treat it. It is easier to get rid of the aphids before the leaves actually curl.

Borers

The American Plum Borer bores into the trunks of weakened trees.

The Peachtree borer goes for the base of the trunk of a cherry tree and affects the flow of nutrients to the tree. You can dig out the larvae, but it may be more effective to use a pesticide. You will need to get advice on what to use.

Shot hole borers dig into weakened branches in the tree, or into the trunk. If they are only in one/two branches, they can be removed. However, if the whole tree is affected, then it may not be possible to save the tree.

Pests tend to attack cherry trees that are weakened, so you keep your tree properly watered and fertilized.

Want to know more about other pests you may encounter? Click here to read our blog post on how to identify, treat, and prevent ten common cherry tree pests.

DiseasesCherries suffering from brown rot caused by a fungus.

Any plant can be infected by diseases, and cherry trees are no exception.

Leaf spot, canker and brown spot are some of these diseases. You will recognize these by leaves that develop dark spots, or begin to die. You should remove any diseased leaves, or even branches. When you do this, dip the pruning shears in a bleach solution to sterilize them before making the next cut, so that the disease doesn’t spread.

You can spray your tree with a fungicide to protect against these diseases. A fungicide will also help to prevent ripe fruit rot, brown rot, or twig blight. Consult your nursery or garden center to find out what fungicide you should use. If there is a lot of rain, you may need to repeat the spray of fungicide.

Most of the diseases that affect cherry trees are the result of over-watering. Make sure that the soil is kept moist, not very wet. The soil must be well-drained and kept quite loose.

For a more in-depth read about the identification, treatment, and prevention of the ten most common cherry tree diseases, visit our blog article here.

FAQs

Are cherry trees easy to grow?

Cherry trees need to be established carefully. After that, they are relatively easy to look after. Keep them healthy by watering regularly, but not too much, and fertilizing them periodically.

Can I grow a cherry tree at home?

Cherry trees tend to be large trees, so you’ll need a good size space in your yard to grow one of them. As long as you have the right conditions for the tree, including at least 6 hours of direct sunlight, then this is a lovely tree to have at home.

What kind of soil do cherry trees prefer?

Cherry trees prefer to grow in well-drained soil that contains nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

Make Cherry Trees Part of Your Garden!

A cherry tree makes a great (and tasty) addition to a home garden. Our guides can help you pick just the right one.

Now that you know how to grow a cherry tree, visit our Cherry Trees hub page to read about different cherry tree varieties you can grow, plus other cherry-related informational articles.

How Big Do Cherry Trees Get? | Home Guides

By Ruth de Jauregui Updated June 15, 2020

Cherry trees (Prunus spp.) range in size from 8-foot-tall tart cherry bushes to 80-foot-tall wild cherry trees. Hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 2 through 9, depending on the species, nearly every cherry tree produces fruit. The size of a cherry tree depends on its species, cultivar and dwarfing rootstock.

Sweet Cherry Tree

A standard sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium) can grow up to 35 feet tall and 25 feet wide, according to the Arbor Day Foundation. 'Bing,' hardy in USDA zones 5 through 8, is available as a standard, semi-dwarf and dwarf. A 'Bing' standard tree generally grows 18 to 25 feet tall, and it may reach 35 feet tall under ideal conditions. A 'Bing' semi-dwarf ranges from 15 to 18 feet tall, and the dwarf cultivar grows 12 to 15 feet tall and equally wide. You'll need a second, compatible tree to pollinate your 'Bing' tree to ensure a good harvest of the sweet, dark red cherries.

The 'Rainier' cherry's yellow fruits, blushed with red and with a sweet flavor, make the tree a favorite in the garden. While the size of the 'Rainier' standard, semi-dwarf and dwarf trees are comparable with 'Bing' trees, it is one of the last to bloom in spring, while 'Bing' blooms in early spring. You can grow 'Rainier' cherries in USDA zones 5 through 9.

Tart or Pie Cherry

Tart cherries (Prunus cerasus), also known as sour or pie cherries, are smaller than sweet cherry trees. Utah State University Extension reports that tart cherry trees may grow up to 20 feet tall and equally wide. The tart cherry found most often in commercial settings is 'Montmorency.' The large bright red fruit ripen in early to mid-summer. 'Montmorency' is also available to home gardeners as semi-dwarf and dwarf trees, which reach heights up to 12 and 8 feet tall, respectively.

A recent addition to the tart cherry cultivars are the tart cherry bushes developed by the University of Saskatchewan. 'Carmine Jewel' (Prunus fruticosa x Prunus cerasus), first released in Canada in 1999, produces dark red cherries on 6- to 8-foot tall bushes. In addition to the smaller size, the cherry bushes begin producing fruit two to three years after planting. Hardy in USDA zones 3 through 8, the 'Carmine Jewel' cherry plant is self-fertilizing like most tart cherries, but it will produce better with a second, compatible cultivar planted nearby.

Wild Cherry Tree

The largest of the North American native cherry trees, the black cherry (Prunus serotine), also known as rum cherry, grows up to 80 feet tall and 60 feet wide. The small, dark purple to black cherries are edible, and they can be used as a flavoring for brandy and whiskey or to make jams and jellies. Once pitted, the cherry fruit also can be eaten fresh.

The North Carolina Extension warns, however, that the seeds, leaves, stems, bark and roots contain cyanide compounds and are extremely poisonous. The black cherry tree is hardy in USDA zones 2 through 8.

Ornamental Cherry Trees

Flowering cherry trees fill spring gardens with white to pink flowers. Grown for the beauty of their flowers, ornamentals like ‘Amanogawa’ cherry (Prunus serrulata 'Amanogawa') and weeping Higan cherry (Prunus × subhirtella var. pendula) grow as tall as 25 feet in USDA zones 5 through 7 and 5 through 8, respectively.

Perhaps the best-known of the ornamental flowering cherries, the 'Yoshino' (Prunus × yedoensis), blooms every spring in Washington D.C. This is also the cherry tree often depicted in Japanese fine art. Hardy in USDA zones 5 through 8, the Arbor Day Foundation reports that mature trees may reach 40 to 50 feet tall.

References

  • Arbor Day Foundation: Bing Cherry
  • Utah State University Extension: Tart Cherries in the Garden
  • North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox: Prunus Serotina
  • Arbor Day Foundation: Yoshino Cherry

Writer Bio

Ruth de Jauregui is an old-school graphic artist and writer who focuses primarily on garden topics. She writes a weekly garden column and authored 50 Fabulous Tomatoes for Your Garden. She continues to write nonfiction articles on gardening and other topics and is working on a second "50" book about plants that attract hummingbirds.

description, cultivars, planting cherries, care, cultivation features, how to plant them correctly, methods of reproduction, diseases and pests

Cherry (Cerasus) is a small shrub or tree with thin branches and a spherical crown. The fruiting of the plant is active, the fruits are round, sweet and sour.

Contents

  • 1 Biological features of the plant
  • 2 Popular crop varieties
  • 3 Planting details
  • 4 Features of crop care
  • 5 Cherry care tips (video)
  • 6 How to grow a cherry tree
  • 7 Two ways to propagate cherries
  • 8 Diseases and pests of cherries
  • 9 How to prune cherries (video)

Biological characteristics of the plant

Fruiting cherry begins from the third year. A good harvest from a tree can be expected from the fifth year. All plant varieties are subdivided into:

  • dendritic,
  • bushy.

The latter are distinguished by the fact that their skeletal branches are quickly exposed. Fruiting occurs mainly on the growth of the previous year.

Popular cultivars

Before you start growing cherries, you should decide on the choice of variety. Most often, gardeners use the Ordinary variety, , which is distinguished by sweet fruits and good fruiting. When choosing between varieties, you should pay attention to such plant qualities as productivity, demanding care and drought resistance.

Early varieties

If there is a desire to get an early harvest, it is recommended to pay attention to early ripening varieties. Their fruiting begins in early July. Early ripe varieties are also distinguished by the fact that they develop quickly and have good yields. The most popular varieties of the presented type are indicated in the table.

Variety name Key Features Fruit quality Frost, disease and pest resistant
"In memory of Enikeev" Medium-sized tree with an oval crown, medium foliage. The variety was obtained from varieties "Korinka" and "Zhukovskaya" Large, dessert flavor Medium resistance
Saniya The result of crossing varieties "Purple" and "Vladimirskaya". Medium-sized plant 3 meters tall, crown shape - ball Medium size, sour, suitable for fresh consumption and for preparations Good stability
Vostorg About 10 kilograms of berries are obtained from a bush. The tree is the result of crossing the 'Spark' variety and pollen mix Fruit large, oval, juicy Often affected by monilia
Pink bottle (Prunus cerasus) Productivity - up to 10 kilograms, grows throughout Russia Berry weight - 3 grams, fruits are suitable for processing and fresh consumption Good winter hardiness
"Amorel Nikiforovna" Cherry tree, ripening by mid-June, growing in Russia Fruits have a sour taste, red color Good winter tolerance
English Early Old variety, bred in England, small tree, narrow pyramidal crown Berries do not crumble when ripe, red Demanding heat
Waiting Small tree requiring artificial pollination Medium Berries Prone to fruit rot

Medium varieties

Mid-season varieties are characterized by an average ripening period (from mid-July). They are great for growing in Central Russia.

Variety name Key Features Fruit quality Frost, disease and pest resistant
"Youth" (Cerasus Molodezhnaya) The result of crossing varieties "Vladimirskaya" and "Lyubskaya", up to 2.5 meters tall, drooping crown Oval, up to 4.5 grams, sweet and sour Frost-resistant variety, susceptible to coccomycosis and moniliosis
Turgenevka Tree height up to 3 meters, reverse pyramidal crown Fruit dark red, large, up to 5 grams, small stones High winter hardiness, medium resistance to diseases and pests
"Hope" (Nadezdha) Tree height up to 6 meters, round crown, medium foliage

Fruit large (6 grams), dark red, sweet with slight sourness

Good winter hardiness and disease resistance
Vladimirskaya An old variety, widespread in the Vladimir region, has the shape of a bush, the crown is rounded Fruits are small, up to 3. 7 grams, color is almost black, taste is sour Tolerates frost well, often suffers from diseases
Zhukovskaya Grows up to 2.5 meters, rare crown Deep red fruits, juicy Disease resistance medium
Kharitonovskaya Medium in height, partial self-fertility Bright red berries, sour, well pitted, medium in size Medium resistance
Morozovka Medium-sized tree with lush crown, blooms in spring Berries weighing up to 5.4 grams, dessert flavor, suitable for canning and fresh consumption Drought and disease resistant variety
Griot moskovskii Tree with medium sized round canopy, requires pollinators Berries with a sour taste, dark color, up to a ton of harvest can be obtained from a hundred square meters Not afraid of frost, medium disease resistance

Late maturing varieties

Late varieties of cherries begin to ripen in August. They are great for canning and eating fresh. Most late varieties are winter hardy.

Variety name Key Features Fruit quality Frost, disease and pest resistant
Apukhtinskaya It is a clone of the variety "Lotovaya", grows in the Tula region, height up to 3 meters, spreading crown Berries are round, dark red, weighing up to 3.5 grams Medium winter hardiness, may be affected by coccomycosis
Bolotovskaya Bred by Bolotov, reaches a height of 2 meters, spreading crown Fruits are round, small, weighing 2.5 grams, sweet and sour Good winter hardiness, may be affected by coccomycosis
Vakhitovskaya Well leafy crown, tree height 1.5 meters Fruit small, dark red, weighing up to 2 grams Disease and pest resistant, frost tolerant
Gorkovskaya Pyramidal crown, multi-stem bush, height up to 3 meters Fruits are small, dark red, harmonious taste Winter hardiness is good, cherry is slightly susceptible to disease
Korostynskaya Suitable for growing in the Nizhny Novgorod region, height up to 4 meters, crown of medium foliage Fruits are small, up to 2. 5 grams, tart, dark red Good frost resistance, moderate disease resistance
Lotovaya The crown is drooping, the height of the tree is up to 2.5 meters, fruiting on annual branches Fruits, sour, round, weighing up to 4 grams Moderate disease resistance, branches may be affected by frost
Lyubskaya The tree reaches a height of 2.5 meters, drooping crown, fruiting on annual branches Berries large, red, sour May be affected by coccomycosis, cannot withstand severe frosts

Details of fit

Even good care will not guarantee that you will be able to grow a cherry tree, if some subtleties were not observed when planting. The following rules must be observed during this procedure:

  1. Only varieties suitable for your area can be planted.
  2. It is worth choosing only high-quality seedlings with a well-developed root system.
  3. The optimal time for planting is mid-April.
  4. The place should be located on a hill and be sunny.
  5. The soil for the tree should be light, loamy or sandy, fertile.

Crop Care Features

Basic maintenance work - loosening the soil, watering, fertilizing, pruning, pest control. Fertilizers are applied in autumn. In summer, weeds should be removed near the bush.

How to fertilize

It is recommended to fertilize under the cherry tree in autumn. Bird droppings, manure, compost can act as top dressing. In some cases, mineral dressings designed specifically for fruit trees can be applied.

In the process of loosening the soil, potash and phosphate fertilizers can be added. Nitrogen top dressing is done in the spring. Nitrogen should not be applied in the fall.

Watering Regulations

The plant does not require constant and abundant watering. It is recommended to apply moisture under the bush during fruit ripening. Also, the tree should be watered immediately after harvesting. The last watering is carried out before October 20 and is called winter. About 7 buckets of water are brought under each tree.

How to form a crown

Optimal crown shape options - flattened, sparsely-tiered, fusiform. You can form a crown in the following ways:

  • thinning;
  • shortening.

The thinning method involves the removal of shoots and branches into a ring and as a whole. As a result, the crown becomes smaller in diameter and transmits light and air well, which contributes to the development of berries.

The shortening method involves pruning branches that are longer than 40 centimeters. The purpose of the work is to stimulate the formation of new branches.

Cherry: care features (video)

Cherry Cultivation Regulations

Almost all cherries are self-fertile. This means that pollinating plants should be planted next to them.

The choice of location for the tree plays an important role. Fruiting of the plant for 15 years is possible if it was planted in a bright place.

The occurrence of groundwater at the location of the tree should not exceed one and a half meters.

How to improve tree growth

There are many ways to improve the growth of cherries.

  • Cherries should be planted in a sunny position to obtain sufficient carbohydrates for the plant.
  • Limestone must be present in the soil.
  • Manure is added to the soil to reduce acidity.
  • When planting a seedling in a hole, it is recommended to place pieces of concrete.
  • Fertilizers are applied weakly concentrated and in small quantities.
  • Only friendly plants should be planted near cherries.
  • Be sure to place a pollinator plant next to the cherry.
  • Timely pruning is of great importance.

The best result is following all these recommendations at the same time.

Importance of planting spraying

So that the cherry does not get sick, it should be treated with special preparations. To prevent coccomycosis (Coccomyces) spraying with antifungal agents is used. From moniliosis (Moniliasis) helps "Nitrafen" (Nitrafen) . Protection against aphids (Myzus cerasi) , sawfly (Symphyta) and shoot moth (Argyresthia pruniella) is carried out by Corado (Corrado) and Iskra (Iskra).

How to protect a tree from frost

Protect the tree from frost even at the planting stage. To do this, the cherry is placed on a plot with a slope of 45 degrees. You can build a roofing felt fence near the plant. To do this, a groove is dug around the tree, stakes are inserted into it, and then the roofing material is pulled.

Quality sun protection

There are many ways to protect cherries from the sun. Among the most popular are the following:

  1. Tree trunks are whitewashed in autumn.
  2. You can tie several layers of newspapers or white paper around the trunks of seedlings.
  3. For the winter, the trunk can be tied with roofing felt, and wrapped with light foil on top.
  4. Snow, tomato and potato tops, boards can be used as winter protection.

Two ways to propagate cherries

Propagation of the plant does not cause problems, the gardener will have enough knowledge about selection for this. There are 2 main methods of reproduction - vegetative and seed.

Vegetative tree propagation

The easiest way is to propagate by shoots. You can get it from any tree. It is better to take a cutting in the spring. Before planting the seedling, the cut is treated with garden pitch, and the main root is trimmed.

Tree seed propagation

Seed propagation involves stratification. Seeds are taken only from released varieties. Moss, sawdust of coniferous trees or river sand can serve as a substrate for a 200-day stratification. Sowing material that has passed stratification is carried out in the spring. The seeds are deepened by 5-6 centimeters, while a distance of about half a meter should remain between them.

Diseases and pests of cherries

All fruit trees, including cherry ones, are affected by diseases and pests. The presence of pests and fungi reduces the yield of plants and leads to their death. However, there are many tools that will help save both plants and crops.

How to save plants from diseases

The most common disease in cherries is klyasterosporiosis (Klyasterosporioz) . You can recognize it by spotty holes on the leaves. You can get rid of the disease if you immediately remove the affected parts of the plant. As a preventive measure, spraying with copper chloride in combination with Bordeaux liquid is used.

Another scourge of cherries is coccomycosis. The fungus attacks fruits and leaves and appears as reddish spots. The treatment is carried out by spraying with Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride. Fallen leaves should be destroyed.

From moniliosis (fruit rot) collection and disposal of infected fruits helps. Treatment with fungicides and Bordeaux liquid also gives a good effect.

You can find out more information about the types of cherry diseases and how to treat them here.

Major pests and control

The main pests of cherries are sawflies (Symphyta) , hawthorn (Aporia crataegi) , plum codling moth (Grapholita funebrana) . The greatest danger is represented by sawflies, which are able to completely destroy the foliage. The fight against them is carried out using Aktelik (Aktellik) and Piriton (Pyrithione zinc).

The hawthorn caterpillar feeds on the leaves and buds of the tree. To get rid of it, biological agents and insecticides are used. The plum codling moth spoils the berries by laying eggs inside them. Carbophosphate is used to kill the butterfly.

Wood maintenance

Cherry will not get sick if you take care of its protection in the spring. It will be necessary to process not only the tree, but also the soil. It is necessary to fight pests by smearing the sections with garden pitch and treating the trunk with copper sulphate.

How to cut cherries correctly (video)

Cherry is a valuable shrub revered by gardeners because of its beautiful appearance and delicious berries. It will be possible to grow it on your site if you choose the right seedling and planting site, protect the plant from diseases and pests, and competently carry out a number of care activities.

90,000 ripening, growth, flowering, description, varieties of

Content:

  • Characteristics of culture
  • A brief description of popular varieties, types of wood/cherry bush
    • Combination of qualities needed by the gardener
    • Other varieties of
  • Growing cherries in the garden
    • Propagation methods
    • Planting
  • Care instructions
    • Loosening
    • Fertilizer
    • Watering
    • Pruning
    • Wintering
    • Protection against pests and diseases

especially laborious. The only resource expended is time, including at least one winter for the cherry to adapt to garden conditions. And after that, a properly cultivated plant will bring a plentiful and healthy harvest.

Crop characteristics

Cherry is a tree or shrub belonging to the Rosaceae family. The closest relatives of cherries are bird cherry, apricot and other representatives of the Plum genus. The total length of active fruiting of one plant is an average of 25 years.

The cherry tree reaches a height of 6 meters. Cherry shrub grows to half the size and does not have a pronounced main trunk. Usually cherry looks like a bush or a tree, formed by several equivalent curved stems. The plant forms a dense and lush, highly branched crown, which is why it is imperative to carry out procedures for its formation.

The shrub has dark green rounded leaves with a carved edge and reticulated venation, pointed with a tooth at the top, a characteristic grayish-brown color of the bark of an even texture. The underside of the leaves is often lighter in color due to pubescence. On the branch, the leaves are not located opposite to each other, but in turn.

Cherry tree

Cherry flower - white or pale pink, with bright reddish stamens in the middle, five-leaved.

Please note! Pink color is more characteristic of the decorative type of sakura. Each cherry inflorescence contains a pair of flowers. In the Siberian region, cherry begins to bloom in late spring - early summer.

Cherry berry is a fruit of the same name with a single rounded hard stone inside. The pulp is very juicy and sweet, dark pink or burgundy, on top of the berry is covered with a dense and smooth shiny burgundy skin.

Cherry trees prefer sunny locations, rich in humus (organic matter) soil. Cherry tolerates dry periods and frosts well, therefore it grows everywhere and is planted in both warm and temperate regions with long winters and cold springs.

Brief description of popular varieties, species of cherry tree/bush

More than 20 varieties of garden cherries and sweet cherries are grown in Russia, there are more than 150 in the world. Cherries have been fully cultivated over the past centuries, and wild forms are no longer found. In scientific disputes about what a cherry is, it is more often considered a plant derived from crossing wild species of steppe cherries and sweet cherries. The culture obtained in the process of artificial selection ousted its ancestors from the forests due to the fact that it surpassed them in endurance and resistance to negative climatic factors.

Felt cherry

Nord Star cherry

Cherry is found only in tree form, felt cherry grows as a shrub. In sweet cherries, the color of the bark varies greatly in the spectrum from red to silver, the fruits of different varieties can be yellow, burgundy or brown when mature.

Important! Despite the cold-resistant qualities of the whole genus, garden cherries are more frost-resistant than sweet cherries.

Ripening dates

When do cherries ripen? Varieties are divided into categories by maturity, early, mid-season and late. This important parameter sets how many cherry blossoms, the period of formation of berries and their ripening. In other words, the growing season indicates how soon after the start of the warm season the crop will be obtained.

Early maturing, July-harvesting varieties bear the following names:

  • Waiting - chokeberry;
  • Consumer goods - large and tasty cherries;
  • Crimson - a cherry with a bright crimson color that is weaker in terms of cold resistance.

Medium-term ripening in the following varieties:

  • Surprise - resistant non-self-pollinating variety with large red berries;
  • Zagoryevskaya - cherry, vulnerable to diseases, but very cold-resistant;
  • Anthracite - dark berries, very resistant to frost, pathogens, pollinated independently;
  • Cinderella - light berries with excellent resistance to cold and diseases;
  • Rossoshanskaya - ripe black berries, tolerates irregular watering, drought, cold;
  • Meeting, Notka, Companion, Solidarity, Glance, Remarkable, Revival.

Later than all, at the end of the fruiting season, the fruits of the following varieties will ripen:

  • Rusinka - dark sour berries, resistant to frost, small shrub up to two meters;
  • Lyubskaya - gives a big harvest;
  • Belle - tolerates frost well and bears many fruits;
  • Nord Star - self-pollinating, not susceptible to fungal diseases;
  • Toy and Erudite.

A good solution for a large garden is to plant plants from different categories, which will expand the time frame for harvesting cherries. One after another, early varieties will ripen first, then mid-ripening and at the end of the season, cherries that ripen later than everyone else.

For a site in a temperate zone, in which, for example, the city of Voronezh is located, it is worth choosing varieties with a short ripening period.

Planting cherry seedlings

A combination of qualities needed by a gardener

For the efficiency of their work, the owners of orchards and orchards must think over in advance a plan for growing any fruit and berry plant, including cherries.

Important! The main thing that needs to be identified as the main obstacles is the climatic conditions common in the neighboring areas of the disease and pests, the required variety indicators.

Depending on the needs of the grower, the variety is selected with the most suitable data according to the description. It is better to study in advance the theory that characterizes this variety, familiarize yourself with the common difficulties encountered in growing, the market price of plants.

When there are several varieties in mind that fully satisfy the gardener's wishes with their description, it remains to get the seedlings at the right time. If the owner prefers to buy seedlings from specialized farms or shops, an order should be made in advance. Before planting, you can, by agreement, take cuttings from familiar summer residents who already have fruit-bearing cherries of a suitable variety.

The main selection criteria for cherry varieties that need to be taken into account are:

  • Frost resistance - the ability of a plant to tolerate low ambient temperatures without losing viability. A frost-resistant tree will not suffer from frosts in spring and autumn, and will also begin to bud earlier. Such varieties are less susceptible to damage and death during severe winter frosts, which is one of the main conditions for selecting a garden in a Siberian garden.
  • Immunity - some successful breeding products have increased resistance to fungal, viral and bacterial diseases. Disease-resistant cherries will put all their energy into just fruiting and produce a good harvest as a result.
  • Pollination - the method of pollination of cherries depending on the type of flowers. In order to form a berry, the flowers must be pollinated, which requires the presence of flowers of both sexes - male and female. Self-pollinating trees have both types of flowers, and non-self-pollinating plants need to be purchased in pairs so that they complement each other.
  • The taste of fruits is undoubtedly one of the most important parameters for fruit and berry crops. According to preliminary reviews of other owners, it can be concluded whether the taste qualities of the gardener will suit. Varieties vary in very sweet and sour-sweet berries.

Other varieties

Dwarf varieties suitable for both ornamental and fruit function - these small compact shrubs or cherry trees will look good in open areas of the garden when in bloom. Cherry bushes of low growth allow you to conveniently harvest the entire crop without residue.

Late large-fruited varieties of cherries give the highest yield. These include Meeting, the sweet variety Leningradskaya.

Leningradskaya

Growing cherries in the garden

Propagation methods

Cherry Prima

The first task for growing cherries as a new crop on the site is to obtain seedlings or ready-made seedlings. Bones, cuttings, branches can be selected from adult plants for propagation. Fragments of the cherry root system can also give rise to new shoots. The most accessible of these methods is cuttings. The stalk - a fragment with buds, separated from a plant branch - forms new leaves and a root, which over time can grow into a new tree.

Please note! The best cuttings are the top shoots of an adult cherry. They should have 5-6 leaves each, and the average length should be 10-12 cm. The cuttings are planted in a mixture of sand and peat treated with potassium permanganate.

Cherry pits from garden cherries are also able to sprout. They are sown in a specially designated place in open ground for stratification - winter cooling. Coming out of stratification, the bones hatch and sprout in the spring.

A year later, branches of cultivated sweet cherries are grafted onto the seedlings. Without grafting, the fruits on the seedling in the first years will be sour and inappropriate for the characteristics of the parent tree. The seedling or base tree will act as a rootstock.

  1. An inch notch is made on the bark for grafting;
  2. A fresh cultivated branch is cut obliquely;
  3. The branch is attached inside the serif like a natural branch, so that the edges of the woody fibers of the plants touch and have the opportunity to grow together.

Planting

Ready or self-grafted seedlings at the age of 2 years can be planted in a permanent place.

Please note! Landing in the ground is carried out in the spring or autumn, always at the beginning of the season. Spring cherries during the warm season will be able to grow and take root in comfortable conditions. It is recommended to plant trees in the evening, certainly before the opening of new buds.

In addition to the timing, it is important to know where the cherry grows best and from which area you should expect a larger harvest. Plants are placed at a distance of at least a couple of meters from each other in a sunny place, in fertilized soil. Be sure to take into account the method of pollination of this variety of cherries and plant paired plants nearby. For the winter, young seedlings are temporarily dug into a recess, covered with pine branches and a thick layer of snow, from where they can be removed without damage next year.

Care instructions

Fairy Cherry

Rules common to all fruit crops also apply to the cherry tree.

Loosening

The soil around the trunk must be loosened regularly. The roots are located superficially, so this procedure should be performed carefully. Ordinary cherries that have not developed much drought tolerance need frequent watering and do not tolerate dehydration well.

Fertilizer

A year later, the cherries are fertilized with organic matter, compounds containing phosphates and potassium. A dosage of 25 g of each type of fertilizer is required per square meter.

Phosphorus fertilizers are most often granular mineral fertilizers that are applied to the soil

Fertilization with nitrogen-containing substances is carried out twice annually, before bud break and during fruiting. Unlike other types of dressings, nitrogen is applied not under the roots, but throughout the entire territory of cherry growth. Nitrogen fertilizer requires about 15 g at a time.

Watering

During the period after flowering, when the cherry is ripe, it needs regular watering for intensive metabolism. The gardener in one procedure must moisten a half-meter area of ​​soil around the trunk and the same depth. About 30 liters of water should go at a time.

Learn! At high temperatures and dry weather, the trees are watered every day, during normal times the watering regime is greatly reduced. Greening and flowering trees should normally be watered less frequently than weekly.

The irrigation season starts after cherry blossoms, at the time of fruit formation, and ends after leaf fall in autumn. Finally, before wintering, the plant is watered tightly so that the root soil cools more slowly, and the roots are moistened and fed to increase resistance to cold.

Pruning

In summer, broken and dead stem branches are cut from the tree, leaving the living shoots with buds and green leaves intact. In order to avoid infection, the pruning sites are treated with charcoal. Old branches that interfere with the gardener are subject to removal. The main trunk, before the start of budding, is cut off if necessary, so that the side branches grow, and the tree stops stretching in height - such pruning is more convenient later for picking berries.

Young trees are to be shaped for the convenience of the owner, as well as to achieve a physiologically beneficial bush shape that will give a greater yield. So superfluous and too frequent, weak branches are removed so that the strong ones receive more light and air. To expand the shape of the tree to the base, cut off the branches growing towards the trunk. Sections are necessarily treated with special compounds to avoid infection.

Pruning cherries

Wintering

Young seedlings and two-year-old cherries should be fed before winter, sprinkled, covered with a layer of coniferous branches and a snow cushion, which will prevent the roots from freezing out during severe frosts. To protect against pathogens, the trunk is whitened with lime and treated with a copper composition.

Protection against pests and diseases

Mites and powdery mildew are treated in cherries with sulfur-containing solutions: it is required to treat the plant regularly before flowering as a preventive measure.


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