How big does a mustard tree get


20 Mind-blowing Mustard Tree Facts That You Probably Didn’t Know

Last Updated on May 17, 2022

The mustard, scientifically known as Salvadora perisica, is a popular evergreen shrub that can grow to a height of 20 feet and produce a crown nearly as wide.

But as you shall find, the actual size of a mature mustard tree largely depends on the specific plant variety and growing conditions. Some trees can grow to a paltry six feet tall, whereas others can achieve an impressive height of 30 feet.

If you’re planning to add a mustard tree to your home garden, it’s prudent to begin by learning everything there is to know about the plant. And if you’re looking for a resourceful guide into mustards, then you’re in luck.

In this post, we highlight 20 interesting facts about the mustard tree. Some of these are basic details that any aspiring mustard cultivator would need to know. Others are simply mind-blowing mustard facts that might make you fall deeper in love with these exotic bushes.

Table of Contents

    • 1. Tree size and leaf appearance
    • 2. Flower and fruit appearance
    • 3. Origin
    • 4. Etymology
    • 5. Ideal growing conditions
    • 6. Varieties
    • 7. Cultivation requirements
    • 8. Growth stages
    • 9. Maturation
    • 10. Lifespan
    • 11. Reproduction
    • 12. Uses
    • 13. Spiritual benefits
    • 14. Safety concerns
    • 15. Production
    • 16. Consumption
    • 17. Recognition in art
    • 18. Recognition in literature
    • 19. Recognition in linguistics
    • 20. Mustard seeds aren’t the smallest
  • Conclusion

1. Tree size and leaf appearance

As we’ve just mentioned, mustards can grow to a height of 20 feet and spread nearly as wide. Depending on varieties and climatic conditions, some mustard trees can grow to be as short as 6 feet or as tall as 30 feet.

Mustard trees produce oval leaves, which usually appear in sets of two on opposite ends of the stem. The leaves generally start out as dark-green but continually progress to yellowish-green as the tree ages.

Mustard leaves are fairly fleshy and succulent. A regular leaf can measure 3 inches long and 1 inch wide.

2. Flower and fruit appearance

Mustards are flowering plants. They produce small green or yellowish flowers along 12-inch-long tendrils.

The flowers eventually develop into ½-inch-diameter pink or scarlet berries, which are distinguishable by their striking translucency.

3. Origin

The mustard tree originated in Persia (modern-day Iran). The shrub is still fairly widespread around this region.

Other common places you’ll find the mustard tree include in the Orient, northern Africa, and the East Indies.

However, due to its incredible resilience and adaptability, mustard is now common in various countries around the world. The tree is commercially cultivated in Canada, the US, the UK, and Denmark.

4. Etymology

The word mustard comes from two Latin words “mustum ardens,” which loosely translates to ‘burning wine.

That’s due to the unique flavor that results from mixing powdered mustard seeds with wine grapes.

5. Ideal growing conditions

Mustards thrive in hot and arid climate, which happens to be the very conditions that prevail in the tree’s native region – Iran. The trees also do well in well-draining, sandy soil.

However, mustards are highly prone to mold growth. Therefore, they’re least suited for humid conditions.

In the United States, mustards thrive in the south, within hardlines zones 7 through 11.

6. Varieties

There are around 40 different mustard varieties. The most common ones include the white, black, and brown mustards.

Besides these three major varieties, there are numerous other mustard cultivars. Examples include Florida Broadleaf, Southern Giant Curled, Green Wave, Red Giant, Tendergreen, to mention but a few.

7. Cultivation requirements

Mature mustards are relatively low-maintenance plants. However, the trees may benefit from early care.

For off, it’s important to begin by soaking mustard seeds to ensure quick germination. It’s also recommended to grow the seeds in nursery pots and care for them for a couple of weeks before transplanting them to the garden.

When planting mustard seedlings, be sure to clear the site of any weeds and bushes. Then, plant the trees about 12 to 15 feet apart.

Next, water the plants regularly (preferably weekly) to encourage root penetration. In the same breath, note that mustard roots are deep-penetrating and water-seeking. Therefore, avoid planting mustards near septic systems as their roots may cause damage.

8. Growth stages

Mustard trees go through eight growth stages during their life cycle.

They include:

• Germination
• Leaf development
• Stem elongation
• Inflorescence emergence
• Flowering
• Fruit development
• Ripening
• Senescence

9. Maturation

Mustards are among the fastest-growing garden trees out there.

The plants typically cover the ground within four to five weeks of planting them. By this time, the roots are usually already firmly grounded into the soil.

Yellow mustard varieties can reach full maturity in as few as 80 days. Other varieties, such as the brown and Oriental mustards, normally mature within 90 to 95 days.

In terms of flowering, you can expect the first mustard blossoms within six weeks.

10. Lifespan

Most mustard varieties are annual plants. Which implies that they have one life cycle in one year (or within their 80 – 95 days lifespan).

However, some varieties are biennial – have two life cycles in a year.

11. Reproduction

Mustards are bisexual plants, which implies that an individual mustard tree can have both male and female reproductive organs.

However, the trees are somewhat inefficient at self-pollination. They mostly rely on insects like bees to pollinate them.

12. Uses

The mustard tree has a variety of applications. Extracts from the plant are widely used in the manufacture of toothbrushes. That’s due to the tree’s antibacterial properties, which may come in handy in preventing plaque.

Mustard fruits and seeds may also be consumed as nutritious supplements. They can be eaten raw or used as ingredients in various cuisines. The seeds have been cited for their abundance in dietary fiber as well as vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, and selenium. In places like the Punjab regions, dried mustard fruits are popular flavor enhancers and appetite boosters.

Notable medical conditions that mustard may help with include:

• Blood disorders like hypertension
• Headaches and migraine
• Rheumatism
• Asthma

Mustard is also considered an ornamental plant and makes an excellent addition to home gardens. It’s especially noted for its low branches and wide spread, which may provide a natural shade in your home garden.

13. Spiritual benefits

Besides their immense therapeutic and nutritional applications, mustards may also have spiritual uses.

In India and Denmark, it’s believed that spreading mustard seeds along the perimeter of a house may help to ward off evil spirits.

14. Safety concerns

Numerous studies have found that mustard oil could be unsafe for human consumption.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), mustard oil contains erucic acid. Long-term consumption of this acid may cause heart disease.

15. Production

Although mustards are native to Asia, Canada holds the record for the world’s largest manufacturer of mustard seeds.

The country accounts for up to 50% of globally consumed mustard seeds.

16. Consumption

Mustards are among the world’s most widely consumed plants. About 700 million pounds of mustard-based products are consumed worldwide every year.

North America accounts for the highest percentage of the world’s annual mustard consumption.

17. Recognition in art

Did you know that the Mount Horeb Mustard Museum in Wisconsin is dedicated exclusively to the mustard tree?

The museum boasts over 5,000 jars of mustard plants drawn from over 60 countries and 50 states.

18. Recognition in literature

The Bible is probably the earliest literature material where the mustard plant is widely mentioned. Classic examples of Biblical allusions to the mustard are found in the Parables of Jesus in the gospel books.

A 1912 book, titled “The Mustard Tree: An Argument on Behalf of the Divinity of Christ,” also contains numerous references to the mustard.

19. Recognition in linguistics

There’s a popular saying that goes “can’t cut the mustard.” It basically means ‘can’t live up to a challenge.’

However, language experts have been struggling to find a nexus between this phrase and mustards. That’s especially considering how remarkably easy it is to slice or even cultivate the plant.

20. Mustard seeds aren’t the smallest

Mustard seeds are widely considered the smallest seeds in the plant kingdom. The seeds measure about 2 millimeters in diameter. In fact, according to the Bible, you only need faith the size of a mustard seed to move mountains.

But unknown to many people, mustard seeds aren’t the smallest seeds available. With their 2 mm diameter, mustard seeds are still significantly bigger than orchid seeds.

Have you been toying with the idea of adding a mustard tree to your home garden but didn’t have enough incentive to do so?

Well, after going through the various fascinating facts about mustards, we hope you can finally make the decision from a point of information.

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What Is the Size of a Mustard Bush? | Home Guides

By Sasha Degnan Updated December 29, 2018

Sometimes called toothbrush tree, mustard bush (Salvadora persica) is an evergreen shrub species grown in Africa, India and the Middle East. It has limited ornamental value, but is sometimes used as a land reclamation or wind-shelter plant in areas with saline or alkaline soil. The mature size of a mustard bush depends on its environment, but most will reach a similar size despite a naturally slow or sluggish growth rate.

Mustard Bush Basics

Mustard bushes reach an average mature height of between 6 and 20 feet with a 20-foot spread, although exceptional plants can reach 30 feet tall under ideal conditions. They have a spreading, multistemmed growth habit with a drooping or weeping branch structure. The leaves are oval, yellowish-green and have a fleshy, succulent feel. Each leaf is 1 inch wide and 3 inches long, and they are arranged in sets of two on opposite sides of the stem. Tiny, yellowish flowers appear along 12-inch-long panicles each year, which ripen into 1/2-inch-diameter berries. The berries provide a reliable means of identifying the shrub because of their striking translucency and pink or scarlet color.

Growing Requirements

Mustard bushes come from arid climates and have evolved to deal with poor soil, scarce moisture and extreme heat. They are sensitive to cold and will only grow outdoors in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10a through 11. They grow best when planted in full sun and a clay-based soil, but will tolerate a range of soil types and light afternoon shade with minimal damage. Avoid planting mustard bushes near septic systems and cisterns because their penetrating, water-seeking roots will seek out the moisture found in underground systems and cause damage.

Cultivation Information

Mature, established mustard bushes require minimal care, although they benefit from care early on to help them establish a productive root system. Start mustard bushes from soaked seed, and grow them in nursery pots for at least three years before transplanting them to the garden. The planting site should be cleared of weeds and the soil broken up to ease root establishment. Plant the mustard bushes 12 to 15 feet apart. Plant them closer together for a windbreak or if the soil is highly saline. Weekly watering during their first summer will encourage root growth, but it should be stopped in fall of their first year to encourage the production of a deep taproot, which will sustain the shrub during periods of drought.

Potential Problems

Despite their innate ruggedness, mustard bushes may develop several issues that will interfere with their growth and development. Among the most common issues is overwatering. Soggy soil contributes to fungal or bacterial growth among the roots, which can lead to slow growth, decline and premature death. Let the soil dry out completely before watering and never water during wet, cold or foggy weather. Insects, such as thrips, can also cause damage, although it is typically minor. Prune off affected branches, spread reflective mulch around the base of the tree and spray the leaves liberally with ready-to-use insecticidal soap to control thrips infestations. Wear protective clothing when spraying insecticidal soap, and follow all warnings on the label. You can treat again after seven days, if the thrips remain. Another problem is witches' broom, which is branch death resulting from fungal infection. Prune off the afflicted limbs, and adhere to good cultural practices to prevent further issues. When pruning, use shears that have been wiped with a cloth soaked in rubbing alcohol. This helps prevent the spread of disease.

References

  • Namibian Travel Shop: Trees of Namibia--Mustard Bush
  • Kew Royal Botanic Garden: Salvadora Persica
  • World Agroforestry Centre: Salvadora Persica
  • The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts; Jules Janick
  • University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program: Thrips
  • University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program: Witches' Broom

Writer Bio

Samantha McMullen began writing professionally in 2001. Her nearly 20 years of experience in horticulture informs her work, which has appeared in publications such as Mother Earth News.

Mustard tree

Mustard tree is mentioned in two gospels. The mustard tree does not exist. The image of a powerful tree that has grown from the smallest grain is used as a metaphor to describe the Kingdom of Heaven.

“And he said, To what shall we liken the Kingdom of God? or by what parable shall we represent him? It is like a mustard seed, which, when sown in the ground, is less than all the seeds on the ground; but when it is sown, it sprouts up and becomes larger than all the plants, and puts forth great branches, so that the birds of the air can hide under its shade” (Mark 4:30-32).

According to the Evangelist Mark, the mustard plant grows branchy and taller than all grasses, but is not called a tree.

“The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field, which, although smaller than all seeds, when it grows, is larger than all cereals and becomes a great tree, so that the birds of the air come and take refuge in its branches” (Matt. 13:31–32).

“It is like a mustard seed, which a man took and planted in his garden; and it grew and became a great tree, and the birds of the air hid in its branches” (Luke 13:19-19).

In the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, a tree is hidden in a mustard seed.

Mustard (Greek σινάπι, Hebrew "hardal") is an annual herbaceous plant, branched, with yellow flowers and small seeds in pods. Mustard has many healing properties, is very honey-bearing, and has been cultivated in the Mediterranean for several thousand years. The plant is unpretentious and widely distributed in the wild.

There are 4 types of mustard: black, white, Sarepta and field mustard. In Russia, mustard is common as a weed throughout the territory, except for the northern regions. Since the 19th century Sareptskaya, or Russian, mustard is cultivated in Russia. In Western Europe, white or English mustard and black mustard are cultivated. Black is the most honey-bearing. The Fathers of the Church (St. John Chrysostom, St. Isaiah of Nitria, and others) believed without a doubt that the parable refers to black mustard (lat. "brassica nigra").

Pliny the Elder wrote in the 1st century. from R.H. about two characteristic properties of the mustard plant: about the extraordinary health benefits of mustard and about the extreme danger to the garden - once sown, it quickly spreads and destroys the garden, filling it (Natural History, chapter 19). Due to its uncontrolled growth, in Judaism it is forbidden to sow mustard in gardens and kitchen gardens and it is prescribed to sow it only in fields where it can be grown separately from other plants (Mishnah, 2nd century A.D.).

In Israel, black mustard is one of the most common herbs. Wild mustard is found in all coastal regions of the country, in Samaria, Galilee, the Jezreel Valley, the Golan Heights and the upper Jordan Valley, grows in ravines and along roadsides. The usual height of wild mustard is 70 cm, but there is also a 2-meter grass. Mustard was the same common plant in gospel times, so it was obvious to the Lord's listeners that "mustard tree" was a metaphor.

In the Gospel of Mark, the mustard plant grows from the smallest seed above all cereals. Saint Basil of Kineshma writes that this is a parable about the growth of the Kingdom of God within us: “The Kingdom of God grows in your soul, that is, that highest state of moral perfection, when the Lord begins to reign supreme in your soul over your thoughts, desires and feelings,” and so on. : “But when a seed grows, it fills the whole soul, crowding out everything superfluous, unnecessary” (Conversations on the Gospel of Mark).

The Gospels of Matthew and Luke use the image of a tree, or a great tree grown from the smallest seed. St. John Chrysostom says that “by this the Lord wanted to show the way of spreading the sermon. Exactly the same, He says, will be with the sermon. Although His disciples were the most powerless of all, the humblest of all, but since the power hidden in them was great, it spread throughout the whole universe ”(Interpretation on St. Matthew the Evangelist, Conversation XLVI). The Lord tells her disciples to encourage them before the upcoming sermon. “So, do not be afraid that I have said about many adversities: and in them you will shine and overcome all” (ibid.).

About the same parable by St. John Chrysostom, we find the following comment: “And what I have repeatedly noted is that parables should not be taken literally, otherwise you can come to many inconsistencies ...” (John Chrysostom, Commentary on St. Matthew the Evangelist, Conversation XLVII).

“In Israel, pilgrims are shown a false mustard tree (Jerusalem, Tabor, etc.) — Chinus soft (California pepper tree, Peruvian pepper), which comes from the arid regions of South America and Mexico. To date, Sinus soft is widely spread by man around the world and sometimes runs wild. Naturally, in the New Testament time, the soft Shinus did not grow in Palestine and could not become a natural object of the parable in any way ”(ABC of Faith).

Saint Theophan the Recluse.

Thoughts for every day of the year

The Kingdom is like mustard seed and leaven. A small mustard seed grows into a large bush; leaven permeates all the kneaded dough and makes it sour. Here, on the one hand, the image of the Church, which at first only consisted of the apostles and a few other persons, then grew and became numerous, penetrated all of humanity; on the other hand, the image of the spiritual life that is revealed in each person. Its first seed is the intention and determination to be saved through pleasing God by faith in the Lord Savior. This determination, however strong, is like a small dot. At first, it embraces only consciousness and self-activity; from this all the activity of the spiritual life develops. In itself, it multiplies in movements and strength, and matures, but in relation to the soul, it begins to penetrate it in all its forces - in the mind, will, feeling and fulfills them with itself, makes them sour in its spirit, penetrates the whole composition of human nature. and the body, and the soul, and the spirit in which it is born.


Sources:

Priest Confessor Vasily (Preobrazhensky), Bishop of Kineshma, Conversations on the Gospel of Mark, ch. IV, Art. 21–24

John Chrysostom, Interpretation of St. Matthew Evangelist, Conversation XLVI

ABC of Vera

Wild plants of Israeli (translation)

Flora of Israel online Black (translation)

9000 9000

Durian Durian. plant description / Growing a plant at home / Harvesting and using the crop

Exotic fruits literally filled the shelves of our stores and supermarkets. Some of them have firmly entered our daily menu, for example, bananas, others, such as kumquat, papaya, passion fruit, we buy only on holidays or to pamper ourselves and our loved ones. But there are also such fruits, berries, which you can enjoy only after visiting those countries where they are grown. One of the main reasons preventing their export is the extraordinary tenderness of fruits, the impossibility of their long-term transportation fresh. But durian (Durio) is not exported for a very prosaic reason. Not a single transport company in the world agrees to transport fruits, as they smell very bad. This is perhaps the only negative quality, although the properties of durian have not yet been fully studied by scientists.

Description of the plant

This unusual fruit grows on trees whose distribution area includes tropical countries of Southeast Asia, Central Africa, South America: Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India, Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, Sri Lanka. It belongs to the mallow family, which includes 245 genera of various plants: shrubs, trees, herbs. Among them are a large number of types of ornamental crops, such as mallow, hibiscus, and other flowering plants, which are widely grown by both professional gardeners and amateurs to decorate parks, squares, gardens, and home gardens. There are also industrial crops in this family. For example, cotton, which "supplies" the fiber used for the production of cotton fabrics and for a number of other tasks.

The genus Durio includes more than 30 plant species. All of them are evergreen, straight-stemmed, weakly branching trees up to 40-50 m high, with supporting roots. Simple regular glossy leaves 25 cm long and 7.5 cm wide. The upper surface of the leaf is colored green, and the lower one has a silver or bronze tint.

Depending on the place of growth in March-April, large lateral branches (ramifloria) or directly on the trunk (caulifloria) form large flowers, collected in 3-30 pieces. in clusters (inflorescences). Petals are white or red. As evening falls, the flowers open. Their smell attracts bats of the genus Eonycteris spelea, which pollinate them.

After flowering, round fruits are formed, which in 2.5-3 months reach a diameter of 20-30 cm, and their weight ranges from 1.5-3 to 5-8 kg.

Externally, the fruit resembles a chestnut: the surface of a very hard green-brown shell is studded with powerful pyramidal prickly spines designed to protect the unripe fruit from being eaten by animals. If you think that the name of the plant is associated with a well-known Russian word, then you are deeply mistaken. Durio means "thorn" in Malay.

After falling to the ground, the fruit takes a few more days to reach full maturity, after which the shell bursts and opens into 5 wings. Along the edge of each segment, large dark seeds are provided with arylluses (fleshy appendages). Inside there is a yellowish, pinkish, reddish, creamy milky tender pulp.

Of the variety of durian species, only 8 varieties of trees produce edible fruits. From one plant per year you can collect no more than 50 pieces. It is impossible to keep them fresh, so even in the local market you can buy durian fruit for a short time.

Locals say that the taste of this unusual fruit is a "heavenly delight". Delicate texture, depending on the type of wood, has a multifaceted taste. People's opinions differ significantly, because everyone can catch the notes that he likes: mango, papaya, pineapple, strawberry, ice cream, dried persimmon, persimmon, vanilla, even onion.

But people's opinions are almost the same about the "aroma" of the ripe durian fruit: it causes visions of hell. Of course, a persistent and bright smell evokes various associations, but they are all equally unpleasant: it is disgusting and almost unbearable! And so much so that with the purchase you will not be allowed not only on board the aircraft, but also on the subway, bus, and so on.

Cultivation of the plant

Optimal conditions for tree growth are high average annual temperature (not lower than +20-22°C) and high humidity (about 1500-2000 mm per year). At the same time, the soil must be fertile, rich in organic matter and well-drained so that moisture does not stagnate and does not provoke the formation of root rot. Durian grows well along streams and rivers where its roots have access to water throughout the year. In our country, it is impossible to select sites with the climatic conditions necessary for a plant for growing on open ground.

These fruit trees reproduce in two ways.

  • Seeds
  • Inoculations
  • contains organic sulfur - a substance that is not found in any other fruit, but at the same time it is very important for the life of the body, ensuring optimal blood sugar levels, the formation of cartilage, bone, nervous tissues, the removal of toxins, toxins, the correct course of various biochemical reactions . By the way, according to scientists, it is sulfur and its compounds, as well as ketones, esters that are “responsible” for the unpleasant smell of the fruit;
  • it also contains other trace elements - zinc, magnesium, calcium, potassium, which ensure the uninterrupted activity of the immune, nervous, cardiovascular systems;
  • serves as a source of B and C vitamins, fiber, antioxidants that prevent the aging of body cells;
  • contains indole, which increases sexual activity, and estrogens, which increase the likelihood of pregnancy;
  • has an anthelmintic effect;
  • helps to cleanse the upper respiratory tract, lungs.

Planting material should be kept moist, but even then it will quickly lose its viability. If the seeds dry out, then they will not become viable at all. After sowing, the first sprouts appear within a week. Seedlings grow rapidly, but begin to bear fruit only after 15 years.

Grafted plants have a more compact size, so they can be used for growing indoors: botanical gardens, winter gardens, greenhouses. As a scion, plants of the same genus Durio are used, which have inedible fruits and are resistant to late blight. Grafted seedlings give the first fruits already 4-5 years after planting.

Plants require additional watering during dry periods. They also need fertilizer. Trunk circles mulch.

Harvest

In "Larousse Gastronomique" - gastronomic encyclopedia, it is said that the ripeness of the fruit can be judged by the cod of the dense shell of the fruit. Fruit pickers wear protective helmets to prevent injury from falling fruits. The fruit that has fallen from the tree must lie down for another 2-4 days in order to reach final ripeness. But already on the 5th-6th day, it can become overripe, become tasteless, bitter.

Using durian

Fresh durian fruits are not stored, because the corrosive smell of sewerage, rotten fish coming from them is simply impossible to endure for a long time. Scientists have not yet fully investigated the composition of the pulp of the fruit, but the locals call durian the "king of fruits" and are confident in its value to the human body. They consider it an exquisite delicacy and use it not only fresh, but also canned, used to make jam, sweets, added to ice cream, fried in coconut oil to get a delicious side dish for meat dishes.

Already existing data indicate that the pulp of the fruit:

The leaves of the tree are also used. They contain mustard oil, serotonin. When bile spills, local healers prescribe baths with a decoction of the leaves for their patients. A decoction is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent, applied to inflamed areas of the body, as an antipyretic. It is believed that after eating the pulp in the stomach, the temperature rises and a person can do without a blanket at night. Aborigines prepare honey from nectar and hoops of flowers.

The bark from the tree is dried and used in smoking to give the product a beautiful color and pleasant aroma. Ash is used to maintain the strength of women after childbirth. In addition, it is an excellent tool for bleaching silk fabrics.

The dried seeds are crushed and used as a seasoning. Thais add pumpkin to the pulp of durian and prepare a delicious thick paste. It is stored for a long time and used as a spice. In Indonesia, the pulp is combined with mint to make rice sauce. Canned fruits are exported to Europe, the Middle East.

Rough soft wood with a reddish-brown heart used in the construction of rural houses, for the manufacture of masts.

Contraindications

The locals believe in the miraculous properties of the unique durian fruit. They arrange fairs in his honor, and his fruits are the most expensive in local markets.


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