How big does a southern magnolia tree get
How to Grow Magnolia Grandiflora (Southern Magnolia Trees)
Gemma Johnstone is a gardening expert who has written 120-plus articles for The Spruce covering how to care for a large variety of plants from all over the world. She's traveled all over Europe, living now in Italy.
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Updated on 09/28/22
Reviewed by Julie Thompson-Adolf
Julie Thompson-Adolf is a master gardener and author. She has 13+ years of experience with year-round organic gardening; seed starting and saving; growing heirloom plants, perennials, and annuals; and sustainable and urban farming.
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In This Article
Growing From Seed
Frequently Asked Questions
The southern magnolia (Magnolia Grandiflora) is a beautiful, adaptable evergreen tree known for its large, fragrant, white flowers and lustrous dark green leaves that grow on the conical crown. The fall fruit will attract birds to your landscape.
It isn't the largest species, typically growing up to 60 to 80 feet tall, but it has a dense canopy and a shallow root system. The tree needs plenty of space, requires mulch to prevent erosion problems, and it isn't a good choice if you want to grow underneath it. Plant these trees in late spring or early fall, and be aware it can take 10 to 20 years for them to reach their full size.
|Botanical Name||Magnolia grandiflora|
|Common Name||Southern Magnolia, Bull Bay, Big Laurel|
|Plant Type||Perennial, Tree|
|Mature Size||60-80 ft. tall, 20 - 40 ft. wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun, Partial Shade|
|Soil Type||Moist, Well-drained|
|Soil pH||Acid, Neutral, Alkaline|
|Bloom Time||Spring, Summer|
|Flower Color||White, Cream|
|Hardiness Zones||6-10, USA|
|Native Area||Southeastern United States|
Magnolia Grandiflora Care
Southern magnolias are attractive and relatively easy-to-grow specimen trees—just be sure to select a site that is sheltered from strong winds and offers them ample room to grow. Plant your magnolia tree in the ground in a hole at least as deep as its root ball. Dig the hole around the plant to leave room for it to grow about twice the size of its original pot. Moist, well-drained soil is best, but this species can thrive in a variety of conditions.
These magnolias are often planted in rows to act as a privacy screen or to define property lines. Because of their messy leaf drop in the spring and fall, they aren't always a good choice for a lawn. Planting in an ornamental bed means you can use the robust leaf debris can as a natural mulching material.
You can plant container-grown trees at any time (although avoid planting in the heat of summer), and those bought balled and burlapped are usually transplanted sometime between August and October. Transplant shock is common with this species, so don't worry if the tree sheds many leaves during its first growing season.
The Spruce / K. Dave
The Spruce / K. Dave
The Spruce / K. Dave
Southern Magnolias do best in partial shade, particularly if soil conditions aren't all that moist. Once established, they can do well in a full sun position in moist, rich soils. Ideally, your tree should receive at least four hours of unfiltered sunlight a day. In nature, southern magnolia is an understory tree, so it tolerates shade, although it needs sun to bloom well.
Southern magnolias do best in moist, well-drained, loamy, acidic, and fertile soils. However, they can tolerate a wide range of conditions and pH levels. Overly dry or prolonged waterlogged conditions and high alkalinity aren't appreciated.
Providing your southern magnolia has ample room for root expansion and the soil is not a poor, dry type, it will demonstrate drought tolerance.
When first planted, the tree will need weekly watering to become established. Once established, water frequency will depend on soil drainage and regional rainfall. Too much or too little water can cause the tree's leaves to turn yellow. Mulching around the planting area is beneficial—just avoid allowing the mulch to touch the tree's trunk.
Temperature and Humidity
Southern magnolias prefer temperate and humid semitropical climes. Extremes of temperatures are not good, and even a light frost easily damages seedlings.
Fertilizing three times a year—in spring, summer, and fall—is beneficial once your southern magnolia starts to produce new growth. By the fourth or fifth year, unless your tree is in particularly infertile soil, its sprawling roots should be able to find sufficient nutrients themselves.
Types of Magnolia Grandiflora
The southern magnolias popularity means there are many cultivars, with some that flower early and others with a smaller growth habit or thicker canopy. Some popular examples include:
- Magnolia grandiflora 'Edith Bougue': One of the most cold-hardy cultivars, it has a pyramidal form that grows tighter and denser as it ages, and it typically reaches up to 30 feet tall.
- Magnolia grandiflora 'Hasse': With its tight, columnar form, this cultivar works well for use in smaller spaces or in rows for screening. It typically reaches up to 40 feet tall.
- Magnolia grandiflora 'Little Gem': This award winner is an excellent option if you are looking for a dwarf magnolia. One of the smallest cultivars, it is typically grown as a shrub and doesn't often grow higher than 25 feet. Although the leaves and flowers are small, they are still attractive, and the tree blooms abundantly from a young age.
If you want to tidy up your southern magnolia, encourage a tight, compact form, or give it a more tree-like appearance, you can prune it after the blooming season is over. Do this before winter—dormant magnolia branches don't heal easily. Avoid pruning the lower limbs to allow a more open and natural form and to prevent disease-inducing stress and suckers from forming.
Propagating Magnolia Grandiflora
It is possible, but sometimes tricky, to propagate southern magnolia from cuttings. If you plan to try this, there is some general guidance to be aware of:
- Select a six-inch semi-hardwood cutting with at least a few leaves from young stock during the summer months. make a straight cut above a node. Remove any lower leaves.
- Apply a rooting hormone to improve success rates
- Place in a moist, well-drained rooting medium that is at least 4 inches deep
- When transplanting the cutting, take care not to damage the fleshy and delicate roots
How to Grow Magnolia Grandiflora From Seed
If you want to grow a southern magnolia from seed, try these tips:
- Collect ripe cones from an existing tree. Dry until the fleshy fruits come away freely. Soak the seeds in warm water for 1-2 days to remove the seed coating. Once the coating has softened, drain off the water.
- Clean and dry the seeds with tissue. Either sow the seeds fresh and overwinter in a cold frame, or mix with moist peat, vermiculite, or sand, place in a plastic bag, and refrigerator for two months before sowing.
- Germination can take up to 18 months.
- When the seedlings are large enough to handle, move them into a light shade position. Keeping them in a cold frame or greenhouse for their first full winter is beneficial.
- Plant out when the seedlings are at least 6 inches tall, mulch well, and protect for the first couple of winters.
Common Problems With Magnolia Grandiflora
Southern magnolia are known for being relatively pest and disease-free. However, if conditions are not right, problems are possible.
Certain fungi and bacterium can cause leaf spots and blights. These include Septoria spp, Cladosporium spp, and Coniothyrium spp. Although it can look unsightly, they don't often cause any major damage. Promptly clearing away infected fallen leaves can help to control the problem.
Canker diseases and Verticillium wilt can kill off branches. Manage this by pruning out the problematic branches and ensuring the tree is healthy, well-nourished, and watered.
ENH-530/ST371: Magnolia grandiflora: Southern Magnolia
Edward F. Gilman, Dennis G. Watson, Ryan W. Klein, Andrew K. Koeser, Deborah R. Hilbert, and Drew C. McLean 2
This large, stately, native North American evergreen tree with its large, beautiful, saucer-shaped, fragrant flowers is almost a Southern landscape tradition. It has been selected as the state tree of Mississippi. Capable of growing at a moderate rate to a height of 80 feet or more with a 30 to 40-foot spread, southern magnolia forms a dense (more open in the shade), dark green pyramidal shape, the lower branches often bending to the ground. However, form and growth rate on seedlings is incredibly variable. Some are dense and make great screens, others are very open with large spaces between branches; some have a narrow, almost columnar form, others are as wide as they are tall. Select from the many available cultivars to ensure the desired shape and density. The trunk on large specimens can grow to more than three feet in diameter, and frequently grows straight up through the center of the crown. Branches are typically numerous and small in diameter. Remove those few branches which occasionally form weak, tight crotches.Figure 1. Full Form - Magnolia grandiflora: southern magnolia
Pronunciation: mag-NO-lee-uh gran-dih-FLOR-uh
Common name(s): southern magnolia
USDA hardiness zones: 7A through 10A (Figure 2)
Origin: native to the southeastern United States
UF/IFAS Invasive Assessment Status: native
Uses: shade; specimen; street without sidewalk; screen; espalier; tree lawn > 6 ft wide; highway medianFigure 2. Range
Height: 60 to 80 feet
Spread: 30 to 40 feet
Crown uniformity: irregular
Crown shape: pyramidal, oval
Crown density: moderate
Growth rate: moderate
Leaf arrangement: alternate
Leaf type: simple
Leaf margin: entire
Leaf shape: elliptic (oval), ovate
Leaf venation: brachidodrome, pinnate
Leaf type and persistence: evergreen, broadleaf evergreen
Leaf blade length: 4 to 8 inches
Leaf color: dark green and glabrous on top, paler green and covered with a dense, rusty pubescence underneath
Fall color: no color change
Fall characteristic: not showyFigure 3. Leaf - Magnolia grandiflora: southern magnolia
Flower color: creamy white
Flower characteristics: very showy; very fragrant; saucer-shaped
Flowering: spring and summer
Figure 4. Flower - Magnolia grandiflora: southern magnolia
Fruit shape: elongated
Fruit length: 3 to 5 inches
Fruit covering: dry or hard
Fruit color: green to bright red with maturity
Fruit characteristics: attracts birds; showy; fruit/leaves a litter problem
Figure 5. Flower - Magnolia grandiflora: southern magnolia
Figure 6. Ovary - Magnolia grandiflora: southern magnolia
Trunk and Branches
Trunk/branches: branches droop; not showy; typically one trunk; no thorns
Bark: gray and smooth, developing scaly plates with age
Pruning requirement: little required
Current year twig color: green
Current year twig thickness: thick
Wood specific gravity: 0.50
Figure 7. Bark - Magnolia grandiflora: southern magnolia
Credit: Gitta Hasing, UF/IFAS
Light requirement: full sun to partial shade
Soil tolerances: clay; sand; loam; slightly alkaline; acidic; occasionally wet; well-drained
Drought tolerance: moderate
Aerosol salt tolerance: high
Roots: not a problem
Winter interest: no
Outstanding tree: no
Ozone sensitivity: tolerant
Verticillium wilt susceptibility: susceptible
Pest resistance: resistant to pests/diseases
Use and Management
The 5- to 8-inch-long, leathery, oblong, shiny leaves are shed as new foliage emerges but the debris is well-hidden by the dense foliage of the lower limbs, if they are left on the tree. But some people consider this a litter nuisance when the large, slowly-decomposing leaves drop on the sidewalk, lawn or patio. The underside of the leaves is covered with a fine, red-brown fuzz which is more prominent on some selections than others. In late spring and sporadically throughout the summer, huge, 8-inch-diameter, waxy, fragrant, white blossoms open to perfume the entire garden. Fuzzy brown cones follow these blooms, ripening in fall and winter to reveal bright red seeds which are used by a variety of wildlife.
Long-used as a striking garden specimen, southern magnolia can also serve as a dense screen (select one of the dense cultivars), windbreak, or street tree (with lower limbs removed). The only objection to this tree as a street tree might be the falling leaves and fruit. Its ease of growth and carefree nature make southern magnolia ideal for the low-maintenance landscape. With proper pruning, southern magnolia trees can also be used as an interesting espalier.
If moist, peaty soils are available, southern magnolia will thrive in full sun and hot conditions once established. If irrigation cannot be provided periodically, plants located in partial shade for several years after planting seem to grow better. It is very drought tolerant when grown in areas with plenty of soil for root expansion. It is only moderately drought tolerant in restricted-soil areas or in areas with poor, dry soil. Southern magnolia prefers acid soil but will tolerate a slightly basic, even wet or clay soil. It is generally too hot and dry in central and western Texas and Oklahoma, and the soil pH is often too alkaline for this tree. The root system is wider spreading than most other trees, extending from the trunk a distance equal to about four times the canopy width. This makes it very difficult to save existing magnolia trees on construction sites. Be sure that there are no roots circling close to the trunk, as magnolia is prone to girdling roots. Cut any circling roots prior to planting. Field-grown trees recover slowly from transplanting due to the wide-spreading root system in the nursery, and trees often transplant best in winter and spring, not in the fall.
The species germinated from seed is quite variable in growth rate and form with some trees dense and compact, others loose and open. A number of cultivars are available: `Bracken's Brown Beauty' has an unusually dark brown lower leaf surface and is considered one of the best selections; `Cairo' has an early and long flowering period; `Charles Dickens' has broad, nearly blunt leaves, large flowers and large red fruit; `Edith Bogue' is the hardiest of the cultivars and will bloom when only two to three-years-old; `Glen St. Mary' has a compact form, will bloom when young, is slow-growing, and the leaves have a bronze underside; `Gloriosa' has large flowers and leaves; `Goliath' has flowers up to 12 inches across, a long blooming period, and a bushy habit of growth; `Hasse' can be used for a compact, dense hedge or screen; and `Lanceolata' has a narrow pyramidal form, narrower leaves with rusty undersides. `Little Gem' has a dwarf upright form, probably to 30 feet tall, small leaves and flowers, is very slow-growing, flowers heavily at an early age and for a long time during the summer (5-months), and has bronze leaf-undersides. It will bloom when only three to four feet tall and is excellent as a pruned evergreen hedge, for use as a small street tree or for use as an espalier. `Majestic Beauty' (patented) has large, dark green leaves, a pyramidal shape, and profuse flowering; `Praecox Fastigiata' has upright, narrow growth habit; `Samuel Sommer' has an upright, rapid growth habit and flowers up to 14 inches across; `Victoria' is very hardy, has small flowers, and rust-red leaf-undersides. There are others, but it is often difficult to see real differences among them.
Two of the most recommended magnolias are: Magnolia x `Galaxy' and `Spectrum' from U.S. National Arboretum; both have excellent trunks and superior flowers.
Propagation is by cuttings (for the cultivars), grafting, or seed.
Scales of various types will infest twigs and leaves. Magnolia scale is the most common scale and can be one half-inch-across. Overwintering scales can be controlled with horticultural oil. Trees appear to grow fine even with heavy infestations, although they can be unsightly.
Tulip-poplar weevil (sassafras weevil) feeds as a leaf miner when young and chews holes in the leaves as an adult.
Magnolia borer is a problem on young nursery stock. It girdles the trunk usually just below the soil surface. Control is difficult but attainable with the proper material.
Magnolia may be subject to leaf spots, blights, scabs and black mildews caused by a large number of fungi, or a bacterium but they rarely require chemical controls. Raking up and disposing infected leaves may reduce leaf spots next year. Algae can also cause leaf spots.
Canker diseases will kill branches. Cankers on branches can be pruned out. Keep trees healthy with regular fertilization and by watering in dry weather.
Verticillium wilt may cause death of a few branches or, rarely, may kill the tree. Prune out dead branches and fertilize.
Koeser, A. K., Hasing, G., Friedman, M. H., and Irving, R. B. 2015. Trees: North & Central Florida. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Koeser, A.K., Friedman, M.H., Hasing, G., Finley, H., Schelb, J. 2017. Trees: South Florida and the Keys. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
1. This document is ENH-530, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 1993. Revised December 2018. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.
2. Edward F. Gilman, professor emeritus, Environmental Horticulture Department; Dennis G. Watson, former associate professor, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department; Ryan W. Klein, graduate assistant, Environmental Horticulture Department; Andrew K. Koeser, assistant professor, Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; Deborah R. Hilbert, graduate assistant, Environmental Horticulture Department, GCREC; and Drew C. McLean, biological scientist, Environmental Horticulture Department, GCREC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.
Home » Varieties » Magnolia varieties
Varieties and types of magnolia flower photo, planting and care in the open field
Exotic tree magnolia flower of unforgettable beauty. Large white, cream, yellow, pink, purple or purple flowers can be seen between simple leaves, from which a pleasant light aroma emanates. From the last days of summer to the beginning of winter, it is decorated with decorative fruits. If you happen to see a flowering tree at least once, then you will never be able to forget this phenomenon.
By planting magnolia next to coniferous plants, you can create a beautiful composition. In single plantings, it will also serve as a decoration for your garden. Before planting, be sure to select the most suitable site, which must be protected from drafts and cold winds. If you decide to give preference to the south side, then stop at a slightly shaded place.
All about magnolias
Beauty (lat. Magnolia) is reputed to be the most famous tree on the planet, because it originates in the era of dinosaurs.
In the days when bees did not yet appear, pollination was carried out by beetles, which still do a good job of this task.
The appearance of a legend
Magnolia is a tree about which beautiful myths and fairy tales are composed. For example: a beautiful and sad Japanese legend.
the appearance of a flower
Once upon a time, there was a young girl Keiko in Japan who made money by creating beautiful paper flowers for sale. Only now they cost, unfortunately, mere pennies and she barely made ends meet. And so it went on for a long time. But…
For a long time she fed an old parrot who told the girl a secret. The fact is that paper masterpieces can become alive if only they are sprinkled with a drop of their blood. But for this case, you can not use the last drop of blood. Thanks to this magic, Keiko became immensely rich, but soon disaster struck. The young man she fell in love with was too greedy and forced the girl to work very hard.
Soon she had to give her last drop of blood. Of course, she died, well, and the last flower that came to life was called magnolia.
Description and origin
Magnolia is considered to be a shrub, but only its height reaches about 30 meters. It grows on the territory of the Crimean peninsula and in the Caucasus. As soon as the summer days come, its flowering begins, which you can enjoy on the seashore. As soon as the last petals fall from the tree, cone-shaped fruits appear on it, decorating it until the onset of cold weather. The tree is completely covered with gray smooth scaly bark.
Decorative magnolia looks unforgettably in the spring, because it is from this moment that its flowering begins, which will be remembered by others for many years. It is valued both for its beauty and for the essential oils contained in its fruits, flowers and foliage. They are used as an antiseptic, for hypertension, rheumatism and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- You can see flowers in the gardens of the USA and England, where more than 40 varieties are found. In addition, magnolia is found in Belarus, where a botanical garden was recently created, which includes this shrub.
- On the territory of Ukraine, you can also enjoy flowering by visiting the Kyiv Botanical Garden, where 15 varieties, 4 hybrids and 22 morphogenesis grow.
- In St. Petersburg, not only grows, but also bears fruit a variety called Siebold, Moscow and Smolensk can boast of the Kobus variety, and Vladivostok is decorated with fragrant inflorescences of Kobum and Sulange.
Varieties and varieties
There are two varieties in the natural environment, among which:
Evergreen magnolias belonging to the second species cannot cope even with slight frosts, so greenhouses are needed to grow this species, where you can set the required temperature for normal development.
If, nevertheless, magnolia is used for cultivation in central Russia, then only deciduous varieties are allowed, since they normally respond to temperature changes, slightly changing their flowering period. Deciduous can be divided into several varieties, which include frost-resistant and conditionally frost-resistant species. In the last subgroup, with the onset of cold weather, the kidneys freeze slightly.
Among the frost-resistant, it should be noted:
It originates from Japan. It is considered the most beautiful and spectacular view. Magnolia is a flower whose height does not exceed 2.5 meters.
Bare grey-brown shoots are adorned with 12 cm narrow elliptical leaves and graceful flowers about 10 cm in diameter. Ribbon-like petals, painted in snow-white tones, form a star shape. The variety has several forms: pink and key.
- Royal Star (Royal Star) - with snow-white petals on large peduncles
- Gold Star (Gold Star) - with cream flowers on the branches of the bush
Also enjoys incredible popularity among most gardeners nominal species:
It is one of the hybrids from a small female nominal series, bred in the 50s, among which it should be noted: hassle-free care.
This late-blooming variety is hardier than all the others and also has incredible decorative qualities. After you have planted a shrub, you will be able to enjoy its flowering only after a few years. It begins to open its buds in the last weeks of May, releasing large creamy flowers. The foliage has a lot of similarities with the tropical and can reach up to 70 cm.
Found in the wild in Japan and areas of South Korea. In 1862, this species first appeared in New York, and in 1879 it was transported to Europe. It can grow up to 10 meters in height, but if you meet it in the wild, it can even be several times higher.
Leaves are obovate, wide with a slightly pointed tip. The upper part of the foliage is quite bright, while the underside of them is a little lighter.
The circumference of snow-white fragrant flowers is about 10 cm. This variety begins to bloom 10-12 years after planting.
Kobus is able to endure frost, and is not harmful to exhaust gases and city dust. Northern plants cope with frost even better, and larger flowers appear on their shoots.
A hybrid of star magnolia and Kobus, which combines the best of their qualities.
has frost resistance and unpretentiousness,
has a beautiful original shape
it also emits a rich and memorable aroma
A spherical crown can reach up to 10 meters. The white petals are slightly pinkish in color. They begin to bloom from the first days of April. Intense green leaves turn bronze in autumn.
Among the less frost-resistant varieties there are such demanded species as:
The height of this deciduous tree is approximately 10 meters. It is decorated with wide elliptical leaves about 15 cm in size, as well as cup-shaped white flowers, fixed on a thin pubescent stem. In their diameter, flowers can be from 7 to 10 cm. This variety is able to cope with frosts up to -36 degrees. Cultivated since 1865.
You can see this representative in Russia in Vladivostok and St. Petersburg. In Ukraine, you will be able to enjoy blooming magnolia after visiting its capital.
Capable of handling light frost. Leaving overwintering 2-year-old seedlings uncovered, in the spring you will see only slightly damaged upper parts of the shoots. Those trees that have reached the age of three will be able to cope with frosts reaching -33 degrees.
Magnolia in the Urals and Siberia can also be grown, but for this you need to plant it in special huge tubs, which can be brought indoors if necessary.
She is the offspring of the naked or naked magnolia (Magnolia denudata). The height of this shrub reaches no more than 5 m. The obovate leaves reach up to 15 cm.
The size of the goblet flowers varies from 15 to 25 cm. In addition, some of them may emit a sweetish aroma, but you can find flowers that are completely odorless. The color of the petals can vary from pink to purple, and sometimes even white.
Capable of growing under unfavorable conditions, and also not picky about the soil.
This hybrid includes many varietal forms, which are most often used for decorating home gardens and recreation areas. It is found everywhere in the yards and estates of settlements and cities of the Crimea, where the conditions for growth are the most suitable and favorable.
In Europe, the tree first appeared in 1790, but it originates in eastern China. 11 cm flowers in their shape resemble lilies. The flowers are white on the inside, but purple on the outside. They give off a light fragrance.
The lily magnolia is fairly easy to care for and grow, but still needs careful shelter for the winter. The fact is that the most tender buds can be frostbitten, which means that flowering, most likely, will not occur.
Another name for anise, because of the smell of the same name, which exudes a tree blooming on bare branches. Not frost-resistant at all, it can only withstand short frosts of about -20 ° C. A well-known hybrid of magnolia Kevenskaya with flowers - bells. It is almost impossible to find seedlings of this variety on sale. The pyramidal crown sometimes rises to 10 meters in height. On silvery shoots, 8 cm flowers are revealed, from which a delicate aroma emanates. Magnolia grown from seeds at home will delight you with its flowering after only 5 years.
You can meet in the natural environment in North America. On an elegant cylindrical shoot there is a lush crown of rich green large leaves. From the snow-white rather large flowers, with a circumference of about 25 cm, a delicate smell emanates. The fruits of this representative of the magnolia family are bright, cone-shaped. During the year, the young shoots of the plant grow no more than 60 cm. But the plant also has its advantages, because it can easily grow in the city, and it is practically not affected by pests and ailments.
Unusual pyramidal shape can reach up to 12 m. This is the only species found in the wild in Russia. The upper part of the leaves is green, the lower part has a slightly blue tint. 18 cm flowers are painted in cream color, and a pleasant, unforgettable aroma emanates from them.
Varieties and types of magnolia video report:
Magnolia was first bred in China. It has a lot of similarities with the previous species, but has larger leaves. If we talk about flowers, it is worth noting that in their shape they resemble large lilies with slightly pointed petals. In China, the variety is considered medicinal and is used in medicine. We meet quite rarely.
You can see a flowering individual in nature in deciduous forests or near rocky rivers. A 30 meter tree has a pyramidal crown. When the seedling turns into a tree, it becomes more round.
The length of the oval or elliptical leaves reaches 24 cm. From above they are painted in a rich green color, and their lower part is gray-green, slightly pubescent. Bell-shaped flowers in their circumference reach up to 8 cm and are painted in yellow emerald color, which is sometimes covered with a bluish bloom. The shape of the cucumber is oval or heart-shaped. In addition, she has smaller flowers of a rich yellow color.
Of all the representatives of the Magnolia family, it is one of the representatives of frost-resistant species.
In the USA it was possible to develop a hybrid, which was called Brooklyn, by crossing a pointed and lily-colored species.
After you have learned about almost all types of magnolias, you need to decide which one is right for you. Before purchasing seedlings, be sure to study how whimsical the hybrid you have chosen is, as well as in what conditions it prefers to grow.
What you need to know when growing magnolia in central Russia
If you purchased a plant in a tub, you can plant it in the ground at any summer time. But remember that the most suitable period is autumn, as at this time she hibernates. When buying a seedling, opt for where there are flower buds.
Planting and care
If you follow all the necessary rules for planting and caring for a plant, then it will be able to please you with its flowering for many years.
- Don't forget to water the shrub on dry days using room temperature water. But keep in mind that excessive soil moisture will lead to disastrous consequences.
- Be sure to mulch the soil around the tree to reduce water evaporation. The lack of moisture in the soil is also very harmful. Since the root system is located not only deep in the ground, but also on the surface, you should not use garden tools to cultivate the soil around the trunk.
- Magnolia planting and care in the Moscow region, which is carried out according to the same principle as in other regions, needs complex fertilizers. Thanks to top dressing, you will help your seedling develop much faster and do not allow weather conditions to influence this process. It is necessary to fertilize no later than in the middle of summer, since in August the tree begins to prepare for a long winter and falls into a dormant state.
- If you are wondering how to cover magnolia for the winter, then you should know what needs to be done first. With the onset of late autumn, the foliage from the shrub begins to fall off and at this moment it is necessary to start preparing for cold days. Remove the ground near the tree and cover it with leaves, pine bark or needles, which will help the root system not to freeze. The layer thickness should be about 20-30 cm.
- Speaking of pruning, it is worth noting that you do not need to do it to form a crown. All you need to remove from the tree is frozen and withered branches, and flower buds. Also remove from the bush those stems that grow inside the crown. Thanks to this, you can increase the decorative appearance. Do not forget to process the cuts using garden pitch for this.
- Seeing leaves that have turned yellow prematurely, it is necessary to determine as soon as possible what caused this disease. This may indicate that there is not enough iron in the soil, and to correct the situation, you should water the soil and spray the foliage using an iron chelate solution.
- Such beauty, it would seem, should be subject to all ailments. But! this plant is practically not attacked by parasites, and also does not particularly get sick.
Benefits and uses of magnolia flower
After you have learned how to plant an exotic beauty, it is worth studying what properties it has, as well as where it is used.
The first thing to note is that the tree is poisonous and if you inhale the fragrance of its flowers for too long, it can lead to headaches.
But this does not mean that the magnolia shrub is harmful, and its cultivation should be abandoned. The fact is that it has a lot of useful qualities, which you can now learn about.
- Tinctures lower blood pressure.
- You can also get rid of bronchial asthma.
- In addition, it is an excellent antiseptic and with its help the occurrence of caries is prevented.
The tree is also used in folk medicine, where it helps in the treatment of many ailments. Without exception, all parts of the plant are endowed with useful properties, therefore, both flowers and branches, as well as the bark and foliage of a tree, are suitable for creating a medicinal product.
In the East, charming flowers are very often used to compose a wedding bouquet for a bride. Snow-white delicate petals, as it were, symbolize the purity and innocence of the girl.
Tulip tree is, first of all, a creation of unforgettable beauty. She fascinates the surrounding people with her flowering. But in order to see this amazing process, you need to properly care for the plant, not forgetting some of the nuances. Remember planting magnolia in the fall, this is the most favorable time, and if your seedling begins to develop the garden in autumn days, then it will surely survive and delight you for many years.
Magnolia flower in a pot in an apartment at home video:
Magnolia - proper planting, reproduction, care, pests and varieties + 114 photos
This tree, blooming with unrealistically luxurious large flowers, will become a masterpiece any garden and the pride of flower lovers, with its enchanting aroma of vanilla with a touch of lemon that will not leave anyone indifferent.
If you haven't seen this miracle, take a quick look at the photos of magnolia flowers. And do not think that this beauty is a big picky, not at all, you just need to treat her correctly in matters of cultivation and care.
The magnolia flower is incredibly beautiful, it is not for nothing that this tree is considered a symbol of inviolable purity in the Republic of China, but also quite respected in our country. There is hardly a person who can indifferently contemplate such magnificence.
The flowering period begins in the middle of spring, although a large part of the trees do not yet think of releasing leaves. And here, blooming magnolia-beauty! Isn't it a wonder?
But the value is not only in her blossoming appearance. Did you know that the leaves, fruits, flowers and bark of the tree contain essential oils that are valued as antiseptics for hypertension, rheumatic diseases?
The name Magnolia comes from the name of the famous scientist P. Magnol. There are currently over 70 varieties. Mature trees have the shape of a pyramid or sphere, reach a height of up to 20 m, but on average about 5-8 m. Only now it is possible to grow only a small fraction of 120 varieties, because of our cold climate.
Proper planting and care of magnolia
To begin with, we select magnolia seedlings with a closed root system. Then we will decide on the location of the future splendor, taking into account the following nuances:
- does not tolerate wind and drafts;
- categorically does not accept soil saturated with lime, because the roots may die. To dilute such soil, mix acidic peat into it to lower the pH;
- develops slowly on moist soils and sand.
The ideal place would be a sunny corner, in hot regions - shady with light soils.
Autumn is the best time to plant magnolia. When seedlings take a break and slow down their growth. This usually happens in October, before the frost hits, and the heat has already receded.
There is no consensus about planting in the spring. Some professionals say that April is a great time to plant. Others believe that repeated frosts can destroy seedlings or significantly harm them.
Whose side you take is up to you. But, probably, you should not take risks, because autumn seedlings take root 100%.
Next step. Preparation of a pit for planting: its dimensions should be 3 times the volume of the roots.
The soil should be mixed with compost. With dense soil, it is worth pouring sand. Having placed the tree in a hole, we fill it with soil, making a shallow ditch around the seedling. We ram the earth in this recess and water it. Then we cover the surface of the soil near the trunk with peat.
Peculiarities of reproduction
Propagation occurs vegetatively by means of grafting, layering or cuttings. But it is possible, with great desire and diligence, to grow magnolia from seeds.
Seed method. In autumn, after berry picking, you can collect seeds, but they will not last until spring. The shell of the seeds is quite strong and oily, so it will take your intervention to destroy it.
Wash them afterwards with soap and water to remove oil deposits and rinse with water. Seeds are sown in boxes with prepared soil 3 cm deep and placed in the basement until the spring. In March, the boxes are exposed to the sun, regularly moistened and waiting for sprouts.
At first, the growth of young magnolias will be slow, in the first year of life, their height will be no more than 50 cm. And after a year, these trees should be transplanted to the soil with peat.
Vegetative method. The easiest way is by layering: bend the branch to the soil in the spring, sprinkle it with soil and pin it, in a couple of years or earlier, roots will appear on the branch.
Remove cuttings from the main tree and send to nursery.
Propagation by cuttings is also not a complicated procedure. But here you will need a greenhouse to regulate climatic conditions. Suitable period: end of June.
The cuttings are cut from the young, with 2-3 leaves on top, and the bottom is smeared with a special tool to stimulate the roots. After they are transplanted into another container with sand and peat, which must be moistened, closed and provide a stable temperature of +19 - +22C.
Failure to follow these instructions will result in the death of the plant. Rooting occurs after 8 weeks, for large-flowered magnolia this time will be 4 months. They are transplanted into the open space after a year.
In this matter, magnolia is not whimsical, it is enough to follow the following recommendations:
- monitor the soil moisture. Don't let it dry out. Mulch the surface of the soil - this will retain moisture, and warm the roots in winter.
- In winter, cover with burlap (be careful not to break the branches!)
- do not fertilize the first couple of years, and then do it regularly from early spring to autumn. But do not overdo it, everything is good in moderation.
Rodents and moles are among the harmful ones. Some gnaw the root system, others dig them up. Lubricate damaged areas with a 1% solution of foundationazole.
Spider mites are dangerous in hot, dry weather. It absorbs the juice of the leaves, causing their complete death.
Varieties of magnolias
It can be deciduous and evergreen. In the first, under the influence of temperatures, flowering periods may change, the second may simply not withstand low temperatures.
Of the 120 varieties resistant to winter, there are not many, these include: Magnolia kobus, Magnolia stellata and their hybrid Lebner magnolia.
Magnolia kobus - with a non-standard crown up to 12 m high, initially pyramidal - later spherical. Differs in endurance and unpretentiousness in the maintenance. In our area, a rarity, since its journey from seed to flowering tree is 30 years. But the most stubborn will be rewarded in full with the splendor of white flowers with a bright purple at the base.
Magnolia stellata is 6 m high, has a spherical crown, up to 5 m wide. Blooms early in spring.
Loebner Magnolia is the result of crossing two previous varieties. Inherited all the best. It has a rounded crown, reaches a height of up to 9 m, white flowers with a pink tint. Blooms in mid-spring.
Diversity of species and varieties of magnolias
Magnolia can be evergreen or deciduous. The first type is for the southern regions with a mild warm climate. Deciduous trees are suitable for growing in the middle lane. Many hybrid varieties have been bred that are resistant to such conditions. According to the descriptions and the flowering pattern in the photo, it is easy to choose a magnolia for your garden. Care for such exotic is necessary, but all activities are no more difficult than for the usual fruit and berry crops.
Winter-hardy magnolia species
Deciduous trees and shrubs that do not require shelter for the winter.
- Kobus. Resistant to winter frosts (up to -28 С°). During growth, the tree changes the shape of its crown. In young plants it is pyramidal, in adults it is spherical. Flowering occurs in April, early May. Large white flowers are fragrant with a delicate lemon aroma with hints of vanilla. Kobus grows up to 12 m. The first flowering occurs at 10-15 years of age.
- Nude magnolia (Magnolia denudate). Fairly frost-resistant (-25…-28 С°). Flowering begins before the leaves open. Lily-shaped inflorescences 15 cm long. The color of the petals is mainly milky, but derived hybrids differ in color, shape and flowering time. Magnolia Naked is the progenitor of many new varieties. Grown from seeds, it blooms for 4 years. Magnolia can be shrubby and treelike. Height about 10 m.
- Star Magnolia. Able to withstand up to - 30 C °. Easily recognizable by the long petals, reminiscent of diverging rays. Blooms early, at the end of March. The flowers are snow-white with a slight pinkish or cream. It has a compact crown, does not grow above 3.5 m.
- Lebner magnolia (hybrid of Cobus and Star). Resistant to frost down to -28 C °. Decorative view only 4-6 m high. Shrub or tree. Flowers, depending on the variety, are pale pink in color, pure white and cream. Easily tolerates crown formation and pruning.
- Siebold Magnolia. Tolerates temporary frosts down to -36 C°. Most often, it is a shrub with broad leaves and white flowers. Flowering begins in June, accompanied by a pleasant aroma. The growth of the species is slow, the plant can be shaped and cut.
Conditionally winter-hardy species
They prefer a milder climate without snowy and frosty winters. They need good shelter in the autumn and winter.
Parts of plants, buds and young shoots may freeze.
- Magnolia Lilyflower. At temperatures below -23 ° C, it dies. Spectacular ornamental plant with flowers of pale raspberry color. Lily-like flowers bloom in March and April. Widespread in the Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Magnolia is very compact: height up to 5 m, crown width 3-5 m.
- Sulazange magnolia (hybrid). Resistant to temperatures down to -23 C°. The species is obtained from Nude and Lily-colored magnolias. The color of the petals is two-tone. Cup-shaped inflorescences have an aroma reminiscent of naked magnolia. Flowering begins on branches that are not yet covered with leaves. The first flowering can be seen already in the 7th year of life. A large number of Sulange varieties have been bred. The most famous: Alexandrina, Lenne, Nemetsa, Krasnaya, Rustika Rubra, Alba Superba, Lilliputian.
Tip! Decorative varieties of Sulange are grown in large flowerpots and containers.
- Ash Magnolia. Frost resistance up to -25 С°. Quite a rare sight. Huge white flowers (20-30 cm in diameter) and large dove-gray leaves give a unique decorative effect. The crown is formed symmetrical, rounded. Flowering occurs at the end of May, the aroma resembles a lemon with a jasmine flavor. Spring frosts can cause the buds to freeze. Grown from seeds, blooms for the first time in the 7th year of life.
Magnolias of the southern regions
- Large-flowered magnolia. Tolerates a temporary decrease to -13 ... -15 С °. An evergreen species up to 30 m high. It occurs naturally in the southeastern states of the United States. The flowers are large, snow-white (diameter up to 25 cm). Flowering begins in May and continues until autumn. Slow growing species, resistant to pests and diseases. The main decorative forms of magnolia large-flowered: narrow-leaved; lanceolate; Praverti; exon; gallison; famous; early.
- Magnolia Figo (banana shrub). Evergreen form of the plant. Figo is native to China. A fast growing species used as a hedge. Flowers with a pleasant aroma, from white to purple hues.
- Evergreen magnolia "Gallisoninsis grandiflora" (large-flowered variety). The crown is conically expanded, branching starts from the ground itself. Pruning can achieve complete impenetrability of the foliage. Fragrant flowering begins in June and lasts all summer. The color of the petals is white. The first flowering comes at 9-10 year of life.
- Gallisoninsis Nana. Dwarf evergreen species. Suitable for indoor breeding. The flowers are white, similar to Grandiflora Gallinsonins. Slow growing species. By the age of 20 it grows up to 3 m.
- Grandiflora "Goliath". The flowers are white. The foliage is wavy, pale green. Variety for small gardens, greenhouses.
Magnolia in the garden
Magnolia can be grown in any conditions. Thanks to hybrids and various forms, it is easy to find the right variety for any garden. Magnolia will decorate not only the backyard, but also a balcony, a loggia. Every year magnolia blooms more and more abundantly and magnificently.
Attention! Pruning magnolia stimulates the appearance of a mass of young shoots.
It is very difficult to cover a fully grown plant for the winter. Therefore, it is better to give preference to winter-hardy varieties. In addition to the above, frosts down to -30 ° C are tolerated by Magnolia Medicinal and Umbrella. The flowering of some hybrid varieties occurs alternately, not massively, and continues until autumn. It is also a kind of protection against spring frosts.
Magnolia grown from seeds may not inherit the characteristics of the "mother" plant. Since it is impossible to control pollination, the result is very often a hybrid. Breeders take advantage of this feature and develop interesting varieties. For example, there are magnolias with yellow flowers - a variety of foreign selection "Sun Spire". Its narrow crown is completely unusual for magnolias. This mini-variety is suitable for mid-latitudes, as it is quite winter-hardy.
Types of magnolia: video
Flowering magnolia plant (Magnolia) is a member of the magnolia family. This genus includes more than 200 species. For the first time, these plants appeared in Europe in 1688. And Ch. Plumier named this genus magnolia in 1703 in honor of Pierre Magnol, who was a botanist. In nature, these plants can be found in regions with a subtropical and tropical climate in North America and East Asia. Magnolia is a very ancient plant of the dinosaur era, which spread in the Cretaceous and Tertiary period. Archaeologists have found a petrified flower of this plant, which is at least 95 million years. Magnolia was able to survive mainly because it adapts relatively easily and quickly to changing climatic conditions. In ancient times, there were no bees yet, and pollination of this flowering plant occurred with the help of beetles, which have retained this ability to this day.
One very beautiful and sad legend is connected with magnolia. Japanese girl Keiko made beautiful paper flowers for sale, but this work brought her mere pennies, since the flowers were not real. One day, a parrot that Keiko sometimes fed revealed a secret to her: paper flowers can become alive, but for this they need to be irrigated with a drop of their own blood. But it should be noted that this drop should not be the last. Keiko took advantage of this secret and soon became rich, but the man she fell in love with was so greedy that he forced the girl to work all day long so that he would have even more money. And then the moment came when the girl sprinkled the paper flower with the last drop of blood and died. The flower, which came to life thanks to this drop, began to be called magnolia. Since that time, the magnolia flower has become a symbol of generosity and nobility of the soul.
Features of magnolia
Magnolia is a deciduous shrub or tree. The bark is smooth grayish-ash or brown, may be scaly or furrowed. The height of such a plant can vary from 5 to 20 meters. On the surface of its stems, large scars from leaf blades are clearly visible, as well as narrow ring-shaped scars from stipules. The kidneys are relatively large. Large leathery whole-edge leaf plates of a greenish-emerald color have a slight pubescence on the wrong side, and also, as a rule, an elliptical or obovate shape. Fragrant single bisexual flowers can be axillary or terminal, their diameter is about 6–35 centimeters, and the color is cream, red, purple, white, pink or lilac. The composition of the flower includes from 6 to 12 wax elongated petals, which overlap each other in a tiled pattern. Such petals are arranged in 1 or several rows. As a rule, magnolia blooms at the very beginning of the spring period, however, there are species that bloom in the first summer weeks. This plant blooms so beautifully that every gardener would certainly like to decorate his garden with it.
The fruit is a cone-shaped collection leaflet, which consists of a large number of two- or one-seeded leaflets. Black seeds have a triangular shape and a red or pink fleshy seed. When the leaflets open, the seeds hang on the seed threads.
Both shrub and magnolia tree are very decorative plants. It looks most spectacular in the spring. A blooming magnolia is a most beautiful sight that every person who has seen it at least once will definitely not be able to forget. However, magnolia is a valuable plant not only because of its beauty. The fact is that in its fruits, flowers and foliage there are essential oils that have a powerful antiseptic effect, they are used for hypertension, rheumatism and various diseases of the digestive tract.
Planting magnolia outdoors
What time to plant
Magnolia can be grown not in every region. When choosing a place for planting it should be noted that this plant is very photophilous. Choose a well-lit area away from tall trees and provide the plant with good protection from east and north winds. In a small shading magnolia can be grown only in the southern regions. The soil on the site should not be too saline or calcareous, and excessively wet, sandy or heavy soil is not suitable. A slightly acidic or neutral soil saturated with organic matter is best suited. When purchasing material for planting, it should be remembered that the height of the seedling should be about 100 centimeters, it should have 1 or 2 buds. It is very good if the seedling has a closed root system, this will completely eliminate its drying out. A magnolia seedling with a closed root system can be transplanted into open soil in spring, summer, and autumn.
Most experts recommend planting magnolia outdoors in autumn in the second half of October. At this time, the seedling is already at rest. According to statistics, almost 100 percent of seedlings planted in autumn take root. In spring, a seedling is planted in the garden in April, but it should be remembered that even small night frosts cause significant harm to the established trees.
How to plant correctly
The size of the hole for planting magnolia must necessarily exceed the volume of the seedling's root system by 2 times. The top nutrient layer of soil that remains after digging the hole must be combined with rotted compost. In the event that the soil is too dense, then a small amount of sand should also be added to it.
First, a good drainage layer must be made at the bottom of the pit, the thickness of which should be from 15 to 20 centimeters, for this you can use crushed ceramic tiles or broken bricks. A layer of sand fifteen centimeters thick is poured over the drainage. And already a layer of pre-prepared nutrient soil mixture is poured onto the sand (the composition is described above). Then, a seedling should be installed in the center of the pit, while taking into account that after planting, its root collar should rise 30–50 mm above the plot level. Fill the pits with nutrient soil mixture and slightly compact the surface of the near-stem circle. A planted magnolia needs abundant watering. After the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, the surface of the near-stem circle should be covered with a layer of peat, and a layer of dry coniferous tree bark is laid on top of it. Mulching the soil will prevent it from drying out too quickly.
Caring for magnolia in the garden
Magnolia is a moisture-loving plant, so it needs regular watering. Seedlings, whose age is 1–3 years, especially need abundant and systematic watering. In this case, it should be noted that the soil of the near-stem circle should not be damp, but only slightly damp, and it should be watered only with lukewarm water. Loosening the soil near the bush must be done very carefully and only with a pitchfork, since the plant has a superficial root system, which is extremely easy to injure with other garden tools. To reduce the amount of watering and loosening, experienced gardeners recommend filling the trunk circle with mulch.
Magnolia also needs regular feeding. For the first 2 years, the young plant does not need to be fed, because it has enough nutrients in the soil. Top dressing begins only from the age of three, these procedures are carried out from the beginning to the middle of the growing season. The plant should be fed with a complex mineral fertilizer, while the dosage should be indicated on the package. If you wish, you can make a nutrient mixture yourself, for this, combine 1 bucket of water, 15 grams of urea, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and 1 kilogram of mullein. For 1 adult plant, you need to take 4 buckets of such a nutrient solution. They are watered magnolia 1 time in 4 weeks. Remember that it is very easy to overfeed. In an “overfed” specimen, leaf plates begin to dry out ahead of time. When such signs appear, you should stop feeding and increase the abundance of watering.
Magnolia reacts extremely negatively to the transplant. If you still need to transplant it, then try to follow the advice of experienced gardeners exactly. First, find the most suitable site for landing. The bush is watered abundantly. When digging it out, remember that the clod of earth should be as large as possible, then the plant will transfer the transplant much easier and take root faster. To transfer the magnolia to a new landing site, you can use a sheet of plywood or a piece of oilcloth. Further, all manipulations with the plant should be exactly the same as during the initial planting. So, at the bottom of the landing pit, a drainage layer is made, which is covered with sand and earth mixture. Then the magnolia itself is installed in the center and the pit is covered with soil mixture, while do not forget that the root neck after planting must necessarily rise above the surface of the site. The surface of the near-stem circle should not be over-tamped, it only needs to be lightly pressed.
The transplanted plant should be watered abundantly, and then the surface of the tree circle is covered with a layer of mulch. If the magnolia was transplanted in the fall, then its roots will need to be protected from the upcoming frosts; for this, a mound of dry soil is created on the surface of the near-stem circle. The branches and trunk of such a plant for the winter should be wrapped with a cloth.
Magnolia is not pruned to form a crown. Sanitary pruning is carried out only after the plant has faded. At the same time, you need to cut out all those affected by winter frosts and dry branches, as well as those that thicken the crown, do not forget to remove wilted flowers. Places of fresh cuts should be coated with garden pitch. Pruning is not done in the spring, the fact is that such a plant is characterized by extremely intensive sap flow, and the resulting wounds can lead to its death.
Pests and Diseases
For many years it was believed that magnolia was not affected by any disease or pest, but it could still have many problems. For example, chlorosis may develop, from which yellowish spots begin to appear on the surface of the leaf plates, but the veins do not change their green color. Chlorosis indicates that the soil contains too much lime, which negatively affects the development and growth of the magnolia root system and often leads to the death of the entire plant. The soil can be corrected by adding coniferous soil or acidic peat to it. You can also use chemicals available in any specialized store, for example, iron chelate.
Magnolia growth and development may become slower due to the fact that the soil is oversaturated with nutrients, which leads to its salinization. To understand that the plant is overfed, you can conduct a thorough inspection in the last days of July, you can find the drying edges of old leaf blades. If there are signs of magnolia overfeeding, then you need to stop fertilizing and increase the abundance of watering.
Mealybugs, roseweed thrips and peach aphids can settle on such a plant, while transparent or spider mites harm it during the drought period. These pests feed on plant sap, which causes significant harm to magnolia. So, the fall of its foliage can begin in July or August. In some cases, due to pests, the plant can be weakened so much that next year it will not have growth at all. Also, these pests are carriers of viral diseases that cannot be cured. To get rid of pests, you should use acaricides, for example, a bush can be treated with Aktara, Aktellik, or another means of a similar action.
In winter, rodents can cause significant damage to the plant, which gnaw on the root collar and roots. But to understand whether there are such problems, you will have to remove the top layer of soil. Detected bites will need to be sprayed with a solution of Fundazol (1%). And remember, in order to prevent rodents, it is necessary to cover the trunk circle of magnolia for the winter only after the top layer of soil freezes.
When grown in mid-latitudes, magnolia can become infected with fungal diseases such as powdery mildew, black fungus, scab, seedling rot, gray mold or botrytis. The affected bush can be cured only if the disease is detected quickly enough and the plant is treated with a fungicide solution as soon as possible. Don't forget to cut down on watering as well. In some cases, to obtain the desired result, the plant has to be sprayed several times. If the bush is infected with bacterial spotting, then it will need to be treated with copper sulfate.
Propagation of magnolia
Magnolia can be propagated by seeds, layering, cuttings and grafting. But at the same time, it should be taken into account that in order to preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant, it must be propagated exclusively by a vegetative method. However, when growing magnolia from seeds, it is often possible to obtain a new variety, form or variety. And the generative method of reproduction is the simplest.
Propagation by seeds
Seeds ripen in September. Gather the stems and lay them out on a paper sheet. Then the seeds are shaken out and immersed in a container of water, where they should stay from 2 to 3 days. Then they are rubbed through a sieve, so you can remove the seeds. Next, the seeds are washed in a soapy solution, which will remove an oily coating from them, and then they are thoroughly rinsed in clean running water. Seeds must be stratified before sowing. To do this, they are folded into a polyethylene bag, which must be filled with moistened sphagnum or sand (1: 4). Remove the package on the middle shelf of the refrigerator for at least 20 days.
Remove the stratified seeds from the refrigerator and place them for some time in a fungicide solution for disinfection. Then the seeds are laid out in moistened moss and wait until they peck. If everything is done correctly, then the sprouts will give more than half of the seeds. If we neglect stratification, then there will not be so many seedlings.
Make a groove 20 mm deep and place the seeds in it, which should be covered with a centimeter layer of substrate. This plant has a tap root system, so for sowing it is necessary to take a high container, the depth of which will be at least 0.3 m. Transplantation into open ground is carried out after the threat of return frosts is left behind, while the seedlings must be carefully transferred to the holes. For wintering, young bushes should be covered with dry peat “with their heads”.
For harvesting cuttings, you need to choose young plants, and you need to have time to cut them before the buds bloom. It is best if the lower part of the cutting is lignified, and the upper one is green. The cuttings are planted in the last days of June or the first - in July, for this they use a greenhouse, since it will be possible to maintain the necessary temperature and humidity of the air and soil in it. The cuttings are planted in sand or a mixture consisting of peat, vermiculite, sand and perlite. The air temperature in the greenhouse should be kept at around 20–24 degrees, in which case the cuttings will be able to take root in 5–7 weeks. If the cutting is taken from a large-flowered magnolia, then it should be taken into account that it can take 2 times more time to root. Try to keep the air temperature within the recommended range. The fact is that if it is cooler, then the rooting of the cuttings will slow down significantly, and temperatures exceeding 26 degrees can kill the plant. While the cuttings are in the greenhouse, do not forget to ventilate it systematically, and also make sure that the soil in it is a little moist all the time.
How to propagate by layering
Propagation by layering is only suitable for shrub magnolias. In spring time, you need to choose a branch that grows very close to the ground surface. At the base, you need to drag it with soft copper wire, then the branch is bent to the ground and fixed in this position. In the place where the branch is in contact with the soil, it must be sprinkled with soil so that a small mound is obtained. To bring the moment of the appearance of the roots closer, it is necessary to make an annular incision on it in the place where the branch touches the ground.
Air layers are sometimes used for propagation. In the last spring or first summer weeks, it is necessary to select a branch and make a circular cut of the bark on it, the width of which should be from 20 to 30 mm. The cut must be done carefully so as not to injure the wood. Next, the cut is treated with Heteroauxin, and then the wound is covered with moistened moss and wrapped with cling film, which must be fixed below and above the cut. After that, this branch is tied to nearby branches, which will avoid injury due to strong gusts of wind. Moss should be slightly damp all the time. To do this, several times a month, you need to “inject” water into it through a syringe. Roots should appear after 8-12 weeks. In the autumn, the layering should be disconnected from the mother plant, and it should be grown indoors.
Magnolia after flowering
How to care after flowering
Magnolia flowers begin in spring or early summer. Magnolia, covered with flowers, is the queen among garden trees. After the plant has faded, it will be necessary to prune it for sanitary purposes. To do this, it is necessary to cut off all wilted flowers, as well as branches and stems injured and damaged by frost, as well as those that grow inside the crown. Non-flowering magnolia is also very decorative, as it has beautiful leathery leaf plates.
Plant preparation for winter should be done in late autumn. The shelter must be good and reliable, because even if you grow a winter-hardy type of magnolia, it can still freeze, especially if the winter is windy and not very snowy. To prevent freezing of the plant, its trunk must be wrapped with burlap in 2 layers, while trying to ensure that the delicate branches are not injured. After the first frost, the surface of the near-stem circle must be mulched with a thick layer.
Types and varieties of magnolia with photos and names
The largest collections of magnolias are in the UK, namely: in the Royal Botanic Gardens and in the Arnold Arboretum introduction center. There is also a rather beautiful collection in Kyiv. The species most popular with gardeners will be described below.
Siebold magnolia (Magnolia sieboldii)
The height of such a deciduous tree is about 10 meters. However, most often this species is represented by a shrub. Its leaf plates are broadly elliptical in shape, and they reach 15 centimeters in length. On a thin pubescent pedicel is a slightly drooping fragrant white cup-shaped flower. Flowers in diameter can reach 7-10 centimeters. This species is one of the most winter-hardy, it is able to endure short frosts down to minus 36 degrees. Cultivated since 1865
Obovate magnolia (Magnolia obovata), or white-flowered magnolia
This species comes from Japan and from the island of Kunashir, which is located in the Kuriles. The height of this deciduous tree is about 15 meters. The color of the smooth bark is gray. At the ends of the stems, leaf plates of 8–10 pieces are collected. The diameter of the spectacular white-cream flowers is about 16 centimeters, they are distinguished by the fact that they have a spicy smell. The length of saturated red fruits is about 20 centimeters. Such a plant looks spectacular all year round, it is shade-tolerant and frost-resistant, but at the same time it is demanding on the level of air and soil humidity. Cultivated since 1865
Magnolia officinalis (Magnolia officinalis)
This species is native to China. This plant is considered an analogue of magnolia officinalis, but its leaf plates are larger. Large fragrant flowers are similar in appearance to water lilies, but they have narrower petals, tapering to the top. At home, this species is used as a medicinal plant, and in the middle latitudes it can be found extremely rarely.
Pointed magnolia (Magnolia acuminata), or cucumber magnolia
This plant comes from the central part of North America. Under natural conditions, it prefers to grow in deciduous forests at the foot of the mountain, as well as along the rocky banks of mountain rivers. This deciduous tree can reach a height of about 30 meters. In a young plant, the shape of the crown is pyramidal, but it gradually becomes rounded. Elliptical or oval leaf plates in length reach 24 centimeters. Their front side is painted dark green, and the wrong side is greenish-gray, there is a short pubescence on its surface. The diameter of the bell-shaped flowers is about 8 centimeters, they are colored greenish-yellow, in some cases there is a bluish coating on the surface. This species is the most frost-resistant of all. This species has a shape with rounded or heart-shaped leaf plates at the base. Canary-colored flowers are not as large as those of the main species. In the United States, specialists have obtained hybrid magnolias by crossing magnolia liliaceus and magnolia pointed, they are combined under the name Brooklyn magnolia.
Magnolia stellata (Magnolia stellata)
This species is one of the most beautiful and graceful. He hails from Japan. The plant is a shrub or not very large tree, the height of which can reach 250 centimeters. The branches are bare brownish-gray in color. The shape of the leaf plates is narrowly elliptical, their length is about 12 centimeters. The diameter of unusual flowers is about 10 centimeters, they have a large number of snow-white petals of an elongated ribbon-like shape, they extend in all directions, which is similar to the rays of a star. There are 2 decorative forms: key and pink. Several varieties and hybrids are also popular with gardeners. For example, Magnolia Susan is a variety that has flowers that are dark red-purple on the outside and paler on the inside. This variety is part of a series of hybrids with female names: Betty, Pinky, Jane, Judy, Anna, Randy and Ricky. This series was born in the fifties of the last century.
Magnolia liliflora (Magnolia liliflora)
This species is very popular with gardeners. Presumably, the birthplace of such a plant is eastern China, it appeared in Europe in 1790. The flowering is lush, the diameter of the flowers with a subtle smell is about 11 centimeters, they are very similar in shape to a lily. Their inner surface is white, and the outer surface is purple. Particularly noteworthy is the decorative form of this type of Nigra (Nigre): the outer surface of its flowers is red-ruby, and the inner surface is lilac-white, flowering begins in the last days of April or the first - May.
This plant is native to South Korea and central and northern Japan. It came to New York in 1862, and from there it was brought to Europe in 1879. Under natural conditions, the height of a tree can be 25 meters, but in culture it does not exceed 10 meters. Wide obovate leaf plates have a pointed top. Their front surface is rich green, and the wrong side is painted in a paler shade. The diameter of fragrant white flowers is about 10 centimeters. The first flowering of such a magnolia can only be seen when it turns 9-12 years. This species is frost-, dust- and gas-resistant. The northern form is a plant with larger flowers that is even more hardy.
Native to southeastern North America. The slender trunk has a cylindrical shape. The crown has a very spectacular shape. The color of large glossy sheet plates is dark green. The diameter of the white flowers is about 25 centimeters, they have a sharp spicy smell. The fruits are also highly decorative, they are very bright and have a cone-like shape. While the plant is young, it is characterized by slow growth, for example, the annual growth is only 0.6 m. It has low winter hardiness, can withstand frosts not lower than minus 15 degrees. This species grows well in urban conditions, it is durable and highly resistant to pests and diseases. Basic decorative shapes:
- Angustifolia. Leaf plates are narrower compared to the main view.
- Lancet. The shape of the foliage is elongated.
- Famous. The leaf blades are very wide and the diameter of the flowers is about 0.35 m.
- Round-leaved. Leaf plates are painted in a very dark green hue. The flowers are about 15 cm in diameter.
- Early. Flowering begins earlier compared to the main species.
- Exon. This tall tree has a narrow pyramidal crown shape. Leaf blades are oblong and have pubescence on the underside.
- Praverti. The shape of the crown is strictly pyramidal.
- Hartvisa. The shape of the crown is pyramidal, the foliage is wavy.
- Draconic. The crown is very low. Arched hanging branches touch the ground and quickly take root.
- Gallison. It has greater frost resistance compared to the main species.
Magnolia Sulange (Magnolia x soulangeana)
This hybrid was born in 1820 thanks to the Frenchman E. Sulange, who was a scientist. At the moment, more than 50 forms of such a hybrid have been registered, and all of them are very popular in almost every country. The height of such a deciduous shrub or tree does not exceed 5 meters. The length of the obovate leaf plates is about 15 centimeters. The diameter of goblet-shaped flowers can vary from 15 to 25 centimeters, they are fragrant, and in some cases they have no smell at all. They can be dyed in various shades from purple to light pink. A plant with white flowers is extremely rare. Such a magnolia is resistant to adverse environmental influences and is not demanding on the composition of the soil. Most popular garden forms:
- Lenne. The inner surface of fragrant flowers is white, and the outer surface is purple-pink.
- Alexandrina. The height of the magnolia is about 8 meters, it is resistant to drought. The outer surface of the flowers is dark purple, and the inner surface is white.
- Rubra (red). The outer surface of the flowers is reddish-pink.
- German. The shape of the crown is pyramidal.
This hybrid also has a large number of varieties.
In addition to the species described above, gardeners cultivate magnolia willow, large-leaved, Lebner, naked, three-petal, or umbrella, etc.
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here's what you need to know!
Named after French botanist Pierre Magnol, plate magnolias are a wonderful addition to any landscape.
They are known for their large, saucer-shaped flowers that range in color from white to pink and purple. These trees are beautiful and bring many benefits.
Saucer Magnolias are a variety of magnolias known for their large, saucer shaped flowers. The flowers of these trees can be quite impressive! One of the most unique features of saucer-shaped magnolias is their large saucer-shaped flowers, which are also very fragrant.
Plate magnolia habitat
Saucer magnolia trees are native to the eastern United States and thrive in humid climates. If you live in a region with hot summers and mild winters, plate magnolias will come in handy! However, these trees can also tolerate colder temperatures, so they can be grown in other parts of the country as well.
Physical Features of Magnolia Plate Trees
The plate magnolia family belongs to the Magnolia family and its scientific name is Magnolia x soulangiana. The saucer magnolia is actually a hybrid of the lily magnolia and the yulan magnolia.
Saucer magnolia leaves (Magnolia x soulangiana) simple but deciduous. In the summer, the leaves take on a dark green color, and in the autumn seasons they take on captivating shades of yellow, orange and red. They grow from twigs with pubescent bloom and taper towards the base. The flower buds of this tree are indistinct and large. They bloom with beautiful and elegant flowers that have both a masculine and a feminine part. The flowers have waxy petals that are pink-purple on the outside and pure white on the inside.
The petals of the flower are arranged in the shape of a glass or a saucer, so they are called saucer magnolias. They are round, upright and upright. Flower petals and sepals are often called "tepals" by botanists because of the difficulty in distinguishing between them. Their stamens and pistils are located along the main seed cone. The trunk and bark are usually gray or very light brown. Its bark resembles a small shrub when it is in its growth stage, but it soon grows into a massive tree with a large canopy.
Caring for plate magnolia trees
Plate magnolia trees (Magnolia x soulangiana) are relatively easy to care for. Here are some tips to help you get started!
Saucer magnolia (Magnolia x soulangiana) trees prefer moist, well-drained soil. Remember to water the tree regularly, especially during the summer months. Saucer magnolias grow best in full sun or partial shade. Fertilize your plate magnolia twice a year, in spring and fall. Fertilize your plate magnolia twice a year - once in the spring and once in the fall. Perfectly balanced fertilizer. Prune your saucer magnolia tree annually, in late winter or early spring. Remove any damaged bark or branches and trim the tree to be symmetrical.
Saucer magnolia trees usually bloom in spring. The flowers last for several weeks and gradually wither as the petals fall. Plate magnolia trees can grow up to 50 feet (15. 24 m) tall, so be sure to choose the right spot before planting your tree! Many different varieties of saucer-shaped magnolias are also available on the market today. "Southern Charm" is a white saucer magnolia that blooms in spring, "Royal Star" is a pink saucer magnolia that blooms in spring, "Purple saucer" is a purple saucer. magnolia that blooms in spring, "Teddy Bear" is a magnolia with a yellow saucer that blooms in summer, and "Snowdrifts" is a magnolia with a white saucer that blooms in summer. winter.
If you're thinking about adding plate magnolia to your yard, be sure to research it first as each variety has its own unique set of requirements, growth and care!
Growing and Pruning Plate Magnolia Trees
Growing plate magnolias can be a little tricky, but if done right, you will have a healthy tree with beautiful flowers.
Collect seeds from this plant in spring and summer. They require a dormant period, so make sure you plant your seeds outdoors during the fall season. The seeds should germinate in the spring.
Lettuce magnolias are best planted in semi-shady or sunny places. Make sure the weather isn't too extreme or too bad as the flowers may open too early. The strong winds of a cold early spring can also damage the flowers, so protect the plant from this as it grows. Saucer magnolias do not grow well in soil that is very wet or dry. Therefore, provide the plant with rich soil, moist and well-drained.
The plant can be pruned to give it the shape of a tree. Broken and diseased branches can be pruned to avoid the spread of fungal diseases. These plants can continue to grow well without any feeding, but a spring fertilization can really improve their growth. During the first year of planting your plate magnolia, water it generously and frequently. After this, plate magnolia will need only watering and watering in dry weather. Once this system is established, they develop good drought tolerance.
Frequently Asked Questions
Why are magnolias harmful?
A: Magnolia trees aren't exactly bad, but they can be quite difficult to care for as they can be infested with pests and diseases that can damage the tree. Magnolia trees also require a lot of water, so they may not be suitable for homeowners living in dry areas. Finally, magnolia trees can grow quite large, so make sure you have enough space before planting them!
Are plate magnolias dirty?
A: Plate magnolia trees are not usually muddy, but these evergreen trees can shed their leaves and flowers in fall and spring. This can be good or bad, depending on your personal preference.
What will live under the magnolia?
A: Under the magnolia tree, there is an open invitation for creatures of all types. This may be because the broad, dark green leaves provide plenty of shade and weather protection, or it may simply be because the magnolia flower's sweet fragrance attracts wildlife. Either way, if you have a magnolia tree growing in your yard, you will likely see a wide variety of animals benefiting from its benefits!
Do magnolias bloom twice a year?
A: Plate magnolia trees usually bloom in spring.