How deep do peach tree roots grow
Do Peach Trees Have Invasive Roots? – PlantNative.org
When it comes to peach tree roots, the answer is no. Although peach trees don’t generally have invasive root systems, you may need to take extra care when planting one, as they can damage pipes.
If you want to keep your tree healthy and beautiful, consider a non-invasive variety.
The following tips should help you avoid having a problem with your peach tree’s roots.
Before planting a peach tree, make sure you are sure that you have a spot that will accommodate the tree’s roots.
In loose soil, peach tree roots are usually only a couple of feet deep, but they can spread to three feet or more. If you want a good crop, prune the branches every year after they have grown to a height of about 10 feet (3 m).
The best places to plant peach trees are in full sun, rich soil, and well-drained conditions. They need at least 10 feet of space for their canopy, and another 20 feet for their roots to spread.
They are hardy in zones six through nine, but late freezes could kill the fruit if they are still in bloom. A healthy soil drainage is important to keep the roots of a peach tree healthy. Remember that a healthy tree is only as good as its roots!
How close can I plant a peach tree to my house?
When it comes to peach tree planting, distance is important.
The standard-size tree should be planted 15 to 20 feet apart.
Dwarf varieties should be planted ten to twelve feet apart.
For best results, plant them at least 20 feet apart. Ideally, plants should be planted about five feet apart for semi-dwarf varieties and ten feet apart for standard-size trees.
A good location for a peach tree is in a location with full sun, well-drained soil, and good drainage. However, make sure to choose a location with a sheltered area and no slopes.
A shady area may be difficult to maintain, and a small area is best. A sunny area will be better for peach trees, as shade can reduce the amount of fruit produced.
Another consideration is the spacing of the tree. The standard-sized peach tree should be planted 15 to 20 feet apart, while a dwarf variety should be planted 10 to 12 feet away.
Regardless of the size of the tree, it needs plenty of space to grow and produce fruit. You can plant dwarf varieties up to 12 feet apart, as they don’t require as much space as full-sized trees.
Do peach trees have deep roots?
Peach trees don’t have very deep roots, but they can still be very invasive.
If you want to grow a peach tree in your yard, you should plant it at least 25 feet from any structure.
Although peach trees are generally not invasive, they do have deep roots.
For this reason, they need to be planted in an area where they don’t have to contend with any structures.
Peach trees’ roots are relatively shallow, as they aren’t invasive. Their deepest branches can only reach about three feet down, which is enough for them to find water.
Because of this, they are often used for landscaping, and they require at least ten to twenty feet of space.
The most common varieties of peach trees are hardy in zones six through nine, but late freezes and cold can zap them.
Peach trees’ roots are a key factor in their growth. They need oxygen, water, and nutrients, so they need plenty of room to grow.
When they are first planted, they should be planted in a container. However, bare-root trees need to be transplanted to larger pots every five to seven years. Once established, peach trees can reach up to ten feet across if they are grown in the right environment.
Which fruit trees have invasive roots?
Invasive roots are common to all types of trees. As long as their needs are met, they will grow and spread in the same areas. Invasive roots in urban areas often invade water pipes and other infrastructures.
Many citrus trees are particularly problematic because their shallow, broad root system means they will eventually encroach on water pipes.
Virginia Tech scientists conducted tests on young trees and found that a 6-inch tree can have roots that can spread as far as 19 feet.
Some fruit trees have invasive roots, which can damage your property.
You can prevent this problem by growing your fruit trees in containers.
Invasive fruit trees have a wide root system that can grow up to three times their height.
They also grow very quickly, and can even cause cracks in concrete or brick walls.
Regardless of size, however, if you don’t want them to invade your property, it’s better to choose a dwarf variety.
When it comes to fruit tree roots, many of them have a shallow, horizontal root system. They can be as large as 15 feet around the trunk.
Healthy trees have enormous fibrous root systems that are about four or seven times the circumference of the branches.
They can spread quickly and grow uncontrollably, so it’s important to consider where you want to plant them. These types of fruit trees can also be suited for a smaller garden with routine care and pruning.
Where should I plant a peach tree in my yard?
Peach trees are easy to plant and require little care. The best time to plant one is during the dormant season, when soil is cooler and there are fewer weeds.
Choose a sunny, sheltered spot, and plant the tree a good two inches deep. The root zone needs to be protected from dry winter winds, so mulch the area around the trunk well. It is best to plant the peach in an elevated location; avoid planting it in a depression.
The best location for planting a peach tree is in a warm, sunny spot.
This type of tree will thrive best in an elevated location that gets at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight.
The ideal location should be in a sunny, south-facing slope.
The soil should be well-drained and should not have too high a pH level. A little acidity is good for the peach tree.
The soil should be well-drained, with a pH level of six to 6.5. The ideal soil is a mixture of clay and sand. Too much clay can cause water-logged roots, while too much sandy soil can cause drought stress in summer.
While peaches are adaptable, the soil pH level is important. Soil amendments and fertilizer can help improve the soil in areas with sandy soil.
How Deep Do Fruit Tree Roots Grow? – Thriving Yard
Share Or Save For Later
There is a plethora of commonly held beliefs about tree roots. For example, many people have been taught that a tree’s root system closely resembles its trunk and branches. However, the truth is much more nuanced.
There is no simple, one-size-fits-all answer to the question of fruit tree root depth because numerous factors influence how deep roots will grow. That said, there are a few key guidelines worth noting:
Fruit trees’ roots are very shallow, often only reaching depths of three feet below the ground. In fact, they will only grow as deep as they need to grow to find sufficient water. The breadth of their root system is much more important and extensive.
Check out the DynaTrap Mosquito & Flying Insect Trap – Kills Mosquitoes, Flies, Wasps, Gnats, & Other Flying Insects – Protects up to 1/2 Acre (link to Amazon).
It may also surprise you to learn that all fruit trees, including apples, stone fruits, and citrus, have the same root system depth and breadth when they are planted in the right kind of soil and cared for properly.Root System Depth
One common misconception about tree roots is that they are as deep as the tree is tall. The truth is that very few of a tree’s roots extend deeper than 18 inches below the ground (source).
In fact, trees can grow in as little as 18 inches of soil; however, fruit trees planted in soil that shallow will be stunted (source).
Trees have two types of roots, taproots and fibrous roots. Taproots grow vertically and can become quite large and trunk-like. Not only do taproots stabilize the above-ground growth of the tree, they are also critical to a tree’s search for water.
Non-fruiting trees usually only have one or two taproots, reaching depths of 30 feet or more. However, many fruit trees do not develop deep taproots at all (source).
There are exceptions to this based on the type of fruit tree, rootstock, the quality of soil, and how high or low the water table is in your area. In general, though, fruit trees don’t need to grow very deep taproots when they are planted in good soil with sufficient water and nutrients.
In essence, the drier the soil, the deeper the roots will need to grow to hunt for water.Root System Breadth
Fibrous roots, on the other hand, make up the majority of a tree’s root system. These extend outward horizontally from the base of the tree and mainly develop within the top 12 inches of soil where nutrients are more abundant (source).
Fibrous roots can’t grow and thrive in oxygen-deficient soils. This is primarily why they grow so close to the surface. The deeper the soil, the less likely roots will find the oxygen they need.
Fruit-bearing trees from the rose family, such as apples, apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, and plums, are especially dependent on the oxygen they receive from their fibrous roots (source). This means that when they are healthy and thriving, these types of trees’ roots are more likely to have significant breadth rather than significant depth.
Don’t be fooled by the term “fibrous.” While some fibrous roots are small, less than an inch in diameter, the tree’s main fibrous roots can be anywhere from three to 15 feet in diameter near the trunk (source).
When a tree is healthy, its fibrous root system is likely to be huge! In fact, a tree’s root system can reach a circumference four to seven times the circumference of its branches (source).Factors Affecting Root Depth
The factors that have the most influence on root depth are:
- Soil conditions
- Water availability
- Pruning practices
- Rootstock selection
Ideally, for your tree to be healthy and produce fruit, your soil should meet the following conditions:
- A pH level between 6. 0 and 7.0 (slightly acidic)
- Loam or sandy loam consistency
- Good drainage
Under these conditions, most of your fruit tree’s roots will develop in the top three feet of soil.
You can also contact your local extension agent or soil expert about having your soil tested. Alternatively, you can do this yourself by purchasing a soil test online (link to Amazon). This will tell you the pH level of your soil as well as which nutrients you may need to supplement.
Furthermore, your fruit tree’s root system will need plenty of space to grow outward without competing with other fruit trees for nutrients and water. You can calculate the amount of space you’ll need by the tree’s full height potential. If you expect your fruit tree to be 25 feet tall, don’t plant another tree within 25 feet of it (source).Soil Types
Loam or sandy loam are ideal for trees because they retain moisture, but not excessively, and allow enough oxygen to still flow freely in the top few feet of soil. Unfortunately, not every grower is blessed with perfect soil.
Tree roots will often thrive in sandy soils because of the availability of oxygen in sand. The downside of sandy soils, however, is that they drain quickly, sometimes too quickly to meet the tree’s needs. If you have sandy soil, plan to irrigate and fertilize your tree regularly.
If your home is newly built, your yard is likely composed of “made” soil. “Made” soil is a term that refers to soil in landscapes that have recently been under construction. Because of grading, compaction by heavy machinery, and mixing of soils from a variety of locations, tree roots will struggle to take hold in “made” soil (source).
The primary problem with “made” soil is the loss of oxygen from compaction, which may require vertical mulching, engineered soil, and help from a tree expert to fix.
Clay is extremely problematic for root systems because it is heavy and often water-logged. Oxygen doesn’t flow freely in clay soil, so roots cannot grow freely, either. Before you plant in clay, you will need to do significant soil preparation.
Salty soils are also difficult environments for tree planting. Salts can burn tree roots, but in addition to that, salty soils usually coexist with high water tables, which can lead to rot in the roots that do exist. Fruit trees are simply unlikely to thrive in salty soils without a great deal of mitigation (source).
If the soil in your area is poor, consider planting your fruit tree in a pot (see below).Water Availability
Fruit trees require tremendous amounts of water to produce fruit. In fact, a single well-established peach tree can use approximately 45 gallons of water each day in the height of summer (source).
The problem, of course, is that their roots won’t succeed in water-logged soil.
So, if you live in an area with good rainfall or a high water table, you will probably not need to irrigate your fruit trees. In fact, irrigating trees in a wet climate is simply not a good idea. See this article on the signs of overwatered plants.
If you don’t know how high your water table is, consult the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Ground-Water Monitoring Network.
During drought periods and in dry areas, fruit trees will need to be watered, but only occasionally. Water young trees every 10-14 days and mature trees every three to four weeks. This occasional watering will prod your tree’s roots to grow deeper toward the water table.Pruning Practices
It may seem counterintuitive, but pruning your tree’s branches will also affect the growth of its roots.
It is common knowledge that roots and branches transmit water and nutrients to each other. However, they also transmit growth hormones as well (source).
When trees are pruned to encourage new branches to grow, growth hormones are stimulated in both the branches and the root system. Essentially, as new branches grow, new roots will grow as well.
It is critical to note that this will only be the case when trees are pruned at the appropriate time and to an appropriate degree.
Over-pruning can lead to a steep decline in root growth and function. This leads to further problems for the tree’s health since it won’t be able to take in as much water and nutrients.
See Can Pruning Kill a Plant? Critical Mistakes To Avoid
When you prune a young, recently established tree, avoid pruning more than 50% of its foliage at one time. Middle-aged trees should not lose more than 25% of foliage in one pruning session, and mature trees not more than 10% of foliage (source).
Don’t be afraid to prune your trees, since pruning does promote healthy branch and root development. Just take care to prune responsibly in order to avoid triggering an irrevocable stress response in your tree.Rootstock Selection
Rootstocks comprise the lower portion of the tree, including its root system. The upper portion of the tree, the scion, is grafted onto the rootstock. Stone fruits, pears, and apples all have different rootstocks growers can choose from (source).
Rootstocks control quite a few growing variables including height, yield, and lifespan. Proper rootstock selection is also a good way to control the size of your fruit tree’s root system. This is especially advantageous for growers with limited space or less-than-ideal soil conditions.
If space is a concern for you, consider dwarfing, semi-dwarfing, or extremely dwarfing rootstocks. These varieties’ root systems generally only grow to areas of approximately three to six square feet, compared to the 33 to 39 square-foot area of full-sized fruit trees (source).
Dwarfing rootstocks are available for apples, pears, and stone fruits, including some almonds.
Nectarines, peaches, and tart cherry trees are self-fruitful; they do not need another tree to produce fruit. They can also be grafted onto dwarfing rootstocks. This makes them great candidates for growers who have limited space.
Rootstocks can also affect a fruit tree’s tolerance of drought and soil conditions. Some, like the Citation rootstock for stone fruits, have even been adapted to tolerate soils that drain poorly.
Novice growers should consult their local extension agents or horticulturalists for advice on which rootstocks are likely to succeed in your area.Planting DepthApples and Pears
When planting pome fruits (apples and pears) that have been grafted onto a rootstock, the rule of thumb is to keep the scion-rootstock union four to six inches above the surface (source). Allow for some settling to occur after planting.Stone Fruit
You can plant stone fruit trees a little deeper than apple trees; however, if you plant them too deep, they won’t receive enough oxygen. Aim for the highest lateral roots to be about two inches deep. This will put the scion-rootstock union approximately two inches above the surface (source).
Again, expect the tree to settle a bit after planting.Citrus Fruit
When planting bare-root citrus trees, measure the depth of the root ball, then dig your hole to be one inch shallower than the root ball (source). Once you’ve refilled the hole, add about half an inch of soil to the root crown to prevent it from drying out.Diameter vs. Depth
When planting any kind of bare-root fruit tree, as opposed to planting from seed, the planting depth is less important than the hole’s diameter. When planted, the roots should not be bent or laid over each other. There should be ample room to settle them in a natural position (source).
Furthermore, if you dig a hole approximately twice as wide as the new tree’s root system, you will help your tree become established. Since you have done the work of breaking up the soil, the roots will find it easier to grow outward (source).Growing Fruit Trees in Pots
If you want to plant a fruit tree, but the soil in your area presents too many difficulties, consider growing your tree in a pot. There are several advantages to this approach:
- There is a wide variety of fruit trees that can thrive and bear fruit when planted in a pot, including dwarf cherries, key limes, Meyer lemons, and even avocados (source).
- You have more control over the quality of the soil. Potting mixes that are available at garden centers and nurseries will generally work, but you can also make your own potting mix out of sand, peat, and perlite (source).
- You would have greater control over irrigation. When a tree is in a pot, it is much easier to judge whether it is receiving enough or too much water (source).
- Fruit trees grown in pots often don’t require much, if any, fertilization. Depending on which fruit you plant and the potting mix you use, your tree roots will have all the nutrients they need without supplements (source).
- Container planting also allows you to grow fruit that would not normally survive outside of its native climate. Since containers are portable, you can move your tree to shelter in the winter. Some fruit trees can be grown completely indoors, as long as they still have adequate sunlight.
Of course, trees grown in pots can’t stretch their root systems as extensively as trees grown in high-quality earth. This makes rootstock and variety selection extremely important. Your local Extension agent or horticulturalist can help you select an appropriate rootstock and scion for the fruit you wish to grow.Conclusion
The vast majority of a fruit tree’s root system is shallow, horizontal growth. With some exceptions, they will only grow deep taproots if water isn’t available closer to the surface. Fruit tree roots prefer to stay in the top three feet of soil where they can absorb oxygen and other minerals easily.
If the soil in your area is “made” soil, clay, or salty, don’t be discouraged from planting fruit trees! Planting fruit trees in pots gives you control over many important variables and allows you to enjoy your favorite fruits even outside of their native climates.
- Recent Posts
Sydney has over 15 years of experience in lawn maintenance, landscape design, and organic gardening. She has an A.A.S. in Landscape Design/Organic Produce Production from the Nebraska College of Technical Agriculture.
Latest posts by Sydney Bosque (see all)
Common peachCommon peach
ON THE MAIN / TO THE CONTENTS OF BOOK
In the southern regions our country, the common peach is found in the form of semi-cultivated forms. It usually grows as a tree 5-7 m high, it enters early fruitful and short-lived.
The root system of an ordinary peach when grafting on it different varieties of peach is quite developed. In the experiments of G.V. Trusevich (1964) in In the Krasnodar Territory, it was distinguished by a strong branching of the roots and their rapid growth, especially in the horizontal direction, to a strong branching of the roots and an abundance of lobes draws attention and A.A. Ilyinsky (1963). in the experiments of L.A. Ershov (1958) in the Crimean region depth of occurrence, total length and saturation density of roots soil turned out to be large in trees on seedlings of peach and apricot. On gray soils and pebble soils of Uzbekistan (Rybakov, 1954) peach roots lay at a depth of up to 0.7-3.5 m, and young trees they went beyond the crown, and in adults they were almost equal to its diameter. The bulk of the roots are concentrated in the layer soil 10-40 cm. Active stimulator of growth and development of the root systems are fertilizer. So, in the experiments of G.G. Sardarova (1967), which studied the effect of fertilizers and different methods of soil maintenance in the aisles of an irrigated garden (Azerbaijan SSR) for root growth, it was found that the introduction of superphosphate into the soil caused an increase in the total mass of the roots by 60% compared with the control. Under under the action of superphosphate, the roots deepened up to 100 cm, and in the control (without fertilizer application) - only up to 80 cm. Also significantly increased and the radius of spread of the root system in breadth: in experienced trees it reached 120-150 cm, and in the control it was only 90 see
On an irrigated plot in the conditions of the Tajik SSR (Gretzinger, Gortanova, 1971) roots of 3-year-old trees on peach (Fig. 70) amounted to: horizontal direction - 82, vertical - 18%. The root system of peach trees is highly branched, compact and rather fibrous, well tolerates both deficiency and excess moisture in the soil. At the age of 3, the roots go deep into the soil up to 149 cm, their diameter reaches 200 cm. In mountainous areas Uzbekistan, according to M.M. Mirsagatov (1969), penetration depth roots in the soil in 2-year-old peach seedlings was 102 cm, which smaller than those of cherry plum (200 cm), apricot (204 cm) and almond (228 cm). On the other hand, the length of conducting roots was 65.1, respectively; 25.4; 33.8 and 31.2 cm. Therefore, peach as a rootstock for peach has good branching and considerable fibrous roots, and besides high compatibility with grafted varieties. About the same the hybrid almond x peach, obtained in Bostandyk S.S. Kalmykov. Hybrid almond x peach, along with peach seedlings, as a drought-resistant rootstock for peach also recommend L.A. Ershov and N.V. Grigorenko (1974) for Crimean conditions. Moreover, in their experience, the peach root system was how much more powerful in hybrid plants (common peach x World peach, almond x peach 2108) than common peach.
Regarding the compatibility of peach varieties with different rootstock species S.A. Sokolova (1953) gives the data of her experiments on the attacks of nine varieties of peach grafted on peach, almond, apricot and cherry plum. Eight-year-old trees on a peach had no lunges at all, while while on other rootstocks, attacks ranged from 7 to 46%, especially a large number of attacks are noted on the cherry plum.
ON THE MAIN / TO THE CONTENTS OF BOOK
How many, where and how do peaches grow? Photo and why is it growing poorly?
Contents of the article
- 1 Where do peaches grow?
- 2 Preparing for planting
- 2.1 Selecting seedlings
- 2.2 When to plant a peach?
- 2.3 Selecting a planting site
- 2.4 Soil preparation
- 6.1 Spring pruning
- 6.2 Autumn pruning
- 9. 1 Cort for growing in the southern regions
- 9.2 Cort for the northern regions
Persian - a plant from the pink family, is included in the marshy breed. The almond tree differs from the peach in the properties and shape of the fruit. This is a heat-loving, undersized plant with a wide crown and lanceolate, serrated leaves along the edges. The flowering of the tree begins before the development of the leaves.
Ripe peach fruit tastes very juicy, and looks spherical, velvety with a groove along one edge. Ripening and fruit growth occurs in July and August. The initial place of peach growth should be considered Northern China. The first country that became interested how peaches grow was Italy.
Where do peaches grow?
Peaches grow in countries with a warm climate:
In such areas, peaches grow even without proper care.
Huge peach plantations can be seen in the Caucasus, Asia, Ukraine and Moldova. Peaches are a very heat-loving plant, so growing such a crop in central Russia is not an easy task.
But the facts show otherwise:
|Region||Peach cultivation experience|
|Leningrad region, Moscow region and central Russia||In the suburbs, gardener Koretsky grew 20 peach trees grafted onto almonds. I planted seedlings in 2001, and in 2011 I collected 30 kilograms of juicy fruits from each tree.|
|Crimea||The famous Crimean Nikitinsky Garden, which has recently begun its active work. About 15 varieties of varieties fill not only store shelves, but are also exported to other countries.|
|Ural and Siberia||The experience of Nikolai Sergeev from the city of Yuzhnouralsk shows that with proper cultivation and frost-resistant varieties, it is possible to get juicy fruits, even at the beginning of autumn.|
Thus, peaches grow with competent agricultural technology not only in the South, but also in the North.
Preparation for planting
Selection of seedlings
Tips for selecting seedlings:
- It is advisable to purchase peach seedlings from nurseries and local growers.
- When buying a seedling, pay attention to the root system. The cut at the root should be light, not dark. A light green cut indicates that the plant is alive and has not been stored anywhere for a long time.
- A good root has strong branches. A bad sign when too small, multiple roots.
- The stem itself must be free of sores and sores. The skin of a healthy trunk should be even and gray in color.
- If you pay attention to the kidneys, they should be large, not dried, without damage.
When to plant a peach?
Many years of experience show that not only the peach tree, but also all fruit plants should be planted in autumn. During the autumn-winter period, the plant manages to take root, and in the spring, in any weather, it begins to grow.
Planted seedlings produce white roots that cannot be injured and replanted. When planting for the winter, the soil has time to compact around the seedling, thanks to which the roots and buds begin to grow and develop normally.
Choosing a landing site
It is better to choose a landing site that is well lit, not shaded by mature trees and protected from the wind. On the summer cottage, it is advisable to choose a place on the south side , since the peach begins to bloom one of the first fruit trees.
Cold air stagnates in lowlands, waterlogged and swampy places, which does not allow the development and growth of the future peach. In such places, buds do not form and do not ripen in time; as a result, fruit trees grow poorly and die.
Do not plant for 2-3 years on soil that was previously used for growing crops such as:
It is not scary if fruit crops grow next to a peach, at a distance of 3-5 meters from each other, the main thing is that they do not shade and do not interfere with growth and fruiting.
Various types of soil are suitable for peach cultivation, the main thing is to create good drainage. Fill the planting pit with stone, broken brick and rusty iron.
First, the soil is freed from weeds and carefully dug up. In good soil, you can simply add any fertilizer, and depleted soil must be plentifully fed with mineral fertilizers.
For planting one seedling you will need:
- Organic humus or compost-7 kg.
- Wood ash 250 grams.
- Mineral superphosphate fertilizers - 200 gamma.
- Mineral potash or nitrogen fertilizers - 100 grams.
How to grow peaches in the garden?
The establishment and growth of peach depends on various factors. Peaches grow in warm regions, but despite this, they are frost-resistant. In order for the plant to begin to grow and bear fruit after 3 years, it is necessary to cover a fragile seedling for the winter.
This method applies to columnar, dwarf varieties. When planting, it is advisable to fix the seedling at an angle, for convenient shelter for the winter. Let's get acquainted with a step-by-step guide to spring and autumn peach planting.
Spring planting peach
For early spring planting, the soil should be dug up in the spring. If the climate is warm, the landing is already carried out at the end of February. The size of the pit should be one meter wide and at least 60 cm deep.
- Fill the bottom of the pit with the necessary fertilizer , and you can also add rusty nails and small pebbles.
- After checking, the seedling is placed in the hole strictly vertically , fix, trample down and cover with earth. The root collar should be at ground level.
- Tie the seedling to stakes for stability and trim.
- Then water generously to the planting depth and observe how it grows.
Winter planting is more suitable for southern regions, as winters are not too severe. The root will grow over the winter and adapt to new conditions. Gardeners advise planting a seedling in a permanent place. It is better to choose such a place where peaches grow well: on the south, well-lit side, closer to the edge of the fence.
Step-by-step technology for autumn peach planting:
- Prepare a hole for planting. Pit width 70 cm, depth 70 cm.
- Attach a peg to the bottom of the pit to tie up the seedling.
- Fill the bottom with manure, ash or humus mixed with the ground.
- Roots will grow well if carefully spread and fixed in the planting hole so that the root neck is slightly raised above the ground.
- Cover the seedling with earth and tie it to a peg.
- Water generously, this will require 4 buckets of water.
- Leaves or sawdust can be sprinkled on top.
How to care for a peach tree?
Young peach care
After planting a peach, it is important to ensure that the soil around it is not too wet or dry. It is in such soil that peach crops grow.
To get the necessary air and moisture to the roots, you need to regularly plow the soil around the tree. In loose and oxygen-rich soil, grass does not grow and erosion does not form. And in cold weather, the plant is covered with special insulated bags.
Water is the most important factor in which all fruit crops grow and bear fruit, but even here a norm is needed. Both a lack and an excess of moisture leads to a deterioration in the fertility and vital activity of the whole plant.
- After planting, water on average once a week based on climatic conditions.
- Fertilizers with proper watering will bring the desired result, in which peaches grow and bear fruit.
- For irrigation along the beds make furrows in the form of depressions.
- During the vegetative period, when the buds grow and swell, it is advisable to water 3 times: on time, before and after peach blossom.
- Depending on the rainfall, the garden is watered all spring and summer, as needed.
Especially in spring, fruit trees need nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, which can be added in the form of fertilizers. An important factor in which buds, flowers and fruits successfully grow and develop is phosphorus. Potassium helps plants absorb carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and also helps the tree resist frost and drought.
To feed a seedling, the soil around it is loosened and a groove is made into which diluted ammonium nitrate is poured. Before flowering, the leaves and crown are treated with a phosphorus solution.
Organic fertilizers in the form of compost, manure or vitamin slurry play a very important role. Depleted soil should be enriched once a year with organic or chemical fertilizers, and in subsequent years one top dressing in 2-3 years is enough. It should be applied early in the spring or when digging in the fall.
Bark grafting is a very simple and common method for growing peaches. Such cultivation is suitable for young shoots of cherry plum, plum or peach. For this, spring time is suitable, in the morning or in the evening.
- To start, prepare a peach sprig, 3-5 cm long. Using a garden knife, make an oblique cut located between the buds.
- A small cut is made on the grafted seedling.
- Place a cut peach twig at the incision site.
- Fix with a bandage with a cloth or film.
- After one month, when the twigs have grown, the bandage should be removed and the graft site should be treated with garden pitch.
Preparation of trees for the winter takes place in autumn. To begin with, diseased, dry, broken branches are cut. Water thoroughly for the last time.
Mulch is sprinkled on the roots just before frost to protect them from freezing. If possible, cover and tie with burlap or natural material (needles, spruce branches or leaves).
Propagation of peaches
Seedlings grow well and bear fruit due to some types of propagation: seed method, grafting and cuttings.
Propagation by stone
For propagation, it is better to take fruits that grow in the northern regions, or ask the local grower for seeds. The fruits bought in the market grow in the southern regions, and as a result, they turn out to be a barren flower.
Seeds can be planted directly into the ground. Or in early spring, in March, plant as seedlings in a greenhouse or in a pot at home.
In the ground, some seeds may die, so it is recommended to sow many seeds at once. With the seedling method, in early spring, gardeners recommend sowing the kernels (seed), separated from the seeds, for quick germination.
And in mid-May, seedlings from the greenhouse are planted in a permanent place in the ground, where they then grow. During the summer period, seedlings from the stone can reach one meter.
Propagation by grafting cuttings
Rootstock fruit trees are suitable for grafting cuttings:
- wild peach;
- felt cherry;
Cuttings must be prepared in advance, before the first frost and stored covered in the basement. And in early spring, graft to the stock and wrap tightly with a dense cloth. When the branch grows to 25 cm, remove the bandage and treat with garden pitch.
Planting cuttings in the ground
Cuttings cut in autumn can be planted in pots at home, where they grow on the windowsill. During the winter, the stalk will give roots and leaves, and in the spring it will be planted in open ground in the chosen place.
The same method can be done, but only stick the stalk into a medium potato and plant it in a pot. With this convenient method, the potatoes grow and help the peaches grow.
Cuttings can be done in the spring. Place a cut branch (25-30 cm) in good soil, water it abundantly and put a plastic bottle on it. When the first leaves appear, the bottle is removed.
Pruning and shaping
It is important to remember that the peach is painful to cut. The cut is performed at a time, with a tool treated with alcohol, and after that the cut itself is processed with a garden pitch.
The best time for spring pruning is between swelling and bud flowering. Spring pruning is not as damaging to the plant as winter pruning. Because in the warm season, the plant has a greater ability to fight diseases and injuries.
Shortening is carried out in order to form a beautiful crown, convenient for care and harvesting. Thinning is suitable for mature trees with dense branches.
- It is important to remember the first rule: those branches that gained growth last year will be fruitful.
- The principle of substitution works here: a knot with two shoots, the first shoot should bear fruit this year, it is kept, and the second shoot, which will bear fruit next year, is removed.
This method of pruning gives a good harvest and inhibits the excess growth of young branches.
If it is not clear which branch to remove before flowering, then you can use this option during flowering. A branch on which too many flowers grow, respectively, will bring small fruits. Such a branch is removed, and the cut is processed.
Free Spindle type formation has become widespread today. In the fifth year, the height of the seedling reaches 3 meters, a tree grows in the shape of a Christmas tree.
The sequence of work looks like this :
- 4 main frame branches are left in the lower tier of branches.
- Leave 5 branches in the second tier.
- All branches are cut by one third. Remove all the frozen and sick.
Pruning in autumn
Peach pruning in autumn is done after harvest, but before the first frost.
The scheme is as follows:
- The number of branches on the tree should not exceed 80 pieces.
- Prune all fruit-bearing branches.
- Remove dry and bacterially affected branches.
- If winters are severe, fragile twigs should be removed.
Diseases and pests of peach
Main enemies of peach:
|Disease or pest||Description and treatment|
|Clusterosporiasis|| Manifested as spots on the fruits and leaves of a reddish-orange color, convex ugly shape. |
Start fighting in autumn, after harvest:
|Leaf curl|| Attacks barely emerging leaves and shoots. The leaves begin to acquire an amber-pink uneven color. After two weeks, a white coating appears, a sign of the development of the fungus. Affected areas do not grow and die. |
Infected areas should be cut and burned, then sprayed liberally with one of the following:
|Powdery mildew|| It affects everything: leaves, shoots and fruits. Signs appear in the form of a white coating and lead to the death of the affected areas. |
If detected, required:
|Garden aphid|| Often appears in July as small light insects. The leaves are deformed and folded into a tube. |
An easy way to fight:
|Shield|| Affecting the bark of the peach tree. |
Insect control is carried out in early spring, before the first leaves appear, using mineral oil emulsions. And during the vegetative period, the treatment is carried out with karbofos.
How do peaches grow in a greenhouse?
There are many benefits to growing peaches in a greenhouse all year round.
Gardener Evgeny Fedotov from the Moscow region shared this:
- The greenhouse protects the plant from diaper rash which kills many plants.
- Constant temperature: no burns or frostbite. The film scatters the sun's rays well.
- When peaches grow in a greenhouse, they are not susceptible to leaf curl disease, which can destroy the crop.
- Very high yield of peaches.
- No intensive watering required because peach roots grow deep enough outside the greenhouse.
- You don't even need to install a special heater in the peach greenhouse, the temperature in the greenhouse is enough.
But, among the difficulties in leaving, the gardener noted:
- Constant pruning of trees throughout the year. The branches grow and rest against the walls and ceiling and this should not be allowed.
- Flowering is so abundant that you have to remove a good half of the flowering branches, otherwise the fruits will grow small.
- During flowering it is necessary to constantly open the windows in the greenhouse to allow pollination by insects. Otherwise, you will need to pollinate each flower manually.
Find out more about how peaches grow in a greenhouse in the video:
Tips for choosing a peach variety
Peach fruits are classified according to growth intensity, precocity and yield. Peach fruits ripen after cherries, apricots, quinces and plums, and finish their ripening before the start of harvesting late varieties of apple trees.
For planting and cultivation, it is recommended to choose the most popular and unpretentious types of peaches.
- Common peach . Tree height from 5 to 8 meters. The fruit is semicircular in shape, 3.5 to 12 cm in size. The skin is rough, yellow-orange in color, powdered with a blush.
- Nectarine . Distinctive features of Nectarine are in its smooth skin. This mutation occurs when a common peach tree self-pollinates. Fruit color varies from orange to bright burgundy.
- Potatin . The Potatin peach tree does not even grow to a height of two meters. The fruits are semi-circular, yellow-orange in color. The nutritional value is not in demand, therefore it is not widely used in retail chains.
- Fig . Unusual, flat peach shape with a small seed pit. The color, taste and smell are the same as those of an ordinary peach.
Varieties for cultivation in the southern regions
- Veteran , short tree up to 3 m tall. The mass of one peach is 150 g. The skin is yellow, with a burgundy blush. The pulp is juicy with sweet sourness. The ripening period falls on August 15, with an output of up to 50 kg per tree.
- Redhaven variety
Redhaven , short spreading plant. Fruits weighing one peach grow up to 150 g. Thickened skin with a yellowish and red blush. Very pleasant taste. The ripening period occurs in mid-August.
- Domestic . Fruits weighing 100 grams. The skin is creamy, dense and velvety. The pulp is loose and sweet. Ripens at the end of July.
- Lola - Uzbek variety. The plant rises up to 6 meters. Fruits grow up to 100 g, have a wide oval shape. Skin with greenish and red hues, easily separated from the pulp. The plant is early, with good resistance to conditions.
- Skif - tall tree up to 8-10 m long. Fruits grow up to 160 g. Ripens in August. Skiff is in demand for periodic and high fertility.
Varieties for northern regions
Cultivation of peach crops in northern and central Russia is not an easy task. Varieties suitable for growing in this region are limited, so new ones are being developed that have proven themselves in frosty conditions.
Frost resistant varieties:
- Jelgava . Well-established, high-yielding, winter-hardy variety.
- Variety Kyiv early
Kyiv early 9009eight . A low tree that grows up to 3 meters in length. The fruits are round, weighing 50-100 grams. Creamy to pale yellow in color. The taste is sweet, with a slight sourness. The harvest takes place at the end of July. Fruitfulness reaches up to 55 kg from each tree. This species is resistant to frost and pathogenic pests.
- Nectarine Krasnoslobodsky . The crown grows 4-5 meters in length with lush spreading branches. The fruits are medium, weighing up to 50 g. The skin is rough, orange-light, with a bright blush. The taste is normal, sweet-sour. Productivity reaches 60 kg from one plant.
- Dneprovskiy . A tall plant with wide branches. The fruits are large, weighty up to 200 grams. The color is creamy yellow. The skin is velvety, easily separated. The yield is high. Saplings are frost-resistant.
- Voronezh Bush . The seedling is usually grafted onto the cherry plum and brings its first fruit after 3 years. The growth of a tree can be formed in height, like a shrub. The fruits are medium, yellowish, pleasant to the taste. Highly disease and cold resistant.
- White swan , growing to medium size. The fruits are massive, up to 200 g. The skin is yellow, with a pinkish blush. The variety is considered to be dessert, based on the high concentration of sugar. Ripening occurs at the end of August. The plant is high-yielding, tolerates drought and frost down to -25C.