How do acorns grow on oak trees


How to Plant an Acorn and Grow an Oak Tree

From collecting acorns to transplanting the sapling

By

Nadia Hassani

Nadia Hassani

Nadia Hassani is a gardening expert with nearly 20 years of experience in landscaping, garden design, and vegetable and fruit gardening. She became a Penn State Master Gardener in 2006 and is a regular contributor to Penn State Master Gardener publications. She gives gardening talks about growing specialty produce for ethnic cuisines, authors two gardening and growing blogs, and created the taxonomy for the plant encyclopedia for Better Homes & Gardens.

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Updated on 10/11/22

Reviewed by

Mary Marlowe Leverette

Reviewed by Mary Marlowe Leverette

Mary Marlowe Leverette is one of the industry's most highly-regarded housekeeping and fabric care experts, sharing her knowledge on efficient housekeeping, laundry, and textile conservation. She is also a Master Gardener with over 40 years' experience; writing for over 20 years.

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The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

In This Article

  • When and How to Collect Acorns

  • Getting Started

  • How to Plant an Acorn

  • FAQs

Project Overview

If your yard is littered with acorns, you might want to capture a few and sprout an oak tree from seed. Oak trees are not only stunning, but are drought-tolerant native trees that boasts many benefits for the tree's environment and surrounding wildlife. If you have the space, planting a native oak tree in your yard is one of the best things you can do for wildlife. Growing an oak from acorns collected nearby lets you know the tree is well-adapted to local growing conditions, meaning it will likely thrive after being planted as a sapling. 

Though it may seem intimidating, it is possible to grow a new tree from an acorn. Read on to discover the best methods for collecting acorns and how to grow a sapling from seed.

Tip

Starting an oak from an acorn should be done outdoors, either in a seedbed or pot. Pots give you better control over the growing process making it easier to protect the acorns and young seedlings from critters.

When and How to Collect Acorns

When you are on the lookout for acorns, keep in mind that acorn production varies by oak species and depends on the weather, nutrient availability, and insects feeding on acorns. While most oak species produce an acorn crop every two or three years, white oaks (Quercus alba) produce a an acorn crop only every four to six years.

The acorns of some acorn species—white oak, live oak (Quercus virginiana), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa)—mature in one year, while for other oaks—red oak (Quercus rubra) and pin oak (Quercus palustris)—it takes two years.

Only collect acorns that have fallen from the tree; these acorns are mature. Skip the first ones that drop, as they are often of poor quality. Collect them once the tree drops a lot of acorns and do it promptly because acorns dry out quickly and become inviable. Remember, you're competing with squirrels, deer, and other wildlife; if you wait too long, there might not be many acorns left.

Collect at least twice as many acorns as the number of seedlings you want because not all of them will germinate. Discard acorns that still have the caps attached, that have holes or are otherwise damaged, or show signs of mold or rot.

Plant the acorns right away; if that’s not possible, you can store them for a few days. Spray them with water to prevent them from drying out and place them in a ventilated plastic bag. Store the bag in a cool place and keep the acorns moist but not wet.

Getting Started

Use standard commercial potting mix based on peat moss (it’s sterile and free of pathogens). Although the oaks will eventually be planted in garden soil, potting mix is the safest way to start healthy seedlings.

All acorns should be planted in the fall as soon as possible after collection. White oak and swamp oak will germinate soon after planting. For bur oak, pin oak, and red oak, you won’t see germination until the next spring because these oak species need stratification, which is provided by leaving the pots outdoors during the winter.

Equipment / Tools

  • Small trowel
  • Bowl

Materials

  • Soilless potting mix
  • Small pots or seedling pots
  • Protective hardware cloth or mesh
  • Mesh tree guard

The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

How to Plant an Acorn and Grow an Oak Tree

  1. Select Viable Acorns

    Fill a bowl with cold water and place the acorns in it. Viable acorns will sink or remain at the bottom and damaged or empty ones will float. Discard the floating acorns. Briefly soaking the acorns also helps rehydrate them if you stored them before planting.

    The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

  2. Plant the Acorns

    To plant the acorns, use pots deep enough for root growth. 2.5 x. 2.5 x 3.5-inch pots are ideal. Fill the pots with potting mix. Place two acorns sideways in each pot, at a depth about three times the width of the acorn, or about one inch. Water them well until water runs out of the drainage holes.

    The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

  3. Keep Soil Moist

    Keep the soil moist until the onset of winter weather. (During winter, you can leave them be. In the spring, restart watering them.) Keep the seedlings weed-free. Both the acorns and young seedlings need to be protected from pests. After planting the acorns, cover the pots with a screen or hardware cloth. Once the seedlings emerge, lift up the protection as needed to give the seedlings room to grow.

    The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

  4. Thin the Seedlings

    Regardless of when the acorns germinate—in fall or spring—if both acorns in a pot germinate, cut off the weaker of the two seedlings about one to two weeks after the seedling emerges. Do not pull out the second, unwanted seedling because its root system will be entangled with the roots of the stronger oak.

    The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

  5. Transplant into Larger Pots

    When the seedlings are about five to six inches tall, or when the root system starts to reach the side of the container, transplant the seedlings to two-quart nursery pots with large drain holes. Fill the pots with a mixture of half potting soil and half garden soil and add one teaspoon of slow-release fertilizer to the soil.

    The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

  6. Relocate to Permanent Spot

    Once the root system is growing out of the drain holes, it’s time to plant the saplings in their permanent location. Dig a hole about three times the diameter of the container and the same depth. Add organic matter if needed to improve drainage. Water the saplings and spread a thick layer of mulch in a two-foot perimeter around the base but leave at least a two-inch space between the mulch and the tree trunk. Tender oak saplings are a favorite food for browsing deer and other wildlife. Make sure to protect the tree with a mesh tree guard for at least three years.

    The Spruce / Jayme Burrows

Article Sources

The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. How to Identify Oak Trees Using Acorns. Mississippi State University Extension

  2. Managing Harwood Stands for Acorn Production. Mississippi State University Extension

  3. Growing Oak Trees from Seed. Oklahoma State University Extension

Yard and Garden: Handling, Germinating and Planting Acorns

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September 23, 2015, 2:33 pm | Richard Jauron, Greg Wallace

AMES, Iowa – Fall is here, and so are acorns, falling from oak trees into yards everywhere. Viable acorns can be grown into oak trees, if properly handled. How is this done?

Here are some tips from Iowa State University Extension and Outreach horticulturists on how to best handle, germinate and plant acorns. 

My oak tree produced just a few acorns this year.  Why?

It’s common for the acorn crop on oak trees to vary from year to year. Most oak species produce a good crop of acorns once every two or three years. However, the white oak (Quercus alba) tends to produce a good acorn crop once every four to six years.  

Weather and other factors can affect flowering and fruiting. For example, freezing temperatures in spring (when trees are flowering) can damage or destroy the flowers, drastically reducing the fruit crop.  

The acorns of white oak, swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) mature in one year.  Red oak (Quercus rubra) and pin oak (Quercus palustris) acorns mature in two years.

How do I germinate acorns?

Acorns should be collected as soon as they fall to the ground. Sound, viable acorns can be separated from damaged or unfilled acorns by placing them in water. Sound acorns sink.  Most floating acorns are not viable and can be discarded.  

The acorns of white oak and swamp white oak should be planted in fall. They will germinate immediately after sowing.  

Acorns of bur oak , pin oak, and red oak will not germinate until they have been exposed to cool temperatures and moist conditions for several weeks. Winter weather in Iowa normally provides the necessary conditions to break dormancy.  The cold-moist requirement can also be accomplished through a process called stratification. Acorns can be stratified by placing the seeds in a moist mixture of sand and peat moss and then storing them in a cool location.  

Suitable containers include coffee cans, plastic buckets and food storage bags. The refrigerator is a good storage location. (Stratification temperatures should be 32 to 41 degrees Fahrenheit.) Acorns of the bur oak require a 30 to 60 day stratification period, while red and pin oak acorns require 30 to 45 days.  Acorns of bur, pin and red oaks can be planted in fall or stratified seed can be sown in spring.  

When planting acorns, place the seeds one-half to one inch deep. Choose a planting site where the oak seedlings can receive good care for one to two years before they are transplanted to their permanent locations.  

To prevent squirrels and other animals from digging up and eating fall planted acorns, cover the area with chicken wire or hardware cloth fencing after planting. Promptly remove the fencing material in spring when the acorns begin to germinate.

There are small, round holes in many of the acorns on the ground.  What made the holes?

The small, round holes on the sides of the acorns were likely caused by the larvae of the acorn weevil.  

The adult acorn weevil is a brown beetle about three-eight inch in length and has a long, thin snout. Adult females lay their eggs inside developing acorns on trees in mid-summer. The eggs hatch into creamy white, grub-like larvae that feed inside the acorns until fall. In fall when the acorns have fallen to the ground, the fully grown grub chews a round one-eighth inch hole in the side of the acorn, exits the acorn and tunnels into the soil to complete its development.  

Squirrels and other wildlife eat or stash away the good acorns, leaving the “holey” (destroyed) acorns on the ground. 

Category: 

Yard and Garden

Tags: 

trees, acorns, seeds, planting

About the Authors: 

Extension Horticulturist

515-294-3108
[email protected]

Organizational Advancement

Oak - a symbol of power and longevity. Cultivation, reproduction. Diseases and pests. Oak bark application, decoction. Kinds. Photo - Botanichka

There are several interesting facts about oak: At the Paris exhibition in 1900, an oak ridge sawn from a 485-year-old oak 31 m high and 169 cm in diameter was shown. that is, on the territory of the modern Shumerlinsky forestry enterprise of the Chuvash Republic.

And in 1861, in the Yadrinsky district of the Kazan province, an oak “50 feet long” (that is, 15 m high) and “48 inches in the upper cut” (213 cm in diameter) was cut down. This tree was counted 500 years old, at that time it was completely fresh, healthy and still growing in volume ...

Oak was a sacred tree of many peoples, including the ancient Slavs and Celts, it was worshiped as a deity. Even today it remains a symbol of courage and resilience, and not only, so to speak, “impenetrability” ... By the way, to see an oak strewn with acorns in a dream - to well-being and career growth.

Pedunculate oak (summer, English, common) (Quercus robur). © Leafland

Botanical description

Oak ( Quercus ) is a genus of deciduous or evergreen trees of the beech family. The leaves are alternate, simple, pinnatipartite, lobed, serrated, sometimes entire. Oak flowers are small, inconspicuous, same-sex, monoecious; staminate - in long hanging catkins, pistillate - single or several, sessile or on a pedicel. The fruit is a single-seeded acorn, partially enclosed in a cup-shaped woody cupule.

Oak grows slowly, at first (up to 80 years) - stronger in height, later - in thickness. Usually forms a deep tap root system. Gives abundant shoots from the stump. Photophilous. Some types of oak are drought-resistant, quite winter-hardy and not very demanding on soils. It begins to bear fruit at the age of 15-60, in open places earlier than in plantations. It reproduces mainly by acorns. For sowing, acorns collected in the same year are used, because. they quickly lose their viability. There are about 450 species of oak in the temperate, subtropical and tropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia - 20 (according to other sources, 11) wild species in the European part, the Far East and the Caucasus; 43 species of oaks are grown in culture.

Most important in forestry is English oak , or summer ( Quercus robur ), - a tree up to 40-50 m high and 1-1.5 m in diameter. The leaves are elongated obovate, with 5-7 pairs of short lobes , on petioles up to 1 cm long. Acorns 1-3 on the stalk. Blossoms simultaneously with the blooming of leaves from 40-60 years. Fruits abundantly every 4-8 years. Grows fairly quickly in side shade, but requires good light from above. Lives up to 400-1000 years. Distributed in the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus and almost throughout Western Europe. In the northern part of the range it grows along river valleys, to the south it goes to watersheds and forms mixed forests with spruce, and in the south of the range - pure oak forests; in the steppe zone it occurs along ravines and gullies. One of the main forest-forming species of broad-leaved forests in Russia.

Close to English Oak Rock Oak , or winter ( Q. petraea ), with almost sessile (2-3 each) acorns, found in the west of the European part of Russia, in the Crimea and the North Caucasus. Georgian Oak ( Q. iberica ) grows in the eastern part of the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia with leathery leaves and sessile (1-2) acorns; Large Anthered Oak ( Quercus macranthera ) with densely pubescent shoots and sessile acorns or on a short stem grows in the high-mountain zone of these regions. The main species of the valley forests of Eastern Transcaucasia - Cork oak - Q. suber) gives a cork. The bark and wood contain tannins (tannins) used for tanning hides. The dried bark of young branches and thin trunks of English Oak is used as an astringent in the form of an aqueous decoction for rinsing in case of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, pharynx, pharynx, as well as for lotions in the treatment of burns. Acorns are used as a substitute for coffee and for feed for pigs and some other agricultural products. animals. Many species, such as Chestnut oak (Q. castaneifolia), are cultivated in gardens and parks as ornamental plants.

Growing oak

Oak acorns, unlike the seeds of the vast majority of our other trees, do not retain their germination capacity when dried and stored for a long time at room temperature. Therefore, it is necessary either to sow them in the fall before the snow falls and the soil freezes, or to provide them with special storage conditions. Autumn sowing is the easiest, but there is a serious risk of damage to some of the acorns by rodents.

For spring sowing oak acorns must be properly preserved. The best storage conditions are at low (about 0° or slightly above) temperature, high humidity and moderate ventilation. Acorns can be stored in the basement, where potatoes are well preserved in winter; you can also dig them into the soil in the fall to a depth of at least 20 cm, covering the top with a sheet of waterproof material, leaving a layer of air between this sheet and acorns and providing protection from mice. In any case, healthy acorns without external damage should be stored for winter storage, preferably collected in dry weather and dried at room temperature for a week. Any special preparation of seeds that have survived the winter is not required before sowing.

Before sowing, evaluate the quality of the acorns by opening a few of them. Live oak acorns have yellow cotyledons, and at the place of their connection with each other there is a live (yellow or red-yellow) embryo. Dead acorns are black or grey. By external signs, it is not always possible to distinguish living acorns from dead ones. Soaking acorns in a container of water gives good results - dead acorns mostly float, live ones mostly sink (if there are a lot of acorns, then this method of separating the dead from the living is quite recommended, but a small part of the live acorns will be lost).

If you have not been able to stock up on acorns since autumn, then in some years (after a large harvest of acorns and under the condition of a "failure" of mice, and if the winter was not very frosty) you can collect live and germinating acorns in the spring in the nearest forest or park. It is necessary to collect germinating acorns in early spring, almost immediately after the snow melts, otherwise you will find damaged roots in many acorns. Collected oak acorns must either be sown immediately or stored until sowing in such a way that the roots do not dry out (for example, mixed with wet leaves in a plastic box put in a refrigerator or a cold basement). Even with short-term storage, it is necessary to ensure that germinating acorns do not become moldy (throw away damaged ones immediately), and ensure their ventilation. The faster you can sow the acorns collected in the spring, the more of them will be able to develop into seedlings.

Oak acorns. © TwidOak sprouted acorn. © Beentree

Sowing acorns

When sowing acorns, mark out parallel furrows 15–25 cm apart in the bed. Arrange the acorns in the furrows at the rate of 15-50 pieces. per 1 m of the length of the furrow, depending on the quality and size (if the acorns are large and almost all live, then they should be laid out less often, if small and with a large proportion of dead and doubtful - thicker). If you plan to plant annual oak seedlings in a permanent place, then acorns should be sown even less often - at a distance of 7-10 cm from each other (this will ensure the maximum growth of each tree). Press the acorns into the bottom of the furrow so that they are at a depth of 2–3 cm from the soil surface in spring planting and 3–6 cm in autumn. After that, level the furrow by covering the acorns with earth.

Acorns germinate for a very long time. First, they develop a powerful root, reaching a length of several tens of centimeters, and only after that the stem begins to grow. Therefore, oak sprouts can appear on the soil surface only a month and a half after the start of germination. Do not rush to conclude that your oak trees have died and dig up a bed with crops (as the experience of novice amateur foresters shows, this happens). If in doubt, try digging up some acorns. If their roots have grown, then the acorns are alive.

Care of oak seedlings

Oak seedlings suffer much less from weeds and drying out of the soil than coniferous trees (due to the supply of nutrients in the acorn, large roots and leaves immediately develop). However, try to always keep crops free of weeds and ensure watering during severe drought, especially if you want to get large seedlings in one year. Stop any additional watering about a month and a half before the time when mass leaf fall begins in your area - this will allow oak seedlings to better prepare for wintering (too late growths in oak often freeze out in winter).

In summer, oak seedlings are often affected by powdery mildew, a fungal disease. Powdery mildew is not able to kill oak seedlings, but can significantly reduce their growth. With a strong development of powdery mildew (if white bloom covers more than half of the area of ​​​​all leaves), seedlings can be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or a 1% suspension of sulfur. Oak seedlings can be grown for two years in one place without a transplant, or they can be transplanted in the second year into a "school". The second method is preferable, because it allows you to form a more compact and branched root system, which suffers less when transplanted to a permanent place (for two-year-old seedlings grown without transplantation, the length of the main root can be more than a meter, and it is almost impossible to transplant them without damaging the root).

Oak seedlings should be transplanted into the “school” in spring, preferably as early as possible, so that the root system damaged during transplantation has time to partially recover even before the leaves bloom (it is also important that the soil is still moist during transplantation). When transplanting, cut off the main root of each oak seedling at a distance of 15-20 cm from where the acorn was located (in most seedlings, the remains of an acorn in the second year are still visible). This will form a more compact root system. It is possible not to cut the main root, but in this case it will be very difficult to dig up two-year-old seedlings without serious damage to their root system.

Oak seedlings. © Elektryczne jabłko

Place rows of seedlings at a distance of 25–30 cm from each other, and seedlings in a row at a distance of 12–15 cm. When planting under each oak seedling, make holes 20–25 cm deep with a stake or spade handle ( the depth of the hole should be such that when the seedling is planted, the place of attachment of the acorn is 2-3 cm below the soil surface). Insert the seedlings into the holes (the main root of oak seedlings, unlike the root of conifers, is hard and straight and inserted into the holes without problems). Then fill the holes with earth and compact it with your hands so that the earth fits snugly against the roots of the seedlings.

Transplanted oak seedlings in the first weeks after transplantation suffer greatly from root damage - leafing is rather slow, and shoot growth is relatively small. Nevertheless, by mid-summer, the normal development of seedlings is restored, and by autumn, as a rule, large seedlings (30–50 cm high) are quite suitable for planting in a permanent place. If the size of the seedlings by autumn leaves much to be desired, then only the largest ones can be selected for transplantation, and the rest left in the "school" for another year.

If you are transplanting annual oak seedlings to a permanent place (this is quite possible if planting is done in areas with low grass cover or plowed soil), then do not cut the main roots of the seedlings - try to keep as much of their length as possible. The root system of an annual oak seedling is represented mainly by a long and straight taproot with weak and short lateral roots, therefore, for transplanting, it is enough to make a narrow hole of the appropriate depth using a stake or a shovel handle.

Types of oak

English oak (summer, English, or common) - Quercus robur

Occurs naturally in the European part of Russia, Central and Western Europe. A very powerful tree up to 50 m tall, in closed plantations with a slender trunk, highly debranched, in single plantings in open places - with a short trunk and a wide, spreading, low-set crown. Lives 500-900 years.

English oak (Quercus robur). © 2micha

The bark on trunks up to 40 years old is smooth, olive-brown, later grayish-brown, almost black. The leaves are alternate, at the top of the shoots close together in bunches, leathery, oblong, obovate, up to 15 cm long, with an elongated top and 3-7 pairs of obtuse, lateral lobes of unequal length. Lobes entire or with 1-3 teeth, often with auricles at the base of the leaf blade. The leaves are shiny, bare, dark green above, lighter below, sometimes with sparse hairs. In spring, the oak blossoms late, one of the last among our trees. Oak blossoms in April-May, when it still has very small leaves. The flowers are unisexual, monoecious, very small and inconspicuous. Male or staminate flowers are collected in peculiar inflorescences - long and thin, yellowish-greenish drooping catkins, reminiscent of hazel catkins. Acorns up to 3.5 cm, 1/5 covered with a cupule, ripen in early autumn.

Grows slowly, the greatest energy of growth in 5-20 years. Moderately photophilous, wind-resistant due to powerful root system. Excessive waterlogging of the soil does not tolerate, but withstands temporary flooding for up to 20 days. It prefers deep, fertile, fresh soils, but is able to develop on any, including dry and saline ones, which makes it indispensable in green building in many regions of Russia. It has high drought and heat resistance. One of the most durable breeds, some sources indicate a life expectancy of up to 1500 years.

Possesses powerful energy. Oak in Russia was considered a sacred tree. In the springs located in the oak forests, the water has an excellent taste and is particularly clean.

Propagated by sowing acorns, decorative forms - by grafting and green cuttings. It is well renewed by shoots from a stump. Acorns do not tolerate desiccation, as soon as they lose even a small part of the water, they die. In heat, they easily rot, they are very sensitive to cold and frost. This circumstance presents a certain difficulty for preserving acorns for seeds. In nature, there is no such problem: acorns that have fallen in late autumn in the forest overwinter in a wet bed of leaves under a thick layer of snow that protects them both from drying out and from frost. The germination of an acorn resembles the germination of a pea: its cotyledons do not rise above the soil surface, as in many plants, but remain in the ground. A thin green stem rises up. At first it is leafless, and only after some time small leaves appear on its top.

Red oak (Quercus rubra)

It occurs naturally along river banks, where there is no stagnant water in the soil, north of the 35th parallel of the North American continent, up to Canada. Tree up to 25 m in height.

A slender tree with a dense hipped crown.

Red oak (Quercus rubra). © Jean-Pol GRANDMONT

The trunk is covered with thin, smooth, gray bark, cracking in old trees. Young shoots are reddish-felt, annual shoots are red-brown, smooth. The leaves are deeply notched, thin, shiny, up to 15-25 cm, with 4-5 pointed lobes on each side of the leaf, reddish when blooming, dark green in summer, lighter below, in autumn, before falling off, scarlet-red in young trees , in old ones - brownish-brown. Blooms at the same time as the leaves open. Acorns are spherical in shape, up to 2 cm, red-brown, as if chopped off from below, unlike English oak, they ripen in the fall of the second year. It bears fruit steadily and abundantly from 15-20 years. When young, it grows faster than European oaks.

Frost resistant. Medium light-loving, easily tolerates lateral shading, but prefers full coverage of the top of the crown. Not drought tolerant. Wind-resistant, not very picky about soil fertility, can withstand even an acidic reaction, however, does not tolerate calcareous and wet soils. Resistant to pests and diseases, including powdery mildew - the scourge of our oaks. It has high phytoncidal properties. Due to its high decorativeness, resistance to adverse environmental factors, magnificent autumn decoration, it deserves the widest use in green building, for creating single and group plantings, alleys, arrays, lining roads and streets.

Downy oak (Quercus pubescens)

Naturally found in the southern Crimea, the northern part of Transcaucasia, Southern Europe and Asia Minor. Tree up to 10 m tall. Durable.

Downy oak (Quercus pubescens). © Petr Filippov

Significantly inferior in size to the previous species, with a low, winding trunk and a wide crown, sometimes even a shrub. Young shoots are strongly pubescent. Leaves 5-10 cm long, very variable in shape and size, with 4-8 pairs of obtuse or pointed lobes, dark green, glabrous above, grey-green below, pubescent. The scales of the plush surrounding the acorn are also fluffy.

It grows slowly, loves light and heat, lives on dry stony slopes and soils containing lime. Handles haircut well. Valuable species for green building in arid areas, grows on stony soils where other species do not develop. An excellent material for high hedges and figured, sheared forms.

White oak (Quercus alba)

Native to eastern North America. Grows in forests with other types of oak and hazel, on various soils, but better on deep, rich, well-drained, limestone; in the north of the range it is distributed no higher than 200 m above sea level. sea, in the south up to 1500 m above sea level. seas.

White oak (Quercus alba). © Msact

Large beautiful tree up to 30 m, with powerful spreading branches forming a wide, tent-shaped crown. The shoots are bare, the bark of the trunk is gray, shallowly cracking. Remarkable for very large, oblong-oval leaves, up to 22 cm, with 5-9 obtuse lobes; when blooming - bright red, in summer - bright green, with a whitish-gray underside. In autumn, the leaves turn dark red or purple-purple. Acorns up to 2.5 cm, a quarter covered with a plush. Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand. In autumn, sown immediately after harvest and air drying. Germination of seeds is maintained until the spring of next year. Ground germination 80 - 85%. Embedding depth s. 5 - 6 cm.

Marsh oak (Quercus palustris)

Homeland North America.

A slender tree up to 25 m tall, narrowly pyramidal when young, later broadly pyramidal. Young shoots are thin, hanging, reddish-brown. The bark of the trunk is greenish-brown, and remains smooth for a long time. Leaves up to 12 cm long, with 5-7 deeply cut, almost to the middle of the leaf, toothed lobes, bright green above, lighter below, with tufts of hairs in the corners of the veins. In autumn they are bright purple. Acorns sessile, almost spherical, up to 1.5 cm, 1/3 covered by a cupule. Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand. In autumn with sown after harvest and air drying. Germination of seeds is maintained until the spring of next year. Ground germination with. 80 - 90%. Embedding depth s. 5 - 6 cm.

Swamp oak (Quercus palustris). © Willow

Fast growing, less hardy than red oak and northern oak. It is more demanding on the soil and its moisture, as it grows in nature on deep, moist soils on the banks of rivers and swamps. It tolerates city conditions well. Looks great in single, group and avenue plantings, along the banks of reservoirs. In culture since the middle of the XVIII century. Grows in the parks of Ukraine (Chernivtsi), Belarus, Voronezh region. It freezes in St. Petersburg.

Willow oak (Quercus phellos)

Wildly grows in eastern North America.

A beautiful deciduous tree up to 20 m tall, with a slender trunk and a wide-round (pyramidal in youth) crown. Remarkable original shiny green leaves resembling willow leaves (up to 12 cm long by 2 cm wide). This similarity is even more enhanced in young leaves, strongly pubescent below. In autumn, the leaves turn dull yellow.

Willow oak (Quercus phellos). © Daderot

Differs in rapid growth, photophilous, unpretentious to the soil, tolerates temperature drops down to -23 ºС. Used in single and group plantings. In culture since 1680.

Holm oak (Quercus ilex)

Homeland Mediterranean, Southern Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor.

Evergreen tree up to 25 m tall, with a smooth dark gray trunk and a dense, wide spreading crown. The shoots are grayish-felt, the leaves are small, up to 8 cm, highly variable in shape, leathery, shiny, dark green, yellowish or whitish-pubescent below. Acorns ripen in the second year.

We recommend storing freshly harvested acorns in trenches. Permissible period of dry storage - until the next spring. Acorns are stratified in moderately moist sand for 2-3 months at 2-5°C, then sown in greenhouses or ridges, where they germinate at 0-15°C for 20-30 days. Embedding depth s. 4 - 7 cm.

Holm oak (Quercus ilex). © propio

Grows fast, fairly shade tolerant, hardy, tolerates temperatures down to -20°C without damage. Drought tolerant. Grows on dry rocky slopes and any type of soil. It tolerates a haircut, durable. Valuable, beautiful breed for park construction in the south of Russia. Good in group, avenue and street plantings, in regular gardens - to create dense high hedges and high walls, for which its small-leaved forms are suitable. In culture since 1819of the year.

Chestnut oak (Quercus castaneifolia)

Wildly grows in Armenia, the Caucasus and northern Iran. Listed in the Red Book of the USSR. Protected in the Hyrkansky Reserve. Forms pure or with an admixture of other deciduous forests on the crests of ridges. Light-loving mesoxerophyte.

Tall, up to 30 m, a beautiful tree with a slender trunk, the bark of which remains smooth for a long time, with a wide tent-shaped crown and large leaves, resembling the leaves of a sowing chestnut, up to 18 cm long, with large, sharp, triangular teeth. From above, the leaves are dull, dark green, almost bare; finely pubescent below, greyish-white. Acorns up to 3 cm, 1/3 covered with a plush.

Chestnut oak (Quercus castaneifolia). © Mmparedes

Relatively fast growing, medium frost hardy, not drought tolerant enough. Good in alley, group and single plantings of parks and forest parks. Suitable for cultivation in the southwestern and southern parts of Russia, on the Black Sea coast. In culture since 1830.

Large-fruited oak (Quercus macrocarpa)

North American species, growing as a tree up to 30 m high, with a thick trunk and spreading, tent-shaped crown. The bark on the trunk is light brown, cracking. Leaves obovate, oblong, up to 25 cm long, deeply lobed; shiny, dark green above, whitish-green below, pubescent, in autumn they acquire a spectacular yellow-brown color. Acorns are oval, large, up to 5 cm, 1/3 covered by a cupule.

Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand in the basement. In autumn, the seeds are sown after harvesting and air drying. Germination of seeds is maintained until the spring of next year. Ground germination 80 - 85%. Seeding depth 5-6 cm.

Large-fruited oak (Quercus macrocarpa). © Daderot

Almost as fast as English oak; in terms of frost resistance it is close to it and to red oak, but more moisture-loving than these species. Decorative, used in green building, like other species. In culture since 1826.

Diseases and pests of oak

Diseases of plant wood are the most dangerous. Infectious diseases that affect wood are divided into two groups. Non-rotten diseases include cancerous ulcers and tumors, vascular diseases of trunks and branches, necrosis of bark and sapwood. Diseases of this group affect the most important tissues of trunks and branches and, if strongly developed, lead to the drying out of trees. Cancer ulcers and tumors develop and spread slowly and are usually caused by fungi and bacteria. Vascular disease develops and spreads quickly and can lead to the drying up of trees in a few years or months. Necrosis of trunks and branches can also form extensive foci of desiccation. Their distribution is ensured by the ability of pathogens to accumulate a huge amount of infection in the dead tissues of affected trees. The causative agents of necrosis are also semi-parasitic imperfect and marsupial fungi, sometimes bacteria. Rot diseases include wood rot of branches and trunks, root and butt rot.

Gall midge

By autumn, yellowish or yellowish-pink balls - galls - the size of a small cherry, often develop on oak leaves. They look like tiny apples of the correct spherical shape.

Galls - painful growth of leaf tissues. The gall midge insect, which looks like a very small fly, is to blame for their appearance. The gall midge pierces the skin of the leaf with a thin, sharp ovipositor and lays an egg there. Some time after that, a "ball" grows on the sheet. If such a ball is broken in late autumn, in the middle of it you can find a small white worm - a gall midge larva - or an already adult insect. In some years, oak leaves are literally dotted with galls - there are several of them on each leaf.

Gall on an oak leaf. © Fritz Geller-GrimmGall on oak. © RasbakGall on oak. © Saharadesertfox

Gauls are sometimes called ink nuts. This name is not accidental. Our ancestors at the time of Pushkin used them to make black ink. How to get ink in this way? It is necessary to prepare a decoction of nuts and add a solution of iron sulfate to it. Merging two weakly colored liquids, we get a completely black liquid. This chemical "focus" is easily explained. The gall contains many tannins, and they have the ability, when combined with iron salts, to give a thick black color. The same can be done with tea infusion (it also contains a lot of tannins). If a few drops of a yellowish solution of ferric chloride are added to a glass of weak tea, the liquid becomes completely black.

Pests of oak

Leaf-eating and stem pests, and fungal diseases are the most important factors that increase the drying of oak stands. Violation of the ecological balance of oak forest phytocenoses, especially in oak forest monocultures, leads to violations of the water regime of the territories, changes in light and temperature conditions in the plantation, and all together - to the formation of conditions more favorable for the development of pests and diseases.

Oak is damaged by a huge number of pests and diseases. Different authors give different figures on the number of pests and diseases that damage the oak. In the Tellerman forest area, 184 species of leaf pests were identified (Molchanov, 1975). Among the most common pests that damage the foliage, we should name: 5 types of silkworms, 5 types of cutworms, 6 types of moths, 8 types of moths, 8 types of sawflies, 2 types of leafworms, 11 types of gall wasps, 2 types of psyllids, 5 types of weevils, 2 types of Hermes, 2 species of aphids and 3 species of plant mites. Buds and flowers damage 12 species of gall wasps. Acorns are damaged by 2 species of codling moths, 3 species of weevils and 1 species of nutcracker. The trunk and branches damage 8 species of bark beetles, 7 species of longhorn beetles, 3 species of horntails, 2 species of woodworms, 1 species of flat-footed beetle, 3 species of borers, 1 species from the family of whetstones, 1 species of wood borers (Napalkov, 1953).

Sawfly caterpillars on oak leaves. © Beentree

In Europe, 542 species of pests damaging oak have been identified (Hrast Luznjak…, 1996). In total, 206 species of fungi were found, including zygomycetes - 3 species, mastigomycetes - 2 species, ascomycetes - 50 species, basidiomycetes - 43 species, deuteromycetes - 108 species. 1 virus was found - tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), 14 species of bacteria (Erwinia quercicola Geprges et Bad., Erwinia valachika Geprges et Bad., Pseudomonas quercus Schem, etc.). However, the influence of viruses and bacteria as causes of oak drying has not been clearly established (Ragazzi et al., 1995).

Healing power of oak

Young bark of branches and trunks, leaves and acorns of oak are used for treatment. The bark contains acids, resins, pectin, sugar. In acorns - protein and tannins, starch, fatty oil, sugar. The leaves contain tannins and dyes, pentosans.

Oak bark is used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent. Mixed with other plants, it is used to treat gastritis, colitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, diseases of the liver and spleen. Inside give a cold infusion (1 teaspoon of crushed bark is infused in 2 glasses of cold water for 6-8 hours), 2-3 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.

A decoction of oak bark (1:10) is used for pharyngitis, tonsillitis, skin diseases, stomatitis. For the treatment of burns, a stronger decoction of the bark (1: 5) is used. For skin diseases, an ointment is also used - one part of the condensed decoction of the bark to four parts of lanolin.

A warm infusion of crushed oak acorns in red wine (25% tincture) in the form of compresses is used to treat hernia, and folk healers recommend water decoctions for burns, skin rashes, and excessive sweating of the feet. In addition, a nutritious coffee drink is prepared from acorns, which is consumed with milk and sugar.

For gastric bleeding, intestinal inflammation, poisoning with heavy metals, alkaloids, mushrooms, henbane, dope, food poisoning, a decoction of oak bark is used. For this purpose, 20 g of dry crushed raw materials are poured into 1 cup of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the liquid volume is brought to the original boiled water. Take 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.

Infusion of oak acorns helps with diarrhea and enterocolitis. It is prepared as follows: 1 teaspoon of dry crushed raw materials is poured into 1 cup of boiling water and filtered after cooling. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day.

For gargling with chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, inflammation of the gums and stomatitis, a decoction of oak bark is used. For urethritis and cystitis, a decoction of oak bark is taken 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day. For the same purpose, an infusion of acorns is used in a similar dosage.

For douching with cervical erosion, uterine prolapse, prolapse of the vaginal walls, vulvovaginitis and trichomonas colpitis, a decoction of oak bark is used: 20 g of dry crushed raw materials are poured into 1 glass of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the volume of liquid is brought to boiled water. 1 liter.

A decoction of oak bark is used for baths and washings in case of allergic diathesis. For this purpose, 100 g of dry crushed raw materials are boiled in 1 liter of water for half an hour and filtered. With sweating feet on a decoction of oak bark, foot baths are prepared: 20 g of dry crushed raw material is poured into 1 glass of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the volume of liquid is brought to 1 liter with boiled water.

Cold decoction of the bark is applied for burns and frostbite, as well as for long-term non-healing wounds.

HOW TO GROW OAK IN THE NORTH

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Tanyaeva M. V. 1


1

Shabakova T.A. 1


1

The author of the work was awarded a diploma of the winner of the II degree

Diploma of a school student Certificate of the head

The text of the work is placed without images and formulas.
The full version of the work is available in the "Job Files" tab in PDF format

1.Introduction.

In 2014, my family and I moved from the Orenburg region to the city of Polyarny. Here I first got acquainted with the nature of the Far North. The climate and flora of the Orenburg and Murmansk regions are very different. In Orenburg, winter is characterized by constant negative temperatures and severe frosts, reaching -40С -49°С. The summer is sunny and hot, in the daytime, especially in July, the temperature often rises to +35°С…+40°С. In the Murmansk region, winter is not so severe, but lasts much longer. At the same time, in a short summer period, the average air temperature is +°С10 +14°С. The trees that grow in Orenburg are birch, aspen, acacia, maple, bird cherry, larch, spruce, pine, very tall and sprawling. Trees growing in the Murmansk region have dwarf growth.

In Orenburg, I went to study at the "School Forestry" circle, where I learned to grow plants such as acacia, pine, willow and other crops from seeds. I also always loved to help my grandmother in the garden: plant shrubs, fruit trees, vegetables and take care of them. Having learned from my classmates that there is a greenhouse in the city where you can do what you love, I signed up for the Green World association of the MAOUDO TsDOD. While studying the topic "Reproduction", I learned that all plants can be grown from seeds. Vegetable plants from seeds grow quickly and have time to produce a crop in a few months, but trees from seeds grow very slowly and are best grown from seedlings. A seedling is a young plant grown from a seedling or cutting used for planting.

Many exotic plants have been growing in our greenhouse for several years: pomegranate, thuja, cypress, lemon, date palm, persimmon, grapes. All these plants were grown by my teacher, Shabakova Tatyana Aleksandrovna, together with the children from seeds. I was interested in oak seeds - acorns and whether it is possible to grow a tree from them in the climatic conditions of the Far North.

I began to look for information about oaks: do these beautiful trees grow in the Murmansk region. On the Internet, I found a video showing how specialists from the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden, an institute located in the city of Kirovsk, have been acclimatizing plants that have never grown in the Far North since the beginning of the 30s of the last century. And they do it very successfully. The institute learned how to grow pines and junipers, cedars and larches, as well as oaks. First, tree seedlings are grown in greenhouses, which are then planted on the territory of the institute. In central Russia, oaks grow into giants, and in the north - dwarfs. On the territory of the Murmansk region, you will not find this information freely growing oaks, our friends from other cities of the Murmansk region confirmed. And for landscaping northern cities, oaks are not practiced. But I wanted to try to grow oak myself in our greenhouse in the city of Polyarny, which is located much north of Kirovsk, albeit in the same region.

Relevance: research work determines the increased interest of the inhabitants of the Far North and, in particular, the city of Polyarny in the gardening of streets and courtyards. Landscaping works are carried out every summer. Greenhouse MAOUDO "TSDOD" always takes an active part in this.

The uniqueness: of my work is that in the Murmansk region oak is not used for landscaping.

Hypothesis: Growing oak seedlings from acorns is possible in greenhouses in the Far North, subject to certain conditions.

Practical significance. The positive results of my work will make it possible to use this beautiful oak tree for landscaping northern cities.

Object of study - tree - oak

Subject of study - the possibility of growing oak seedlings from acorns in a greenhouse in the city of Polyarny.

Research methods:

The study of literature.

Experimental activities.

observation.

Purpose of work: to grow an oak seedling from an acorn in a greenhouse in the city of Polyarny and harden it for subsequent planting in open ground.

To achieve this goal, I set myself the following tasks:

Get acquainted with the literature on growing oaks from acorns.

Apply the technology of growing oaks in our greenhouse in the city of Polyarny.

To harden grown oak seedlings for subsequent planting on a training and experimental site.

2. Oak and its structure.

Oak is a genus of deciduous trees of the beech family. Oak grows slowly. First (up to 80 years) - stronger in height, later - in thickness. Grows fairly quickly in side shade, but requires good light from above. Lives up to 400-1000 years. Usually forms a deep tap root system . Gives abundant shoots from the stump.

Photophilous, some species are drought-resistant, quite winter-hardy, undemanding to soils. Oak is up to 40-50 m high and 1-1.5 m in diameter. The leaves are alternate, simple, serrated, oblong. The flowers are small, inconspicuous in long hanging catkins (Fig. 1).

Blossoms, simultaneously with the blooming of leaves from 40-60 years. It begins to bear fruit from the age of 15, in open places earlier than in plantations. Fruits abundantly every 4-8 years.

The roots of an oak are quite consistent with its crown and trunk. Powerful and branched, they branch and deeply penetrate the ground, and the tap root process can pierce the ground to a depth of 20 m. It reproduces mainly by acorns. For sowing, acorns collected in the same year are used, because. they quickly lose their viability. The fruit is an acorn, partially enclosed in a cup-shaped woody cupule. (Appendix 1, Fig. 1).

3. Types of oaks.

About 450 oak species grow in the Northern Hemisphere. Oaks also grow in hot climates: in the subtropics and tropics. These are holm oak, sessile oak, downy oak, chestnut-leaved oak.

(Appendix 1, Fig.2,3,4,5,). Pedunculate oak or as it is called summer. (Appendix 1, Fig. 1). The species of this tree form forests. The forest in which oaks grow is called oak forest.

4. Use of oaks.

Some types of oaks are grown as ornamentals. For example, holly oak is used as a bonsai. (Appendix 2, Fig.6,7). Bonsai is the art of growing a replica of a real (sometimes dwarf) tree in miniature.

Oak is a very strong and durable wood with a beautiful pattern. It is dense, strong, resilient, well preserved in the air, in the ground and under water, moderately cracks and warps, easily pricks, resistant to decay and house fungus. (Appendix 2, Fig. 8).

It is used in shipbuilding, for underwater structures, because does not rot. Wood is used in the manufacture of furniture, construction, etc. (Appendix 2, Fig. 9). Oak bark contains a lot of tannic acid, and therefore is used for tanning leather. Finally, some species of oaks are visited by insects, which, by their pricking and laying of eggs, cause the formation on the leaves of the so-called ink or tanning nuts, which are used for tanning and preparing paints.

Of the other oaks, cork is the most important. They are remarkable for the unusually thick layer of cork that forms in their bark. This layer is several cm thick and is used to make bottle caps. The removal of this cork layer begins with 10 or 15 year old trees. The first plug is not good, but after 8-12 years a new one grows, which goes into action. After the second shooting, after a certain period of time, the third layer is removed, and so on. The acorns of our oaks are used only to make acorn coffee. The leaves and branches of the oak are used as fodder for livestock, and the wood itself is a building material or kindling material.

From a medical point of view, oak contains tannin, which accelerates blood clotting, improves the functioning of the stomach and heals wounds, and is used to rinse the larynx and tonsils. Acorn shell decoction is used to treat hematoma, skin diseases, eczema, varicose veins, etc.

Previously, oak wood was used to make gates, barrels, doors, wheels. In the old days, warriors made weapons from oak: clubs, spears. Bog oak was especially valued. People immersed whole trunks of oak for many years under water. There is a riddle about bog oak: It has been lying in the water for a long time, but it has not disappeared, it has become even stronger. Indeed, the oak, which was (stained), under water acquired a surprisingly beautiful color of wood, from which carved decorations, furniture for palaces, even thrones for kings were made.

And people were so carried away that they cut down a great many oaks. Even Tsar Peter the Great had to forbid chopping down oaks and advise people to plant acorns in the ground on occasion. But it is from them that oaks grow.

Oak is also a good fuel. Oak brooms for baths are made from its branches. Birds often nest among the oak branches. Acorns are the favorite food of wild boars. And many mushrooms grow under the oaks. The serrated and rocky oak is listed in the Red Book of Russia with the status of a rare species. Oak is one of the most hardy and unpretentious trees. Oak is a tree associated with the history and literature of our country. It is a symbol of strength, courage and endurance. The information obtained gives hope for a possible successful result of the planned experiment.

5. Cultivation and care 1 year.

To grow young oak trees from acorns, you need fresh acorns, that is, harvested in the fall and immediately planted in the soil. Acorns left for long-term storage do not germinate later. Acorns ripen in the middle lane in late autumn. And we had to urgently ask the mother of Tatyana Alexandrovna (my teacher) to collect acorns and send them to us in the city of Polyarny. I received acorns (40 pieces) collected in the park for our experiment at the end of October. Part of the acorns during visual inspection had to be rejected, as they had damage: holes and split shells.

Acorns have a shell and to speed up their germination, I decided to soak them in moss. (Appendix 3, Fig. 10). I did this on October 21, 2014. She kept the bowl with soaked acorns warm near the radiator. Sometimes I had to add water, as it evaporated, and part of the water was used to swell the acorns. December 20, 2014 I have sprouted 10 acorns, the rest rotted. (Appendix 3, Fig. 11). I planted sprouted acorns in the soil. First, I poured the soil into a bowl, moistened it abundantly and laid out the acorns at a distance of 1 - 2 cm from each other. Then she sprinkled the acorns with soil, covered the bowl with a film and put it in a warm place. Watering was carried out once a week with a small amount of water, since acorns can rot when overflowing. All this time the bowl was warm near the battery. February 5, 2015 observed the appearance of the first oak trees. (Appendix 3, Fig.12). Seedlings quickly began to increase in growth. A seedling is a plant grown from seed. A week later, the seedlings had two true leaves. By March 10, 2015 I have 3 oaks growing and one on the way. (Appendix 3, Fig.13). I looked after the plants with great love, watered once a week, sprayed, measured the plants and entered them in my observation diary. (Appendix 4, Fig.14).

March 12, 2015 the plants already had three true leaves, and their size was: stem height from 4.5 to 7 cm, length of the leaf plate 4 cm. Oak trees grow very quickly. I decided to transplant one plant into a separate pot, and left the rest to grow in the same bowl for now. (Appendix 4, Fig.15). I'll see how my oak will survive the transplant. If everything goes well, then as I grow, I will transplant other seedlings. (Appendix 4, Fig.16).

The transplanted oak tree needs to be hardened in order for it to take root when I plant it in open ground. Open ground is land without shelter. For hardening, she moved the plant closer to the window, where the temperature is lower and the movement of cool air is observed.

6.Growing and care 2 year

She continued further care and observation of oak trees. At the next stage of hardening on May 22, 2015, I decided to put one of the oak trees outside for a few hours. (Appendix 5, Fig.17). I did this so that the plant got used to natural conditions. In early June, she left the oaks on the street, covering them with protective material for the night. The leaves of some plants turned black due to a sharp change in temperature. (Appendix 5, Fig.18). In the middle of summer, 3 plants died. The remaining 2 plants I decided not to risk and continued to grow them in a greenhouse. Apparently my oaks have not yet grown strong enough to grow in natural conditions. Autumn 2015 I continue to take care of my oak trees, I spend watering very rarely, keeping them in a cool place. Despite all my efforts during the New Year holidays, another oak tree died. I decided, by all means, to save the last plant. Oak is a tree, and all trees go into dormancy when they shed their leaves, which is what happened to my plant in mid-January.

However, at the end of March 2016 a miracle happened - fresh green leaves appeared on the oak tree. And I happily continued to take care of him. Leaving for the summer holidays, she asked the greenhouse workers to take care of the plant. At the moment, I continue to care for the oak tree and monitor it. (Appendix 5, Fig.19).

7. Cultivation and care 3 years

Continuing my experiment, I take care of my three-year-old oak tree, take measurements and keep an observation diary. Autumn 2016 for my experiment, acorns were brought from Bashkiria. Acorns are large, their shells are dark brown in color, the size is from 1 cm. up to 4 cm. And I am starting a new stage of my work, using my experience in growing young oaks.

December 20, 2016 soaked .30 pcs. acorns in moss and decided to grow plants in it as long as possible, which would control the moisture content of the moss and avoid rotting of acorns, since excessive soil moisture led to the death of my first oak trees. (Appendix 6, Fig.20).

January 16, 207 I watched the shell of my acorns begin to crack and the first roots began to appear. The moss moistened as it dried, and made sure that the acorns did not rot.

February 9, 2017 I got the first oak tree, which had a 4cm stem. and two small green leaves. Oak trees grew rapidly, and by February 20 it had 4 leaves, small roots appeared on the rest of the acorns. Observations from March 6, 2017 the first oak tree has a stem height of 10cm. and 4 true leaves. The second oak stem is 6 cm. The leaves did not straighten out in the form of a bud. (Appendix 6, Fig. 21). During the spring, new oak trees appeared, some were already large, while others were just pecking. By the end of April, 4 adult oaks and 4 acorns continue to grow in moss (Appendix 6, Fig. 22). I take great pleasure in taking care of my plants, photographing and looking forward to the appearance of new plants.

8.Conclusion

The goal I set for myself at the beginning of my work was achieved: I managed to grow an oak seedling from an acorn in a greenhouse in the city of Polyarny and proceed to hardening it for planting in open ground. I learned a lot of new and interesting things about the oak tree. Having studied the technology, growing oaks from acorns, she was able to grow 5 plants in the first year. After analyzing the mistakes of the first year, I decided to grow acorns for a long time in moss, which will allow me to control the moisture of the moss and save the plants. While working on the experiment, I enjoyed taking care of the oak seedlings and watching them grow. It is a very pleasant feeling when you look forward to every leaf of this small tree and every centimeter of growth. I really want to grow a hardened oak tree and plant it in my hometown. And who knows, maybe there will be an oak alley modern in our city.

9. References

  1. Brem A. Plant Life. Moscow 2003, p.305-307

  2. Pleshakov A. A. “Atlas determinant from earth to sky”, Moscow 2009, pp. 84-85

  3. Timofeeva S. F. "Encyclopedia of the Gardener". Moscow 2002, p. 124-150

  4. School of gardeners Andrey Tumanov. [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://shkola-sadov.livejournal.com/

  5. Thousands of trees have been planted this autumn in the cities of the Murmansk region. [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://www.tv21.ru/news/2010/10/06/?chid=9&newsid=25567

  6. Pedunculate oak. [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki

  7. Pedunculate oak. [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://nexvorat.ru/index.php/dub-chereshchatyj.html

  8. How to grow an oak tree from an acorn. [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://indasad.ru/sadovie-derevya-i-kustarniki/kak-virastit-dub-iz-zheludya

  9. How old is the oldest oak tree in the world? [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: http://allforchildren.ru/why/howmany11.php

Attachment 1

The structure and types of oaks

Annex 2

The use of oaks

fig.8 fig.9

Appendix 3

Cultivation and care 1 year

Rice. 10 Fig. eleven

Rice. 12 Fig.13

Appendix 4

Cultivation and care 1 year

Fig.14

Fig.15

Fig.16

Appendix 5

Cultivation and at the course 2 year

pic 17

fig 18.

rice. 19.

Appendix 6

Cultivation and at the course 3 year

fig. 20

fig.21

fig.22

Annex 7

Technological map of oak cultivation since 2014 – 2017

the date

t 0 in a greenhouse

t 0 outdoors

Name of works

Observations

21.10.2014

+26

-ten

soaked acorns

I put moss in a bowl, filled it with water and laid out acorns. Covered with foil.

05.02.2015

+26

-7

The first oak trees have come up.

Watched the appearance of the first oak trees.

03/10/2015

+27

0

3 oaks have risen and one is on the way.

Did a photo shoot.

03/12/2015

+25

+2

Transplanting one oak tree into a pot.

Transplanted the tallest plant in a separate pot.

2015-2016

Oak cultivation

I continue to care and observe the two-year-old oak.

20.12. 2016

+22

-13

Planting acorns.

Soak acorns in moss.

09.02.2017

+20

- fifteen

1 oak tree has grown

Recorded in a diary.

03/06/2017

+21

-5

2 oak trees have grown

I watch and care for oak trees.


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