How do cherries grow on trees


How to Grow Cherries | BBC Gardeners World Magazine

Cherries make a wonderful tree for all sizes of garden. Many varieties are attractive trees, bearing spring blossom, colourful fruit, interesting bark and leafy foliage that turns orange, red and yellow in autumn.

Both sweet and sour (morello) cherries are available to grow, each type of tree needing slightly different requirements. All can be grown in containers, as freestanding trees or fan-trained against a wall. They do require careful maintenance, but enjoying freshly picked cherries makes growing them worth the effort.

How to grow cherries

Grow cherries in moist but well-drained soil in a sunny, sheltered spot. Mulch annually with well-rotted compost or manure and prune in summer if necessary.

More on growing cherries:

  • What to prune in summer
  • How to identify British native trees
  • How to train a fruit tree
  • Trees for small gardens
  • Dwarf fruit trees

Where to grow cherry trees

How to grow cherries - fan-trained Morello cherry tree

Cherry trees do best in a warm, sheltered frost-free spot in well-drained, slightly acid soil. Morello cherry varieties are generally smaller and will also tolerate some shade, so can be grown against a north-facing boundary. These varieties are also self-fertile, so can be grown without a planting partner.

Sweet cherries can be grown as free-standing trees in larger spaces, or dwarf varieties can be grown as fan-trained trees against a warm wall, or in containers, but they do require plenty of sunshine. Some sweet cultivars need to be planted with a partner for pollination, so do check the requirements when choosing your cherry tree.


Planting cherry trees

How to grow cherries - planting a bare-root cherry tree

Pot-grown cherries can be planted all year round but you can usually have a wider choice of varieties, for less money, if you buy bare-root trees in autumn or winter. Plant bare-root cherries from autumn to spring, when trees are dormant. Dig over the soil, remove weeds and dig a square planting hole. Plant the tree at the same depth it was growing in the field (check the soil 'tide mark' to help you), replace the soil and water thoroughly. Depending on the size of your chosen tree, you may need to position a stake to support a young specimen.

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How to care for cherry trees

How to grow cherries - trained cherry tree

Care at the start of the growing season is important for cherries as they flower early. Give the roots a good mulch with well-rotted manure or garden compost in February and feed regularly with a general fertiliser through until the end of March. Keep the trees well watered in this early stage of growth. If frost is forecast, it’s vital to protect any early blossom with horticultural fleece.

In summer, you may want to net your trees to protect the fruits from birds. Alternatively, share the fruit with them.


Pruning and training cherries

Cherries are traditionally grown as either bush-type open trees, or are fan-trained against a wall or fence. Sweet cherries produce their fruit on wood produced the previous season or earlier, while morello cherries fruit on one-year-old wood.

Pruning should be carried out to balance old and new growth, to remove dead, diseased and dying branches, and to shape the tree.

The golden rule for all types of cherry is never prune in winter, as this puts the tree at risk of developing silver leaf disease or canker. As a general rule, prune young trees in spring, when new growth appears, while established trees should be pruned in summer, if needed.


Harvesting cherries

How to grow cherries - picked cherries

Cut bunches of cherries from the tree, with stalks intact, taking care not to bruise the fruits.


Storing cherries

Sweet cherries are best eaten fresh, but will store in the fridge for about a week after picking. The acid varieties can be used in preserves, cakes and tarts.

Looking for inspiration on how to use your crop? Our friends at olive have curated a delicious collection of cherry recipes, including their black forest gateau cheesecake.


Growing cherries: problem solving

Cherries can be prone to cherry blackfly, and fruit fly – maggots invade the cherries and cause rotting, and caterpillars. These insects can be controlled by encouraging natural predators like blue tits early in the season. Later, when the fruits have formed, birds can become a problem, eating the fruit, so you may want to net your crop.

Diseases to look out for include, canker, blossom wilt, brown rot and silver leaf disease. Silver leaf can be managed by pruning in spring and summer.


Five cherry varieties to try

How to grow cherries - cherry varieties to try

  • Prunus avium – the wild species cherry has pure white flowers in spring followed by small, red-purple cherries in summer; these fruits are edible, but can be bitter. This tree does have high ornamental value with chestnut-coloured bark that becomes silvery with age, and good autumn colour. Prunus avium is only suitable for large gardens – trees can reach 20m in height or more
  • Prunus ‘Sweetheart’ RHS AGM – a dark red, sweet cherry, with very good flavour, that crops through until September
  • Prunus ‘Morello’ RHS AGM – this acid cherry can be planted on its own as it is self-fertile. With attractive blossom and lots of fruit in July and August, these make good garden trees. The cherries are good in preserves, cakes and tarts
  • Prunus ‘Sunburst’ – a self-fertile, sweet cherry, the fruits are black and ripen in midsummer
  • Prunus ‘Sylvia' – grafted onto dwarfing rootstock, this is a compact variety perfect for large containers or growing against a wall. It produces pale pink blossom in spring, followed by sweet cherries. It is a self-fertile cultivar

How to Grow a Cherry Tree: The Complete Guide

Have you ever wondered how to grow a cherry tree or why you would want to grow a cherry tree at all? The answer to “why” is because cherry trees are invariably attractive and produce useful fruit. Cherries are particularly lovely fruit trees — the blossoms are beautiful (the reason for cherry blossom festivals all over the world each year), the fruit is tasty, and the trees are quite easy to grow, with just a little care and knowledge.

As for “how,” this article will share what you need to know order to grow a cherry tree and enjoy the (literal) fruits of your labor!

When To Plant Cherry Trees

Cherry trees prefer sun and will grow strongly during the warmer month. When the tree is established, it will adapt its growth to the seasons, but when it is younger it may need some more tending.

To give your tree an advantage when it is young, plant it in spring, so that it can become relatively established over the spring, summer and early fall. If you live in a warmer climate, then you can plant in late winter, if the ground has not been frozen.

If the ground is frozen in the area where you live, wait until the ground is workable before planting. Always look out for the warning of a late frost. Take note of the general climate in your area and plan the planting accordingly.

Where To Plant Your Cherry Trees

When you choose to plant a cherry tree, there are a few things to consider. One is the size of the tree. Cherry trees can grow tall (up to 35 feet/10 meters) and most have a broad spread of branches (12-14 feet/ 3.5-4.5 meters) and have widespread branches.

This means that you must make sure you plant your tree far enough away from other trees, or larger plants, to allow the tree room for its fully mature spread.

The other thing to consider is the root system. You don’t want the roots to cause trouble with any structure in your garden, particularly a wall or even your house. Cherry trees tend to have a relatively shallow root system, but it does grow outward quite substantially as the roots look for oxygen.

The roots of a cherry tree can spread underground over an area that is even wider than the spread of the branches. So you must consider the spread of the tree above and below ground when you choose where to plant the tree.

Soil 

Cherry trees prefer a soft, well-drained soil that is quite fertile. Trees with sweet fruit require better drainage, while sour cherries are not quite so fussy.

When you plant a tree, the soil should be kept moist for a few days. This will keep the soil soft and draining effectively, but the tree will have enough water to absorb.

Light

Cherry trees need a lot of light, so make sure you plant your tree in a sunny spot, where they will receive at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight a day.

Water

Once cherry trees are established, they don’t need a lot of water. However, for the first year, or so, after planting, you will need to make sure that the sapling is watered regularly, keeping the soil damp. 

When you water your cherry tree, remember the broad spread of the roots and don’t only concentrate the water around the trunk. You don’t need to dampen the entire area of the roots, but do try to keep a slightly wider spread of water, possibly up to a meter around the trunk.

Because the root system of a cherry tree is relatively shallow, it will need to look for water mostly above the water table, so it is important that it receives water from above the soil as well – including rain, of course, but also from you watering it. Usually, cherry trees will be able to access water from a greater number of sources in summer, so take this into account when you water the tree.

Temperature and Humidity

Cherry trees are quite hardy and different cultivars, or varieties can tolerate different temperatures and weather conditions. Generally, though, cherries prefer generally cooler, drier climates. In fact, part of their growth cycle is to have a period of dormancy during a cold winter, which they will not get in a hotter, humid climate.

Even younger trees can tolerate frost quite well, but they can be sensitive to a late frost. This is because they come out of their dormancy period as the weather warms up and are not prepared to cope with very low temperatures.

Sweet cherries, in particular, are susceptible to a late frost. If a tree has started to bud when the late frost arrives, it will be hit harder than before budding. This makes late frost an important thing to take into consideration when you plan to plant your tree. With younger trees, protect your tree by using something like a burlap tree wrap.

Planting Multiple Trees: Cross-Pollination

Most cherry trees are not self-pollinating, so you need to have two trees, of different varieties, so that they can pollinate each other. Some types of cherry trees are not compatible, so you will need to do some solid research to make sure that the varieties of trees you choose will be able to cross-pollinate.

There are some varieties of sour cherries that are self-pollinating, but sweet cherries are generally not self-pollinating. However, the BlackGold and WhiteGold varieties are self-pollinating and can even be used as ‘universal pollinators’, as they are compatible with any variety of cherry.

Bees pollinate cherry trees and the period of blossoming and fertility is quite limited. Bees usually work in the earlier morning, so keep away from the trees during this period. Cooler weather may prolong the period of fertility, so keep an eye on your trees and the bees’ activity.

Varieties of Cherry Tree To Plant

Where you live will determine, to a degree, what variety of cherry tree you plant.

The Benton Cherry tree is a popular variety of cherry to grow in your garden. This is mainly because it is a relatively easy tree to grow. They are quite big trees, with wide-spreading branches and are remarkably hardy, requiring almost minimal maintenance. They are also quite resistant to frost. 

The Blackgold Cherry tree is another popular and hardy cherry to consider grow at home. It is quite frost-resistant and not as susceptible to diseases and pests as some other varieties. The tree needs to be watered regularly in the first year of growth. As they grow, the trees do not need to be watered very regularly.  

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How To Grow Your Cherry Trees

Cherry trees can be grown from three basics: the pit, a seedling/young tree, a bare root tree.

Bare root trees

Bare root trees are small trees that have had the soil removed from their roots, which are covered in plastic to protect them. These trees are usually available during winter and should be planted when the weather is still cold.

The soil you plant your bare root tree into cannot be hard, so you will either have to prepare a patch by working on it and making sure it is loose before you buy the trees, or you can place the trees in a small patch of loose soil until you are ready to plant them. This should not be longer than a few days.

Seedlings or young trees

You can buy cherry tree seedlings, or a young tree, to plant out.  Seedlings will need more care, so keep them in a pot in a protected area until they are ready to establish themselves. Young trees can be planted out quite easily.

From the pit

If you really do want to grow your own cherry tree from the beginning, then you can do so from the pit. You should begin with a few pits, as some of them may not sprout.

Make sure that the pits are clean of any trace of the fruit by soaking them thoroughly. Leave them to dry for a few days. After that keep them in a sealed container in the fridge for 7-10 days. This will simulate the dormancy period of winter.

The pits can be planted in pots that are full of loose soil, that is mixed with fertilizer. Before you do this, you must take them back to room temperature. Push the pits into the soil and water them enough so that the soil is moist. Do not over-water them. When the pits sprout and establish themselves as seedlings, you can plant them out

Planting the Trees

To plant your tree from any of these sources, you must make sure that the soil is loose. Do this by working the soil over with a garden fork. It should be loose to at least a foot (30cms) below the surface.

Dig a hole that is deep and wide enough to accommodate the root ball. This will usually be about 18 inches (45 cms) in diameter and 24 inches (60 cms) deep.

Place the roots of the plant into the hole and cover them, but keep some of the root ball showing – about 1 inch (2.5 cms) above the surface. Compact the soil around the tree gently, making sure that it does stay relatively loose. Do not tamp it down.

The level of the soil around the tree must be the same level as the surrounding area. Fruit trees must not sit in water, so there can’t be a hollow around the stem.

Make sure that you water the tree thoroughly for the first few weeks after it is planted. This does not mean keeping it in a pool of water, but making sure that the area around the stem is kept damp.

How To Grow a Cherry Tree In a Pot

There are some varieties of cherry trees that are dwarf, which can be grown in pots. Remember that these can grow to about 6 feet high, so you will need to prune and contain the trees carefully, to make sure that they don’t grow too big for your house.

One advantage that growing a cherry tree in a pot is that you will be able to move it inside during cold weather.

When you plant a young tree/seedling in a pot, make sure that you water it regularly to keep the soil damp. Do not overwater it, because if the roots sit in water, the tree’s growth will be affected. You will need to fertilize the tree at least every couple of months.

Fertilizing your cherry Tree

To keep your cherry tree healthy, you need to feed it regularly, by using the appropriate fertilizer. Cherry trees are ‘light feeders’, which means that they don’t use a lot of nutrients.

Like most plants, cherry trees need nitrogen, phosphate and potassium to grow, so make sure that the fertilizer you use contains all of these (just make sure the fertilizer is low in nitrogen). Phosphate and potassium boost the tree’s ability to fight diseases.

You can use a chemical fertilizer, but you could prefer to use organic options, which are based on compost and natural additives.

Pruning your cherry tree

All fruit trees need to be pruned regularly during the winter months. This promotes new growth in the spring and you’ll have a good crop of fruit in summer. For our complete guide to pruning your cherry tree, visit this link.

Harvesting your cherries

The whole point of growing a cherry tree is to enjoy the fruit, isn’t it? Once you have a lovely crop on your tree, you’ll need to harvest them. Knowing when and how to pick them will keep you from damaging the fruit.

You’ll know your cherries are ripe when they turn red. The darker red they are, the riper they are. If you pull gently on a cherry and it comes away easily, then it’s fully ripe. Don’t pick cherries when they still have any green on them, because they don’t continue to ripen once picked off the tree.

For more in-depth information about harvesting cherries, read our guide on picking cherries.

However, if you’re harvesting sour cherries for cooking, you can pick them when they’re not quite ripe. Make sure you cut the fruit off the tree, though.

Put the harvested cherries into a container, but don’t over-fill it or squash the cherries because you may damage them. Keep the cherries in the fridge as soon after as picking them as possible. This will keep the fruit fresh longer.

Cherry Tree Pests and Disease

Cherry tree pests and disease can come in a variety of forms and each one requires specialized action to treat and prevent them. Some pose greater threats than others to your cherry harvest, so educating yourself about each one is a necessary part of growing cherry trees in your garden.

Pests

Leaf damage caused by black cherry aphids.

Here are some of the common types of pests that you may have to deal with as you grow a cherry tree.

Birds

One of the greatest threats to the fruit on your cherry tree are birds, which are not easy to control. The best protection against losing your cherries to birds is to cover your tree with netting.

Black Cherry Aphids

In winter, keep an eye out for tiny black bugs clustering on the stems or under the leaves on your cherry tree. If your tree is a sweet cherry, then you must be even more vigilant, because they are more susceptible to this pest.

You should treat your tree for black cherry aphids by spraying it with horticultural oil. If you notice the leaves on your tree curling, then you must treat it. It is easier to get rid of the aphids before the leaves actually curl.

Borers

The American Plum Borer bores into the trunks of weakened trees.

The Peachtree borer goes for the base of the trunk of a cherry tree and affects the flow of nutrients to the tree. You can dig out the larvae, but it may be more effective to use a pesticide. You will need to get advice on what to use.

Shot hole borers dig into weakened branches in the tree, or into the trunk. If they are only in one/two branches, they can be removed. However, if the whole tree is affected, then it may not be possible to save the tree.

Pests tend to attack cherry trees that are weakened, so you keep your tree properly watered and fertilized.

Want to know more about other pests you may encounter? Click here to read our blog post on how to identify, treat, and prevent ten common cherry tree pests.

DiseasesCherries suffering from brown rot caused by a fungus.

Any plant can be infected by diseases, and cherry trees are no exception.

Leaf spot, canker and brown spot are some of these diseases. You will recognize these by leaves that develop dark spots, or begin to die. You should remove any diseased leaves, or even branches. When you do this, dip the pruning shears in a bleach solution to sterilize them before making the next cut, so that the disease doesn’t spread.

You can spray your tree with a fungicide to protect against these diseases. A fungicide will also help to prevent ripe fruit rot, brown rot, or twig blight. Consult your nursery or garden center to find out what fungicide you should use. If there is a lot of rain, you may need to repeat the spray of fungicide.

Most of the diseases that affect cherry trees are the result of over-watering. Make sure that the soil is kept moist, not very wet. The soil must be well-drained and kept quite loose.

For a more in-depth read about the identification, treatment, and prevention of the ten most common cherry tree diseases, visit our blog article here.

FAQs

Are cherry trees easy to grow?

Cherry trees need to be established carefully. After that, they are relatively easy to look after. Keep them healthy by watering regularly, but not too much, and fertilizing them periodically.

Can I grow a cherry tree at home?

Cherry trees tend to be large trees, so you’ll need a good size space in your yard to grow one of them. As long as you have the right conditions for the tree, including at least 6 hours of direct sunlight, then this is a lovely tree to have at home.

What kind of soil do cherry trees prefer?

Cherry trees prefer to grow in well-drained soil that contains nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

Make Cherry Trees Part of Your Garden!

A cherry tree makes a great (and tasty) addition to a home garden. Our guides can help you pick just the right one.

Now that you know how to grow a cherry tree, visit our Cherry Trees hub page to read about different cherry tree varieties you can grow, plus other cherry-related informational articles.

Cherry - refers to a tree or shrub.

The cherry tree is a complete description of the fruit and the tree. Photo, planting, care, diseases, cultivation

Shrub or tree

All tall plants are usually divided into shrubs and trees. They have a number of differences, on which they draw a distinction.

Wood

This plant form must have the following mandatory features:

  1. The presence of a bole or trunk. The trunk is a large section of a tree along which nutrients move and are stored for the winter. It serves as a support for the crown.
  2. Crown - a massive part of a tree, in which shoots, foliage and fruits are concentrated. Its main function is photosynthesis.

The branches of trees are usually elongated and located at the top, forming a crown. They are long frame and short fruiting. If the cherry has a distinct trunk, crown, long branches up to 7 m, then these species are classified as trees.

The following species can be attributed to the cherry tree:

  1. Common cherry is a tall tree with branches forming a crown. The leaves are dark green, oblong-oval in shape. Common cherry is the leader of Russian gardens. Today it has many varieties and hybrids that are grown not only because of the fruits, but also as a decorative decoration for gardens.
  2. Japanese cherry or sakura - grown to decorate park areas, suburban areas. Height, in some cases up to 10 m.
  3. Black - a fruit tree up to 4 m high, with a pyramidal spreading crown. The bark of skeletal branches and trunk is dark gray. Black cherry has large fruits, weighing up to 7 g.
  4. Sakhalin (sargent) - at the age of 3, the tree reaches a height of 8-10 m. A variety of Japanese cherry. The fruits have a strong acid, which is why they are rarely used in food.
  5. Bird (cherry) - the height of the tree reaches 20 m, with a strongly spreading crown with a diameter of 10 m. The color of the bark is usually reddish. Fruits are located on one internode of 4-6 pieces.
  6. Maksimovicha is a very tall tree, up to 20 m. The fruits are very small and are not eaten. Used to create a hedge.

It should be noted that the life expectancy of trees is an order of magnitude higher than that of a shrub and is 25-35 years, in contrast to a bush - 15-20 years.

Shrub

Shrub - a modified tree that has several lignified shoots coming from the soil surface, having one root system. The duration of this form of the plant does not exceed 20 years, but the advantage is the fact that the bushes rejuvenate annually, and the tree does not have such an opportunity.

The root system of the shrub is capable of producing new shoots that can become a separate plant. The height of shrubs cannot exceed 6 m, and the smallest sizes up to half a meter.

Cherry shrubs have a place to be and the following shrub species are grown on the territory of Russia:

  1. Ferrous - dwarf cherry, not more than 1.5 m high. The distribution area is Japan and Korea. Grows in single bushes or whole walls. It has thin, very flexible red shoots. The branches strongly lean towards the soil, which is why they give the bush the shape of a ball. Fruits with a predominance of bitterness, having an almost black color.
  2. Warty - meter plant with straight shoots and stems. The fruits are burgundy, small, sweet-sour.
  3. Gray - undersized shrub, up to 1.5 m in height, with white bark, which is why it is called gray. The branches have hairs, so they seem to be fluffy. The berries are small, located close to the branches, on short petioles. They have a dark cherry color and a sweet and sour taste.
  4. Steppe - another name for shrub. The height of the shoots is not more than 1.5 m. The branches are very sprawling. The berries are small, are yellow and red.
  5. Kurilskaya - one and a half meter upright shrub. Fruiting occurs at 9year of life, bitterish small berries.

To give a comfortable shape, shrubs are pruned, so that you can highlight the central stem and form a crown, but this will not increase the height.

Characteristic

Cherry is a perennial plant and belongs to stone fruits. The fruiting of the plant begins 2-4 years after planting it in open ground.

Cherry is a fairly frost-resistant crop, and also easily tolerates drought and lack of moisture.

This plant has a high regenerative capacity, so even heavily frozen parts of the plant do not die, and retain their vegetative capacity after being hit by cold. The life span of the shrub variety is 15-20 years, and the tree-like cherry lives about twice as long.

Considering the cherry as a biological object, the following characteristics can be distinguished:

  • root system;
  • fruit type and varieties;
  • kidneys;
  • flowering period;
  • maturity dates.

Root system

The plant has a developed root system, divided into horizontal and vertical parts. Horizontal roots are very developed, so the bush can produce numerous root shoots and, with good care, capture an increasing area of ​​the garden. Vertical roots can go deep into the soil by 3-6 meters and firmly hold the plant. The roots actively absorb moisture and nutrients, providing the aerial part with the necessary elements.

Fruit type and varieties

The fruit is a round berry with one seed. The color of the fruit varies from dark pink to red with a purple hue. The fruits are divided into two main categories. These are Amorels and Morels or Griots. The first ones are pink or red in color and have a clear juice and a sweet taste. Morels are dark red or burgundy in color, and their flesh has a sweet-sour or sour taste. The sizes of fruits differ within small limits.

Kidneys

Leaf and flower buds form on shoots. Flower buds, which subsequently form fruit ovaries, are located on annual and bouquet branches. Kidneys can also be both single and group. They are divided into fruit and growth. In a large group of buds, usually 1-2 are growth, and all the rest are fruit. For cherries, the formation of bouquet branches is characteristic, on which most of the fruits are formed. When such branches bloom, a “bouquet” of 5-6 small flowers is formed on them. If properly cared for, bouquet branches can bear fruit for 6-8 years.

In addition to the buds that form on the above-ground part of the plant, the cherry has adnexal buds. They are located on the roots of shrubs and trees and on basal shoots.

Flowering period

Cherry blossoms until the moment when the buds begin to open. Sometimes flowering may continue during the blooming process. The plant actively responds to an increase in the average daily temperature, and if it is stably kept at + 100C, cherry blossoms begin everywhere. The process itself lasts 6-10 days, but if the weather conditions worsen, the cherry can bloom for up to two weeks.

Depending on the variety, cherries are divided into early-flowering, medium-flowering and late-flowering, so the flowering period can last from late April to early June.

Maturity dates

Similar to the timing of flowering, cherry varieties are early-ripening, medium-ripening and late-ripening. Ripening time depends not only on the variety, but also on climatic conditions. In cold summer weather, the fruits will ripen longer than usual. If there are several trees of the same variety in the garden, then the one that is in the sun will ripen earlier, and not in the shade. Berries should be cut off immediately, as they quickly crumble or birds will peck at them. Fruits intended for transportation should be harvested 3-4 days ahead of schedule.

Plants should be watered two weeks before harvest.

Growing cherries in the garden

For cultivation on the site, it is better to choose varieties that have been tested for a long time at experimental stations. Relatively recently bred varieties may not meet the stated characteristics. Usually the life of a cherry tree is 15 years, but with proper care it can be increased to 20.

Acquiring and planting a seedling

It is necessary to plant a young tree in spring. In this case, the seedling will have time to take root, adapt and grow. Planting is carried out when the buds on the tree have not yet opened, but the earth has warmed up enough. The optimal time is mid-April, in the afternoon, after sunset.

Planting cherries in autumn is inconvenient because the seedling may not take root before frost and die. Nevertheless, it is better to buy a tree in the fall, and then store it until planting as follows: dig an oblong hole in the garden in the place where snow lies the longest in spring. Its depth should reach 30-35 cm, slope - 45 degrees.

Place a seedling in this hole, covering the roots and a third of the trunk with soil. Water the part of the plant covered with soil. Overlay the seedling with pine spruce branches, needles outward so that rodents do not damage it. When the snow falls, you need to throw a layer about 30 cm high on the hole with the seedling. You need to dig up the plant in the spring, just before planting.

Planting a cherry seedling.

Landing preparation

Before planting, inspect the root system of the tree. Remove all rotten, damaged roots, cut to healthy areas. Sprinkle chopped charcoal on top. Soak the roots in water for 3-4 hours before planting. This will help them loosen up and absorb moisture.

The soil should also be prepared in autumn. The tree needs a well-lit place with well-drained, sandy or loamy neutral soil. Cherries should not be planted near groundwater or where meltwater stagnates in spring.

In the event that the site has acidic soil, dolomite flour or lime is preliminarily scattered at a rate of 400 g per square meter. m. Then the soil is dug up to the depth of the shovel bayonet. A week after the application of the deoxidizer, organic matter can be added to the soil. Use compost or rotted manure at the rate of 15 kg per sq. m.

If there are several seedlings, they are planted at a distance of 3 m from each other. For self-pollinated varieties, the neighborhood is not important. But cherries that are cross-pollinated should be planted side by side. Moreover, at least 4 varieties according to the scheme 3x3 m, if tall, and 2-2.5 m, if short.

Planting a seedling

The seedling hole should be 50-60 cm deep and 80 cm in diameter. The top layer of the earth must be removed and mixed with humus, 1 kg of ash, 30 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium chloride. If the soil in the garden is clayey, you will need to add another bucket of sand.

In the center of the hole, place a peg that protrudes 30 cm above the surface. At the bottom, pour the soil mixture with fertilizer in a slide. Place a seedling on this hill on the north side of the peg. The root neck should protrude 2-3 cm above the surface.

Spread out the roots of the cherries, then gradually add potting soil into the hole. Tamp a little so that there are no voids left. When the landing is completed, at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk, make a hole with a roller of earth and pour a bucket of water into it.

When water is absorbed, the root collar will drop to the same level as the surface. After that, mulch the trunk circle with peat, humus or sawdust. Tie the seedling to a peg.

How to care for trees

Treat trees in spring with 7% urea tincture. It is advisable to do this before the buds open. If the movement of juices has already activated, then burns should not be allowed. Therefore, it is better to take a 3% composition of copper sulfate.

After 14-17 days at a temperature of 18-19 degrees, mites and other pests should be destroyed using colloidal sulfur or other commercially available solutions. For the treatment of parasites and diseases in the summer, Fufanon and copper oxychloride are used. In autumn, it is required to treat with a 4% solution of urea. It is advisable to have time to spray before the moment of leaf fall.

In order to have cherry blossoms in your garden, you need to follow the watering regime. It is important to follow the rule here - to prevent acidification of the soil. Water should soak the area near the trunk 45 cm deep.

First watering after flowering. This is done along with the application of fertilizers. As soon as the berries begin to pour, a second watering should be carried out. To do this, 3-6 buckets of liquid are poured under the tree.

Consider the weather in a particular year. After leaf fall in October, the soil is moistened up to 80 cm deep. Watering on the eve of winter will provide a supply of fluid, as a result of which the roots will be able to overwinter. If seedlings are planted in the garden, then they require regular watering - 1 time in 2 weeks. In hot weather, the frequency of watering can be increased to weekly.

Particular attention should be paid to feeding cherries with organic fertilizers once every 2-3 years. They are brought in for digging in the autumn.

Also used:

  • Potassium-phosphorus type fertilizers. For 1 sq. m, 30 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium sulfate are added.
  • Nitrogen fertilizers - requires the application of 17-20 g of ammonium nitrate or 12-15 g of urea per 1 sq. m. The addition of these fertilizers is made in the first weeks of spring, as well as after flowering.

This requires first watering the garden area where the trees are planted. Do not apply the specified top dressing to the near-stem zone. Foliar top dressing is carried out using a solution of urea. For preparation, take 50 g of the substance and dilute in 10 liters of water. It is applied after sunset 2-3 times at weekly intervals.

To enable the trees to overwinter, the area near the trunk is covered with snow and then with sawdust. In autumn, it is imperative to cover the trunk with whitewash from lime and blue vitriol. It is also necessary to whitewash the main branches at their base. Pine spruce branches will help young seedlings successfully winter.

Cherry pruning rules

If you want your garden to look like the one in the photo, you need to do the right pruning work. On seedlings, 5-7 of the strongest branches should be left. The rest are cut in a circle and processed with garden pitch.

Branches should be directed in all directions at intervals of at least 10 cm. And after the second year, branches that are directed into the crown should be removed. A cherry tree should have up to 15 main branches.

After the swelling of the buds in March, it is necessary to carry out the initial pruning. If you are late with these works, then it is better not to cut during sap flow.

These activities can be carried out in the summer when the crop is harvested.

Shoots that are shorter than 35 cm should not be removed. But branches that thicken the crown should be carefully cut. The height of the trunk should not exceed the length of the branches by more than 18-20 cm. Therefore, it must be shortened accordingly.

After the end of the growing season, autumn pruning is necessary. But if you do not have time before the cold weather, you should not do it. Annual trees are not pruned in autumn. Sanitary work to remove diseased and injured branches is carried out regularly.

The cherry orchard will flourish and bear fruit if properly cared for. It is necessary not only to correctly plant seedlings, but also to regularly cut, observe the irrigation regime, and protect trees from pests and diseases.

Cherry berry

Cherry fruit - sweet and sour berry. It is eaten fresh and processed. Berries can be frozen and dried. Dark burgundy fruits are dried, after removing the stalks. The berries are sorted, washed and blanched in a boiling solution of baking soda. After that, they are washed in cold water. Drying is carried out at a temperature of 40-45 ° C, until the berries become shriveled. The temperature is then raised to 80°C. The drying process lasts up to 12 hours.

Cherry fruit

Cherry fruit is used to make jams, compotes, is added to confectionery. The fruits are rich in glucose, fructose, nitrogenous, ash and tannins, pectins, trace elements, organic acids, vitamins A, C, B and PP. Due to their beneficial properties, they have found application in traditional medicine. They quench thirst, improve digestion, and are a mild laxative. They are a natural antipyretic, do not cause side effects. They have expectorant action. Pectins cleanse the body of toxins and heavy metals.

When making jam, the pits of the berries should be removed because they contain amygdalin, a poisonous substance that breaks down in the body.

Growing difficulties

Fruit trees are often attacked by pests and fungal diseases. Cherry is no exception.

Cherry pests

Plum codling moth, bird cherry and cherry weevils, sawflies, subcortical leafworm, hawthorn, cherry aphid are considered the most dangerous for cherries.

Cherry tree diseases

Cherries quite often affect viral and fungal diseases, that is why the preventive treatment mentioned above is so important.

  • Brown spot - yellowish, red or brown spots appear on the leaves with or without a border. Affected leaves fall off. For treatment, the tree and the soil under it are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. This is done in 3 stages: at the beginning of bud break, after flowering, 2-3 weeks after the second treatment.
  • Perforated spotting (clasterosporiasis) is accompanied by the appearance of light brown spots on leaves with a red border. In diameter, they reach 5 mm, gradually begin to dry and become through holes. Depressed purple spots up to 3 mm in diameter appear on the fruits, which turn into warts, gum oozes from them. Cracking spots with a dark border, flowing with gum, also appear on the branches. The affected branches need to be cut down, the wounds should be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and rubbed with sorrel three times, every 10 minutes. After that, treat the sections with garden pitch, and spray the tree with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid, also in 3 stages.
  • Coccomycosis is accompanied by small red dots on the leaves, which are covered with a pink bloom on the reverse side. Leaves turn brown and dry. The fight begins after the flowers fall. The tree is sprayed with a solution prepared from 2 g of the Chorus preparation and 10 liters of water. After 3 weeks, the procedure is repeated. The third treatment is carried out 3 weeks after harvest.
  • The dying off of the branches begins with light pink warty growths appearing on them. They can be located both in groups and singly. Sick branches are removed, sections are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulphate, then with garden pitch.
  • Scab is accompanied by the appearance of velvety olive-colored spots on fruits and leaves. Berries crack, green leaves shrivel. Use the same as described above, Bordeaux liquid in 3 stages.

Gum secretion may indicate the presence of various diseases in cherries. However, if this process is not stopped, the tree may die. Clean the edges of the damage to the bark with a sharp instrument and treat the wound with a solution of 100 mg of oxalic acid and 1 liter of water. You can put gruel from fresh sorrel on the wound, and then treat it with garden pitch.

Gum on cherry stem.

Cherry application

Due to its beneficial properties, this plant is widely used in folk medicine. Cherry berries and leaves of this tree are of high value. The fruits contain coumarins, which reduce the risk of thrombosis and reduce blood clotting. In addition, ellagic acid was found in the berries, which prevents the formation of cancer cells, so the use of cherries is the prevention of cancer.

Leaves contain organic acids, sucrose, dextrose, coumarins. A substitute for tea is made from them, used for pickling vegetables.

Leaves used as a medicinal raw material are harvested after flowering or after they fall off on their own. Use fresh or dry for the winter. From the leaves collected in the spring, vitamin tea is brewed, which has anti-inflammatory, antiseptic properties.

It should be remembered that the bones contain amygdalin, which can lead to poisoning of the body. However, small amounts of the pits can be used to treat gout.

Cherry is a good honey plant. Dense stands of trees provide early nectar and pollen.

The plant is valued for its beautiful wood. The color of the wood of the cherry tree is pink-brown or pink-gray. Darkens over time. Has decorative value. Easy to handle. Used for making furniture and souvenirs.

The bark of the tree contains tannins. Used in the leather industry. Gum (cherry resin) flowing from stem cracks is used in the production of textiles.

Contraindications for the use of cherry fruits

Berries are not recommended for stomach ulcers, intestinal disorders, diabetes and obesity. Before using the fruit for medicinal purposes, you should consult your doctor.

Vitamin pantry

Cherry contains a wide variety of vitamins that are very beneficial for human health.

Cherry even has healing properties. There are especially many vitamins A, C and B in cherries, which allows it to fight colds well.

Cherries also contain many amino acids, including folic acid, which is very useful in the nutrition of pregnant women.

Cherry berries contain a lot of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, but its main noteworthy advantage is that it contains a high content of antioxidants that are useful for healing the human body.

Eating cherries is good for people with heart and vascular diseases. Together with cherries, iron enters our body, which is useful for people with anemia.

Due to the fact that berries contain a lot of organic acids, they are recommended for those who suffer from gastritis with low acidity.

Cherry concentrates are used in many medicines. Since cherries are very common and affordable, people use the presence of a large number of useful substances in them for use in traditional medicine recipes.

Infusions, decoctions are prepared from fruits, leaves, stalks, tree bark, which are used in the form of drinking, compresses and baths.

But it is important to remember that traditional methods of treatment can be used only with the approval of a doctor, since they can be a good addition to medical treatment, but their replacement.

In addition to being used for the purpose of treatment and rehabilitation, cherry has found its application in cosmetology. Her fragrances are very popular and are famous in various perfume lines.

Cooking cherries

Cherries are used in cooking. One of the most famous dishes from it are dumplings with cherries. From cherries you can cook jam, confiture, jam. Use it for filling cakes and pies.

Compotes, kissels, liqueurs and liqueurs made with cherries have a unique taste and aroma. An interesting property is that its leaves are added to cucumbers during preservation to give them the ability to crunch.

But berries and cherry products are not good for everyone. It is better to refuse to use it for those who suffer from allergies, stomach diseases with high acidity.

Due to the presence of a large amount of glucose in its composition, it is not useful for patients with diabetes. They are not recommended to be consumed on an empty stomach and eat a single portion of more than a glass.

You have to be especially careful about the bones. They should not be swallowed, as they contain hydrocyanic acid, which can cause poisoning.

Compotes and jams are prepared from pitted cherries, but they can be stored and eaten only during the year. You can preserve this useful berry in a frozen form using the quick freezing method, which preserves the taste and unique aroma of the berry.

Cherry is not only a tasty and valuable dietary product, but also a fruit that prolongs our youth. Therefore, it should be in the diet of every person.

By eating it, you can not only enjoy its pleasant and delicate taste, but also fill your body with irreplaceable useful vitamins and prolong your life.

Sources

  • https://PoFerme.com/sad/derevya/vishni
  • https://tsvetydoma.ru/sad/plodovyie-derevya-i-kustarniki/vishnevoe-derevo-ili-kustarnik.html
  • https://zelenyjmir.ru/vishnya/
  • https://fermercar. ru/vishnya/vishnya-derevo-ili-kustarnik-botanicheskoe-opisanie-i-harakteristika-k-kakomu-vidu-otnositsya-foto
  • https://dachadesign.ru/derevo-vishnya/

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is a tree or shrub where a bush grows in Russia, a berry or a fruit, the answer is

Cherry is a fruit tree belonging to the Rosaceae family. There are about 150 varieties, of which only five are used in horticulture. These are: ordinary cherry, steppe, felt, Magaleb and sweet cherries. Cherries can be tree, shrub, or intermediate.

Planting cherry trees stimulates beekeeping, as cherry flowers contain a lot of nectar and pollen. Cherry, according to experts, was first grown in Asia Minor and Greece, although there are mentions of sweet cherries in historical written sources in Switzerland and Denmark. This plant enjoys well-deserved popularity among gardeners in Russia, Ukraine and Moldova.

Contents

Characteristic

Cherry is a perennial plant and belongs to stone fruit crops. The fruiting of the plant begins 2-4 years after planting it in open ground.

Cherry is a fairly frost-resistant crop, and also easily tolerates drought and lack of moisture.

This plant has a high regenerative capacity, so even heavily frozen parts of the plant do not die, and retain their vegetative capacity after being hit by cold. The life span of the shrub variety is 15-20 years, and the tree-like cherry lives about twice as long. Considering the cherry as a biological object, the following characteristics can be distinguished:

  • root system;
  • sheet type;
  • fruit type and varieties;
  • kidneys;
  • flowering period;
  • ripening dates;
  • useful properties of fruits.

Root system

The plant has a developed root system, divided into horizontal and vertical parts. Horizontal roots are very developed, so the bush can produce numerous root shoots and, with good care, capture an increasing area of ​​the garden. Vertical roots can reach 3-6 meters deep into the soil and hold the plant firmly. Roots actively absorb moisture and nutrients, providing the aerial part with the necessary elements.

Sheet type

The leaves are oblong with small teeth of bright green color. They contain many useful substances and are used as a remedy for various diseases and as cosmetic additives.

Fruit type and varieties

The fruit is a round berry with one seed. The color of the fruit varies from dark pink to red with a purple hue. The fruits are divided into two main categories. These are Amorels and Morels or Griots. The first ones are pink or red in color and have a clear juice and a sweet taste. Morels are dark red or burgundy in color, and their flesh has a sweet-sour or sour taste. The sizes of fruits differ within small limits.

Kidneys

Leaf and flower buds form on shoots. Flower buds, which subsequently form fruit ovaries, are located on annual and bouquet branches. Kidneys can also be both single and group. They are divided into fruit and growth. In a large group of buds, usually 1-2 are growth, and all the rest are fruit. For cherries, the formation of bouquet branches is characteristic, on which most of the fruits are formed. When such branches bloom, a “bouquet” of 5-6 small flowers is formed on them. If properly cared for, bouquet branches can bear fruit for 6-8 years.

In addition to the buds that form on the above-ground part of the plant, the cherry has adnexal buds. They are located on the roots of shrubs and trees and on basal shoots.

Flowering period

Cherry blossoms until the moment when the buds begin to bloom. Sometimes flowering may continue during the blooming process. The plant actively responds to an increase in the average daily temperature, and if it is stable at + 10 0 C, cherry blossoms begin everywhere. The process itself lasts 6-10 days, but if the weather conditions worsen, the cherry can bloom up to two weeks.

Depending on the variety, cherries are divided into early flowering, medium flowering and late flowering, so the flowering period can last from late April to early June.

Maturity dates

Similar to the timing of flowering, cherry varieties are early-ripening, medium-ripening and late-ripening. Ripening time depends not only on the variety, but also on climatic conditions. In cold summer weather, the fruits will ripen longer than usual. If there are several trees of the same variety in the garden, then the one that is in the sun will ripen earlier, and not in the shade. Berries should be cut off immediately, as they quickly crumble or birds will peck at them. Fruits intended for transportation should be harvested 3-4 days ahead of schedule.

Stop watering the plant two weeks before harvest.

Useful properties of fruits

Cherry is an exceptionally useful berry, or rather a fruit, because from the point of view of botany, the fruit of the cherry tree is just a fruit. It contains the following substances:

  • vitamins;
  • trace elements;
  • organic acids;
  • sugar;
  • vegetable fiber.

The fruit is rich in vitamins A, C, E, PP and group B. It contains trace elements such as:

  • potassium;
  • sodium;
  • calcium;
  • phosphorus;
  • manganese;
  • iron.

Organic acids are represented by citric, malic, succinic and folic acids, and sugars are present in fruits in the form of glucose and fructose. 100 grams of fresh fruits contain only 52 kilocalories, so they are shown to those who are on a diet.

Picture: Vitamins and trace elements contained in cherries.

Berries reduce the risk of blood clots and strengthen the cardiovascular system, normalize blood pressure and lower blood cholesterol levels. It is generally accepted that the darker the fruit, the healthier it is for the heart. Berries are useful for children, as they increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Juice enhances the effect of certain drugs.

Cherry has a beneficial and activating effect on the body's immune system, but in order not to cause negative consequences, when using fresh cherries, a sense of proportion should be observed.

Fresh berries have contraindications associated with the following diseases:

  • gastric and duodenal ulcer;
  • hyperacidity;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • inflammatory processes in the lungs.

The fruits are excellent for home canning and are widely used in cooking.

Varieties

Cherry is classified according to several characteristics, but the following varieties can be attributed to the main ones:

  • kind of tree;
  • maturity date;
  • fruiting.

Varieties are divided into tree-like and bushy. In some classifications, intermediate species may occur.

Cherry tree has a trunk up to 5-6 meters high and a voluminous crown. Often the branches form dense thickets and make it difficult to harvest. Group buds are formed on the shoots, some of which are intended for the growth of new branches, and the rest for fruiting. Tree varieties include Turgenevka, Zhukovka, Griot Moscow.

Bush varieties are widely used due to strong immunity and active fruiting. The height of the above-ground part usually does not exceed 2.5 meters. As a result of long-term selection, bushy varieties with large and sweet berries were obtained. Most of the crop is placed on annual branches. The best representatives of shrub varieties are Generous, Bolotovskaya, Molodyozhnaya, Troitskaya.

According to the ripening time, cherries are divided into early-ripening and late-ripening varieties. Often the ripening time depends on the weather conditions of the region. Early varieties include Early, Meeting, Malyshka. Full ripening of berries occurs at the end of June. The best representatives of the late, July and August varieties are Lyubskaya, Bagryanka, Tamaris.

Cherry cultivars may be self-fertile or self-fertile. The latter require pollinators.

Early maturing varieties and hybrids of cherry and bird cherry are less susceptible to fungal diseases.

Growing

Cherry is a very popular plant among gardeners in Europe. Despite its unpretentiousness, the plant requires proper planting and care. Most varieties are self-fertile, so pollinator trees should be planted on the site. Read about how to plant cherries the right way.

Climatic features

Cherry, unlike other fruit trees, does not have high winter hardiness, so it practically does not grow in the northern regions. For the root system of cherries, temperatures from -10 0 C are considered dangerous, and flower buds and ovaries can die even at -1 0 C, which is not uncommon with small spring frosts.

Cherry is not too demanding on sunlight and can grow normally in the shade, but is best planted in elevated areas where there is both sun and some shade.

Varietal hybrids for the Urals and Siberia

Low frost resistance of the plant is not an obstacle for its cultivation in the regions of the Urals and Siberia, as there are hybrids that are adapted to cold winters, short summers and frosts in transitional periods. For these regions, the following early ripe varieties with high yields are suitable:

  • Zagrebino;
  • Gridnevskaya;
  • Ural standard;
  • lighthouse;
  • Michurin's vole.

A complete list of cherry varieties for the Urals is available here.

These hybrids are distinguished by good resistance to long frosts and spring frosts, regular fruiting and high yields.

Soil

Loamy and sandy soils with a neutral pH (pH 7) are best suited for cherries. It is impossible to plant a plant on sandy, peaty and acidic soils. If there is no choice, acidic soils can be used, but with mandatory neutralization with chalk, lime or dolomite flour. It is also important to know what can be planted next to the cherry.

Humidity

Low-lying and too wet areas are not suitable for cherries, as they will suffer from fungal diseases. Cherry does not like high humidity and tolerates drought well. The groundwater level should not exceed 180-200 cm. The higher the groundwater level, the greater the chance that the plant's roots will freeze.

Selection of seedlings for planting

Seedlings must be purchased from a special nursery where the plants are not resold, but grown. You should not choose tall seedlings with a large number of shoots. They have a developed root system and they do not take root well. It is necessary to buy annual seedlings with the number of shoots from 3 to 6 and their length from 10 to 20 cm.

On the trunk and roots of a cherry seedling there should be no outgrowths and mechanical damage and rot.

Maintenance

Cherry care includes a number of agrotechnical activities that are focused on obtaining a high yield and long-term preservation of a healthy and fruitful tree.

Top dressing and fertilizers

Cherries require regular fertilization to avoid problems with growth, development and fruiting. Of the elements, cherries primarily require nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. If enough fertilizer was applied to the planting hole when planting, no additional feeding is required for about two years. How to feed cherries:
  • ammonium nitrate;
  • superphosphate;
  • potassium chloride.

Until the age of five, fertilizers are applied to the near-stem circle, the diameter of which should be increased as the crown grows. Organic and mineral fertilizers should be applied together. Nitrogen fertilizers should be applied in the spring, and components with phosphorus and potassium in the autumn. Fresh organic matter should be replaced with compost or humus.

Watering

Cherry does not require abundant watering, so during the season, 4 to 8 buckets of water are spent on each tree. Around the trunk, starting from 50 cm, annular furrows are dug. They should capture an area equal to the area of ​​the crown. During one watering per tree, 10-15 liters of water are consumed, evenly distributing it over the furrows. To prevent moisture from evaporating, the irrigation site is mulched with humus or mowed grass.

Cutting

For proper development of cherries, they should be pruned annually, as the very rapid growth of the shoots stimulates the thickening of the crown. Pruning should be done in the spring before buds appear. At the seedling, when planting, all branches except 5-6 are immediately removed, and the pruning sites are smeared with pitch. Starting from the second year, it is necessary to remove all branches growing inside the bush, and in tree-like varieties, branches that are actively growing upwards are also cut off. Dried and damaged branches should be removed regularly. When and how cherry pruning is carried out correctly, read this material.

Undergrowth removal

Cherry annually forms abundant root shoots, often extending from the mother tree for tens of meters. To get rid of cherry shoots, in no case should you dig up new trees. Next year, instead of one plant, 3 or 4 will appear in this place. It is enough to cut them with secateurs to a height of 15-20 cm. This root will not give more vegetation. You can dig vertical sheets of slate or plastic into the ground at a distance of 1-1.5 meters from the trunk. They will not allow horizontal shoots to actively develop.

Bird protection

Protection of the cherry crop from birds is a constant problem for gardeners. How to protect cherries from birds - 9 ways are presented in this article. Birds are afraid of noise, so strips of crispy cellophane hung on trees or an old magnetic tape from cassettes will scare away the birds. Light reflections also scare away birds.

Pieces of foil or old optical discs can be hung on branches. An effective way is to purchase and place a compact ultrasonic generator in the garden.

Diseases and pests

Among cherry diseases, fungal diseases are common, capable of destroying a cherry tree in a short time. These include the following pathologies:

  • stem rot;
  • monilial burn;
  • chlorosis;
  • cocomycosis;
  • Clusterosporiasis.

To combat these diseases, as well as to prevent them, it is necessary to regularly spray cherries with preparations containing copper. These include Bordeaux liquid and HOM and Abiga-Peak preparations. Insecticides should be used to control pests.

The main mistakes of beginners

One of the main mistakes of beginners is the wrong choice of cherry variety, without taking into account the conditions of a particular region. If shoots are used for planting, then you can not expect a good result, since it does not inherit maternal qualities. If there are no varieties of pollinators next to the cherry, then there will be no good harvest.


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