How do elm trees reproduce

American Elm | Yale Nature Walk

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Basic Information

Tree ID: 



Genus and species: 

Ulmus americana



The American Elm is a species native to the eastern part of North America. It is a large deciduous, hermaphroditic tree that produces small perfect flowers in early spring. The flowers are wind pollinated, however, since they are protogynous (the female organs maturing before the male organs) this greatly reduces the chances of self fertilization. These kinds of trees can grow to more than 100 feet and they often provide great shade with their umbrella-like canopy. You have probably passed by this specific tree if you have ever taken a stroll on the New Haven Green. Unsurprisingly, this is one of very many American Elms on the Green. Maybe that's why New Haven is called Elm City!


Jummie Akinwunmi

LocationCollected Data

Tree shape: 

Large vase-shaped

Date of tree entry: 



8. 10 m

Diameter at breast height: 

0.44 m


Shown here is the bark of the American Elm tree on The Green. From the bark we can tell that he tree is still very immature. Mature American Elm trees have greyish brown bark with very distinct diamond shaped grooves.

Twigs & branches

As shown in the figure, the branches of the American Elm are brown with alternating branch points.


Ovate shaped smooth veins with visible veins. They can grow to anywhere from 3 to 5 inches, but the leaves on this particular tree were just starting to bud, so they were very small.

Reproductive Structures

The American Elm is protogynous, meaning the female organs mature before the male organs. This greatly reduces the chances of self fertilization. American Elms are also perfect flowers, so their male ad female organs appear on then same plant.


The American Elm contains green. round, flat seeds that appear hairy. They are usually about 1 inch. These seeds usually ripen and fall during the spring season before the leaves appear.

  • Late Winter 2021

  • Early Spring 2021

  • Spring 2021


Natural range of distribution: 


The American Elm is found in a variety of habitats throughout eastern North America extending from southern Canada to parts of Florida and Texas. This species thrives in loamy soils and is common on bottomlands, alluvial flats, margins of streams, ponds, swamps, and lakes, and on moist fertile slopes and uplands. It grows well with other hardwoods like sycamore, green ash, and sugarberry, but it is shaded out by larger trees including Sugar maple trees. The American elm has an intermediate shade tolerance, but it does not have a high tolerance for prolonged flooding especially during growing season (4-H Forest).

Origin, history, and uses: 

Origin and History: The American Elm is native to North America. Before European settlement, they were often used by Native Americans as a signpost for significant tribal meetings. Prior to the 20th century, American Elms were abundant in city streets and forests throughout Noth America. The species abundance began to decline, however, due to the introduction of ophiostoma ulm (commonly refered to as Dutch Elm disease) in 1928. This East Asian fungus caused a rapid decline in the number of American Elms all over America. Fortunately, American Elms mature rather quickly and produce many seeds that can be carried by tghe wind. This feature has prevented the total extinction of the species. 

Uses: The seeds of the American Elm are eaten by animals such as opposums, mice, and squirrels, Additionally, squirrels feed on the flowers of the tree. Humans often plant American Elms for use as shade lining the streets of many US cities. Its wood is also useful in the manufacture of furniture, flooring, and baskets. One fun fact is that because of its durability and fleibility, its is often used for making hockey sticks. 


The American Elm starts producing fruit at about 15 years old, but large quantities of fruit are not produced until the tree has reached maturity at about 40 years old. Flowers typically appear in early spring after pollination which can be as early as February depending on the weather. Shortly after flower production, fruits (seeds) begin to appear, ripen, and fall from the tree. By the end of the spring season, the seeds have usually fallen or been taken away by the wind, and the leaves begin to form on the tree. Trees continue to produce flowers and fruits every spring until they die up to 300 years later.

References: html

Media and Arts

The American

by Jummie Akinwunmi

Throughout eastern north America

The Elms lined city streets

Standing tall and firm and green, providing shade

with an umbrella-like canopy

We loved them for durability

And tore them down for chairs

Once upon a time they served a greater purpose

Nearby, a tribal meeting where communal decisions graced the air

Until suddenly a shipment brought more than just goods

A foreign fungus of which none could defeat

And while the people were safe and went on about their day

The American crumbled underneath our feet

One by one the elms fell they were under attack

Those in NY attempted a quarantine

But the disease and its carriers could not help but spread

And scarce was the image of lined city streets

Today, they continue to grow albeit fewer than before

Success due to each tree’s an abundance of seeds

And if you look around, you’ll probably see

American Elms speckled all throughout Elm City

  • ← Previous Tree: Wych Elm
  • Next Tree: American hophornbeam →

10 Elm Species You Should Know About

Identifying Elm Trees by Leaves, Bark, and Size


Vanessa Richins Myers

Vanessa Richins Myers

Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, writer, and educator with over 10 years of training and experience as a professional horticulturist and gardener. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in horticulture, with an emphasis in landscape design and urban horticulture. She volunteers as a community garden specialist.

Learn more about The Spruce's Editorial Process

Updated on 08/12/22

Reviewed by

Debra LaGattuta

Reviewed by Debra LaGattuta

Debra LaGattuta is a gardening expert with three decades of experience in perennial and flowering plants, container gardening, and raised bed vegetable gardening. She is a Master Gardener and lead gardener in a Plant-A-Row, which is a program that offers thousands of pounds of organically-grown vegetables to local food banks. Debra is a member of The Spruce Gardening and Plant Care Review Board.

Learn more about The Spruce's Review Board

Fact checked by

Alexandra Kay

Fact checked by Alexandra Kay

Alexandra Kay is a writer, fact-checker, researcher, and editor who checks The Spruce articles for accuracy and adds source citations.  Alex frequently writes for b2b and b2c publications. When she isn't writing or fact-checking for print or online articles, Alex is an associate professor of English at a community college.

Learn more about The Spruce's Editorial Process

The Spruce / Leticia Almeida

Elm trees are members of the Ulmus genus in the Ulmaceae family of plants. There are 30 to 40 species of deciduous trees within the genus, and some types of elm trees have been popular landscape trees for centuries. Elms are prolific samara (fruiting) producers and can be invasive if the growing conditions are right.

Click Play to Learn More About Species of Elm Trees

Elm tree wood tends to be strong, durable, and resistant to weather and rot, even when submerged in water for long periods. Because of those characteristics, elm has long been used to make ship keels, piers, archery bows, and furniture.

Read on to learn how to identify and grow 10 types of elm trees.

Elm Tree Identification

Elm trees look like the common shade trees you may have seen lining streets in many American cities and towns; they are tall with large spreading canopies. Elm tree leaves are typically oval with serrated edges. The leaves are arranged alternately on the branches. Some species have leaves with a rough side, others have leaves that are velvety on both sides, and most (but not all) elm tree bark is rough. Most species produce flowers that develop into fruiting bodies, called samaras, each containing one seed. Unlike the familiar helicopter samaras produced by maple trees, those from elm trees are circular or oval.


Unfortunately, in North America and Europe, elm trees have fallen out of favor due to Dutch elm disease (DED), first encountered in the United States during the 1930s. In many areas of the U.S., land developers and landscapers considered elms as good trees that could withstand harsh street conditions, and lined countless streets with the American elm (Ulmus americana). But many trees succumbed to the disease.

There are now several cultivars of the American elm resistant to Dutch elm disease, such as 'Valley Forge', 'Princeton', 'Prairie Expedition', 'New Harmony', and 'St. Croix'.

Despite the well-publicized problems with DED, not all elms are susceptible to the disease.

  • 01 of 10

    American Elm (Ulmus americana)

    ellefox / Getty Images

    The state tree of both Massachusetts and North Dakota, the American elm is a classic: a tall shade tree with a vase-shaped canopy spread of 40 feet to 75 feet. Although this is the hallmark species most devastated by Dutch elm disease, it has made a comeback over the years as horticulturists have developed cultivars that better withstand the disease, including 'Valley Forge', 'Princeton', 'Lewis and Clark', and 'Jefferson'. An American elm tree can be identified by not only its huge size but also by its long oval (3 inches or more) and double-serrated leaves.

    • Native Area: Eastern North America
    • USDA Growing Zones: 2 to 9
    • Height: 60 to 90 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full
  • 02 of 10

    pcturner71 / Getty Images

    The camperdown elm is a weeping variety of the wych elm that requires propagation by grafting. The trailing, twisting branches and dense foliage can create a lovely hidden area underneath. Unlike other elms, it has a flatter canopy that can spread wider than its height. This species prefers moist soil, so keep it well irrigated in times of drought.

    • Native Area: United Kingdom
    • USDA Growing Zones: 5 to 7
    • Height: 15 to 25 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full
  • 03 of 10

    Cedar Elm (Ulmus crassifolia)

    TrongNguyen / Getty Images

    The cedar elm is a good choice for urban areas because it tolerates pollution, drought, and poor soil. It has the smallest elm leaves of any species. Although it bears no similarity to the cedar tree, it earned its common name because it's frequently found growing near junipers, sometimes known as cedars. The most common elm variety found in Texas, the cedar elm tree is susceptible to Dutch elm disease, though not as much as the American elm.

    • Native Area: Southern North America
    • USDA Growing Zones: 6 to 9
    • Height: 50 to 70 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Part to full
  • 04 of 10

    Cherry-Bark Elm (Ulmus villosa)

    Ronnie Nijboer/Wikimedia Commons/CC0 1.0

    With a lifespan of up to 100 years, the cherry-bark elm is a large, bushy tree with an overall round shape. It has smooth bark and samaras that are elliptical rather than round. The cherry-bark elm has proven to be less susceptible to Dutch elm disease than other elm trees.

    • Native Area: Eastern Asia, Himalayas
    • USDA Growing Zones: 4 to 8
    • Height: 60 to 80 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full
  • 05 of 10

    Chinese Elm (Ulmus parvifolia)

    photohomepage / Getty Images

    The Chinese elm has a rounded shape and distinctive exfoliating bark in shades of brown, gray, green, and orange. It adapts to many types of soil and prefers moist but well-drained conditions. While a Chinese elm can be substituted for an American elm tree to avoid Dutch elm disease, it does share the same vase shape as the American species. Because the Chinese elm can be successfully grown even if heavily pruned, it's a common choice for bonsai.

    • Native Area: China, Japan, North Korea, Vietnam
    • USDA Growing Zones: 5 to 9
    • Height: 40 to 50 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full
  • 06 of 10

    David Elm (Ulmus davidiana)

    Ptelea/Wikimedia Commons/CC0 1.0

    The David elm is a small deciduous tree with a dense canopy. This species is extremely important in the effort to create elm cultivars that are resistant to Dutch elm disease, serving as a parent to many hybrids.

    • Native Area: China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Siberia
    • USDA Growing Zones: 4 to 8 (depending on variety)
    • Height: 30 to 50 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full
  • 07 of 10

    English Elm (Ulmus procera)

     The Spruce / Leticia Almeida

    The English elm grows very fast and can have a canopy spread up to 40 feet. This species reproduces through suckers instead of seeds and was abundant in England before the advent of Dutch elm disease. The English elm has a good tolerance for salty soils and urban pollution. The upper surface of its leaves is roughly hairy.

    • Native Area: Western and southern Europe, Britain
    • USDA Growing Zones: 5 to 8
    • Height: 130 feet or more
    • Sun Exposure: Full to partial shade
  • 08 of 10

    European White Elm (Ulmus laevis)


    weisschr / Getty Images

    The European white elm, sometimes known in the United States as the Russian elm, is a fast-growing tree with a broad, open oval crown that eventually becomes round. In its native environment, this elm tree is found in floodplains and along river banks. Therefore, it grows well in moist planting areas because it can withstand bouts of wetness and flooding. Unfortunately, it can be susceptible to Dutch elm disease. Yet, the elm bark beetle, which is responsible for spreading the disease, tends to avoid the European white elm.

    • Native Area: Central and Eastern Europe
    • USDA ​Growing Zones: 5 to 9
    • Height: 100 feet or more
    • Sun Exposure: Full to dappled shade
  • 09 of 10

    Siberian Elm (Ulmus pumila)

    Jozsef Zoltan Varga / Getty Images

    The Siberian elm is a small-to-medium-sized deciduous tree. It grows fast, up to 3 feet per year, with a canopy spread of about 50 feet. Ideal conditions for its growth include full sun and well-drained, nutrient-poor soil. In some parts of North America, it has become a borderline invasive species because it's tenacious and can grow almost anywhere. But don't automatically rule out this elm tree for your landscape. It can be a good choice for places where other trees and shrubs can't grow, and it's resistant—though not immune—to Dutch elm disease.

    • Native Area: Eastern Siberia, Korea, Tibet, India, Mongolia, northern China
    • USDA Growing Zones: 4 to 9
    • Height: 50 to 70 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full
  • 10 of 10

    Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra)

    ablokhin / Getty Images

    Slippery elm is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a crown that ranges from vase-shaped to broad and rounded. The species name, rubra, hints that some part of the tree is red. In the case of the slippery elm, its inner bark is red and its blooms are reddish-green. It is known for having rough leaves. Meanwhile, the name comes from the mucilage (sticky secretion) found in the inner bark. Unfortunately, this species is susceptible to Dutch elm disease and phloem necrosis and therefore isn't recommended for home landscapes.

    • Native Area: Central and Eastern U.S. and southern Ontario
    • USDA Growing Zones: 3 to 9
    • Height: 40 to 60 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full

How To Inspect the Health of a Tree

Article Sources

The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Cassens, D. Elm. Purdue University.

  2. Dutch Elm Disease. The Morton Arboretum.

  3. Ulmus crassifolia: Cedar Elm. US Department of Agriculture.

  4. Dutch Elm Disease. University of Minnesota Extension.

  5. Elm cultivars. The Morton Arboretum.

  6. Baker, J. Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle. North Carolina State University Extension Publications.

  7. Ulmus Pumila. NC State Extension.

  8. Ulmus rubra. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Elm tree - propagation, planting and care

Elm, a tree from the elm family, which has a fairly large trunk, the diameter of which reaches one and a half meters. In mature plants, the bark becomes rough, but in young plants it is smooth and has a dark brown color. Can be peeled off by means of small plates. Garden plants of this species have light brown, smooth, fluffy and thin shoots.

During the flowering period, the garden will be decorated with small, brown, inconspicuous and small inflorescences, inside of which there will be purple stamens. Elm leaves are quite large, pointed, alternate and oblong. The length of one leaflet can reach 12 cm. From below they are light and hairy, while from above they are dark and smooth. Leaves turn purple in autumn. The fruits are collected on a long stalk, have a rounded shape. It begins to bear fruit at the age of 8 years, after which the fruiting will be annual.

What an elm tree looks like (photo).

The use of seeds for propagation is the most troublesome, but at the same time the most effective way to achieve the best result. Seeds are collected in autumn, and they are stored in a cool place, while it is recommended that the seeds be wrapped in a clean cloth or paper. A month before the proposed planting, the seeds warm up. And a few days before sowing, they are placed in a container with water so that they gain the necessary amount of moisture.

Seeds should be planted in a pot with loose soil. The level of germination of elm seeds is high and if all requirements are met, the first sprouts can be observed after a couple of weeks. Young sprouts can be planted in a permanent place only after they are fully strengthened. It is possible to plant seeds directly into the ground, without prior preparation, but in this case, before winter, they must be covered with a film to prevent freezing. In spring, seeds are planted in already warmed soil.

When using the propagation method by cuttings, only the strongest shoots should be selected and they should be used to make blanks, each of which should be at least 15 cm long. Harvesting should be done with the onset of winter. Finished cuttings are wrapped in a clean cloth and stored in a warm room. A few months before the expected date of planting, the cuttings are warmed at room temperature.

In order for the sprouts to better tolerate the transplant, they must be placed for a day in a weak solution with potassium permanganate. After that, they must be soaked in plain water for three days. To begin with, they land in special containers or used plastic containers. After two weeks, the first roots and leaves should appear. After the formation of four strong leaves, the elm can be planted in open ground.

Elm propagation by layering is not particularly popular, since this method cannot be called one of the easiest. To propagate elm with layering, small holes should be dug next to the tree, in which layering will be placed. To facilitate the process, the trenches are well moistened with water with the addition of any organic additives, fertilizers and minerals.

Layers take root better from young shoots and roots, which must be tilted to the ground and tied. To accelerate the formation of an independent root system in layering, the roots are cut with a sharp knife. It is from the resulting incision that the roots will appear. After that, the shoot is sprinkled with a layer of soil and watered abundantly. If everything is done correctly, then after a few weeks roots will begin to appear, and by the end of autumn, the plant can already be separated from the mother bush.

Planting and care

Propagation is by cuttings and seeds. Each person, regardless of gardening experience, is able to root several cuttings at a time. The most favorable time for this is July and June. For better development in a new place, young cuttings are regularly and plentifully watered.

Young seedlings should be planted in a small hole filled with substrate. This will accelerate the further growth and development of the elm root system. The space adjacent to the holes is carefully covered with a layer of peat or sawdust. For planting, it is recommended to choose well-lit areas, as the plant is very photophilous.

Good germination only for seeds that were collected in the first week after the onset of ripening and this is worth considering. Otherwise, the seeds may not germinate. The site prepared in advance should be abundantly fertilized with mineral top dressing. The distance between the seeds should be at least 50 cm. To maintain a sufficient amount of moisture, the area is covered with plastic wrap. You can engage in the formation of the crown after two years. While the first pruning is carried out only in the fourth year of a young tree's life. Sanitary pruning involves removing only damaged and dried branches.

tree Visus: Landing and Care


  • Tree variety of wood
  • Planting and Care
  • Properties of SCLE

Visis or Ilm tree belongs to deciduous plants that are rich in the territory of the Vladikavkazaz, Scandinavia and European countries . In our latitudes, there is a variety of elm species, which fills mixed forests, as well as coastal zones of the Sverdlovsk, Ural and Chelyabinsk regions. Among the varieties, the most popular is the common elm, or it is also called the smooth elm, according to Latin.

Wood similar to oak, powerful, tall and centuries old. Its height is determined by two or three meters, and the girth of a smooth and straight trunk is about one and a half to two meters. The smooth elm retains a smooth bark for many years, but in old age or due to diseases, the bark of the tree exfoliating with furrows and cracks becomes rich brown. The soil in which the elm thrives, as for many plants, should be fertile and moist, but not alkaline. In the event of floods or drought, the tree easily retains its vital activity. Every year, young shoots reach half a meter in length and twenty centimeters in width and have a smooth, thin, beige-colored structure, with fluffing of the upper section.

Smooth elm.

In early spring, in March, the mature plant begins the flowering phase, which lasts for a month. The appearance of green leaves, which differ in significant size and oblong, with a pointed end, shape (reminiscent of raspberry leaves), occurs after flowering. Leaves grow quickly, have short petioles, veins and hairs on the underside. The color of elm leaves is green, dark above, and lettuce below. The color change occurs in autumn, as the anthocyanins contained in the plant determine the tint pattern. According to the season, they turn yellow, redden, and also acquire orange tones.

During flowering, bisexual flowers appear on leaf axils. They have a single-celled ovary, which is rewarded with one seed bud, bifurcated in the form of two stigmas. Thus, bunches of small flowers are formed in the form of a bell-shaped inflorescence of pink color and emerging purple stamens. Many insects feast on elm nectar.

After flowering, on the stalks, flat fruits appear, which are represented by a round membranous structure, with a seed nut inside. Fruit ripening depends on the area in which the smooth ligature grows. If the tree grows in the southern regions and is at least seven years old, then the fruits are already ripe at the beginning of summer, in the northern regions, they ripen in the middle or end of the summer season after twenty years of elm life. Reproduction occurs by windy spreading of seeds, as well as root sprouts. The root system of the elm takes root in the depth of the soil if it is not sufficiently fed with moisture. In more moisture-resistant terrain, the root grows superficially to the sides.

Strong frosts and wind, elms are not afraid, as the bark and powerful stem parts are frost-resistant, only young shoots of the tree can suffer slightly. The sun's rays, like all plants, smooth elm loves and in shading conditions, its development is not disturbed. Shade from other plants can somewhat slow down its growth, flowering and fruiting.

Variety of tree

Twenty meters tall, with a lush green crown, a tree that loves the sun very much is called Hornbeam Elm. Elm leaves have a dark green (bottle) color and an oblong, serrated shape of a smooth surface. The trunk is not smooth, and cork growths are noted on the branches. It blooms with a reddish inflorescence for a rather long time, after which it overgrows with leaves that have a juicy yellow color in autumn. The fruiting lionfish reaches twenty millimeters. This view decorates the park area with a dense plant wall.

Hornbeam Elm.

Lowered, dense crown of leathery leaves, has Dense Elm . Elm grows up to thirty meters even in drought conditions and has a dark furrowed bark.

Coniferous and deciduous forests, where there is a lot of shade, complements Lobe Elm , which withstands frosts down to minus thirty degrees.

Wild elm, which is observed in Siberia, Kazakhstan and East Asia, is called Euonymus or Pinnate Elm, Karagach . The scorching sun in these areas does not prevent the tree from developing on sandy and stony soil, where the salinity is increased. A tree of this kind is the size of a five-story building. The leaves are pinnate, smooth, small and collected in openwork bunches, and the bending branches are thin. Due to the rare crown, there is little shade from the elm, but planting an ornamental tree in the squares and parks of the city, with appropriate care, pruning, can help enrich the area with oxygen and create a recreation area in the summer.


Rounded crown of small leaves and small height, possesses Squat elm . In urban conditions of the central part of Russia, it is possible to grow this tree, but it is difficult, since the elm is not very winter-hardy and loves fertile soil with an abundance of moisture.

Of the elm variety, also note such as:

  • Japanese elm or birch bark;
  • Mountain or rough elm;
  • Androsov Elm;
  • English Elm.

Trees differ in size, flowering period, shape and structure of leaves, flowers, stem bark, fruiting cycle, and resistance to soil and weather conditions.

The elm species described can help in choosing a plant to plant for ornamental purposes.

Planting and care

Since elm is propagated by seed in the wild, elm can also be grown indoors. In this process, it is necessary to control the process of seed maturation. If the fruit maturity of the tree is early, then the tree can be propagated immediately. For such a process, you need to choose a place of fertile soil without significant shading and deepen the seeds. Sow preferably not deep to facilitate the emergence of sprouts. Care after sowing consists in abundant watering. If the seeds are immature or improperly stored before planting, then their germination does not occur. From bad weather or the scorching sun, the planted seeds can be covered with agrofabric or film.

The description of the planting of the purchased seedling does not differ from the procedure for growing ornamental or fruit trees. In a half-meter hole of moistened and fertilized soil, you need to place an elm seedling to strengthen the rhizome. The sun should fall on a young tree, but not scorching. From drought, elm can also die, so care at first should be aimed at constantly moistening the soil. The growth of properly planted seeds and seedlings will not be long in coming. In some cases, one has to observe the cultivation of elms from their own sprouts. In this situation, the plant independently copes with the desire to live and it does not need special care.

If the seeds are collected late, they can be stored for about two years under sealed conditions.

The main rule for planting elm is the choice of location, since the shallow root system, as well as the lush shading crown, can damage ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops in the neighborhood.

Properties of elm

If we compare elm with oak, they have a lot of similarities. Both trees are age-old giants, with powerful wood and useful properties. Raw elm is also used for industrial and medicinal purposes. Elm wood is quite strong, flexible and moisture resistant, so it is well suited for the manufacture of wooden products: vehicles, furniture, kitchen utensils, fences, garden tools, etc.

In medicine, due to the healing composition of leaves and bark, elm is successful in the treatment of many diseases. The content of polysaccharides, fiber, protein, oils, catechins, flavonoids, steroids, carboxylic acids and tannins in the tree's vegetation endows the tree with medicinal properties:

  • Antibacterial;
  • Diuretic;
  • Anti-inflammatory;
  • Antipyretic;
  • Enveloping.

Elm bark infusions are used for cystitis, urethritis, intestinal dysfunction, skin lesions and mucous inflammations of the oral cavity.

For harvesting elm bark, it is necessary to cut several layers from the trunk or branches of the tree in the spring season. It is desirable to cover the place of the cut with garden pitch so that disease and parasites do not join the tree. The bark can be washed and put to dry in a dry, ventilated area. Leaves are best harvested after their maturity, that is, young foliage does not have time to accumulate nutrients. Dry raw material for medicinal use, retains healing properties for up to two years.

Preparing an infusion of elm bark comes down to grinding it and infusing it in a water bath, as described: