How do pine trees survive winter


How Do Trees Survive in Winter?

Coniferous and deciduous trees covered in snow (Couleur, Pixabay)

Coniferous and deciduous trees covered in snow (Couleur, Pixabay)

Let's Talk Science

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What adaptations and processes do trees in northern climates have to survive winter?

When it’s cold outside, you probably put on a hat and mittens to help keep yourself warm. However, trees can’t do this. Instead, trees have a number of adaptations that allow them to survive during the winter. 

First of all, there are two main types of trees found in places with cold climates, like Canada. They are known as deciduous trees and coniferous trees. Deciduous trees lose their leaves in the winter. Coniferous trees typically do not lose their leaves in winter. Their leaves, often called “needles,” stay on the trees year round. Because of this, they are often called “evergreens. ” Both types of trees are adapted to survive cold temperatures. Some of these adaptations are the same and some are different. 

Deciduous trees, like the sugar maple tree on the left, lose their leaves in the autumn. Most coniferous trees, like the Norway spruce trees on the right, have needles that stay green year round (Sources: Boris Crépeau [CC BY-SA 3.0] via Wikimedia Commons and MPF [CC BY-SA 3.0] via Wikimedia Commons).

Misconception Alert

The term “Coniferous” comes from the word cones, which is what we call the reproductive parts of these plants. Some conifers lose their needles in autumn. Larch trees, whose needles turn golden yellow, are an example of this.

What adaptations do trees have for cold temperatures?

The tree’s bark acts as its first line of defence against the cold. The outer bark protects the tree from disease, insects, storms, and extreme temperatures. It is full of air spaces and works like insulation for the tree. It is similar to the insulation in the walls of your home.

Tree leaves also have adaptations for cold temperatures. 

The leaves of a tree are where photosynthesis takes place. This is the process in which plants use the energy from sunlight to chemically combine carbon dioxide and water to form sugars. Trees then use these sugars for energy. 

The other important process that happens in leaves is transpiration. Leaves have openings called stomata (plural of stoma). These openings are controlled by guard cells, which can open and close the stomata. During transpiration, oxygen gas and water vapour leave the tree from the stomata. As water leaves the stomata, more water is pulled up from the roots through the xylem. This is why water can flow upward in a tree!

Diagrams of open (left) and closed (right) stomata (Let’s Talk Science using an image by Ali Zifan [CC BY-SA 4. 0] via Wikimedia Commons). 

During winter, tree roots cannot access liquid water because the ground is frozen. So, to keep the leaves from wasting water through transpiration, deciduous trees lose their leaves in autumn. The technical term for losing leaves is abscission.

But what about coniferous trees? They do not drop their needles. So how do they survive the cold, dry conditions of winter?

Coniferous trees have different leaf adaptations. 

  1. Their needles are long and thin. This means that they have a small surface area. Less surface area means that they have fewer stomata from which to lose water. Narrow leaves also help keep snow from building up and breaking branches.
  2. Their stomata are not on the surface of the needle, but rather are deep within the needle. This creates a pocket of still air just inside the needle. Still air results in less transpiration than moving air.
  3. Their needles have thick, waxy cuticles. The cuticle is the outermost part of a leaf. The wax helps to prevent water loss. Think of how wax paper wrapped around food keeps it from drying out.
This microscope image of a cross-section of a pine needle shows the location of the phloem (1), xylem (2), cuticle (3) and stomata (4) (Let’s Talk Science using an image by Anatoly Mikhaltsov [CC BY-SA 4.0] via Wikimedia Commons).

 

Plant Structures and Adaptations (2014) by the Amoeba Sisters (8:40 min.).

How do trees prepare for winter?

In the autumn, trees begin preparing for dormancy. They will remain in dormancy throughout the winter. During dormancy, a tree’s metabolism, or internal processes, slow down. The tree doesn’t consume as much energy, and it will stop growing. By doing this, it can conserve energy to stay alive during the cold winter. 

The tree will also begin to change how it deals with water within its tissues.  

Beneath a tree’s bark are the tissues that move water, sugar and other nutrients up and down the tree. It is like the tree’s plumbing system. This system contains two major types of transport tissues that act like pipelines: the phloem and the xylem. The xylem moves water and nutrients upwards from the tree’s roots to its leaves. The phloem, on the other hand, moves sugars down from the tree’s leaves to the rest of its parts. The fluids that move up and down the tree are known as sap.

Tree cross-section showing the outer bark as well as the phloem and xylem (Let’s Talk Science using an image by Berkshire Community College Bioscience Image Library [public domain] via Wikimedia Commons).

A lot of water moves up and down the tree through the xylem and phloem, and if this water freezes, it can destroy the tree’s cells. This is because ice crystals are sharp and can tear through cell walls. So, just like at your home, it is important that a tree’s pipes do not have water in them that can freeze.  

One way that the tree works to prevent ice damage is by controlling where ice forms. Ice has to form around something. Outdoors, this is usually things like bits of dust. In plants, ice can form around certain types of molecules called ice nucleators. Trees produce proteins that act as ice nucleators and send them in between cells. 

As ice begins to form, it draws liquid water out of the tree’s cells. As more and more water is pulled out of the cells, the sap left inside the cells will contain more and more sugars. The sap becomes very thick and syrupy. It now has a freezing point lower than the environment, and so it is more difficult to freeze. 

In addition to the nucleators, trees also produce antifreeze proteins. These proteins help prevent ice crystals from forming in cold temperatures.

Did you know? 

Some types of trees -- such as sugar maples -- can be tapped for their sap. After enough sap is collected, it is boiled down to create the maple syrup that people love to eat on pancakes and waffles! 

Buckets are hung from sugar maple trees to collect sap in the early spring (Source: Davepape [Public domain] via Wikimedia Commons).

So now, with its water safely dealt with and its leaves taken care of, the tree is ready to settle down for a long winter’s nap. When spring comes and temperatures begin to rise once more, all of these processes will begin to reverse. This is when we see leaves starting to bud on trees and everything begins to grow again! 

How do Trees Survive Winter? (2014) by MinuteEarth (2:48 min.)

 

Starting Points

  • How do you adapt to the colder temperatures of winter?
  • Have you ever seen sap running from a tree in the spring? Describe what you saw.
  • Do you like maple syrup? Why or why not?
  • Should we support research that would look for ways to grow plants from warmer climates in colder environments such as the Arctic? Why/why not?
  • Research technologies that humans have created to help protect or grow plants in unfavorable growing conditions, such as during the winter.
  • What adaptations do plants have to help them survive in environments where the temperature drops below freezing? Explain.
  • Are all plants able to survive winter temperatures? Why or why not?
  • Do all living organisms have “survival plans”? Discuss.
  • What role does photosynthesis play in a tree’s dormancy?
  • This article and connecting resources, can be used to support teaching and learning of biology related to plant anatomy, plant cells, plant processes and trees. Concepts introduced include adaptations, coniferous and deciduous trees, bark, stomata, guard cells, abscission, leaf cuticle, dormany, xylem, phloem, ice nucleators and antifreeze proteins.
  • This article can also be useful to help students deepen their understanding of the connections between abiotic and biotic factors in the ecosystem.
  • To introduce this topic, and activate students’ prior knowledge, teachers could use an Admit Slip Learning strategy. Ready-to-use reproducibles for this article are available in [Google doc] and [PDF] formats.
  • To consolidate their learning of winter adaptations by trees, students could use a Key Ideas Round Robin Learning strategy. Ready-to-use reproducibles for this article are available in [Google doc] and [PDF] formats.
  • Students could design an investigation to study how temperature affects the growth and development of different types of plants.
Connecting and Relating
  • How do you adapt to the colder temperatures of winter?
  • Have you ever seen sap running from a tree in the spring? Describe what you saw.
  • Do you like maple syrup? Why or why not?
Relating Science and Technology to Society and the Environment
  • Should we support research that would look for ways to grow plants from warmer climates in colder environments such as the Arctic? Why/why not?
  • Research technologies that humans have created to help protect or grow plants in unfavorable growing conditions, such as during the winter.
Exploring Concepts
  • What adaptations do plants have to help them survive in environments where the temperature drops below freezing? Explain.
  • Are all plants able to survive winter temperatures? Why or why not?
  • Do all living organisms have “survival plans”? Discuss.
  • What role does photosynthesis play in a tree’s dormancy?
Teaching Suggestions
  • This article and connecting resources, can be used to support teaching and learning of biology related to plant anatomy, plant cells, plant processes and trees. Concepts introduced include adaptations, coniferous and deciduous trees, bark, stomata, guard cells, abscission, leaf cuticle, dormany, xylem, phloem, ice nucleators and antifreeze proteins.
  • This article can also be useful to help students deepen their understanding of the connections between abiotic and biotic factors in the ecosystem.
  • To introduce this topic, and activate students’ prior knowledge, teachers could use an Admit Slip Learning strategy. Ready-to-use reproducibles for this article are available in [Google doc] and [PDF] formats.
  • To consolidate their learning of winter adaptations by trees, students could use a Key Ideas Round Robin Learning strategy. Ready-to-use reproducibles for this article are available in [Google doc] and [PDF] formats.
  • Students could design an investigation to study how temperature affects the growth and development of different types of plants.

Do Pine Trees Die in the Winter or Harsh Conditions?

When the weather gets too cold, it’s the cue for humans to get their blankets and gloves out. How about pine trees? How do they survive the frosting cold? One would think the trees just drop dead when it gets too cold for them, but that’s not how it goes! 

Contents

  • Do Pine Trees Die in the Winter?
  • How Can Pine Trees Survive in the Winter?
  • Do Pine Trees Lose Their Needles in the Winter?
  • Can a Dying Pine Tree Be Saved?
  • What Climate Do Pine Trees Grow In?
  • What Tree Can Survive Harsh Climates?

Do Pine Trees Die in the Winter?

In short: no, pine trees don’t die in the winter. They face some hardships trying to get enough moisture for their branches, but they survive. All trees have their own way of fighting harsh climates, and pine trees aren’t an exception.

How Can Pine Trees Survive in the Winter?

Pine trees survive in the winter thanks to their needles. The small surface area of those needles reduces the moisture lost through transpiration. They have their waxy coatings to thank for that, as they protect the needles from harsh winds.

Instead of stopping to grow in the winter, pine trees fight harder to get water and nutrients. The dark needles aid in getting heat from the sun and the thick trunk protects the tree from freezing.

On top of that, the branches’ cone-like assembly helps them shed snow in an instant. That way, the heavy snow doesn’t cause them to fall.

Pine trees fall under the evergreen species, which means they can photosynthesize in any climate, as long as there’s enough sunlight. They have their needles to thank for that.

Do Pine Trees Lose Their Needles in the Winter?

All trees that have needles eventually lose them, including pine trees. That’s mainly to make space for new needles to grow. People who grow trees may notice that the brown needles toward the tree’s inside fall first. 

The process happens annually, but some trees shed all their needles in the winter, such as Larch trees. That’s not how pine trees do it; they shed some of their needles every year in the fall, but never all of them at once.

Related post: Do Pine Trees Lose Their Leaves?

All that being said, some pine trees don’t lose needles at all. These include White, Jack, Red, Swiss Stone, Loblolly, and Sugar pines.

Can a Dying Pine Tree Be Saved?

It depends on the tree’s condition. If the tree’s roots are dying, it can be saved by increasing drainage. When this happens, it means the tree is trying to protect itself from collapsing, and it does it by dying from inside.

In the case of young trees, the grower may be able to trim the dying roots away, thereby solving the problem. Afterward, sufficient watering will cause the tree to get back to its senses. However, the browned needles won’t go back to green.

If the tree is suffering from drought, the needles in the center will start to brown. That’s the cue to increase watering while maintaining a dry balance. 

Pine trees don’t have a high tolerance for wet conditions. That’s why watering them needs to be done in moderation, and their soil needs to dry out entirely before getting water again.

Lastly, if the tree is suffering some type of fungus, the solution is easy. A fungicide should revive the tree, but it should include neem oil in its ingredients. 

What Climate Do Pine Trees Grow In?

Pine trees come in an extensive range of species, which typically means no rule can include all of them. Meaning, the climate in which pine trees grow varies according to the species. 

For example, some types of pine in America can withstand a temperature of -50 F. These grow in USDA zone 2, including the Scottish pine and the Red pine.

Meanwhile, some pine species grow in USDA zone 4, which sometimes reaches -30 F. These include the Austrian pine, the Swiss Stone pine, and the Japanese red pine. All of them can’t grow in climates colder than that.

Lastly, some species grow in USDA zone 6, a milder climate than the previous zones. These species include the Jack pine and the Jeffrey pine.

What Tree Can Survive Harsh Climates?

A lot of tree species are perfectly capable of living in harsh climates. Each one of them has a way to survive, mostly by going dormant.

For starters, black willows can survive in -100 F, which is too severe for any other tree to grow. Sweetgums can grow at -15 F, which is fair enough for their growing habits. Furthermore, American elms can grow at – 40 F, and Magnolias don’t tolerate temperatures below 5 F.

Lastly, live oaks can survive in 20 F.

Mainly, both deciduous and coniferous trees can survive in cold climates. Each type has its own way to adapt. For example, deciduous trees shed their leaves during winter, while coniferous trees don’t.

Winter hardiness of coniferous plants | GreenMarket

No one will be surprised by the variety of coniferous plants that adorn gardens and summer cottages. Even near the garden one wants to equip a juniper bush - let it brighten up the look. However, looking at the evergreen spruce trees in the park or admiring the pictures of snow-covered pine trees, you can forget: not all conifers endure winter equally well.

The ability to survive harsh winter conditions is determined not so much by such a characteristic as the “frost resistance” of a plant, but by a complex indicator of “winter hardiness”. If the first means the banal resistance of tissues to low temperatures, then the second implies the ability of the whole organism to withstand the destructive influence of the winter climate.

With different nature of the onset of frost, ice forms on the plant in different ways. It can settle in the crevices of the bark, cracking it and the tissues of the plant under it, or it can cover the entire trunk and leaves with a crust, isolating and depleting. Ice interferes with aeration and wound healing. The wind regime adds color to the already difficult cold conditions. Drying and breaking, cooling and opening snow or leaf cover, the wind can play a decisive role in injuring plants in the winter season.

Add to this the variability of the weather during the cold period - dangerous thaws in the middle of winter and return frosts in the spring, and you will see how difficult it is for the plant to cope with nature. From this it follows that a tree or a bush cannot simply be cold-resistant, complex adaptations are needed. Consequently, it is not varieties or forms that usually possess such properties, but whole species are characterized by greater or lesser winter hardiness.

Winter -hardy and non -hen -resistant

spruce

If you start with a banal and well -known spruce (genus PICEA ), then most of the types common in the culture: ordinary Canadian , Koreyskaya , Bart , Siberian , Barbed .

Siberian

Black

Canadian spruce is recommended to be covered from the spring sun to avoid burns.

Exceptions among the spruces that winter problematic in the north-east of Ukraine are Oriental spruce and American Brewer spruce .

Pine

Among the pines, the species were divided approximately in half.

Ordinary , Black (sometimes appears under the name "Crimean"), Weimutov , yellow , Smolithy , Kedarovaya and Banks - they will move the winter relatively easily easily.

Resinous

Common

Species such as Italian , White stem , Spinous , Bunge and Geoffrey4 can give you problems.

Larch

Larch ( Larix ), despite its delicate foliage, has proven to be a hardy tree, perhaps due to its deciduousness.

European larch post, except grade "Potanina" , Siberian larch - even more so.

European

Siberian

Japanese larch can lose the tips of the branches in a harsh winter, but just as easily and restore them back.

It is also recommended to protect any standard forms from the wind.

Juniper

Winter-hardy species of juniper ( Juniperus ) — Cossack , Chinese , hard , horizontal , ordinary , scaly .

Problems can be: Turkestan , red , recumbent .

Scaly

Chinese

All junipers usually tolerate cold quite well, but they can all be badly affected by dryness, especially for ordinary and medium . During a period of severe drought, these plants need watering at least 2 times a week. Also, for junipers, a deep shadow is considered unfavorable, from which the crown loses its density, although common juniper grows well in partial shade.

Junipers are not covered in winter, except for very young plants.

In the blog we have already written about rocky juniper and Cossack . There is also a general article review of popular types of juniper , which will help you in choosing.

Fir

Fir ( Abies ) are mostly hardy and will survive our winters.

Korean , Siberian , monochrome , balsamic - these and many others have been decorating gardens for more than one year and more than one winter.

Korean

Monochromatic

Balsamic

However, among the firs there are also problematic ones, relatively unadapted to wintering. Among them - Nordmann fir . In order to grow it in the conditions of the north-east of Ukraine, it should be planted in a place that is protected from cold winds. If possible, remove it from the burning February and March sun.

But Korean loves the sun and can withstand frost very well.

Microbiota

Far Eastern microbiota is considered a beneficial plant. The fast-growing plant will survive the winter and thrive, decorating large areas in gardens.

Far Eastern

Thuja

Among thujas, two species are considered resistant for our region: western thuja and eastern .

Western

Eastern

Wintering thuja folded in the north-east of Ukraine can be problematic.

How to protect thuja from diseases and pests

Cypress

Cypress ( Chamaecyparis ) can be capricious pets. The same pea-bearing cypress winters quite easily, and Lawson's cypress strives to freeze, dry out or get burned.

Concerning other species and their varieties, there is no consensus - some varieties are better adapted, others worse. At the same time, it is better to monitor the water regime of the plant so as not to stress it once again.

Pea

Lawson

Yew

Yew ( Taxus ) will not cause problems regarding wintering berry and Canadian They feel great in partial shade.

Canadian

Berry

If you want to know more about planting and caring for berry yew, read our article " Berry yew ".

Conifer shelter

One of the dangers for a tree in winter is to dry out and lose a lot of water. This means that the advantage is given to those species in which the wax layer on the leaves is thicker - “gray”.

Important: Coniferous trees need watering in autumn.

There are even methods of spraying needles in winter on clear days, but this method is laborious and long.

It is better to cover the plant with white agrofibre - spunbond. It is recommended to open in cloudy weather, as an option, you can shade the crown yourself.

You can find a guide to the proper care of conifers on our blog, in the article “ How to care for conifers ".

Sheltering conifers for the winter with agrofibre

Watering conifers in autumn

The exquisite beauty of a coniferous plant, whether it is a low yew bush or a tall spruce, is incomparable to anything. Many gardeners, beginners and already experienced, enrich their plant compositions with successful varieties of conifers. For both, it is important not to make a mistake with the choice of a stable form. Let this small list of basic recommendations help.

Tags:

spruce, winter, winter-hardy plants, larch, juniper, pine, yew, thuja, conifer care, coniferous plants

Recommended goods:

7 conditions for successful wintering of conifers.

Protection from snow, frost, sunburn - Botanichka

Recently, the assortment of coniferous trees and shrubs is striking in its diversity. In spring and autumn, the shelves of supermarkets and gardening shops are filled with various types of junipers, arborvitae, yews, cypresses, pines and firs. Brought from distant countries, often with completely different climatic conditions, not all of them are able to endure our harsh winters. Therefore, they begin to prepare these evergreens for cold weather long before their onset.

7 conditions for successful wintering of conifers. © car2future

Coniferous plants grown in local nurseries take root and overwinter easier. They are sold, as a rule, in containers and practically do not experience stress during transplantation, therefore, adaptation, preparation for winter and subsequent wintering take place in "local" plants, usually without surprises.

But, regardless of the origin and type of coniferous plant, preparation for winter is a prerequisite for young seedlings of coniferous plants. Next - 7 conditions, the fulfillment of which will ensure your pets a successful wintering.

1. Moisture-charging irrigation

During the entire growing season, the soil should not be allowed to dry out in conifers - these are moisture-loving plants, and the lack of moisture will affect their general condition and endurance. Therefore, timely watering, especially in the absence of rain, is mandatory.

But at the end of autumn it is also necessary to carry out water recharge irrigation. Especially young coniferous plants planted in the current or last year need it. Mature trees and shrubs have a sufficient root system to independently extract moisture for themselves, but if the summer was dry, then they will have to be watered for the winter.

In the spring, the needles wake up quite early, when the roots still cannot work at full strength and burns often occur at this time. The amount of water for irrigation depends on the size of the tree or shrub, but, on average, it is 5-7 buckets per plant. Ordinary trees will tell you about the time of water-charging irrigation: as soon as most deciduous trees shed their leaves, it's time to water the conifers.

2. No top dressing since the end of summer


Top dressing containing nitrogen is applied only until mid-summer. The fact is that nitrogen stimulates the growth of needles and branches, but in order for the plant to overwinter well, the shoots must mature. Therefore, from mid-July to August, emphasis should be placed on phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. For the same reason, complex fertilizers cannot be used at this time, since they all contain nitrogen in one proportion or another.

Mineral fertilizer "Autumn" contains potassium, calcium, phosphates, boron and magnesium and can be used for coniferous plants. However, they need less fertilizer than fruit crops, so the concentration should be half as much as indicated in the instructions. From the end of August, top dressing for conifers is stopped.

3. Treatment for diseases and pests

One of the important measures in preparing coniferous plants for winter is preventive treatment (spraying). Even if there were no noticeable diseases or pests on the plants, it is still necessary to carry out preventive spraying.

To begin with, the plant needs to be cleaned - remove all dried or broken branches with a pruner, remove damaged needles from arborvitae. If the plant is large and dense, it is necessary to push the branches apart, because it is near the trunk that spoiled needles may be located. All cut parts from the site must be removed, or better, burned.

Shaping pruning, if used, is not recommended in autumn. It is better to postpone this event until spring.

For the prevention and treatment of fungal diseases, coniferous plants should be sprayed with a 1% solution of copper sulphate or Fitosporin. How to properly dilute "Fitosporin" is written in detail in the instructions attached to the drug, which cannot be said about copper sulphate.

To obtain a 1% solution, dilute 100 g of the powder in 10 liters of water. To do this, pour the powder into a plastic bucket (do not use iron utensils) and mix with a little water. Then we supplement the volume to 10 liters by adding water heated to 45-50 about C. The drug dissolves better in warm water. Strain the mixture before spraying. Processing is carried out in dry calm weather, in the morning or in the evening. The air temperature must be at least +5 o C.

After treatment with copper sulphate, after about two weeks, coniferous plants can be sprayed against pests. For prevention, you can use any insecticide for a pest complex, or, if harmful insects have occurred, use a special tool.

In the article "Where do garden pests winter and how to ruin their life?" read how to protect your garden from pests in the fall.

Today on sale you can find special caps for conifers of different sizes and shapes.

© Zielona Therapia

4. Mulching

In winter, it is necessary to mulch the tree trunks of coniferous plants. This measure will protect their roots in frosty snowless winters. Mulch is laid out along the perimeter of the crown with a layer of 5-7 cm. It is especially important to do this for young and imported conifers from other regions, in which the process of adaptation to local conditions has not yet been completed.

Various organic materials can be used for mulch (peat, straw, sawdust, grass clippings or litter from the forest). When collecting bedding in the forest, be sure to pay attention to the trees - only under healthy spruces and pines can you collect litter. Otherwise, there is a chance of infecting your plants. In the spring, the mulch needs to be removed - this way the soil warms up faster and there is no threat of decay of the roots.

5. Shelter from snow and frost

Thujas, yews, junipers and cypresses can be threatened by snowfalls in winter. Abundantly fallen snow, even if it does not break the branches, will break them in different directions, and the tree will lose its shape. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to wrap the plant in a spiral with synthetic twine, slightly pressing the branches to the trunk.

Young conifers that have been growing on the site for less than three years must be protected from frost. The best material for insulation is burlap, as it passes air well and reliably protects against frost. Many gardeners use ordinary gauze, wrapping the plant in two layers with it and securing it with twine. You can use agrofibre, but on condition that it will be possible to remove it in early spring, otherwise there is a threat of dampening.

Netting for conifers began to appear in specialized gardening shops. This is an ideal option - hide and forget. For those who care about the aesthetics of their garden, you can find special caps for conifers of different sizes and shapes on sale. They are very comfortable, just put on the plant and tightened with a cord at the bottom. Caps are made of special breathable fabric and have a very nice look.

Coniferous plants living on the site for more than three years, as a rule, have already adapted to the environment and do not need shelter.

Young conifers planted this year do not have time to take root firmly in the ground by winter. They need to be strengthened with stretch marks. To do this, 3-4 strong ropes are tied to the trunk. Along the perimeter of the seedling, pegs are driven into the ground, to which the free ends of the ropes are attached. Such a measure will not be superfluous - the fixed seedlings will survive in strong snowstorms and will not bend under the snow.

Read more about materials that can be used to cover plants for the winter in our publication “How to cover plants for the winter? Methods and materials".

6. Separate question - horizontal junipers

Separately, I would like to say about horizontal junipers. These are low-growing plants, the lower branches of which creep along the ground, due to which they are considered ground cover. The culture is represented by all kinds of miniature and dwarf plants with an interesting color of needles - from bright green, like the junipers "Cossack" and "Prince of Wales", to blue, like the "Blue Chip" or "Blue Alps".

Horizontal junipers do not need shelter, however, in spring, when the snow melts, the lower shoots are often in the water for a long time, and this can adversely affect the development of plants. In autumn, when preparing the garden for winter, you need to place large stones or bricks under the lower branches of the juniper, lifting the branches from the ground. It is undesirable to use boards or wooden blocks, as the wood gets wet, and various pests settle in the bark for the winter.

Read about the features of growing Cossack juniper in the garden in our material.

Young conifers that have been growing on the site for less than three years must be protected from frost. © A Green Hand

7. Protection of conifers from bright sun in early spring

All conifers that are not covered for the winter can suffer from the bright spring sun.


Learn more