How do redwood trees absorb water
How do large trees, such as redwoods, get water from their roots to the leaves?
Last week we presented a general outline of how trees lift water. Donald J. Merhaut of Monrovia Nursery Company, headquartered in Azusa, Calif., has provided a more detailed reply:
"Water is often the most limiting factor to plant growth. Therefore, plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store and utilize water. To understand water transport in plants, one first needs to understand the plants' plumbing. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. This pathway of water and nutrient transport can be compared with the vascular system that transports blood throughout the human body. Like the vascular system in people, the xylem and phloem tissues extend throughout the plant. These conducting tissues start in the roots and transect up through the trunks of trees, branching off into the branches and then branching even further into every leaf.
"The phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another. Phloem tissue is responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by the leaves, to areas of the plant that are metabolically active (requiring sugars for energy and growth). The xylem is also composed of elongated cells. Once the cells are formed, they die. But the cell walls still remain intact, and serve as an excellent pipeline to transport water from the roots to the leaves. A single tree will have many xylem tissues, or elements, extending up through the tree. Each typical xylem vessel may only be several microns in diameter.
"The physiology of water uptake and transport is not so complex either. The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves. Transpiration is the process of water evaporation through specialized openings in the leaves, called stomates. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure develops in the surrounding cells of the leaf. Once this happens, water is pulled into the leaf from the vascular tissue, the xylem, to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, that occurs in the xylem of the leaf, will extend all the way down through the rest of the xylem column of the tree and into the xylem of the roots due to the cohesive forces holding together the water molecules along the sides of the xylem tubing. (Remember, the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots.) Finally, the negative water pressure that occurs in the roots will result in an increase of water uptake from the soil.
"Now if transpiration from the leaf decreases, as usually occurs at night or during cloudy weather, the drop in water pressure in the leaf will not be as great, and so there will be a lower demand for water (less tension) placed on the xylem. The loss of water from a leaf (negative water pressure, or a vacuum) is comparable to placing suction to the end of a straw. If the vacuum or suction thus created is great enough, water will rise up through the straw. If you had a very large diameter straw, you would need more suction to lift the water. Likewise, if you had a very narrow straw, less suction would be required. This correlation occurs as a result of the cohesive nature of water along the sides of the straw (the sides of the xylem). Because of the narrow diameter of the xylem tubing, the degree of water tension, (vacuum) required to drive water up through the xylem can be easily attained through normal transpiration rates that often occur in leaves."
Alan Dickman is curriculum director in the biology department at the University of Oregon in Eugene. He offers the following answer to this oft-asked question:
"Once inside the cells of the root, water enters into a system of interconnected cells that make up the wood of the tree and extend from the roots through the stem and branches and into the leaves. The scientific name for wood tissue is xylem; it consists of a few different kinds of cells. The cells that conduct water (along with dissolved mineral nutrients) are long and narrow and are no longer alive when they function in water transport. Some of them have open holes at their tops and bottoms and are stacked more or less like concrete sewer pipes. Other cells taper at their ends and have no complete holes. All have pits in their cell walls, however, through which water can pass. Water moves from one cell to the next when there is a pressure difference between the two.
"Because these cells are dead, they cannot be actively involved in pumping water. It might seem possible that living cells in the roots could generate high pressure in the root cells, and to a limited extent this process does occur. But common experience tells us that water within the wood is not under positive pressure--in fact, it is under negative pressure, or suction. To convince yourself of this, consider what happens when a tree is cut or when a hole is drilled into the stem. If there were positive pressure in the stem, you would expect a stream of water to come out, which rarely happens.
"In reality, the suction that exists within the water-conducting cells arises from the evaporation of water molecules from the leaves. Each water molecule has both positive and negative electrically charged parts. As a result, water molecules tend to stick to one another; that adhesion is why water forms rounded droplets on a smooth surface and does not spread out into a completely flat film. As one water molecule evaporates through a pore in a leaf, it exerts a small pull on adjacent water molecules, reducing the pressure in the water-conducting cells of the leaf and drawing water from adjacent cells. This chain of water molecules extends all the way from the leaves down to the roots and even extends out from the roots into the soil. So the simple answer to the question about what propels water from the roots to the leaves is that the sun's energy does it: heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting the water chain in motion."
Updated on February 8, 1999
Ham Keillor-Faulkner is a professor of forestry at Sir Sandford Fleming College in Lindsay, Ontario. Here is his explanation:
Image: CHERYL MATTHEWS, Humboldt Redwoods Interpretive Association
REDWOOD TREES. Old growth redwoods, such as these giants from Rockefeller Forest in California's Humboldt Redwoods State Park, reach heights of 100 meters or more.
To evolve into tall, self-supporting land plants, trees had to develop the ability to transport water from a supply in the soil to the crown--a vertical distance that is in some cases 100 meters or more (the height of a 30-story building). To understand this evolutionary achievement requires an awareness of wood structure, some of the biological processes occurring within trees and the physical properties of water.
Water and other materials necessary for biological activity in trees are transported throughout the stem and branches in thin, hollow tubes in the xylem, or wood tissue. These tubes are called vessel elements in hardwood or deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves in the fall), and tracheids in softwood or coniferous trees (those that retain the bulk of their most recently produced foliage over the winter). Vessel elements are joined end-to-end through perforation plates to form tubes (called vessels) that vary in size from a few centimeters to many meters in length depending on the species. Their diameters range from 20 to 800 microns. Along the walls of these vessels are very small openings called pits that allow for the movement of materials between adjoining vessels.
Tracheids in conifers are much smaller, seldomly exceeding five millimeters in length and 30 microns in diameter. They do not have perforated ends, and so are not joined end-to-end into other tracheids. As a result, the pits in conifers, also found along the lengths of the tracheids, assume a more important role. They are they only way that water can move from one tracheid to another as it moves up the tree.
To move water through these elements from the roots to the crown, a continuous column must form. It is believed that this column is initiated when the tree is a newly germinated seedling, and is maintained throughout the tree's life span by two forces--one pushing water up from the roots and the other pulling water up to the crown. The push is accomplished by two actions, namely capillary action (the tendency of water to rise in a thin tube because it usually flows along the walls of the tube) and root pressure. Capillary action is a minor component of the push. Root pressure supplies most of the force pushing water at least a small way up the tree. Root pressure is created by water moving from its reservoir in the soil into the root tissue by osmosis (diffusion along a concentration gradient). This action is sufficient to overcome the hydrostatic force of the water column--and the osmotic gradient in cases where soil water levels are low.
Capillary action and root pressure can support a column of water some two to three meters high, but taller trees--all trees, in fact, at maturity--obviously require more force. In some older specimens--including some species such as Sequoia, Pseudotsuga menziesii and many species in tropical rain forests--the canopy is 100 meters or more above the ground! In this case, the additional force that pulls the water column up the vessels or tracheids is evapotranspiration, the loss of water from the leaves through openings called stomata and subsequent evaporation of that water. As water is lost out of the leaf cells through transpiration, a gradient is established whereby the movement of water out of the cell raises its osmotic concentration and, therefore, its suction pressure. This pressure allows these cells to suck water from adjoining cells which, in turn, take water from their adjoining cells, and so on--from leaves to twigs to branches to stems and down to the roots--maintaining a continuous pull.
Image: GARY ANDERSON, University of Southern Mississippi
XYLEM TYPES. Some vessel elements have complete perforations (1) and others have no end walls (2). Tracheids (3) have overlapping walls and pits.
To maintain a continuous column, the water molecules must also have a strong affinity for one other. This idea is called the cohesion theory. Water does, in fact, exhibit tremendous cohesive strength. Theoretically, this cohesion is estimated to be as much as 15,000 atmospheres (atm). Experimentally, though, it appears to be much less at only 25 to 30 atm. Assuming atmospheric pressure at ground level, nine atm is more than enough to "hang" a water column in a narrow tube (tracheids or vessels) from the top of a 100 meter tree. But a greater force is needed to overcome the resistance to flow and the resistance to uptake by the roots. Even so, many researchers have demonstrated that the cohesive force of water is more than sufficient to do so, especially when it is aided by the capillary action within tracheids and vessels.
In conclusion, trees have placed themselves in the cycle that circulates water from the soil to clouds and back. They are able to maintain water in the liquid phase up to their total height by maintaining a column of water in small hollow tubes using root pressure, capillary action and the cohesive force of water.
Mark Vitosh, a Program Assistant in Extension Forestry at Iowa State University, adds the following information:
Image: PACIFIC LUTHERAN UNIVERSITY
XYLEM. Water travels from a tree's roots to its canopy by way of this conductive tissue.
There are many different processes occuring within trees that allow them to grow. One is the movement of water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves in the canopy, or upper branches. Water is the building block of living cells; it is a nourishing and cleansing agent, and a transport medium that allows for the distribution of nutrients and carbon compounds (food) throughout the tree. The coastal redwood, or Sequoia sempervirens, can reach heights over 300 feet (or approximately 91 meters), which is a great distance for water, nutrients and carbon compounds to move. To understand how water moves through a tree, we must first describe the path it takes.
Water and mineral nutrients--the so-called sap flow--travel from the roots to the top of the tree within a layer of wood found under the bark. This sapwood consists of conductive tissue called xylem (made up of small pipe-like cells). There are major differences between hardwoods (oak, ash, maple) and conifers (redwood, pine, spruce, fir) in the structure of xylem. In hardwoods, water moves throughout the tree in xylem cells called vessels, which are lined up end-to-end and have large openings in their ends. In contrast, the xylem of conifers consists of enclosed cells called tracheids. These cells are also lined up end-to-end, but part of their adjacent walls have holes that act as a sieve. For this reason, water moves faster through the larger vessels of hardwoods than through the smaller tracheids of conifers.
Both vessel and tracheid cells allow water and nutrients to move up the tree, whereas specialized ray cells pass water and food horizontally across the xylem. All xylem cells that carry water are dead, so they act as a pipe. Xylem tissue is found in all growth rings (wood) of the tree. Not all tree species have the same number of annual growth rings that are active in the movement of water and mineral nutrients. For example, conifer trees and some hardwood species may have several growth rings that are active conductors, whereas in other species, such as the oaks, only the current years' growth ring is functional.
This unique situation comes about because the xylem tissue in oaks has very large vessels; they can carry a lot of water quickly, but can also be easily disrupted by freezing and air pockets. It's amazing that a 200 year-old living oak tree can survive and grow using only the support of a very thin layer of tissue beneath the bark. The rest of the 199 growth rings are mostly inactive. In a coastal redwood, though, the xylem is mostly made up of tracheids that move water slowly to the top of the tree.
Image: PURDUE UNIVERSITY
STOMATA. These pores in leaves allow water to escape and evaporate--a process that helps to pull more water up through the tree from its roots.
Now that we have described the pathway that water follows through the xylem, we can talk about the mechanism involved. Water has two characteristics that make it a unique liquid. First, water adheres to many surfaces with which it comes into contact. Second, water molecules can also cohere, or hold on to each other. These two features allow water to be pulled like a rubber band up small capillary tubes like xylem cells.
Water has energy to do work: it carries chemicals in solution, adheres to surfaces and makes living cells turgid by filling them. This energy is called potential energy. At rest, pure water has 100 percent of its potential energy, which is by convention set at zero. As water begins to move, its potential energy for additional work is reduced and becomes negative. Water moves from areas with the least negative potential energy to areas where the potential energy is more negative. For example, the most negative water potential in a tree is usually found at the leaf-atmosphere interface; the least negative water potential is found in the soil, where water moves into the roots of the tree. As you move up the tree the water potential becomes more negative, and these differences create a pull or tension that brings the water up the tree.
A key factor that helps create the pull of water up the tree is the loss of water out of the leaves through a process called transpiration. During transpiration, water vapor is released from the leaves through small pores or openings called stomates. Stomates are present in the leaf so that carbon dioxide--which the leaves use to make food by way of photosynthesis--can enter. The loss of water during transpiration creates more negative water potential in the leaf, which in turn pulls more water up the tree. So in general, the water loss from the leaf is the engine that pulls water and nutrients up the tree.
How can water withstand the tensions needed to be pulled up a tree? The trick is, as we mentioned earlier, the ability of water molecules to stick to each other and to other surfaces so strongly. Given that strength, the loss of water at the top of tree through transpiration provides the driving force to pull water and mineral nutrients up the trunks of trees as mighty as the redwoods.
Original answer posted on February 1, 1999
Redwoods Siphon Water From the Top and Bottom
JEDEDIAH SMITH REDWOODS STATE PARK, Calif. -- Researchers showed four years ago that California’s coastal redwoods create their own “rain” by condensing heavy fog into drenching showers to nourish their roots during the region’s dry summers.
This summer, they’re finding that the world’s tallest trees’ immense upper stories drink from the sky itself, sucking water directly from the clouds that shroud the coast much of the dry season.
That helps explain how trees 37 stories tall can move enough water from their roots to feed branches and needles nearly twice as high as the Statue of Liberty.
The answer, apparently, is that they don’t have to: the branches and needles get much of their moisture from the air itself.
Researchers are trying to quantify how much moisture the branches and needles absorb. But plant ecologist Todd Dawson of UC Berkeley already knows: “It’s a bunch. ”
The ability to siphon water upward against gravity and friction is thought to be one of the most limiting factors in how tall trees can grow.
“Theory says you can’t transport water that high,” Dawson said. “Yet trees do it all the time. We want to understand how.”
Researchers are discovering that the giant trees can alter their environments, both on the ground and in their complex canopies hundreds of feet in the air.
“You essentially have two ends that take in water -- at the top and the bottom,” Dawson said. “That breaks all the rules ... and may explain how they can achieve these great heights.”
Some redwoods have lived since the days of Jesus Christ. With time, their immense, complex canopies trap needles, dust and seeds, creating peaty soil mats a yard thick and as big as a bus that grow plants, sustain animals and absorb water hundreds of feet above the ground.
“Eventually, you get this huge sponge that builds up,” said Steve Sillett, a Humboldt State professor who began studying the phenomena in redwoods in 1996. “During most of the year, it’s an aquatic environment up there” fed by rain and fog.
He’s discovered mollusks, crustaceans and other animals ordinarily found in stream beds -- even the wandering salamander, which lacks lungs and must stay moist to absorb oxygen through its skin.
Like trees in the Pacific Northwest and other temperate rain forests and cloud forests, the redwoods sprout canopy roots from their branches that Sillett believes take in water and nutrients from the hidden gardens.
“It doesn’t have to suck it all the way up from the ground,” Humboldt graduate student Anthony Ambrose said.
Ambrose and other researchers hauled thousands of pounds of solar-powered monitoring equipment, cables and frames into the canopies of 18 redwoods from the Oregon border about 350 miles south to Santa Cruz County.
They inserted probes to measure sap flow speed and direction. Other instruments measure temperature, light, relative humidity, wind and rain.
This month, the researchers will climb the trees again, this time carrying laptop computers to retrieve data collected over the last year.
To get there, they shoot an arrow threaded with fishing line over one of the tree’s highest branches, then haul up stronger ropes. They climb the ropes in ascenders and harnesses, and attach pulleys to pull up the equipment.
Even the tallest redwoods are still growing as much as a foot a year, pushing the limits of height, Sillett said -- but that’s because conditions are good now.
During the next drought, the redwoods’ tops will wither -- only to regenerate when conditions improve once more, a cycle repeated countless times over the trees’ millennial lives.
Researchers are starting to use those cycles to track El Nino, La Nina and other weather patterns -- potentially even global warming -- back hundreds of years.
“What’s locked up in that tree ring could be a key to those environmental changes,” Dawson said.
The giant trees are remnants from the days of the dinosaurs. They grow only along California’s fog belt, a narrow 500-mile band that toes into southern Oregon, where the difference between ocean and air temperatures generates fog much of the summer.
Dawson’s earlier research showed that fog condensation can provide 30% to 40% of a redwood’s water supply -- most of it during the otherwise dry summer months.
The fog and redwoods combine to create a cool, moist environment, like the cloud forests found in scattered areas throughout the world. Where the redwoods are removed, water culled from fog drops by as much as half, Dawson found, and the soil heats up and dries out.
“As you cut the trees, not only are you cutting the fog, you also change the whole microclimate,” he said.
Redwoods are the fastest-growing softwood in North America. They regenerate quickly as shoots sprout off the cut stump, but have difficulty if the entire canopy is removed, Dawson found. He is experimenting with how many large trees it takes to make a forest, research that could discourage commercial clear-cutting.
Logging redwoods is a singularly divisive issue along California’s coast. Dawson’s work has been praised as groundbreaking and criticized for romanticizing redwoods at the expense of less notable trees.
Some coastal residents are using fog-drip research in lawsuits intended to block redwood cutting, arguing that the tree condensation feeds their underground water supply.
The emphasis on redwoods fits the agenda of environmental groups like San Francisco-based Save-the-Redwoods League, critics say. Indeed, Dawson sits on the league’s Board of Councillors, and the league is funding research by both Sillett and Dawson.
The fog drip “happens with any tree that reaches up into the fog,” said Charles Jourdain, vice president of the California Redwood Assn.
“If you had no fog at all, you’d still have redwoods,” said Susan Davis, a park ranger with Redwood National and State Parks. She noted that Humboldt Redwoods State Park is inland from the coastal fog but is home to the world’s tallest tree -- the Stratosphere Giant.
That is the exception that proves the rule, Dawson said.
The biggest trees grow closest to the park’s waterways, as do the southernmost redwoods that depend less on fog than groundwater. Nor do southern redwoods develop the soil mats found in the moister conditions along the northern coast.
But there seems little question that the trees hold the fog, Davis said.
The fog reached much farther inland along Northern California’s Redwood Creek Basin before the redwoods were intensively logged there in the late 1960s and early 1970s, she said. “Today, the fog lifts very quickly. There’s hardly any fog there at all.”
They are capable of lifting water to the height of a 30-story building, but how?
Californian redwoods are among the tallest trees in the world. They reach a height of 110 meters. Some trees are 2000-3000 years old! It is difficult to convey the indelible impression that a walk among these giants leaves. The truth of creation is powerfully revealed here. The cells of a tree are organized to make up roots, trunk, bark, water columns, branches, and leaves. The tree resembles a giant chemical factory. Extremely complex chemical processes take place in it in perfect order.
It is amazing that this huge tree grows from a small seed weighing about 5 grams. Just think: all the information about the development and organization of these giants is embedded in their DNA, in a tiny round seed. The seed follows all the "instructions" that are in its DNA, and turns into a giant structure, incomparable in appearance and size, containing 2500 tons of wood. Amazing, isn't it?Giant sequoia "General Sherman".
Its height is 83.8 m, and the perimeter of the trunk at the base is 34.9m. The age of the tree is 2500 years. This tree is considered the largest living organism on Earth. Its weight, together with the root system, is 2,500 tons. The volume of a tree is 17,000 cubic meters, which is 10 times more than the volume of a blue whale.
The Scripture says: “God is exalted in His might, and who is a teacher like Him? …Remember to exalt His works that people see. All people can see them; a man can see them from afar” (Job 36:22,24-25). Indeed, all people can see the works of God.
A sequoia produces up to 600 liters of water per day through its leaves, so it constantly raises water from roots to branches, overcoming the force of gravity. How is it possible for a tree that does not have mechanical pumps? 100 meters is a really impressive height, comparable to two 14-story buildings. It turns out that inside the trunk of a sequoia there is a special system of narrow interconnected tubules called xylem. This complex internal tissue of the tree serves to conduct water from the roots to the leaves. Xylem tubes form cells located one above the other. Together they form an incredibly long column, extending from the roots through the trunk to the leaves. To "pump" water, the sequoia must form a continuous column of water in this pipe.
A tree maintains water throughout its life. Remember how a strong wind bends a tree and branches. However, due to the fact that the conductive tube is made up of millions of small pieces, butted together, the flow of water is constantly kept. One solid tube would not have done the job. Since water usually doesn't flow upwards, how does a tree manage to pump it to such a height? The roots "pull" the water up, and the action of capillarity (the ability of water to rise slightly along the walls of the tube) adds pressure. However, this force provides the tree with a rise in water only by 2-3 meters. The main driving force is evaporation and attraction between water molecules. Molecules have positively and negatively charged particles, due to which they adhere to each other with tremendous force, which, according to experimental measurements, is 25-30 atmospheres (1 atmosphere is equal to normal atmospheric pressure at sea level). That's enough to push through a World War II submarine 350 meters underwater. Sequoia easily maintains a pressure of 14 atmospheres at the top of the water column. Water, evaporating from the leaves, generates suction power. The water molecule evaporates from the leaf and, due to the force of molecular attraction, pulls other molecules around it with it, which creates a slight suction in the water column and pulls water from neighboring cells of the leaf. These molecules, in turn, attract the surrounding molecules. The chain of motion continues all the way to the ground and moves the water from the roots to the top of the tree, much like a pump lifts water from a well to the surface.
We understand that the tree itself could not come up with such a complex system that wisely uses the physics of water and the energy of the Sun. We give all Glory to God, the Creator of heaven and earth. Giant trees testify to the historicity of the book of Genesis, which reveals their true origin to us: “And God said: let the earth bring forth grass, grass yielding seed, fruitful tree bearing fruit after its kind, in which is its seed on the earth. And it was so” (Genesis 1:11).
The Hidden Treasure Newspaper No. 11 (139) November 2008
where it grows, plant height, natural areas
Author tobiz Reading 7 min Published Updated
Together with the sequoiadendron, the huge sequoia of the evergreen type belongs to tall trees (some specimens reach about 100 meters in height and up to 9 meters in diameter). meters) Evergreen coniferous plant. Monotypic genus, it is represented by only one species.
The tree is named after Sequoia, a Cherokee Indian leader who invented the tribe's syllabic alphabet.
Fossils found confirm the assumption that the sequoia tree was present in the Jurassic period and was widely distributed throughout the planet at the end of the Cretaceous period. The remains of trees, which previously occupied vast territories, remained at the moment only in the very west of the United States. 100 million years ago, these trees were ubiquitous.
Sequoia forest types were identified by Europeans as early as 1769. In the 19th century, these plants occupied a vast area of about 8000 sq. km. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the bulk of the sequoia forests were cut down.
Description of sequoia
Sequoia is probably the highest plant on the planet.
Now the largest sequoia, called "Hyperion" , it was discovered in 2006 in a state park called Redwood in northern San Francisco. The view has a height of approximately 115 meters. Most of the trees in this park are over 60 meters high, and most are above 90 meters, and this is with a diameter of the trunk and its girth reaches 4.6 meters.
The second place in elevation after the sequoia belongs to the Douglasia tree or Pseudotsuga Menzies. The tallest living tree of this type is 99.4 meters high.
A similar type is Sequoiadendron large, it does not grow more than 100 meters, but it has a larger trunk diameter. The crown of the sequoia itself is very dense and spreading at a young age, later opened, narrow and conical, and is formed by stems growing horizontally, or with a slight downward slope.
- The rhizome consists of creeping, widely spreading shallow roots.
- The main stem of is wrapped in a fairly thick, fibrous, relatively soft, non-burning bark. With a light touch on this bark, the brush directly plunges into the tree, forming extraordinary feelings.
- Bark slightly fibrous and furrowed, deep brown with red highlights, within 35 cm wide.
- Young shoots grow slightly in different directions, up.
- Branches elegant, green.
- The leaf arrangement of is two-row, the leaves are flat, firmly pressed, with undeniable annual constrictions of the rise.
- Needles are about 25 mm long, slightly elongated in young trees at the lowest side of the crown, and are scaly up to 10 mm in size, at the top of the crown of very ancient trees.
- Anthers appear at the end of February, seeds ripen in 9 months. Anthers are almost always spherical, sometimes ovoid, and up to 5 mm are placed one at a time on fairly short branches.
The breed has an increased ability to absorb water from the air. Tall and oldest species of trees grow in gorges and solid ravines, because it is there that jets of moist and fresh air have every chance to get all year round.
Trees that grow above the fog layer (this is over 700 meters), lower in elevation and slightly smaller in volume due to a drier, windier and colder growth criterion. It likes well-drained, loose lands, where it will form frequent stands or grows next to Menzies-type Pseudo-Tsuga, as well as Sitka-type spruce or next to Lawson cypress.
Sequoias have an impressive growth per year in height, young trees sometimes grow at a rate of much more than 1 meter per year. This feature is explained by strong competitive pressure on neighboring conifers. In order not to lag far behind in natural growth in redwood forests, all neighboring plants also grow to a height of more than 90 meters.
On a square meter, redwood forest types themselves have the highest specific biomass load from all types of ecosystems on the planet. Young trees grow on different sides, but over time the lower branches fall off, a closed type of canopy forms at the top. Which literally does not allow sunlight to pass directly to the ground, and as a result, the undergrowth in this forest is very poorly developed.
Only ferns and other shade-loving plant species have every chance to grow here, along with the rarest young sequoias. A mature tree produces a large number of its seeds, but only a small proportion of them germinate safely, and what has germinated must grow in low light.
In its natural environment, this unhurried reproduction is absolutely necessary, because this type of tree has every chance of living up to 3000 years. In this forest, about 60 m from the soil, it is relatively depleted.
This is considered a consequence of the usual vegetative type of self-reproduction as a result of severe damage from fires, because this tree, even if almost completely burned out in the fire, will be able to fully recover over time.
In some cases, a single tree can have more than 100 stems, effectively forming a single tree forest. The planes of forks and pockets from the inside of this structure make containers for saving water and help to increase the bioenergy of the earth.
The list of "fun and amazing facts" includes the fact that the young shoots after a fire can receive useful carbohydrates, water and caloric preparations from a common network of connected roots from plants not touched by a fire. This greatly helps the sequoia to crowd out many other coniferous types, and it has the ability to recover in the deepest shade and under its own canopy.
Red Sequoia is an original composition of the number of years of existence, volume and mass, which determines these trees as such giant and longest-lived creatures that are now present on the entire planet.
Large sequoia can be slightly inferior in life expectancy only to spiny pines, they grow in the high mountains of the hot Sierra Nevada. The most ancient and oldest saw cut of this type, which has become known to the whole world, contains 2267 annual rings.
The question arises, do sequoias have a chance to live forever? The answer is yes. There is a lot of evidence confirming the life and aging of these conifers, and all the most dilapidated trees had every chance of existing today if they had not been cut down.
There are some negative characteristics of the surrounding environment that can prematurely age and kill rare trees. But if the tree is stable to changing environmental factors or when the changes are weak, then the plant can live up to 3000 years and even more. The characteristics of the surrounding environment gives a certain inevitability, either life or death.
Dilapidated trees often die from the combined negative effects of certain fungi, strong winds, flames or floods. A more common cause of redwood death is stem or root rot, which infects the tree, making it vulnerable.
Trees are very susceptible to breakage from the wind due to the huge windage of the crown and with poorly developed or rotted roots. The well-being of these trees worsens over time.
As a result, a strong wind breaks or uproots the sequoia. Most often this happens on especially waterlogged soils, when, due to flooding, the density between the roots themselves and the ground is greatly reduced.
Sequoia adapted to forest fires. A tree is not particularly afraid of a flame, but especially frequent forest fires have every chance of destroying a tree: since a fire inevitably leaves a scar in the bark itself, it further increases the gap, where fungus then appears, and they can hit the core, and eventually the tree will fall.
There are artificially created plantings of the 19th-20th centuries, and there are small groves of Sequoia and its other individual specimens in Europe, as well as in Central Asia. But most often the tree is found in specialized botanical parks and in large arboretums, and Sitka spruce can also be found there.
In the Russian Federation, the species of these trees are found more often in Transcaucasia, as well as in Ukraine in the southern part of Crimea.
In the large botanical type of the Fomin Garden in the city of Kyiv there are large stocky bushes that freeze hard from time to time, but grow back again.
Sequoia planting and care
This tree is suitable for the most part only for very large woodland areas and Botanical Gardens in warm and humid climates.