How do trees adapt to their environment


How Trees Cope with Winter – Friends of Read Wildlife Sanctuary

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Most people don’t think about trees having to survive the winter. That’s probably because we see the same trees year after year and they tend to look pretty much the same. They are always there, silent and uncomplaining through heat and sleet and gloom of night. They are not furry, comical, or cute. They do not demonstrate athletic or predatory prowess as do the animals great and small that we admire, so it’s easy to forget about the trees in our lives. Yet they are every bit as amazing, inspiring, and tough as other life forms on earth. Just as with our furred, finned, and feathered brothers and sisters, trees have been “tested” by evolutionary fires, and their strategies for survival – their adaptations – are pure and proven genius.

If a species cannot adapt, or adapt quickly enough, it may eventually fade away, or only exist in small pockets where conditions are favorable. Natural selection is a very long process of trial and error and adjustment, and it is at work in every organism you see, every day, from hedgehogs to humans and from ticks to trees. Repeated challenges to the integrity of an organism can stimulate small sometimes useful changes in its genome (these are called “beneficial mutations”) that help counter whatever the threat may be.

You may not think that trees have to “survive” anything except fire and hurricanes or tornadoes.  Well, consider the main threats from the winter’s cold embrace: freezing temperatures, dehydration, and physical damage from winter storms. These threats apply to all organisms in the regions where winters are harsh. Freezing temperatures and dehydration can also damage or kill trees in winter. When liquid water freezes, the water molecules form ice crystals. No harm done if you want to drop some ice cubes into your beverage or go skating on a frozen pond. However, if the freezing water molecules are contained inside the cells of your fingers and toes, as in frostbite, the ice crystals form and expand, acting like microscopic daggers, piercing cell membranes and killing them. Tree sap is about 95% water, and some individuals have millions of gallons of sap flowing up and down the trunk and out to the tips of every leaf and twig*. Since trees cannot migrate to avoid winter (what a sight THAT would be), they have adaptations that allow them to reduce the chance that winter might kill or damage them.

Leaf Drop

The most noticeable winter survival adaptation for broad-leaved trees is the autumn leaf drop. Leaves add a lot of mass and wind resistance to a tree, and this would be a liability for the tree in snow and ice storms, especially if high winds also occur as with a nor’easter or a blizzard. Leaves would also add more surface area for cold dry winds to suck the moisture from the tree by evaporation.

During the warm growing season, water vapor is released along with oxygen from the pores or stomata on each leaf in the process of photosynthesis. The process of transpiration is what helps transport water and nutrients in the sap through the tree all the way to the leaves. All the water in the tree is connected by touch, so as water evaporates from the leaves, more water is drawn upward to replace water lost to the wind and sun.

Trees prepare for winter by sealing off this water vapor loss by forming an abscission layer of cells at the base of each leaf stem. Once this is done the leaves fall away. This adaptation conserves precious water reserves in the tree during winter months when liquid water is not always available, thus avoiding the danger of dehydration. Most of their sap is stored in their root system deep underground out of reach of winter’s icy grip. The small amount of sap that remains in the above ground portion of the tree has a higher concentration of sugar. This sugar acts as an anti-freeze of sorts and works by lowering the freezing point of the water.

Dropping their broad leaves also lessens the available surface area that would accumulate tons of snow and ice build-up during winter storms that could lead to broken limbs.

The farther north you go, tree species are primarily or exclusively evergreens. Trees such as White Pine, Norway Spruce, Red Cedar, Balsam Fir, and Eastern Hemlock have a greater tolerance for dry, sub-freezing conditions. They do not need to drop all their leaves (needles) before winter because they possess several special adaptations. Maintaining functioning leaves year-round (photosynthesis) is an advantage in regions with a very short summer season and dim winter sunlight. The sap of evergreen trees is a sticky, viscous, resinous sap that won’t freeze and expand like the sap of deciduous trees. Also the leaves themselves are much smaller and so have less surface area to lose moisture from. In addition, the leaves have a waxy coating that protects against vapor loss. The shape of evergreen trees is such that the branches shed accumulating snow with ease, gradually bending without breaking under the weight of all those snowflakes until gravity does the rest.

White Pine tree bark flow

 Bark

Another adaptation trees have to help them survive winter is their bark. In nature, nothing is pointless or arbitrary. So it is with the variations in bark coloring texture and density. Light-colored, smooth-barked trees such as the grey American Beech and the bright white Paper Birch (Betula payrifera), contrast with the very dark colored rough-textured bark of trees like Black Cherry and White Pine. Most other broad-leaved trees in our northeastern forests tend towards the darker end of the color spectrum, and have scaly or deeply furrowed bark.

In winter, the bark’s main purpose is to protect the tree from freezing and cracking during severe cold spells. However, the bark is not directly protecting the tree from cold, but rather from the heat of the sun. It is not necessarily the sap that freezes which causes a tree to crack, but rather the differential heating and cooling of the tree from inside to outside. In other words, when the tree is exposed to the warmth of the sun, the interior and exterior of the tree heats up and expands. However, at night when the bark is exposed to cold winds it can cool and contract much more rapidly than the interior of the tree does. This can result in the splitting of the protective bark layer because the circumference of the outer layer of the tree becomes smaller than the warmer, still expanded interior circumference of the tree.

I recall one winter when I was a young boy visiting relatives in upstate New York. It was around Christmas time and the temperatures plummeted sharply. By the time nightfall came, the already low temperatures became severe. My siblings and cousins and I bundled up in nearly every bit of winter clothing we owned and ventured down the country road to see what 50 degrees below zero felt like. The wind howled across the landscape while the silent stars gleamed overhead. My eyes teared from the cold, biting wind and these tears froze on my eyelashes. Suddenly we heard the violent sound of trees “exploding” throughout the woods. It was terrifying! A falling tree or dropped limb sounds nothing like a large tree whose trunk is shattered by the cold.

The bark protects the tree against this danger in several ways. By having a reflective quality like the light gray or bright white coloring, the bark doesn’t warm up much during the daylight hours, thus minimizing the temperature difference from interior to exterior of the tree. So what about dark tree bark then? While the dark, almost black coloring of bark will definitely warm up faster than white bark, it also sheds accumulated heat faster**. The deeply furrowed or scaled bark on dark-colored trees also acts like a radiator to diffuse heat before it can warm the interior of the tree (which causes the expansion). In Canada and Northern New England where Paper Birch grows the daylight hours are noticeably shorter, and sunlight is weaker in winter months than at lower-latitudes. Here, the light-colored bark is less likely to accumulate much heat in the first place.

If you look closely at most trees with curly, furrowed, or scaly bark you’ll see that the bark is also made of many thinner layers that expand or contract with heat, cold, and moisture. When the bark absorbs moisture, it acts as an impact attenuator minimizing damage from any nearby falling trees and limbs during rain, snow, and ice storms. If you have ever tried to use an axe on a rain-soaked log, you’ll know how effective this adaptation can be. Often the axe simply bounces off the log.

Trees are magnificent in their form, function, and beauty. Next time that you walk the trails of the sanctuary, or even just around your neighborhood, why not stop for a while and have a good long look at a tree. Feel its presence as a living, breathing organism that, like you, must deal with stresses of daily life and have enough food and water to live. Take a moment to offer your heartfelt gratitude for all that trees have given you, from the oxygen in your red blood cells to the lumber that makes up the shelter that you call home.

Michael Gambino, Curator

February 23, 2016

 

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  • Trees maintain a uninterrupted column of water in small hollow tubes (called xylem) by the use of root pressure, capillary action, and the cohesive nature of water molecules.
  • * This is why the Space Shuttle has black tiles on the bottom of the craft to aid in shedding the massive heat build-up from re-entry friction once entering the cold upper atmosphere.
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How plants adapt to climate change

This year’s dramatically fluctuating temperature cycles from seasonably cold days to atypically warm stretches and back again has affected the life cycles of many species, including plants. At the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, two scientists are examining how maple trees (Acer) are responding to climate stress and what that means for the future of the genus. Jake Grossman and Al Kovaleski, Putnam Research Fellows at the Arboretum, are modeling the evolution of the maples located in the Arboretum’s living collections, examining their 60 million-year journey from their origins in East Asia to current global distribution. By learning how the trees withstand low temperature stress in their tissues and respond to warm spells when they are dormant—called “cold hardiness”—they can help predict outcomes of climate change for maples, and other trees in Northern Hemisphere forests, and potentially even crops and agriculture. We asked the researchers what they are learning about how plants adapt and evolve to climate change and what it means for New England and beyond.

Gazette: Does the rate of climate change impact a species’ ability to evolve and adapt to weather conditions?

Grossman: Climate change does two things to weather. First, over time, average weather conditions change. The most obvious example of this is that our climate is getting warmer. So, every year, the average low temps and, to a lesser extent, the average high temps get higher. Second, climate change increases variability in weather. So, some years feature multiple extreme snow or rainstorms and flooding whereas other years feature droughts. This is already happening, but humans can still control how fast it happens, and that matters to plant evolution.

One way of thinking about this is in terms of “generation time”—the years from when a maple seedling sprouts to when it produces its own first daughter seed. This probably ranges from 10 to 30 years for maples. Maples have been evolving independently as a genus for about two million generations. This means that if you traced back any given maple tree two million generations, you would hit the grandmother of all maples. During that time, the climate changed a lot, going from periods in which there was no ice anywhere on earth through several ice ages, and maples evolved along with it. By 2200, in about seven maple generations, the climate could change so much that it resembles a past extremely hot climate that the world hasn’t seen for roughly 1.5 million maple generations, or 50 million years. Maples will probably be able to survive somewhere on Earth in this new, hot climate, but they absolutely will not be able to evolve to be adapted to it in seven generations. For reference, our hominid ancestors began using tools only 1.8 million years — or 60,000 maple generations ago, so this future climate scenario will also be totally unlike anything we have ever seen.

Jake Grossman, Arnold Arboretum Putnam Fellow, holds a pole pruner to collect material from a maple tree’s canopy with colleague Al Kovaleski, Arnold Arboretum Putnam Fellow, in the Arboretum landscape. The two are conducting research on the freeze tolerance of the maple species.

Kovaleski: Another thing we have to consider when studying the adaptation of plants is their plasticity, how plants can mold themselves to the conditions they are exposed to. As Jake mentioned, there is year-to-year variation in weather, and plants respond slightly differently each year to accommodate this variation. This means that the same plant adapts to a range of climates. This is important to acknowledge because a lot of times we’ll see that the climate is changing, but plants still seem to be adapted to it. However, they’re being continuously pushed toward their limit now — even if we can’t perceive it. The early onset of spring this year can leave plants at an extreme risk of great damage should a late freeze occur.

Gazette: Is there a way to mitigate the negative effects of climate change on plants and crops?

Grossman: The best way to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on plants is through things like dramatically reducing emissions and creating policies to protect our environment in order to prevent further climate change. But given that we are already committed to considerable climate warming, we can manage our forests and farm fields, gardens and parks to be more resilient to the warmer temperatures and more erratic patterns of rain and snow that we will experience in the future. This could mean experimenting with planting more drought-tolerant species in New England with the expectation that our climate here will continue to get warmer and more drought-prone. Or it could include “assisted migration,” when we plant seeds or whole plants in areas that might not be ideal for them now, but where they might thrive in future climate scenarios.

Jake Grossman, Arnold Arboretum Putnam Fellow, holds maple twigs just clipped from a red maple tree at the Arboretum to use in cold hardiness experiments on the freeze tolerance of maples.

Kovaleski: For crops, we can consider crossing populations that are already well-adapted to different climates to generate a new population that is expected to be intermediate in its climatic adaptation. This is what plant breeders work on continuously for all crops: adapting them to emerging climate conditions, as well as pest resistance, nutritional quality, etc. Blueberries are perhaps the best example of a very successful story. What was done was crossing highbush blueberry plants with good fruit quality that are native to temperate climates with other species that are native to warmer climate regions in the southeastern US but didn’t have very good fruit. By doing this, breeders were able to combine the fruit quality with the adaptation to a warmer climate, thus generating what is now called the southern highbush blueberry.

Gazette: How might the warmer winter temperatures we are experiencing now impact the production of New England maple syrup?

Grossman: For ideal maple syrup production, trees need to experience cold nights and relatively warm days. This causes sap to move rapidly through a maple’s trunk, which creates opportunities for us to siphon it off. Often times, our warming climate manifests as an increase in daily low temperatures, rather than an increase in daily high temperatures, producing less extreme cold-warm cycles over a day. This might make sap less mobile, harming syrup production. On a larger level, climate change is projected to reduce sugar maple abundance in New England, which means fewer trees will be available to tap.

Gazette: The Arboretum has a diverse collection of maples — including rare and endangered species from around the world. What is the effect of this research on the Arboretum’s collection? What is the effect on United States forests?

Jake Grossman, Arnold Arboretum Putnam Fellow, uses a conductivity probe to assess the damage caused by the freezing of a maple twig in the Arboretum’s Weld Hill lab.

Grossman: Our research helps us understand more about the response of maples to what we might call climate stress — the environmental factors that challenge woody plants and that are likely to get even worse as our climate changes. Our findings will help the Arboretum’s managers decide which maples to seek out and plant — species that will be able to survive here in the future. They also will help staff keep the existing maples alive by, for instance, informing irrigation priorities. When we think about forests overall, maples are dominant trees in eastern deciduous forests and important sources of wood, syrup, and other things. Knowing how climate stress affects particular maples species will help foresters, conservationists, and other land managers to prioritize the planting, care, and harvest of natural forests, plantations, and urban woodlands.

Gazette: Can maple species fail?

Grossman: It is maybe best to think about failure in terms of individual trees, and the answer is yes. For instance, all trees have small tubes that extend all the way around their trunks, these are called xylem. Their purpose is to conduct water from the ground to the leaves at the top of the tree, and everywhere in between. During exceptionally warm conditions, if a particular tree’s soil becomes really dry, bubbles form in these tubes. When that happens to a particular xylem tube, it is unusable forever. If most or all of a tree’s xylem gets emptied out — or cavitated — the tree dies. Or with freezing, we could imagine that a particular maple tree has been exposed to warm weather for several weeks. It begins to send out new leaves and flowers because it has received signals that spring has arrived. If a really cold period moves in, this tender, actively growing material might freeze or get dried out. If so, the tree has now lost its investment in a whole cohort of leaves or flowers. If it is a small or already weak tree, it may have trouble replacing them and could starve to death in the coming year. Finally, if we want to think about the ultimate “failure” of a particular species, that would be something like extinction. This is certainly possible, although it often takes a long time for long-lived trees like maples. If humans are not overharvesting a species, it takes a long time for total climate-induced extinction to affect a long-lived woody species.

Kovaleski: Adding to Jake’s example of freezing, which is more easily observed because you could see green tissues on the tree or plant, this can also happen within the buds of the plants before they’ve gone through any visible changes. If the temperatures drop below the cold hardiness level a certain plant has, the buds can be killed and they just won’t grow the following season, without a very clear sign — unless you are scientifically tracking the cold hardiness of things throughout the winter.

Gazette: What does the broader impact of your research mean for scientists working on climate change mitigation around the world?

Grossman: Our research helps demonstrate the consequences of climate change for temperate forests, urban trees, and forestry plantations. Hopefully, if people know more about what is likely to happen, they will be motivated to mitigate climate change. From an adaptation angle, our research can guide management of trees and forests in a rapidly changing climate.

How plants adapt to the environment

There are plants in every corner of the planet, even in the Arctic, the northernmost natural zone of the Earth. In the Arctic, the flora is mostly represented by mosses and lichens.

Polar poppy

Flora of the Arctic:

  • Snow saxifrage.
  • Chickweed.
  • Alpine foxtail.
  • Polar willow.
  • Polar poppy.
  • Arctic pike.
  • Bluegrass.
  • Arctic buttercup.
  • Krupka.
  • Sow thistle.

The polar poppy, a perennial plant, has a hardy rhizome. With spring warming, new stems grow from it.

lichen

Over the millions of years of our planet's existence, plants have adapted to natural conditions and today grow where it is very cold, very hot, very dry and very humid.

chickweed

How exactly have plants adapted to a particular climate? Desert survival cacti, for example, store water in their thick stems.

Moreover, cacti collect moisture literally drop by drop, using their very branched root system, which extends 30 meters from the base of the cactus to the sides. The root system is like a fine-mesh network that captures the smallest particles of soil moisture and pre-dawn dew.

The extracted moisture is accumulated in the cells of the cactus and, over time, its reserve amounts to kilograms and even tons. The record holder for the accumulation of moisture is the cereus cactus. Some plants accumulate up to 3 tons of liquid.

Why does the African baobab have such a big trunk? So the tree has adapted to the environment and accumulates water intensively during the rainy season. The unique baobab wood can absorb up to 120,000 liters of water. The tree uses these reserves during the drought period.

Also, to conserve water in arid regions, some herbs grow in tufts.

Many desert plants survive on:

  • Strong root system.
  • Thorn.
  • Fleshy leaves.
  • Small height.

Some plants that grow in the desert have roots that reach more than 10 meters deep, reaching the groundwater. So plants have adapted to harsh climatic conditions.

Horse chestnut bears fruit (seeds) in abundance every year. Why? Because the tree buds on the branches are sticky and covered with scales that protect from cold winter winds. So the buds do not freeze and bloom and set fruits every year.

Creepers have adapted to living conditions in an interesting way. They have a flexible stem that is not able to stand on its own in a vertical plane. As a support for creepers in the wild, trees are chosen, for which they cling to thorns, leaves, antennae and other devices. Climbing plants climb up other plants to be closer to the light.

Who are parasitic plants? They have adapted to live. This group receives nutrients from the tissues of other plants on which they parasitize. Parasitic plants attach themselves to plants and drink juice from them.

Gardeners struggle with parasitic plants, in particular fungi and weeds (dodder).

rafflesia

Rafflesia grows in the rainforest, the largest parasitic flower, reaching up to one meter.

Another way plants adapt to natural conditions is that when the environment changes, they also change. For example, mimosa, protecting itself from cold and heat, folds its leaves. The plant has the same reaction if someone touches it.

Ipomoea flowers close in the scorching sun, in the southern regions open flowers can often be seen only in the early morning and evening.

Plants living in water have a special structure. On the surface of the water, only the leaves and flowers of water lilies are visible, and the petioles and peduncle are under water, they are very long and go to the muddy bottom, where the plant stem is located.

These are just a few examples of how plants adapt to their environment.

Mikhail Pavlov

Ecology

How plants adapt to life in megacities and what affects their condition

Illustration: Anna Sazanova

Cities continue to grow. In 30 years they will be home to almost 70% of the world's population. Rapid urbanization leads to soil, water and air pollution, reduction of natural areas, loss of biodiversity, not only in cities, but also outside them. Landscaping is considered one of the most effective ways to reduce the impact of urban agglomerations on the environment. Plants perform many different functions, ranging from decorative to sanitary and hygienic. At the same time, they are exposed to the negative impact of cities and are forced to adapt to life in conditions of constant stress.

How urbanization affects plants

The urban environment has a significant impact on the physiological, biochemical and morphological characteristics of plants. This is evidenced by researchers from the Udmurt State University (UdSU), who studied the species composition, ecological and biological state and seed propagation of plantations in Izhevsk and small towns of the Lipetsk region. So, under the influence of aerotechnogenic emissions (air pollution from industrial facilities. - Approx. Plus-one.ru), the photosynthetic function of plants begins to decrease. This causes a deterioration in their morphometric parameters (features that reflect the adaptation of organisms to the habitat, most of which are associated with growth processes, for example: leaf phytomass, one leaf area, plant height, number of inflorescences. - Approx. Plus-one.ru). In particular, in hardwoods, the number and size of leaves decreases, and in conifers, the mass of needles decreases. Due to high temperatures and additional lighting, the seasonal development of plants changes: trees bloom for a shorter time, they begin to shed their leaves earlier, and their growing season increases.

Infographic: Yulia Dorofeeva

Researchers have found that plants adapt to life in the city in different ways, some species are more resistant to anthropogenic influence. Adaptation to environmental influences depends, among other things, on the accumulation in the cells of trees, shrubs and grasses of substances that slow down oxidative processes. These include, for example, ascorbic acid, which is involved in photosynthesis. So, in polluted soils, in the cells of such herbaceous plants as urban gravilate, forest kupyr, ivy-shaped budra, medicinal dandelion, cocksfoot, common yarrow, ascorbic acid accumulates. This increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant defense system and helps to increase the resistance of these plants to the effects of pollutants.

"Answer" of plants to the city

The urban environment changes the reproductive system of some plants. An example of this is the skerda of the species Crepis sancta, a weed that can be found along roadsides or around trees. This conclusion was reached by scientists from the National Center for Scientific Research of France (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS), who analyzed the reproduction characteristics of the weed population in the city of Montpellier in southern France. Skerda reproduces with the help of two types of seeds: smaller and lighter ones (similar to parachutes) that spread through the air, and larger and heavier ones that fall to the ground nearby. When light seeds are dispersed over long distances in the city, they often end up on concrete or asphalt pavement. Large seeds, on the other hand, fall into the cracks of the sidewalks, due to which their chances of germination increase. Scientists have found that over time, plants growing in the city begin to produce more large seeds compared to their relatives from the countryside. Thus, fighting for survival in an aggressive environment, weeds gradually evolve, and for this they need very little time - from 5 to 12 years.

Researchers from the University of Toronto Mississauga recall how clover has adapted to life in an urban environment: the plant is larger here and produces less hydrocyanic acid (HCN). This is a poisonous substance with a pungent odor, with the help of which plants protect themselves from insects and small mammals. Scientists suggest that in conditions of dense development, plants are less likely to suffer from animals, so they do not need to synthesize hydrocyanic acid in large volumes. In addition, warmer temperatures tend to be established in urban areas, resulting in faster snowmelt. In the absence of snow, plants are more susceptible to the negative effects of low temperatures, as a result of which the production of HCN decreases. Experts add that transformations in the organism of urban plants affect all participants in the food chain, so they must be constantly monitored.

UC Berkeley researcher Max Lambert explains that plants have four basic strategies for survival in the city. Some species can quickly adapt to a new environment and feel there no worse than in natural conditions. Others, in order to "fit into the urban landscape", begin to change their habitual pattern of behavior. Still others, such as the skerda, may begin to evolve and become more adapted to the city from generation to generation. Some plants do not take root at all and either leave the city or die out. The expert is sure that it is necessary to deal with the conservation of species not only in specially protected natural areas, but also in the city - a unique space in which completely different representatives of flora and fauna are forced to coexist. The same thesis is developed by scientists from UdSU, according to which cities are characterized by "a spontaneous process of introducing plant species that are not characteristic of the area."

Why cities need green spaces

Green spaces fit seamlessly into urban infrastructure and shape the landscapes of residential areas. They help reduce noise levels, improve the microclimate and create more comfortable living conditions. “Plantations have an increased reflectivity of leaves compared to soil and asphalt coatings, which helps to lower the air temperature in the area of ​​tree plantations and create a comfortable environment for humans,” Udmurt researchers admit.

Trees and shrubs also help to reduce the concentration of transport and industrial emissions, including through their ability to accumulate harmful substances in organs and tissues. Thus, lindens and maples, common in Moscow, have good gas and dust absorption properties, which account for more than half of the total number of green spaces in the city. Other trees common in the capital include poplar, ash, birch, elm, and larch. The most common fruit and berry trees are mountain ash, apple and cherry. All these trees quickly adapt to the conditions of the urban environment and have high vitality, emphasizes the report on the state of the environment in the capital in 2019year.

Infographic: Yulia Dorofeeva

Hidden danger

However, Silvia Fineschi and Francesco Loreto of the Italian National Research Council (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, CNR, a government research organization) emphasize that green spaces can harm people. So, to protect against pests and interact with each other, some plants emit volatile organic compounds (Volatile Organic Compounds, VOCs). For example, isoprene (an unsaturated hydrocarbon, a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. - Approx. Plus-one.ru) is actively produced by such deciduous trees as oak, willow, aspen, poplar, and terpenes (isoprene derivatives) are found in large quantities in conifers . These substances react with human-sourced compounds such as nitrogen oxides and ozone, which can adversely affect air quality. Do not forget that some people are allergic to pollen and other substances released by plants. This causes eye and skin irritation and sometimes severe asthmatic reactions.

In addition, in some places, tall trees do not let enough sunlight into buildings or cover road signs with their crowns, thereby increasing the likelihood of traffic accidents. A large number of leaves sometimes clog drain pipes, and large dry branches can fall to the ground and damage property or injure someone. In addition, parks and squares often become a refuge for homeless people, as well as wild and semi-wild animals: rats, bats, dogs.

To solve the problems associated with the greening of urban areas, scientists from UdSU call for the use of research data on plant life in urban areas. Based on this information, they propose to optimize the system of urban green spaces through the correct selection of species, taking into account their decorative qualities, resistance to environmental conditions and the ability to influence it.

“The intensive growth of cities, the development of transport networks, the increasing tone of urban life every year actualize the problems of preserving and improving the urbanized environment, creating conditions that have a beneficial effect on the psychophysiological state of a person. With the help of green plants, these parameters can be largely regulated in order to bring them closer to the optimal ones, ”the authors of the study remind.


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