How do you trim a christmas tree
When and How to Prune a Christmas Tree
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With the festive season swiftly approaching us, it is only natural we start planning our holiday decorations. A fresh Christmas tree is among the first things that come to anyone’s mind when we think of winter and the holidays. However, not everyone knows what it takes to maintain a healthy appearance in a conifer.
Pruning for evergreens is just as important as it is for deciduous trees. If done the proper way, it can improve the appearance and health of your Christmas tree, maintain its compact size and traditional shape, control foliage and density.
As stressful as pruning may sound, you shouldn’t panic yet. Trimming a Christmas tree can be easy once you get the hang of it. For a smooth shearing, check our recommendations below on when and how to prune a Christmas tree.
Table of Contents
What is the best time to prune a Christmas tree?
Evergreen trees, unlike deciduous trees, stay green all year round, although they still go through seasonal needle changes during which the plant sheds and renews its foliage.
The spruce, pine and fir tree varieties can be pruned at almost any time of the year. Generally, the best time to do the annual prune is early spring or during summer.
Alternatively, pruning in late summer and autumn also works well for evergreen trees. If you are looking to encourage the development of new buds specifically, we recommend shearing in mid-June or July.
Keep in mind that during the warmer months trees are more likely to be attacked by parasites, so it is important to know how to cut your Christmas tree’s branches in the safest way possible.
Important! Avoid pruning during the winter months while the tree is getting ready for dormancy or it is already dormant because it will leave open wounds which can be damaged by frost or lead to infections.
How to prune a Christmas tree
As already mentioned, pruning a Christmas tree is important, not only for the plant’s appearance and traditional shape but for its health, as well. However, cutting too extensively and rashly can leave behind open wounds which in turn will become an easy entrance for bacteria.
Use pruning shear or loppers to trim your Christmas tree without damaging its branches. You can also opt for an electric chainsaw. Moreover, always try to cut at an angle.
Conifers are fast-growing trees. The growing of Christmas trees in a pot is usually restrained by the size of the container, but if you are growing the tree in your garden, expect it to reach a great height. If you are wondering which branches of your tree should make the cut, consider the following:
- To maintain the traditional shape of a Christmas tree, cut back any protruding or badly positioned branches. Generally, it is recommended that the width of the tree’s base should be two thirds that of its height.
- Make sure to remove the broken, dried up or diseased branches. There is no need for them to feed on the tree’s energy. You also wouldn’t want to risk disease transferring to the rest of the tree.
- If your tree has developed multiple leaders, choose the weakest of them and prune them back. If a leader is still in development, simply cut close to the branch collar. Otherwise, cut 2-3 cm above a good bud and remove all buds below this one to prevent the formation of future leaders.
- In the case of a pine tree, all terminal shoots on each lateral branch have to be trimmed to encourage bud development. That is not required with spruces and fir trees.
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Will trimming a Christmas tree kill it?
Trimming a Christmas tree, if done correctly, should never kill the plant. Fresh wounds from pruning can leave the tree exposed to diseases or frost during winter but there are ways to avoid that. For example, cutting the top of an evergreen tree will leave a huge pruning wound that can potentially make the plant a target of deadly infections.
However, if you keep in mind several things while shearing and shaping your Christmas tree, you can decrease the chance of disease infection. Here are some things to be careful about when pruning your evergreen tree:
- Specialists recommend avoiding cutting the top of the tree or shortening the main branches as conifers don’t regrow branches from cutting points.
- Don’t clip into the collar or the parent branch. That is where the natural defences of the tree are located. If you cut into the collar or closer to the truck, you will damage the tissues capable of closing cutting wounds.
- Moreover, cutting at a 45-degree angle is important so that water doesn’t collect on the cut surface and promotes the development of diseases.
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Following the advice of professional gardeners can make pruning a Christmas tree easy and safe. Still, this process can be time-consuming and rather difficult if you don’t have the necessary tools.
In case you don’t have the time or the skills to handle the annual Christmas tree trimming on your own, don’t worry as this is totally fine. Consider contacting a qualified tree surgeon.
Professionals like tree surgeons use specialised equipment, can deal with even the highest trees and know how to trim a Christmas tree back to its healthy appearance. Book a pruning service today and let Fantastic Gardeners do the job for you.
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Our Editors Share Their Best-Kept Secrets for Trimming a Christmas Tree
Updated November 25, 2019
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Credit: Katya De Grunwald
There's no wrong way to decorate a tree, but if you want to emulate our style as seen in Martha Stewart Living, follow these steps.
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Credit: Katya De Grunwald
Most people trim just one tree a year. Not so for our editors at Living. In masterminding the displays for the December issue, they experiment with multiple evergreens, palettes, and themes. Of course, we're not suggesting you go to those extremes. But you may want to incorporate some of their savvy strategies into your tree-trimming traditions. After selecting a tree, the first step is to shape it. Spruces, in particular blues and Norways, deliver the best results of all the Christmas tree varieties because of their natural tiers. The goal in pruning them is to gently mimic the form of an artificial feather tree, which has plenty of space between branches for decorations to hang freely. Your tree should be used as a display for all of the beautiful ornaments you have collected over the years.
Once the tree has been potted and pruned, it's time to decide where to put it. Choose a low-traffic spot away from fireplaces and heaters, then follow our instructions for securing it even further to the wall. Properly pruned and securely positioned, the tree is ready to be trimmed. Our editors first lay out their ornaments, and strategize about color and theme. What next? There are lights, garlands, ribbons, and everything else to consider from the topper to the stand (or skirt, or other creative container). Follow their and Martha's example, and your tannenbaum will look top tier.
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Tools of the Trade
hardware on a peg board
Credit: Lennart Weibull
Here is a list of the supplies you will need to give your tree a streamlined shape and display it securely in your home.
- Clump moss: Use this greenery to hide pebbles and tree-stand hardware.
- Felt: Place a square of this soft fabric under the container to prevent scratches and facilitate moving the tree.
- Plastic sheeting: Line the container with this material to avoid leaks.
- Work gloves: Don a pair of these to protect hands when transporting the tree indoors and during the pruning.
- Pebbles: Pour around the trunk to stabilize the tree stand. Pebbles will also help retain moisture, so you won't need to water the tree as frequently.
- Garden loppers: The tool of choice for trimming thick branches.
- Tree stand: This device is what holds the tree upright. To prevent toppling, look for one with a wide, flat base, such as this bucket version. It should be able to accommodate at least one gallon of water. Take measurements before you make any final purchases to ensure the stand will fit inside your decorative container.
- Hand drill: Use this to make a small hole in the center of the trunk base so that the tree will take in more water.
- Rubber gloves: Wear these while you string the lights to protect your hands from prickly needles, which can be especially irritating with spruce trees.
- Floral shears: This gardening tool is perfect for pruning thin branches.
- Handsaw: Help the tree absorb water by cutting about an inch off the trunk before putting it in the stand. A saw is also good for removing very thick branches.
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Choose a Spot to Display Your Tree
Christmas tree decorated with geometric brass hardware
Credit: Ryan Liebe
A Step-by-Step Guide to Setting Up a Christmas Tree
When you're ready to set your tree up, pick a low-traffic spot away from fireplaces and heaters, and then anchor the tree with nylon thread tied around the trunk and through screw hooks fastened to the wall.
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Build a Tree Stand
Christmas tree basket
Credit: Johnny Miller
How Often Should You Water a Christmas Tree?
The effect is a more tailored look than a tree skirt; it also creates extra room for presents. To pot your tree in a planter follow these steps: Lay felt underneath the container to protect floors. Stack bricks inside planter to raise tree if necessary. Place the tree stand inside the planter, followed by the tree. Pour pebbles into the stand for added stability (or nuts in their shells, as pictured here). Lastly, finish off with clump moss.
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Prune the Tree
Christmas tree cuttings
Credit: John Kernick
Norway and blue spruces are naturally symmetrical, but their branches have awkward growths that keep ornaments from hanging freely. Clean them up with a little judicious pruning: Stand the tree upright, and study it from a distance to see which areas need pruning. Prune small growths that jut straight out from the top and bottom of the branches. Smaller cuttings like the ones pictured here are the ones you'd want to trim away.
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String the Lights
Credit: Lucas Allen
Lights should be added to your tree before other decorations. Our technique will play up the depth of the tree better than draping lights only around the perimeter, while also concealing the wires: Starting at a bottom bough, string lights along the underside of each branch. When you get near the end, loop lights around the top of the branch. Work back to the tree trunk, winding around branch and light strand. Continue around the tree. Reverse the procedure on upper branches (or those above eye level of an average adult), stringing lights first along the top, then back around bottom.
Turn the lights off (or down if you are using a dimmer switch) when photographing, because excessive glare will make the tree look flat.
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Decorate with Ornaments
wooden scandinavian christmas tree ornaments
Credit: Roland Bello
Decide on a theme or palette, then lay out your ornaments before you get started. Choose simple ornaments to create a backdrop for more ornate antiques, as well as homemade, sentimental favorites. Hang dominant colors to establish a rhythm, and then intersperse them with accents in other hues. Emphasize the vertical shape of the tree by hanging long, dangling ornaments—for example, icicles and teardrops. Suspend icicles at branch ends so that they look as they do in nature. Hanging ornaments near lights will allow the light to be reflected in the balls. Hang antique and fragile ornaments near the top of the tree, where they will be less likely to get knocked off by pets and passersby. And keep lightweight clip-on ornaments on hand; they're useful fillers at branch ends.
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How to Hang an Ornament
hanging a Christmas ornament
Credit: Johnny Miller
Manufacturer-provided hooks can slip off the tree's branches, causing breakage. To make your own hangers, thread a 5-inch piece of 28-gauge wire through the ornament's loop; twist the wire around itself several times to secure. To hang, wrap the other end around the tree branch until the ornament is secure. For an artificial tree in white, use tarnish-resistant silver wire. For a live tree, use green floral wire (which disappears in the needles because of the color).
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Evaluate Your Work
white christmas tree decorated with orange and pink handblown glass balls
Credit: Roland Bello
Every so often, take a step back while decorating to see which areas need filling. Put larger balls closer to the center of the tree, and put smaller balls on the tips of the branches. Bend the tips of the branches up, to ensure that they stay on the tree. Hang ornaments inside the tree—not just near its edges—for added dimension, and don't neglect the back of the tree.
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Pack Everything Away for Next Year
vintage house ornaments
Credit: Kate Mathis
Putting your holiday decorations away properly will save you time in decking the halls next year. When taking down ornaments at the end of the holiday season, organize them by color in storage boxes. A segmented archival cardboard box is great for sturdier, more shatterproof ornaments. For lights, cut a piece of cardboard to fit in a plastic storage bin (our pieces were 20 by 14 inches). Use scissors to cut a 1-inch slit at the top of one long side and the bottom of the other long side of the cardboard. Secure one end of the lights in a slit, wind lights around, and secure the other end in the other slit. Store stacked lights between layers of bubble wrap in bins. Keep them in a cool, dry location, such as on the top shelf of a spare closet.Replay gallery
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How to prune spruce?
Photo by the author, illustrations by Vera Manzhura.
So, let's cut Christmas trees! Let me tell you, there is nothing to be afraid of! The main thing is not to wait for the moment when you need a saw as a cutting tool. We will agree to do with secateurs or garden shears, and sometimes just gloved hands.
To begin with, I propose to decide on the goals and objectives of the upcoming event and think in advance, what result do you expect? What do you want from your tree? Pruning may be needed for a variety of reasons.
Reason #1 – Keeping a neat plant shape
Everyone knows what a spruce tree looks like when it's relatively mature – it's a fairly regular cone. If you have chosen a cone-shaped spruce variety, then it is advisable to observe the development of the plant in the first years after planting and “correct” all the branches that are out of the general context in time.
In the first years after planting, many spruce varieties with a cone-shaped crown may grow irregularly. The plant seems to be considering whether to grow in height this year, or is it better to “work up” the volume and take up more space in order to immediately cut off all the owner’s attempts to plant neighbors in the root zone. Such behavior, for example, often surprises everyone's favorite “Hoopsii” (“Hupsi”), as well as compact varieties of prickly spruce “Bialobok” (“Belobok”) and “Nimetz” (“Nimets”). By the way, the “Bialobok” variety is named so not because it becomes “white-sided” at the end of May, when it grows a young growth, but by the name of the author of the variety, Jan Białobok, who found it at 1939 year.
If you want your spruce to be more symmetrical, shorten or remove unsymmetrical branches. In the spring, you can completely remove the central growth of the branch if you notice that it is going to go beyond the shape you need. Did not have time to remove or shorten the branch in the spring? Then cut when it appears for that time. If you observe the plant immediately after planting and stop its attempts to "lose its temper" in time, you will not have to solve more difficult tasks of forming a neglected tree in the future.
Young plants often require tying to a vertical support for a couple of years and monitoring crown behavior. Sometimes at the top of the head, for various reasons, it does not wake up or the central kidney is lost. The usual reaction of spruce to this misunderstanding is to grow two or more parallel growing leaders. If you miss this moment and do not intervene in time, you will have a plant with two or more guides who will try to overtake each other every year. As a result, we will get a plant with an asymmetrical crown, and at the same time the danger of a break at the fork. To avoid such moments, every year in late May and early June, take a look at the top of your spruce. If you see that there are several tops, choose the most even and harmoniously located of the shoots, and break or shorten the rest. During this period, such work can be done simply with your hands, the shoots are still tender and break easily. At the same time, it is possible to correct the general shape - to break or shorten the increments that violate the symmetry of the cone.
I'll make a reservation right away. If you have just bought and planted a young 3-5 year old plant, you should not hone your skills as an aspiring topiary artist on it in the very first season. Let the tree take root well. But watch out for the crown right away!
All of the above applies primarily to medium and fast growing cultivars. Dwarf varieties with an annual growth of up to 10 cm, as a rule, do not require gardener intervention for quite a long time, with the exception of sanitary pruning and cleaning the inside of the crown.
If you didn't have time to correct the shape of your spruce at the beginning of June, you can do it in autumn. If the tree is already mature, then if you have a good eye, feel free to take garden shears and cut it over the entire surface of the crown, as you would cut, for example, a spirea bush, but not forgetting the cone shape. You can shorten the growth of the current year, or, if symmetry requires it, then last year's growth too. Spruces are quite flexible in terms of shearing and are good at awakening dormant buds in response to pruning. The photo below shows the prickly spruce “Erich Frahm” (“Erich Fram”) after the first pinching of young growth in her life last year.
This approach will allow you to quickly cope with cutting not even one spruce, but an entire spruce hedge, get some spruce branches for shelter or mulching other garden crops, and also protect your Christmas tree from possible intruders who are not averse to cutting down a vending Christmas tree to the New Year.
Cause #2 - crown compaction
A wide variety of spruce cultivars growing at medium to fast rates (from 15 to 50 cm per season) can become somewhat “loose” over time and begin to acquire some crown tiering. In order to anticipate such moments, let's try to compact the crown of our Christmas tree in advance. Let's start with observations!
Spruces are conifers that are capable of producing one wave of growth per season. Of course, there are some varieties that manage to give a repeated short increase in the second half of the summer, especially if the summer turned out to be rainy or long. For example, the well-known spruce “Conica” (“Konika”) and its closest relatives do this almost every year. These varieties are good because they completely independently cope with maintaining a super-dense crown.
In the Moscow region, for example, spruces begin to grow young shoots in late May-early June. At this time, spruce growths are soft, as if made of silicone, and young needles are pressed against the shoot. Try not to miss this moment. When the growths reach a length of 5–10–15 cm (depending on the growth rate of a given specimen), they need to be shortened.
The easiest way to work is with gloved hands, without the use of tools. In this case, the shortened ends of the shoots will look more accurate after the needles ripen. Of course, this recommendation does not apply to cutting large volumes, where you can not do without garden shears.
Shoots during this period are rather fragile and easily broken by fingers. Leave the length you need from the shoot, from two to about ten centimeters, break off the rest. Do this carefully, the shoots can easily break off at the base, and this is of no use to us.
It is necessary to take into account one more point - the lower branches of the spruce grow less, and the upper ones much more. That is, the crown can grow by 50 cm in June, and the ends of the lower branches only by 15–20 cm. Therefore, our task is to try to balance the haircut. We leave the growths of the lower branches longer, in the middle part of the crown - shorter, and in the upper part - the shortest. For example, for a Christmas tree with an average growth of 15–20 cm per season, we leave 10 cm from the growth of the lower branches, 5 cm in the middle, and 3 cm in the upper third. You understand that this activity is not for the lazy, it requires some meditative skills and relative peace of mind, because in 10 minutes you can’t do it here. On the example of the prickly spruce “Iseli Fastigiate” (“Iseli Fastigiata”), the difference in growth on the upper and lower branches is clearly visible.
What will be the result of this titanic labor feat? If you have not missed the optimal time for pinching, then after about two months, carefully looking at your Christmas tree, you will find a small miracle! At the base of each shortened shoot, a whole cluster of fatty, shiny buds will form by August! All the buds that the tree planned to place along the entire length of the young growth, she will eventually lay at the base of this young growth, if we managed to shorten it in time. In May-June next year, your Christmas tree will begin its journey to a wonderful transformation. You will get densely spaced growth throughout the canopy!
Well, it goes without saying - an increase in pinching volumes at times. Repeat spring manipulations for at least a couple more years, and then just use garden shears for the same purpose and cut your ward every year. And every year the reason to be proud of yourself will become more and more justified.
Reason #3 – Growth restriction to maintain composition proportions
The vast majority of gardeners have encountered in their gardening practice that the selected plants do not always grow as we would like. Adjusted and calculated, as it seemed to us, the garden group sometimes behaves completely differently than we planned! For various reasons, plants that should have grown quickly are slowed down, and the declared dwarfs suddenly begin to obscure the background!
This happens often. In order to restore relative order and maintain proportions, you have to take scissors. And even if initially everything was done correctly, the proportions are preserved for years, and the group becomes more and more beautiful from year to year, in the end, there comes a moment when the plants begin to close together. Any closure and growing of neighbors into each other threatens with a loss of decorativeness and thinning of the crown at the points of contact. Due to the lack of light, shaded branches begin to gradually shed their needles and die, and the shape of the crown loses its symmetry.
Christmas trees create a very dense shade for the neighbors and therefore they must be kept within limits. Spruces themselves also do not like shading very much, contrary to what is written about them in the reference literature. Yes, they tolerate shading, they will not die, but they will not grow beautiful under such conditions either. If some part of the spruce crown is shaded by neighboring plants, then an ugly tear can quickly form in this part, which will then be very difficult to overgrow. Therefore, try to avoid shading the neighbors with each other. Use a corrective haircut.
The optimal time for shearing fir trees is the beginning of June (the time of growth of young shoots) and the end of summer-autumn. The June haircut will help you compact the crown, and the autumn haircut will help you adjust the shape and maintain the desired size. If the crown is already dense enough, skip spring pruning, cut in summer and autumn. When shortening adult branches, do not cut branches thicker than a finger in diameter. The cut on the branch is performed at the place where the lateral branches originate, while it is desirable not to leave stumps. You can shorten the main branch to any length.
I strongly advise you to immediately decide what size tree you want to have in the future. It is important! Choose a rail of the desired height and temporarily secure this rail along the trunk while cutting. The upper end of the rail will give you the height of the future cone. From this point, draw an imaginary line down to the base of the cone, and stick to it as you cut. If your eye is not very good, take another rail - more authentic and apply it during the haircut to the upper end of the vertical rail. You yourself will be surprised how smooth the cone you end up with.
If you do not immediately set the final height of the tree, then it will be very difficult to maintain the correct proportions of the crown. Keep in mind that cutting from a stepladder is much more inconvenient and labor-intensive than doing it from the ground, not to mention the price of the services of Carlson the topiary.
If you don't have time to trim your tree in the fall, do it early in the spring before the growing season starts. Missed the June haircut - it doesn’t matter, cut the Christmas tree in August, September, October, November. Ate in this respect are very "compliant". There is no need to process cuts and even saw cuts of spruce branches. All damage is covered with resin. Just do not leave bark burrs and burrs along the contour of the cuts. Cut the saw cut along the contour with a sharp knife, as is done on fruit trees. This contributes to the rapid overgrowth of all damage.
Another important measure for maintaining the beauty and health of your fir trees is cleaning the inside of the crown. Take time to look inside the crown, clean out the fallen needles and cut dead branches into a ring. The crown will then be better ventilated and illuminated. This helps to awaken dormant buds and reduces the risk of fungal diseases.
Reason #4 – “What if I’m an artist at heart?”
We all do different things, work from morning to night and get tired of the routine. Our garden is a magical place where we can realize any creative plans and get to know ourselves from an unexpected side. Spruces are an excellent material for topiary, they are plastic in cutting and quite willingly awaken dormant buds. From fir trees, if desired, you can get any geometric shapes and even create a garden sculpture! For such purposes, it is better to choose dwarf varieties. Keeping fast-growing cultivars within limits will not be an easy task. And of course, it would be more rational to cut the correct ball from a spherical variety, and the ideal cone from a conical one.
You can easily find the most incredible examples of fir topiary shearing on the Internet. Do not be too lazy to inquire - you will get a lot of pleasant impressions!
And I sincerely wish you to show your creative potential in all its glory, surprise and please yourself, relatives, friends and neighbors with wonderful garden works in the coming season!
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Formation by pruning spruce crown. Scheme of molding pruning spruce.
Forming spruce pruning
Forming spruce crown pruning
Beauty spruce is one of the most favorite trees for many owners of suburban areas. And quite rightly so. In winter, spruce is often dressed up as a Christmas tree. She makes us and our children happy on New Year's holidays. In summer, autumn, spring, spruce is good at any time of the year.
But it also happens that spruce makes us happy only the first years after planting. And then it grows into a huge ten-meter tree. It’s impossible to dress up like that and it seems to take up too much space on the site.
Spruce growth can be controlled by form pruning, allowing even tall trees to be included in small garden designs.
Form pruning of spruce is carried out at the moment when the spruce has grown to a certain size and you no longer need it. You can also cut a very small Christmas tree to give it a neater shape.
Shaping by trimming Spruce Aureospicata. Scheme:
We cut the branches in such a way that there are no "stumps" left. We cut the branches immediately after the shoots that we leave. See picture above.
Form pruning of spruce is best done in early spring before the growth of young shoots. In this case, by mid-summer, new shoots will grow and close "stumps" and other errors. You can also cut in the first half of summer after the end of the growth of young shoots. But in this case, at close range, all the flaws in the haircut will be more noticeable.
Pruning spruces once a year on the shoots of the last or the year before last. I wouldn't recommend cutting older wood. There are some nuances here, non-observance of which can lead to baldness in the place of unsuccessful pruning.
After the first pruning, a two-meter spruce may appear "stubby". Subsequently, the formation of spruce crown pruning contributes to the formation of a beautiful dense crown.
I would like to add that it is not necessary to treat sections of coniferous crops with garden pitch. Coniferous plants abundantly secrete resin, which serves as a protection for damaged wood.
Secateurs or garden shears are used to shape spruce crowns. Definitely clean. A dirty pruner can introduce an infection that can cause plant disease. Therefore, before cutting, be sure to disinfect the tool with a special solution or an alcohol-containing liquid.
The following will look interesting in garden design:
Serpentine spruce Virgata. One of the most bizarre conifers. Spruce reaches a height of 12m, diameter 4-5m. The tree feels good in places with high standing groundwater. The first 10 years looks rare and scanty. As in the picture below it will be 30 years old, not earlier. This spruce does not tolerate crown formation or pruning. An adult tree can be viewed in the Minsk Botanical Garden.
Oriental spruce Aureospicata is a relatively slow growing tree with an irregular conical shape. At the age of 30 it reaches 6-8m in height. The needles are short, dark green, shiny. In spring, young growths are yellow in color. In summer, all the needles are green. Limey soils should be avoided when planting. Easy to shape and trim. Buy a ready-made planting scheme for a composition with Aureospicata 9 spruce0007
Rothenhaus spruce -
beautiful cone-shaped spruce. The lateral branches are strongly drooping along a straight trunk, which gives the plant a clear, slender silhouette. After 30 years - 6-10m high and 2.5-3m wide. In the spring it starts to grow late. Good for small areas. It can be molded, but often it is not necessary.
Oriental spruce Gracilis is a dwarf compact spruce that grows as a wide, slightly rounded cone. At the age of 10 years reaches 1m height. and ok. 0.5 m wide. The needles are short, light green. Looks good next to heathers. Formative pruning is not required.
Prickly spruce Iseli Fastigiata is a wonderful spruce with a slender, narrow conical crown. It grows quickly, at 10 years old it reaches 10m high. Shoots are vertical. The needles are blue. Undemanding to soil and moisture.
Prickly spruce Fat Albert is one of the best grades of prickly spruce with a regular conical crown and a beautiful silver-blue color. At 10 years old it reaches 3m in height, grows up to 12-15m. height. Undemanding to soils. Can be trimmed to contain growth. Buy a ready-made scheme for planting a composition with Fat Albert spruce
Landscape design in Minsk and the region:
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