How does girdling kill a tree

What Is Tree Girdling and How Bad Is It?


David Beaulieu

David Beaulieu

David Beaulieu is a landscaping expert and plant photographer, with 20 years of experience. He was in the nursery business for over a decade, working with a large variety of plants. David has been interviewed by numerous newspapers and national U.S. magazines, such as Woman's World and American Way.

Learn more about The Spruce's Editorial Process

Updated on 06/21/22

Reviewed by

Andrew Hughes

Reviewed by Andrew Hughes

Andrew Hughes is a certified arborist and member of the International Society of Arborists specializing in tree heal care. He founded and runs Urban Loggers, LLC, a company offering residential tree services in the Midwest and Connecticut.

Learn more about The Spruce's Review Board

The Spruce / David Beaulieu

Unfortunately, in tree-care terminology, "girdling" is a word used in two different ways. This means that, unless a context is provided, the reader may not immediately be clear on how the writer is using the term. To help you avoid confusion, a full definition (incorporating both meanings) will be given below.

Girdling as an Intentional Act

Girdling can be a management technique. It severs the bark, cambium, and sometimes the sapwood in a ring that encircles the trunk of a tree. In this sense, the word usually refers to the intentional killing of a tree.

Many beginners bristle at the very mention of intentionally killing a tree. So some explanation is required. What possible reason could there be to girdle a tree in this way?

Well, let's say that you own (but do not regularly live at) an extensive piece of property that borders upon the forest. On one portion of this property, your plans are to eventually have an open space of lawn area. In the meantime, you need to keep the brush down in this spot as best you can. If a sapling (that is, a young tree) begins to emerge, and you do not have time right away to cut it down, you may want to stop it in its tracks by killing it. So you girdle it. Later, at your leisure, you can remove it.

Standing dead wood (i.e., a girdled tree) is a critical part of an ecosystem. Standing dead wood provides habitat and food sources, and replenishes nitrogen. Often trees are girdled just to manage forests.


If you want firewood but don't want to have to keep stacks of wood for years before you can use it, girdling is a great option. A girdled tree can dry and season while standing, then be ready for use by the time you cut it down.

When Girdling Is Accidental

But it can also refer to the strangling of a tree (or shrub) branch or tree trunk by something wrapped around it, which chokes off the flow of nutrients. This is commonly caused by humans (accidentally), by vines, or even by a tree's own roots.

When humans are the culprit, it is often because they have tied a material onto the plant. For example, it may be a wrap used in grafting or a plant label (either the plastic-strip type that wraps around branches or the kind affixed with a string). Leaving such labels on your plant for too long after bringing it home from the nursery or garden center often turns out to be that sort of common landscaping mistake that you kick yourself for later.

Before you know it, the branch will increase enough in girth for girdling to occur. If you need to keep the plant marked with some kind of label, devise your own, instead. The key is to make sure that any label you attach to a tree branch is suspended loosely from the tree, so as to avoid all possibility of future girdling.

Fun Fact

Girdling can result when a strong vine vigorously twines itself around a tree. For example, the vine bittersweet will often girdle a tree in a fashion reminiscent of a python strangling its prey.

Finally, an instance of a tree's own roots girdling it is characterized by Missouri Botanical Garden (MBOT) as a "stem girdling root circles or partially circles the base of a tree at or just below the soil surface."

Tree Girdling – Halton Region Master Gardeners


Cathy Kavassalis – Halton Master Gardener

Girdling, also called ring-barking is the loss of a strip of bark from around a branch or trunk of a woody plant. The width and depth of the strip, the age of the plant, the time of year, the presence of disease and other environmental factors, determines if a tree can recover from such an injury. Significant loss of bark can leave a plant open to desiccation and infection. If vascular tissue is also lost, the plant may starve. While plants have some capacity to recover from minor injuries, serious girdling injuries can kill.

Girdling can happen through neglect as in photo on left, above ( AND with Rabbit damage -Photo:

The bark of a tree, is made up of many layers. The outer layer is a tissue called phellem or cork. The cells are dead but they form a protective barrier for the plant. Just inside the cork layer, is a single layer of cells called the cork cambium or phellogen. (This is a layer of undifferentiated cells, called meristemic cells, which produce the cork on the outside and in some species a layer of phelloderm on the inside). If only the outer bark is lost, woody plants can typically recover with a bit of extra attention to watering.

However, just inside the outer layer is secondary phloem tissue. This is a very important part of a plant’s vascular system. The phloem is composed of various specialized cells that circulate nutrients like sugars and starch as well as other important compounds like hormones. If disrupted the plant can no longer move these important materials to where they are needed.

Read: Preventing Girdling

If the vascular cambium or some of it has been undamaged, the plant may recover some function. Like cork cambium, vascular cambium is a single layer of meristemic cells that can differentiate to form more specialized tissue. This layer is important, not only because it produces secondary phloem, but also because it produces xylem. Secondary xylem tissue is produced just inside the vascular cambium. This tissue has a distinct construction that allows water and minerals to move through it from the roots all the way up the trunk and to the leaves. The xylem tissue is referred to as sapwood. (As sapwood ages and the xylem gets clogged with gums and resins it no longer transports water, it can become distinctly coloured, and is often referred to as heartwood.

Read: Why some trees are ‘girdled ‘on purpose’! (page 14)

The heartwood provides structural support for trees, but the tissue is dead and no longer functions). Tree rings reflect the seasonal variation in the development of xylem tissue.

Deer and or squirrels and rabbits often remove strips of bark over the winter. If this is just a small portion of the bark, woody plants can completely recover. However, if the plant is ring-barked with 100% disruption of phloem tissue, water can move up to new growth, but as leaves become photosynthetically active, they will not be able to move sugars and starches back down to support growing roots. The trunk or branch above the ring will swell as compounds accumulate. Tissue from the vascular cambium and cork cambium below and above the cut will begin to differentiate forming callus tissue followed by woundwood. If the width of the ring is narrow, a young actively growing tree may be able to seal over an injury, and reconnect phloem. But if the ring is wide or the tree is old, the injury may not be bridged by woundwood.

In such cases, artificial bridges can be created using grafts from thin branches. This is a tricky operation, but can be tried if the alternative is loss of the tree. See links below.

A seriously injured tree or shrub may try to send up suckers or alternative shoots from below the point of damage. Removing the damaged trunk or branch can encourage the growth of an alternative leader and may reduce the risk of infection if done carefully.

Further reading:

  • Moore, G.M. & McGarry, P.G.. (2017). Investigation of the potential for bark patch grafting to facilitate tree wound closure in arboricultural management practice. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry. 43. 186-198.
  • López, Rosana & Brossa, Ricard & Gil, Luis & Pita, Pilar. (2015). Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling. Frontiers in Plant Science. 6. 10.3389/ fpls.2015.00285.
  • Pepper, H. (2008). Girdling, Constriction and Ring Barking. Trees in focus
  • Luley, J. (2016) Biology and Assessment of Callus and woundwood. Arborist News
  • Tree Biology, and CODIT ISA‐T Oak Wilt Certification Training David Appel more about tree ring formation and xylogenesis here:Rathgeber, Cyrille & Cuny, Henri & Fonti, Patrick. (2016). Biological Basis of Tree-Ring Formation: A Crash Course. Frontiers in Plant Science. 7. 10.3389/fpls.2016.00734. )

Some Videos:

  • Nature Insights – Tree Ringing Experiment on Birch, Willow and Alder
  • Repairing a girdled deer damaged tree on a Norfolk Pine Transport Xylem and Phloem, Transpiration [3D Animation]
  • Plant Nutrition and Transport – Anderson

Categoriesgarden care, pests, treesTagsbark, cambium, damage, phloem

How to destroy a tree unnoticed by a neighbor

What to do if the tree has grown so much that it begins to interfere with the foundation of the house, electrical wires, as well as other plants? Is it possible to kill it without cutting it down, quickly and reliably?

If a neighbor's tree is in the way

We will not give you advice on how to destroy a neighbor's tree that is in the way, for this there is a law that does not allow planting large trees closer than 3-4 meters from the boundaries of the site. If you're having this problem, you might want to seek legal advice and talk to your neighbors in the language of law and order.

They themselves must remove the neighbor's tree so as not to conflict with the law and those with whom they have to live next to. But each person has the right to dispose of the trees growing on his own plot.

How to kill a disturbing tree easily and quickly?

Experienced gardeners recommend drilling a slanted hole in the trunk long enough to reach the core of the trunk, and pouring liquid into it, which will begin to destroy the tree from the inside. It can be a strong acid - acetic, hydrochloric, formic. The acid kills the tree within a week.

Ask railroad workers for a solution of dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, which they use to control bushes and vegetation along the railroad tracks. This tool is also injected into a hole drilled with an inclination.

You can pour gasoline, diesel fuel, acetone into the hole - the effect will be the same. Do not forget about herbicides - they destroy not only weeds, but also quite large trees. These are herbicides with glyphosphate Tornado, Arsenal and other products with a similar composition.

Herbicides are used in the same way as acids, after pouring the killing liquid, the hole is closed with clay, putty, garden pitch, so that the liquid does not evaporate.

To kill a tree, you can spray its leaves with Roundup, diluted in water in a strong concentration. First, the agent destroys the leaves, then it dries up on its own, deprived of the possibility of photosynthesis and the production of the necessary nutrients. Roundup can also be injected into the trunk of a tree, just as described above.

Experts recommend applying herbicides in cuts in the bark of trees, but not in spring, as sap flow prevents the drug from being absorbed.

In addition, herbicides are applied directly to the bark in the lower part of the trunk - at a distance of 30-50 cm from the ground. This procedure is carried out from spring to early autumn. So that the herbicide does not drain from the bark, it is mixed with oil and smeared with it on the bark.

There are special herbicides available to kill large trees and shrubs arboricides, buy and apply them according to the instructions.

It is believed that a copper nail driven into it can easily and quickly kill a tree, it is possible that a large tree cannot be destroyed with one nail, several nails will be needed.

A small tree can be destroyed by burying a few old batteries next to it, but their acid is harmful and dangerous to all living things.

An interfering tree can be killed without being cut down, with the help of salt - it is injected in a solution with water - by watering the tree, or simply by burying it under the roots. It is desirable to add salt under the central root, but it is also acceptable to add brine under the peripheral processes. At the same time, keep in mind that the roots of the tree grow unevenly - on the eastern side they stretch to a distance equal to the height of the crown, and on the western side - to half the height.

Using this feature of the root system, some gardeners try to destroy the neighbor's tree without penetrating into someone else's area. They just bury salt at the fence next to the tree and that's it. At the same time, no efflorescence occurs on the soil, and it can be very difficult to prove their malicious intent. The salt method works for 1-2 months - first the tree sheds its leaves and then dries up.

But, we should not forget that salt in the soil will have a negative impact on other plants, as well as on water in a well or well. Water and soil are also polluted by other means applied directly under the roots - herbicides, gasoline, diesel fuel, acids. Therefore, it is necessary to act with them thoughtfully and carefully.

There is an ecological method of "killing" a tree. Reliably, but not very quickly, it is killed by a decorative liana with a characteristic name - a wood pliers. This flowering liana braids the tree trunk, is attached to it not with suction cups and not with antennae, like other vines, but with sharp spikes. As a result, the tree dies, and now it is important not to let it go to other, necessary and useful trees. The tree pliers are used if it is not the tree itself that interferes, but its roots.

How to use a dead tree?

Sometimes it's not the tree itself that gets in the way, but its roots, which grow and begin to destroy the foundation of the house. In this case, the trunk can be left, but the growth of the tree can be stopped using one of the methods above.

In addition, not everyone has the ability, strength and tools to cut down a large tree. So, it remains to kill him, no matter how scary it may sound, and then use it in accordance with your own imagination and wishes. A dried tree is suitable for various purposes, it can be left as a support for climbing plants, or for multi-colored night lights, lanterns.

If the trunk of a dried tree is painted with paint of any color - blue, pink, gold, silver, it will look like a fantastic, alien plant, or a decorative composition with other shrubs or vines. The unearthly origin of the tree will be complemented by dummies of various fruits - apples, pears, pomegranates, grapes. All together on one tree they will look very unusual and tempting.

If you fix flowerpots with flowers blooming in different and abundant colors on a dried tree, it will turn into an original, vertical flower bed. You can “plant” various decorative figurines on a tree - a mermaid on the branches, goblin, storks, a cat-scientist, other fairy-tale characters and real animals and birds.

Make a hollow in the trunk of a dead tree and settle a family of squirrels there. And you can also clean the bark and draw any picture on a smooth trunk. The scope for imagination and skillful hands is truly limitless, and a tree that once interferes will become an aesthetic, pleasing to the eye, element of landscape design, its highlight.

Trees are part of landscape design, but sometimes you have to get rid of them. There can be many reasons for this: damage, parasites, a threat to human health or the destruction of buildings. How to destroy a tree with saltpeter? And are there other methods of struggle?

Destruction methods

How to destroy a tree without being noticed? It is not good to destroy vegetation on the sly, but situations are different. The most proven and effective method is the use of chemistry. Before you water the plant with poison, pour a couple of buckets of water near it. This is necessary in order for the chemistry to penetrate deep into the soil and get the roots.

There are various ways to destroy a tree in the area. They are described in our article. You can destroy an unnecessary tree in a short time if you follow all the recommendations of experienced gardeners. How to process the roots of trees so that they do not grow and when it is better to carry out the procedure - you will also learn about this from our article.

There are various ways to destroy a tree on the site

Chemical methods

What can be done to make the tree wither quickly? To remove unnecessary vegetation on the site today is not a problem. The choice of method depends on the site itself, the size of the plant and financial capabilities. The use of modern technology is expensive, so many prefer chemical methods of struggle. Chemicals for the destruction of trees are in the public domain.


Shrub and other vegetation removers can be used in a variety of ways. They are applied to the bark, foliage or stump, applied as a watering or injected into the trunk area. How to use the pesticide is up to you.

Soil application of pesticides

How to quickly destroy a tree: The simplest and least laborious method of elimination is to apply poison to the soil. This method is used to remove old trees. When destroying single specimens, there is a risk of damage to the root systems of neighboring trees.

The choice of method depends on the site itself

How to water the roots of a tree so that it dries up? For this purpose, the following chemicals are used:

These drugs are toxic, so the procedure should be carried out with rubber gloves, goggles and a gauze bandage. Diluted herbicide according to the instructions. Before applying the chemical to the soil, the plant should be watered abundantly. This will help the soil absorb the chemical solution faster.

Chemical application to the bark

An expert's opinion on ways to dry a tree:

Fighting unwanted tree growth is not an easy task. Folk remedies for destroying trees do not always work quickly and efficiently. The best way to exterminate weeds and root shoots is to use herbicides. When choosing chemicals, you should pay attention to drugs of continuous action in high concentrations. The method of use is chosen depending on the age, type of tree.

How to water a tree so that it dies? You can remove an unnecessary tree if you treat its bark with a chemical preparation. How to do it: Treat the trunk with a solution. The treated area must be at least 40 cm from the ground. To enhance the effectiveness of the solution, you can add oil. The bark should be completely saturated.

Experienced gardeners recommend this procedure in summer or spring. This method is effective if the tree has thin bark. In the thick bark, cuts must first be made.

Injection destruction

The safest method of eliminating unwanted bushes and trees is injection. To carry out the procedure, you will need a drill, a 5-10 mm drill, as well as a small syringe. Shallow holes are drilled in the trunk. Then a chemical agent is poured into them using a syringe. To prevent liquid from flowing out, holes are made at an angle of 60 degrees relative to the ground. It is also recommended to close each hole with earth or plasticine.

Injection - a safe method of eliminating unwanted trees

Chemistry for the destruction of trees:

Treatment of the crown and leaves

The ideal way to get rid of small shrubs is the treatment of the crown and leaves with chemical preparations. The plant dies due to a lack of nutrients. It is recommended to spray trees with chemicals after rain or heavy watering. This will ensure maximum absorption of the solution into the foliage.

To protect neighboring plants from death, it is recommended to carry out the treatment in early spring or summer. How to water the plant so that it dies: when choosing a drug, preference should be given to oil solutions, since they are better and faster absorbed into the foliage. Such preparations are more aggressive than water-based chemicals by the method of exposure. Chemical destruction of trees involves the use of personal protective equipment.

How to understand that the pesticide has worked - by the color of the foliage, it will turn brown. An equally effective way to get rid of unnecessary shrubs is to apply chemicals to living tissues. The bark performs a protective function and does not allow pesticides to reach the vascular tissues. In order for the solution to get deep into the bark, it is necessary to make a couple of downward cuts with an ax. Notches should be made around the entire circumference of the trunk at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other. The bark does not need to be torn off. A chemical agent is injected with a syringe into each incision.

Applying chemicals to living tissues is an effective way to get rid of unnecessary shrubs

It is recommended to carry out this procedure after the period of sap flow, otherwise all efforts will be in vain.

Comprehensive removal of the trunk and stump

How to kill a tree quickly: the easiest way is to cut it down and fill the resulting stump with a powerful chemical. This method is very efficient. Chemicals penetrate deep roots and destroy them completely. An exception can only be thick roots, which can give young shoots.

How to make a tree wither through the root: first you need to cut it down. Holes are drilled in the barrel, into which urea is poured and water is poured. The saw cut is tightly closed with cling film. The roots in the soil will quickly rot and turn into fertile soil.

What should be done to make the tree wither? For this purpose, saltpeter is used. You can prepare the stump in the same way as described above. Instead of urea, potassium or sodium nitrate is poured into the holes. A fire is built around the stump. It starts to smolder all over the place. After burning out, the place of the stump is covered with earth. This method has its drawbacks. Saltpeter penetrates the soil. It is harmful to most fruit and tuber crops.

Stump removal

One option for stump removal is the use of salt. This is the easiest remedy than to kill the root of a tree. Deep holes are made in the stump. The more of them, the better. Table salt is poured into the formed wells. From above it is necessary to crush the earth.

The use of salt is one option for stump removal.

Fungal spores are a good tool for killing tree roots. Drill many holes in the barrel. Put mycelium in them and water regularly. Mushroom spores will accelerate the process of destruction of the stump. In addition, you will be able to harvest your own grown mushrooms.

Means that cause drying out

How to water the grass so that it dries up: the Roundup chemical preparation has proven itself well. Is it possible to get rid of an unnecessary tree with it? How to make a tree dry out using Roundup - spraying .. This drug is a herbicide. It is used to remove weeds, but few people know that it also has a detrimental effect on stems, leaves, and roots.

The green parts absorb the herbicide active ingredients within 4-5 days. A week later, penetration into the stems and roots takes place. After about 10-12 days, the foliage begins to turn yellow and die.

The analogue of "Roundup" is "Tornado". This is a drug of continuous action. The active substances penetrate the plant within three hours after spraying. Withering begins after 10 days.

Folk methods of destruction

How to water a tree so that it rots: instead of pesticides, you can use folk remedies, for example, a solution of salt or soda. The solution must be concentrated. Spray the foliage in dry weather. No less effective is ammonia. It can be mixed with tar soap.

Small shrubs can be gotten rid of by spraying:

Tips and tricks

Regardless of whether you can destroy a tree so that it does not grow, a chemical preparation or a folk remedy, you must not forget about precautions. Such solutions are toxic, so the treatment should be carried out with rubber gloves, glasses and a gauze bandage. If the pesticide gets on the skin or in the eyes, rinse with plenty of running water and consult a doctor.

A happy event has happened: the purchase of a dacha. Well, if the owners get an empty lot. On it you can consider planting trees with a layout to your liking. But another situation is more common: at least one large tree grows on the territory. Moreover, it is not cultural or located very unsuccessfully.

Then you have to get rid of him. Uprooting or cutting down is not always convenient, and sometimes safe, so the question arises of how to water the tree so that it dries quickly. Then the trunk and stump will simply be cut down in parts, and the dead roots will remain in the soil.

One of the ways to dry a tree is to use chemicals. It is only necessary to remember that such products can harm surrounding plants located in their area of ​​​​action. Therefore, they must be used very carefully.

We've put together a list of useful things to use in the garden. And also, they found folk tricks to achieve the destruction of the tree in the shortest possible time. Therefore, each summer resident independently chooses a technique that is convenient for him.

How to water the tree so that it dries quickly?

Chemicals can be used in a variety of ways. They water various parts of plants, cover leaves with special compounds, vaccinate or bury poison under the root of a tree. It should be noted that in all these cases, chemical compounds act on the root system of the plant. Therefore, it dies due to the fact that it ceases to receive nutrients from the soil.

Popular chemicals include:

  1. herbicides , whose action is aimed at destroying the roots of plants (Roundup, Tornado, Arsenal or Arbonal), allow the tree to dry out in a short time;
  2. sodium nitrate is most often used to kill the stump, but it is also applied to the trunk of a tree; if possible, then you can pour it into the hollow so you can get a dried plant in a year;
  3. ammonium nitrate accelerates the decomposition of the roots, so they are easily converted into fertilizer; however, after removing the stump, the roots will have to be processed one more time.

In order for these products to have the most effective effect on the desired tree, it is necessary to follow the instructions of the chosen method exactly.

Method 1: Apply to live parts. To do this, it is necessary to make several chips with an ax on the trunk. Such notches should be located in a circle. They will need to be treated immediately. You should not use this technique in the spring, because due to the abundant movement of the juice, the drug will mostly be washed out of the wounds.

Method 2: watering. But it is recommended to use it only when there is a need to get rid of several plants at once.

Method 3: injections. Every 5-10 cm around the circumference of the trunk at a height of about 1 meter, it is supposed to drill holes with a diameter of 5-10 mm. Their depth should be about 5 cm and directed at an angle of about 45 degrees upward. Pour the herbicide into the holes from the syringe. Seal up the wounds with earth.

How to water a tree to dry out: folk remedies

People have long noticed that there are substances that have a negative effect on growth. Therefore, techniques have appeared to stop the development of the tree, and then achieve their destruction. How to water the tree so that it dries out?

Salt solution. The concentration depends on the size of the tree to be destroyed. The larger it is, the more salt will be required. The solution must be prepared so that it is completely absorbed into the soil around the tree, but does not spread over a long distance. Since you can destroy everything that grows nearby.

Paving the roots. This method is useful when the tree is growing on the site where the garden path will run. The surface of the soil is supposed to be simply poured with concrete. Moreover, the concrete should reach the base of the trunk. After a month, the roots will begin to die. Which will lead to the death of the tree.


If there is no danger of destroying trees that are still needed, then a more humane way of destroying the tree can be used. It is designed by nature itself. Therefore, the most environmentally friendly.

There is a special decorative liana with the speaking name "wood-lipped". It blooms beautifully, but at the same time it feeds on the juices of the tree, therefore it gradually destroys it. The main thing is to bring this vine out later so that it does not grow on other plantings.


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grafting with a red ribbon in summer

Precocious : ability to stimulate fertility without having to complete the juvenile stage. Imperfection is a natural state that a seedling plant must go through before it can become reproductive. In most fruit trees, juvenile life can last from 5 to 9 years, but in some tropical fruits, such as the mangosteen, juvenile life can be extended up to 15 years. Grafting mature offspring onto rootstocks can result in fruiting in as little as two years.

Dwarf : To dwarf or reduce growth or other characteristics for a tree. Most apple trees in modern orchards are grafted onto dwarf or semi-dwarf trees planted at high density. They provide more fruit per unit of land, higher quality fruit, and reduce the risk of accidents from ladder harvesters. Care must be taken when planting dwarf or semi-dwarf trees. If such a tree is planted by grafting under the soil, some of the scion may also grow roots and the tree will grow to its standard size.

Ease of propagation : since offspring are difficult to propagate vegetatively by other means such as cuttings . In this case, cuttings from an easily established plant are used to provide rootstocks. In some cases, offspring may be easily propagated, but grafting may still be used as it is the commercially most cost-effective way to grow a particular type of plant.

Hybrid breeding : accelerate the maturation of hybrids in fruit breeding programs. Hybrid seedlings can take ten or more years to flower and fruit on their own roots. Grafting can shorten the time to bloom and shorten the breeding program.

Hardiness : Because rebound has weak roots, or plant roots are tolerant of difficult conditions. for example, many western Australian plants are susceptible to dying off in the heavy soils common in urban gardens and are grafted onto hardier eastern Australian relatives. Examples are Greville and eucalyptus trees.

Strength : Provide a strong, high carrier for certain ornamental shrubs and trees. In these cases, grafting is done at the desired height on a factory setting with a strong stem. This is used for growing "standard" roses, which are tall-stemmed rose bushes, and is also used for some ornamental trees, such as some weeping cherries.

Disease/Pest Resistance : In areas where soil pests or pathogens prevent successful planting of the desired variety, the use of thorny rootstocks that are pest/disease resistant allows production from a variety that would otherwise be unsuccessful. A prime example is the use of rootstocks to control Phylloxera

Pollen source : Provide pollinators. For example, in densely planted or poorly planned apple orchards of one variety, crabapple limbs may be grafted at regular intervals on trees down the rows, say, every fourth tree. This takes care of pollen needs during flowering but does not confuse pickers who might otherwise mix varieties at harvest time as mature crabapples are so different from other apple varieties.

Repair : To repair damage to the trunk of a tree that will inhibit the flow of nutrients, such as rodent stripping that completely encircles the trunk.

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