How far apart do you plant white pine trees
White Pine — Windbreak Trees
The White Pine is a fast growing (2-3 ft per year or more) evergreen that has needles of from 3-6 inches long and are arranged in bundles of five on the stem. In Sep-Oct this pine “sheds “ all of its needles that grew out the previous year. These needles make excellent mulch but are also very flammable, so fire and sparks must be kept away from the base of these trees. When grown in the open its branches extend to the ground, when grown in windbreaks they usually looses these lower branches, which is common in the pine family. It is a native of northern third of the US extending as far south as the mountains in Georgia.
White pine from 3 ft potted to 8 ft tree in 5 years.
It will grow up to 80ft tall + and 25 ft or more wide, its large spreading root system is very wind firm, but its branches are slightly brittle and can be damaged by snow, ice, and windstorms. It can live over 100 years in windbreaks but usually has a shorter lifespan because of being broken up by wind and ice storms. On a well drained, moist soil this species will outgrow any other evergreen that can be planted there, and a 20 year old tree can be 40 ft tall. Deer will readily eat this species and due to all the new growth coming out of the very tip of a branch, browsing can severely deform or kill this plant.
It will grow well in hardiness zones from 3-7 and will grow quite fast in most soils. It prefers a well-drained soil and does not like to have its roots too wet. On clay or heavy soils they seem to do quite well but when a wet year comes along have seen some deaths of 20-30ft trees and I blame it on the clay soil holding too much moisture causing root death. Norway Spruce is a better species in heavy/clay soils. Have seen them growing on PH soils of up to 9 but are thin and show signs of chlorosis, soils of 7.5 PH and below, are much preferred.
Normal dropping of last years needles. Happens every year usually in Sep.
The White pine can grow well in sandy conditions where the spruce would not do as well. It is quite adaptable to dryer sites if not planted to closely together (16ft). It does have 2 disease problems such as the blister rust and white pine weevil, and Zimmerman Pine moth in Iowa. Before planting it is best to check other White pine in the area and see if they have any disease or insect problems, and check with your county extension agent on the local situation.
A 2ft tall potted White Pine tree can be over 12 ft tall in 5 years, in good soil, with adequate moisture and total weed and grass control. Spacing--single row -16 ft apart, Double row -20ft between rows and plants, Multiple rows -22ft or more between trees and rows.
The White pine tree is a recommended windbreak tree with its fast growth and adaptability, except we have found a problem as shown below, in Iowa. On a several row windbreak I would use other species along with this one and would consider deer activity in the area as they can severely inhibit growth.
Potted White Pine.
Zimmerman Pine Moth Damage, White Pine are now effected
We have recently discovered that Zimmerman pine moth is now infecting the White and Red Pine here in Iowa and probably other areas. It was previously believed to not infect this species, check your trees to see if you have a situation like as shown above. Long term effect may not be good as it creates a weak spot at the base of the branches and causes them to break in heavy wind or snow, and there is currently no effective treatment for this. Currently cannot recommend this species for a long term windbreak. Will keep you updated as to the long term effect of this destructive pest on White pine.
Kelly Tree Farm, 191 Quincy Ave. Clarence IA 52216 - PH: 563-452-4300 - [email protected]
How to Plant White Pine Trees
PLANTING WITH CHILDREN
If at all possible, we urge you to plant these marvelous seeds and seedlings with your children, your grandchildren, borrowed neighbor children and young people at outdoor and wilderness tripping camps. It’s increasingly easy for kids to assume that everything comes from a factory, or that “someone else” will take care of our future needs for a healthy planet, replenishment of raw materials, clean air, clean water, and natural places to go for relaxation and recreation that are not “built” environments. It might just be that the hands-on experience of planting several trees – making holes in the ground, placing seeds or seedlings in the dirt, covering them and hoping they will grow – will impart some “ownership” to kids doing this with you. They are the ones who can most affect the future for everyone, and so a sense of “ownership” in trees, in forests, in the idea that you CAN grow your own, in wilderness, in “effort in equals result out” could have major impact. This is also a wonderful and rare opportunity for older and younger generations to talk, to discuss what might be important to both groups. We hope the planting experience with kids produces trees AND great conversations.
WHERE TO PLANT WHITE PINE
• First of all, do believe that ANYONE can successfully plant trees! It doesn’t take any special skill – just some time, a bit of effort and common sense. Believe also that planting trees can be both fun while doing it and immensely rewarding as time goes on and they grow and grow and grow. I have sugar maples that are 40’ tall, white spruce that are 50’ tall and red pine (planted just 8 years ago) that are already 16’ tall. I planted every one of them by hand, and the satisfaction every time I see them is huge. The maples are now giving us sap each spring that we boil down and make into maple syrup. How fun is that?
• White pine grow best among other trees where the overhead canopy density is roughly 40 – 60%. However, they will grow very slowly in deep shade – they need an “opening” in the upper story to let sun down and to grow up through. They do adequately-to-quite-well in direct open sun if you are reforesting a clearing or a burned area.
• White pine are okay being somewhat solitary, unlike red pine which like to be in groups. Plant whites at least 30’ apart which is minimum spacing for mature trees. Or plant more densely and plan to thin out the weaker trees later on. Try to avoid creating a tree “monoculture” where all trees are the same and thus much easier for disease and deer to attack. There is always some disease, pest or predator working away at every species of tree somewhere. It’s really important to have diversity of species in any woods so that one organism cannot wipe out the entire forest. Plant whites – but also plant other native northern species in the same area so your forest is “multi-cultural”.
• Some folks plant a small triangle of seeds or seedlings – about 12″ – 15” apart – instead of just one. The idea is that one might not germinate or take root, one might grow poorly, and one will be the best. Plan to thin the triangle when it becomes obvious which tree is the strongest.
• Seeds, seedlings and potted trees MUST be planted in “mineral soil” – what the pros call “dirt”, and the sandier the better. Most northern forest floors have a top layer of “duff” – often 2″ – 5” of a lightweight blend of pine needles, molding leaves, dust, twigs, etc. Under that is either rock or dirt. Pick spots where the dirt is deep and wide enough to contain a full root system ten to twenty years out. Conifer roots grow outward at least to their “drip line”– where water would drip off the tree’s outermost branch tips. This sideways growth gives the tree lateral stability against wind and heavy snow or ice. They do not have “tap roots” (hardwoods do) that grow downward since they’d hit bedrock in most northern places.
• In order for mature trees to be a most effective seed-scattering source, they should be planted 100’ or more apart in order to cover more area. In the wild, try to avoid planting at campsites, on portages or along shorelines. By moving away from these easily reached sites and well into the woods you get the new trees to places of greater shelter and greater reseeding effectiveness.
• Make sure the dirt area chosen has natural access to moisture. If the dirt you clear or dig is bone dry today, it is likely to be so in the future. Plant in relatively or potentially moist soil. Whites like sandy, moderately moist soil best, so avoid moisture extremes like low, wet areas or dry hilltops.
• Plant a safe distance (a mature tree-length) away from cabins, buildings, tent sites, etc. Tall whites are often hit by lightning (which often jumps sideways too) and they can do awesome damage when they are blown over.
• Avoid planting where other whites already show blister rust or weevil signs (see “Aftercare” section) or any obvious stress. Rust infection is most likely in small forest openings, topographic depressions and at bases of slopes. Avoid areas with large deer populations unless you plan to use bud caps, fencing or other deer deterrents each fall (see “Aftercare”).
• Plant a nursery. You may want to take a cleared area and plant rows of seeds or seedlings maybe only 12” – 24” apart. Let them grow for 2 – 4 or more years and transplant the small trees to sites needing them. Have the new holes already dug and the soil wet. Lift each new tree with a spade (never by the trunk or stem). Get almost all of the roots and the dirt it has been growing in. Carry the tree in the shovel to the new hole and set it in with the trunk at the same soil level as it was at its old site. Make sure there are no air pockets in the dirt around the roots and tamp the dirt down. Ideally transplants should get a lot of water for several weeks if possible, though many will survive on their own.
• Record the sites where you planted, the soil and moisture conditions, methods used and subsequent weather. Compare sites, methods and weather next year to see what worked best in your location(s).
• Don’t expect “instant” trees. Seeds planted in spring might be tiny “puff balls” of needles by late fall. Both seeds and seedlings will grow very slowly the first several years – only inches per year as they acclimatize to their new surroundings. By year 6 – 8 or so they will start adding a foot a year – then a foot and a half. Seeds planted from August on may show tiny shoots or nothing at all the first year. Seeds planted from October on won’t even germinate until the next spring.
• Please source your seeds and seedlings as close to the place you will plant them as possible. Specifically ask commercial providers where their stock comes from. This both helps ensure that your trees will grow well in that climate, soil and location, and will prevent introduction of new species or specie variations not native to that region. To reforest in the best possible “native species” fashion, collect white pine cones from trees already in your chosen area, dry the seeds and then plant those seeds very close to the same place, just as nature might have done.
Note: Most seeds will keep for a year or more if they are dry (in a double plastic bag) and in the dark and cold of your refrigerator.
• Plant freely on your own private property. Do be sure to ask permission when planting at your neighbor’s, in common areas, in fields and forests and everywhere it seems white pine should be. Contact the US Forest Service District Silviculturist or reforestation expert in your area for help finding the best places to plant. Contact information for northern Minnesota:
Laurentian Ranger District (Aurora, MN) 218-229-8800
Gunflint Ranger District (Grand Marais, MN) 218-387-1750
Kawishiwi Ranger District (Ely, MN) 218-365-7600
LaCroix Ranger District (Cook, MN) 218-666-0020
Tofte Ranger District (Tofte, MN) 218-663-8060
NOTE: Do NOT plant anything in any part of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness or Voyageurs National Park. Both sites have firm rules against any such human intervention in natural processes. However, we have been encouraged by the Superior National Forest to plant appropriate species anywhere within the Superior National Forest EXCEPT in the part which is the BWCAW.
AFTERCARE – Will Reduce Mortality
It may seem strange that it helps to “garden the forest” but, if you are near your planted trees, here are several things you can do to help them reach that vital “maturity” stage where they are producing cones and seeds themselves:
• “Release” them often. Twice or thrice a summer, use clippers to prune back other competing brush, weeds and treelets. Ideally, keep your new white pines in a freed circle 2’ – 3’ in diameter – some experts say more like 9’ – 10’. Clip branches immediately overhead as well to let sunlight and air in.
• “Prune Up” the bottom branches of each tree once it reaches maybe a foot or more tall. Leave at least two-thirds of the tree volume intact, but get every single bottom branch because blister rust thrives in small, damp areas and those low branches touching or near the ground or duff collect and retain rain and dew long after the higher branches have dried. Move the clipped branches away from the trunk so they don’t keep moisture right there, but you do not need to fully remove or burn your prunings. Clip each branch just outside its raised “bud collar” ring with a clean cut straight up and down.
• Blister Rust will cause brown needles and raised, sometimes oozy blisters on branches and eventually on the trunk. Prune diseased branches immediately and well inboard (12” or more) of any disease signs. Pruned branches do not need to be removed from the area nor your clippers sterilized. The cranberry/gooseberry family (“ribes”) of bushes serves as the “vector” for the blister rust virus, so the likelihood of white pine surviving in an area of many such bushes is not good and most experts consider removing the vector to be impossible. Plant elsewhere.
• White Pine Weevil: The weevil lays its eggs in the leader shoot of the white pine where the larvae hatch and grow in late spring and early summer. Their presence is obvious because the leader shoot needles turn brown. Immediately remove the leader a good foot below the last browned needles and BURN IT at once to kill the larvae. Soon a nearby side branch will begin growing upwards and become the new leader shoot. That tree will survive.
• Deer Browse Damage: If deer nibble off the leader shoot and bud, prune the leader with a clean cut if it is damaged. A side branch will soon grow upwards to become the new leader. If this happens again, think hard about bud caps or other deterrents (see below).
• “Bud Caps”: Once a tree is about 6” tall you can apply bud caps in late September to keep deer from browsing off the top leader bud. Any kind of office-type paper 2.3” x 4.3” or so works fine. You can cut an 8.5” x 14” sheet in half the long way and then each strip into 6 sections. Fold the paper around the leader, putting your index finger in the fold and over the bud from the top. The bud should be 1/2″ below the cap’s top. Use any office stapler to hold the cap in place by catching several needles in the staple but leaving room for bud growth. Remove the caps each spring. Once the tree’s leader is over 5’ tall, caps are no longer needed.
• See Rajala, Jack: “Bringing Back The White Pine”, THE definitive book on planting and caring for these wonderful trees. Out of print but available in many area libraries. An article on Jack Rajala appears in the 2008 Spring edition of the Quetico Superior Foundation’s newsletter Wilderness News and is reprinted on our web site (https://queticosuperior. org/blog/a-man-of-the-trees).
Pine cultivation in the country
Pine planting and care
Pines should not be carried bare-rooted and planted in garden soil. The fact is that the roots of a young pine tree die in the open air after 10-15 minutes, and they also do not need the land too rich in organic matter. Pines of all kinds grow and develop best in sunny places and on light soils.
If the ground in your area is particularly heavy, be sure to make a twenty-centimeter drainage of expanded clay or broken bricks and a layer of sand when planting. It is good to add 50 g of nitrophoska or 100 g of Kemira-universal complex fertilizer to the planting pit. Weymouth pine and black grow better on alkaline and neutral soils, so when planting in the hole, add 200-300 g of lime. Everything is mixed with the earth, watered and a tree is planted.
If you plant several pines, then the distance between large ones should be at least 4 m, undersized ones can be planted closer to each other - at a distance of 1.5 m. Do not bury the root collar when planting, it should be at ground level. And when planting large-sized plants (it is better to do this in winter), the neck should be raised above ground level by 10 cm, since the soil will settle over time. 3-5-year-old trees take root best of all. Immediately after planting, the tree is watered abundantly. Pine trees often suffer from pests and diseases. The most stable among them is mountain pine.
The best time for planting pines is the end of April - the beginning of May or the end of August - the middle of September. If in the fall you planted a tree a little later than this period, then its roots may not have time to take root. Therefore, be sure to cover the tree with spruce branches or spunbond so that the spring sun does not burn it. It will be possible to remove the shelter only when the ground thaws, that is, in mid-April. Well-established trees do not need to be covered.
How to create compositions of conifers in the garden, which conifers need pruning, how to grow them from seeds, and how to prepare conifers for winter, read other materials on our site. Pay attention to the information block to the left of the text of the article: it contains links to related articles.
Cedar: planting and care. How to grow cedar in the country
Powerful and large cedar tree! Planting and caring for him, despite his parameters, is not at all complicated. The main thing is to find a place for this beauty. In our time, the cedar tree has become very popular due to the benefits it brings to man. To the question of how to grow cedar, for example, in a summer cottage, there is an answer: breeders have bred dwarf varieties of this tree. Ordinary cedars can reach a height of 30 meters or more, while dwarf cedars barely grow to 1 meter. They look beautiful both in single plantings and in group. Himalayan cedar has proven itself in the form of a hedge, it tolerates a haircut perfectly, which allows you to give free rein to your imagination and create a variety of green forms. In addition to the fact that this tree gives beauty, it also brings health benefits.
Since ancient times, it has been believed that cedar is an elixir of youth, it is a symbol of power. Especially its action is important for men's health and power. It is also established that this plant is a source of healing energy. If every day for an hour to rest near the evergreen miracle of nature, then you can completely get rid of many diseases. So the cedar, planting and caring for which will not cause you much trouble, can take its rightful place on your site. This article will help you learn how to grow a beautiful and healthy conifer at home.
Description of cedar
Cedar looks great in the country. This evergreen tree will delight you with its beautiful view all year round. It belongs to the pine family and can live up to 800-1000 years. This long-liver, as it grows, acquires several peaks and a dense crown.
Old cedars are brown, with a grayish tint, cracked bark in the form of rough scales. Young shoots are dark brown in color with a huge amount of long red hairs. The needles are dark green soft, grow in bunches of 5 needles, triangular with small notches, reach a length of 5 to 15 cm.
Cedar is a monoecious plant, both female and male cones grow on it. The female cone of cedar is at the end of the shoot, and the male one is at the base. The wind causes pollination. The kidneys are conical, up to 10 mm long. The ripe cone reaches 15 cm in length and 5-10 cm in width. They are diamond-shaped, have a brown tint. Young cones are egg-shaped and purple in color. Full maturation occurs within 15-16 months. The cedar begins to bear fruit, the planting and care of which are carried out according to all the rules, at the age of fifty.
Seeds of the evergreen beauty are large, dark brown, ovoid. In one cone, from 50 to 150 seeds can ripen.
Species of cedar trees
Before you learn how to plant a cedar, you need to familiarize yourself with what species exist in nature and how each of them is characterized so that you can choose the best option for yourself. In total, the genus of cedar trees includes 4 tall species:
- Lebanese - distinguished by its mighty and spreading branches that grow horizontally. The Lebanese cedar looks very unusual, planting and caring for this species is very simple, since it is completely unpretentious to growing conditions. This tree is slow growing and barely reaches 2 meters by the age of 10 years.
- Atlas - This species will require a lot of room to grow as it is extremely powerful. By the age of 10, it reaches 3 m in height. After planting, the seedling needs a garter. The branches of the plant are raised up.
- Himalayan - by the age of 10 grows up to 3 m.
- Cypriot - originally from the island of Cyprus. The crown at the beginning of growth is cone-shaped, then it develops into a wide-spreading, in old age it becomes umbrella-shaped. In adulthood, reaches a height of 40 m.
Cultivation of cedar begins with the selection of a suitable place for the plant. It is recommended to plant a tree where the soil is not too dry and saturated with nutrients. Plants in the neighborhood should be lower than cedar, as it needs a high level of light as it grows. Trees that have reached the age of 7-8 years can already develop normally further in partial shade.
How to plant cedar
The very first thing you need to know is that cedar seedlings should be at a distance of 7-8 m from each other. Marking the territory during planting is a very important stage of work. Care must be taken to ensure that the distance from the tree to the house and nearby buildings is at least 3 m. These distances must be observed so that the powerful root system of the plant does not destroy the foundations of structures over time.
When the markings are finished, you can start landing, this is not a difficult process at all. Cedar is not too picky about the soil, and it does not require additional bedding. In hard ground, it is recommended to fill up a drainage layer (15-20 cm), consisting of coarse sand or broken bricks.
Watering and spraying
Cedars do not usually need watering when grown in the garden. Unless young trees and cedar seedlings are an exception, they need to be watered in dry and hot summers. Watering is required moderate, so as not to form stagnation of moisture.
Evergreens are also calm about dry air. But at the same time, young cedars need to be periodically sprayed on summer days. This way you will provide the needles with a rich color.
Caring for cedar
How to grow a cedar tree so that it is strong, beautiful and healthy? The answer to this question is simple - you need to properly care for it. While the plant is still young, it grows very slowly, yielding primacy in growth to other conifers and deciduous species. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that small and still weak cedar seedlings do not disappear into the shadows and thickets of their faster neighbors. It is necessary to remove self-seeding of foreign plants in time.
Best of all, the tree will develop in an area open to the sun's rays. The evergreen handsome man does not tolerate an excess of nitrogen, this can lead to the fact that the root system will develop poorly. At the same time, he needs potassium.
Seedlings need mulching, it will keep the roots in winter from frostbite during severe frosts. Every year it is advised to increase the layer of mulch, this will contribute to the formation of adventitious roots.
In spring and autumn, the circle of soil around the trunk can be mulched with organic matter. In the summer, twice a month, it is recommended to feed the cedar with a complex organo-mineral fertilizer.
Propagation by seedlings
Very carefully you need to choose cedar seedlings. It is better to purchase those that are sold in containers or with a large clod of earth on the roots. This condition increases the chances that the plant will tolerate the transplant well. It is recommended to buy 2-3 year old seedlings. If open roots and yellow withered needles are visible on the planting material, then it is better to refuse such a purchase.
Having picked up seedlings, you can start planting, adhering to the following recommendations:
- Dig up the soil within 3 meters around the planting hole.
- The planting hole should be 40 percent larger than the seedling's earth seedling.
- Before planting, dip the roots of the seedling in a creamy clay solution.
- First fix the peg in the hole, only then can the seedling be placed there. Dig everything together with earth.
- Tie the seedling to the support with string.
- Water the plant moderately. If there is no rain for 14 days, then you need to continue watering every 2 days.
How to grow a cedar from a nut
To grow a cedar from a nut, you first need to choose the right seeds. Make sure that the planting material does not have an unpleasant odor and is not moldy. Now that the material is selected, you can start sowing.
Before sowing, so that the seedlings are not affected by the fungus, the seeds must be pickled in a weak solution of manganese for two hours.
The seeds do not germinate right away, first they undergo a long preparation, which lasts about 5 months. The first step of preparation is soaking the seeds in water for 3 days, changing the water daily. After that, the nuts are mixed with sand, moistened and put into a cloth bag. Now you need to place them in a wooden box with holes on the sides and refrigerate. Periodically, planting material should be checked and moistened as needed. If mold is noticed on the nut, it is immediately thrown away, and the sand is changed.
After six months, the nuts are thoroughly washed and planted in pots to a depth of 1 cm. Sandy soil is used for this. At room temperature, the seeds will germinate in 30 days. Now the seedlings can be placed in a lighted place, but not under the direct rays of the sun.
With the onset of summer, the pots can be taken outside so that the plants get used little by little to the air and the sun. After some time, small seedlings can be transplanted into loose soil.
How to grow cedar in the country
When coniferous forests are far from habitation, one really wants to settle in one's home such a plant that will envelop the farmstead with a heady and healing coniferous aroma. Cedar is the best suited for this purpose. Due to its large size, it is often used for landscaping large parks and squares. On a suburban area, a tall handsome man will also look great, especially when paired with a birch, but what if you have a small dacha and the site does not have endless expanses? A way out can be found by planting a dwarf cedar in the country.
Here are some varieties of dwarf cedar:
- Lebanese cedar cv. Nana;
- Atlas cedar cv. Aurea;
- Lebanese cedar cv. Sargentii;
- Himalayan cedar Golden Horizon.
Benefits of cedar for humans
What benefit does the cedar bring to mankind, why, especially in recent times, has there been such an increase in interest in this evergreen plant? This is explained by the fact that the tree has extraordinary properties:
- Throughout the year, the cedar looks very decorative, especially in winter, when green needles are combined with white sparkling snow.
- Healthy and delicious pine nuts are widely used in cosmetology, medicine and cooking.
- Gum resin due to its unique healing properties is one of the best wound healing agents.
- Cedar needles are also useful, for centuries it has been successfully used to treat many diseases.
- Your site will be filled with an amazing coniferous aroma inherent in cedar, as a result of which the air will be filled with useful substances and freshness.
- Cedar wood is highly valued in construction and furniture making. Canadian cedar is simply priceless in this case. Products from this tree have the highest price, as they are extremely durable, easily tolerate high and low temperatures, environmentally friendly and have antiseptic properties. So Canadian cedar can be considered a leader among the trees used by builders and furniture makers.
It is difficult to find a more common, useful and versatile tree than pine. In addition to wood, resin is collected from trees, and turpentine and rosin are obtained from it. Carotene and vitamin C are obtained from needles, and the well-known pine oil is produced from seeds.
Pine serves not only man. Squirrels, birds and chipmunks feed on pine seeds, and elk feed on pine shoots and bark.
So, let's find out how to grow a pine tree so that it pleases the eye and decorates the garden. The best time for autumn sowing is September-October.
For him, the largest seeds are selected from the best trees that bring abundant harvests. Seeds are prepared before planting. First, they are soaked for several days in water, while the water is changed every day. The day before sowing, the seeds are placed in a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Now you need to decide how to grow pine from seeds.
Seeds are sown in wide rows, the distance between which is ten to fifteen centimeters. The depth of their landing is three centimeters. After sowing, the earth is rolled and covered with a layer of mulch. Be sure to ensure that no shadow falls on the beds, as even slight shading causes a slowdown in growth. In the spring, it is advisable to cover the seedlings with plastic wrap so that birds do not damage them. But as soon as the green "loops" throw off the shell, the film is removed.
If the seeds are sown in the spring, they undergo stratification within eighty to ninety days. They are soaked in warm water for six to eight days. Then the pine seeds are mixed with peat or sand and kept at a temperature of eighteen to twenty-two degrees for a month.
Seeds thus treated are stored at zero temperature. The best time for spring sowing is April-May. The first pick is carried out at the cotyledon stage. Seedlings are dug up, sorted, cut off the roots and planted according to the scheme of twenty by twenty centimeters.
In the third year, seedlings are transplanted into the first school at a distance of seventy to ninety centimeters from each other, and after five years they can be planted in a permanent place. If large-sized planting material is required, then it is grown in the second school for five years.
When picking and transplanting seedlings, always add coniferous bedding to the soil, as well as pine forest soil, which contains mycorrhiza, since it increases the survival rate of young trees. To decide how to plant a pine, you need to clarify some points.
Planting pine in a garden requires a sunny, open and dry area. The distance between the trees should be at least 7-10 meters. The landing pit is dug in length and width equal to ten trunk diameters at the base. The depth of the pit is dug 15-20 centimeters more.
If the soil at the planting site is not suitable for pine, then the pit is increased by thirty centimeters in depth, width and height. At the bottom of a hole dug in clay soil, a drainage twenty centimeters high is laid. Then it is filled by a third with a mixture prepared from humus, coniferous bedding, garden soil and a small amount of peat.
A tree over three years of age should preferably be transplanted with a clod of earth. Before planting, the roots are treated with a root stimulant solution for twenty-four hours. The pine is placed in a planting hole and carefully covered with an earthen mixture, and then watered abundantly.
When planting container trees, water only after planting. At the same time, a root stimulant is necessarily added to the irrigation water, for example, "Heteroauxin" or indolylbutyric acid.
Plant trees from containers into planting holes at the same level as they were planted in pots. Open-rooted pines are best planted in the fall, while container plants are best planted year-round.
We grow pine bonsai
In order to have a miniature pine tree in a pot at home, you can try growing a bonsai. We will warn you right away that this is a troublesome business and not always successful. One-year-old seedlings are suitable for growing bonsai. To start painstaking work, dig a seedling in the fall and transplant it into a small pot filled with humus, sand and perlite.
In the spring, after the seedling has taken root, you can start pruning, leaving only a seven-centimeter stalk. After pruning, it is necessary to impose a wire frame, which will further form the stem of your dwarf tree.
Care of planted pines
Planted plants need careful care, which consists of watering, weeding and top dressing. Now let's figure out how to care for a pine tree so that it quickly takes root and grows well. In the first year of cultivation, watering is carried out regularly and quite plentifully.
Top dressing is carried out once a month with organic fertilizers. The ground under the trees within a radius of seventy centimeters is kept clean.
Twice during the growing season, the roots of the plant should be watered with a solution of root stimulator to form fine suction roots. Also, once a month, the ground around the trees is mulched with coniferous litter.
Almost all owners of dachas and summer cottages plant different trees on their plots, as a rule, these are trees on which edible fruits grow - for example, apple, pear, cherry, plum.
But also very often, especially recently, they began to plant various coniferous trees on their plots. Pine is the most popular among these trees.
How to plant a pine tree in the country so that it grows for a long time
It is this answer and many others regarding pine that will be answered in this article. How it looks can be seen here.
In order to plant a pine tree in the country with your own hands, you first need to dig a hole in which it will be planted.
In this case, the main thing to remember is that the best period for planting are the months April, June and July .
In order to plant a pine tree, you do not need to choose a very large tree, because the smaller your tree is, the more likely it will land well and grow well.
Then it will be necessary to dig around the tree - put your hand under it and feel for the root. This is done in order not to cut it.
It is necessary to plant a pine tree with some soil on the pine roots. This is done because pine will grow and develop much better in its native land. To what kind of soils are located on the pine site, they react indifferently - they can adapt to any type of soil.
Interesting! Compost bin for summer cottage, here!
But for pine, such a factor as the presence of the sun is very important, since in the shade it will only grow upwards, but at the same time it will not show its beautiful fluffiness at all.
So, in order to plant a pine tree, you need to dig a hole first, then soak this earth with water, fill the bottom of the hole with earth from the forest, after that a tree is inserted and the hole around it is completely covered with earth from the site, but it is still better to fill the roots land from the forest.
Pine, like any tree, does not require a special approach.
The main thing to remember is that once the tree has been planted during the first week, it will need to be watered at least once a day. After the first week, this may or may not be done.
How to plant pine trees in the country if there is not one pine but several of them
If you decide to plant not one but several pines at once, then you will need to do everything as follows. Each individual tree is planted under the same conditions as in the previous version, subject to the same rules. But the main thing is to correctly calculate the distance between the pines.
This primarily depends on the height of the pines. If these are decorative pines up to 2.5 - 3 meters high, then the distance between the pits for planting pines should be approximately at the level of 70 - 80 centimeters.
If these are not decorative pines, but ordinary loess pines, the height of which reaches up to 18 - 20 meters, then in this case the distance between them should be no less than 5 meters.
Once you know how to properly plant pines, it is also important to know which pine to plant on the site, because not all types of pines will be able to successfully grow and develop in such conditions.
The best types of pines to plant on the plot are as follows:
1) Mountain pine. This type of pine is fairly easy to find in any store that sells certain products. There are different sizes and shapes of this pine - a branchy bush, a small tree, ground cover types of forms. This tree has both its pros and cons. The advantages are - good compactness and branching right up to the base; available and not expensive prices.
The main disadvantage is that they grow very slowly when compared with other pines, what mountain pine looks like can be seen below
2) Cedar pine. Another pine option that can be easily planted in a summer cottage. But this tree will be much taller and more voluminous in size than, for example, a mountain pine. It, like the previous one, has been growing for a very long time, but the plus is that it absolutely does not need income for it. Green needles, which, by the way, grow a lot on a tree right up to its very foundation.
3) Scotch pine. EE can be bought at any store that sells gardening supplies, but it is also quite easy to grow it yourself.
Cones for its cultivation are best collected in the month of March. In order for the tree to grow better, it is necessary to use phytosporin for prevention during the first year of the plant's life.
Of course, besides the fact that you can buy a tree, you can also grow a pine tree yourself - this is of course more difficult, but nevertheless interesting and exciting. How to plant a pine cone - will be described below. Planting a pine cone.
Planting a pine cone takes place in several stages:
1) you need to find a few pieces of 2-year-old cones that have recently fallen to the ground. In order to find out if these buds are really young and suitable for planting, you need to look between the petals to see if there are any seeds there.
2) After the seeds have dried, they will need to be put in a paper bag and set aside in a dry place. The main thing is to choose a place where there will be no natural pests.
3) The whole seeds must then be placed in a damp paper towel. It is also necessary to take into account the climate in the area where the pine will be planted. If, for example, winter lasts about 3 months, then it is best to put them in the refrigerator for this period.
4) After the end of winter, it will be necessary to stretch the cones and plant them in the soil. To do this, they are planted to a depth of about 2 cm and immediately watered.
5) Then it will be necessary to place the cones on the window. They will need to grow in approximately 5 to 10 days.
6) When this period has passed, it will be necessary to plant the soil in the ground on the site.
It is also very important to know how to plant a pine tree from seed. After all, very often they land in this way.
Planting pine trees with seeds
For this start, you need to take a few cones.
The best time to collect these buds is during the winter, because when the heat comes, the buds tend to bloom and at the same time the seeds fly out. In order to get these seeds, you must first dry the cones well - for this you can, for example, put the cones on a battery or over a gas stove - in a word, in a place where high air temperatures are constantly present.
After a few days, the seeds can be obtained without much difficulty. Ready seeds are best planted in a wooden box that will be filled with drainage. About a month later, the first elements of pine will be visible. The main thing to remember is that in order for the pine from seeds to successfully develop, it will be necessary to create favorable conditions for it - always maintain warmth and do not forget to water it every day.
How to plant a pine tree in autumn
Quite an interesting question, since pines are intended primarily for planting in the summer. Pine planting in autumn. So, in order to plant a pine in the fall, you must first prepare a place for planting so that the earth has time to settle.
The hole will need to be dug approximately 2 times larger than the size of the seedling itself. Drainage will need to be installed at the bottom of the pit. The hole should be well watered.
Mulch tree trunks with sawdust. After that, it will be possible to lower the seedling into the pit - fill the pit and water it well.
Pine types for planting in autumn
As mentioned earlier, not every type of pine can be planted in autumn. The following pines are planted in autumn
- Scotch pine cultivation
- Care and cultivation of pine
- Growing and caring for pine trees
- Growing condition pine
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planting and care, growing in winter and autumn, types and varieties, photo
Author: Elena N. https://floristics.info/ru/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19 Category: Garden plants Republished: Last edited:
- Planting and Care for Pine
- Botanical Description
- Pine planting
- When to plant
- how to plant
- Care for Pine in the garden
- Conditions for growing
- transplant 9000
- Pine propagation
- Propagation methods
- Growing from seed
- Propagation from cuttings
- Pine grafting
- Pine in winter on the site
- Preparation for winter
- Wintering in the garden
- Types and varieties
- Bristolskaya (Pinus aristata)
- Flexible pine (Pinus flexilis)
- European pine (Pinus cembra)
- Korean stone pine (Pinus koraiensis)
- Siberian stone pine (Pinus pumila)
- Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)
Pine (lat. Pinus) is a type genus of coniferous shrubs, elfins or trees of the Pine family, which includes about 120 species. Pines grow throughout the Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic to the equator. In the subarctic and temperate climates, they form forests both on the plains and in mountainous regions, and in the subtropical and tropical zone, pines grow mainly in the mountains.
There are three versions of the origin of the scientific name of the genus: from the Celtic word pin, meaning "mountain" or "rock", from the Greek name for pine, pinos, mentioned by Theophrastus, and from the Latin words picis, pix, meaning "resin". According to ancient Greek myth, pines originated from the nymph of the morning dawn, Pitis, which the god of the north wind Boreas, tormented by jealousy, turned into this tree. The Chinese believe that pines ward off misfortune from the house and bring happiness and longevity, so they should be planted near the house.
Nowadays, pines are so popular in every corner of the world that the work on breeding varieties and hybrids of this crop is carried out tirelessly.
Pine Planting and Care
- Planting: late August to mid September or late April to early May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- Soil: To fill the planting pit, prepare a mixture of 2 parts of soil from the upper fertile layer, 2 parts of soddy soil, one part of sand or clay, 100 g of Kemira-universal and 50 g of Nitrofoska. Add 200-300 g of slaked lime to acidic soil.
- Watering: adult pine does not need artificial moistening, and for the first two years after planting, seedlings need to be watered with water in October. Only Rumelian pine requires 2-3 waterings per season at a flow rate of 15-20 liters of water per plant.
- Top dressing: the first two years after planting, once a season, a solution of complex mineral fertilizer is applied to the root circle at the rate of 40 g per m². In the future, nutrition will occur due to coniferous litter.
- Propagation: by seeds, cuttings and grafting.
- Pests: aphids, hermes, coniferous mealybugs, pine scale insects, pine underroot bugs, spider mites, red pine sawflies, pine silkworms, shoot shoots, pine moth caterpillars and pine miner moth, cone moths, cone cone beetles, large and small tar beetles barbels, goldfish, elephants and tares point.
- Diseases: rust, pine spinner, rust (tar) cancer, snow shute, scleroderriosis (umbrella disease), bark necrosis.
Read more about growing pines below
Pine trees are evergreen monoecious trees with a pyramidal crown at a young age, which becomes umbrella-shaped or spherical in old age. Pines can be trees, shrubs, or creeping shrubs. The height of the pine can be 2, and 20, and 50 m. The root system of the pines is developed - rod or anchor type. The bark of a pine tree on the trunk is deeply fissured, red-brown, and on the branches it is reddish or yellowish, thinly flaky.
Pines - plants with whorled branching and shoots of two types: shortened (brachyblasts) and elongated (auxiblasts). The needles are located only on brachyblasts. By the number of needles on the shoot, pine plants are divided into three types: two-coniferous (they are represented by common pine and maritime pine), three-coniferous (Bunge pine) and five-coniferous (Siberian and Japanese white pines). Pine needles reach a length of 5-9 cm and sit in bunches of 2-5 pieces surrounded by membranous sheaths. On long shoots, pine leaves are brown and scaly. Sometimes, as a result of mechanical damage, rosette shoots can form on the pine - shortened, with bunches of wide and short needles.
Male strobili form spikes at the base of young branches, female strobili are symmetrical oblong or ovate-conical drooping cones located in the upper part of the plant. After the seeds ripen, the cones fall off. Pine cones consist of tiled leathery or woody fruit scales with thickenings in the form of a faceted shield at the ends. Pine seeds are usually winged, but there are species with wingless seeds. Pine trees are pollinated by the wind. Seed germination lasts up to 4 years.
Pine trees are long-lived. Among them there are specimens whose age is calculated not in hundreds, but in thousands of years.
When to plant
The best pine seedlings are three to five year old trees with a closed root system: the roots of a young pine die in the open air in 10-15 minutes. It is better to purchase planting material in specialized nurseries located in your area. Before planting a pine, you need to lower the container with the roots of the seedling for three hours into the water. Pine should be planted in open ground in early autumn (from late August to mid-September) or in spring (from late April to early May).
How to plant
A pit for pine is dug to a depth of about a meter. If the soil on the site is heavy, it is necessary to lay a layer of expanded clay or broken brick 20 cm thick in the landing pit for drainage and pour it with sand. An earth mixture is prepared in advance: 2 parts of the fertile topsoil are mixed with 2 parts of soddy soil and 1 part of sand or clay. Add 50 g of Nitrophoska or 100 g of Kemira-universal to the soil mixture and mix everything thoroughly. An additional 200-300 g of slaked lime is added to acidic soil.
- Euonymus: cultivation, types and varieties
Pour potting mix into the hole, then very carefully remove the seedling from the container, being careful not to break the earthen ball, lower the tree into the hole and fill the remaining space with soil mix, pouring it in gradually and then lightly tamping. After planting, an earthen dump is made around the tree so that the water does not spread during irrigation, and 2 buckets of water are poured under the seedling. After the water has been absorbed and the earth has settled, the root neck of the seedling should be at surface level. If you plant a large-sized plant, then its neck should be 10 cm above ground level: over time, it will be where it should be.
When planting several trees on the plot, keep a distance of at least 4 m between them, although an interval of 1.5 m is enough for undersized pine trees. rainfall, and only trees planted in the current or last season need autumn water-charging irrigation, which is carried out after leaf fall: moist soil does not freeze through during severe frosts. Stagnation of water in the roots is detrimental to pine. Only the Rumelian pine plant does not have drought resistance, which is watered 2-3 times per season, spending 15-20 liters of water at a time.
The first two years after planting, young pines need to be fed by applying a solution of complex mineral fertilizer to their root circle once a season at the rate of 40 g per 1 m². In the future, the pine will be enough of the organic matter that accumulates in the coniferous litter.
Pine does not need pruning, but the crown can be made denser, while slowing down its growth, if you break off young (light) pine branches by a third of the length with your hands.
It is better to transplant any coniferous plant in spring: from mid-April to early May. The fact is that the survival rate of coniferous plants is much lower compared to deciduous species, their roots develop more slowly, and they need a longer period of heat to adapt to a new place.
Forest pine, which you are going to transplant to your site, needs to be properly dug up: first, it is dug in along the projection of the crown perimeter, gradually exposing the roots of the tree and trying not to damage them. The depth of the circular trench should be at least 60 cm, and the width should be 30-40 cm. Then the pine tree is carefully removed along with the earthen clod and quickly delivered to the landing site. Keep in mind that the roots of the pine must be submerged in the soil at all times.
- Weeds and how to deal with them
The plant is lowered into a previously prepared pit, in which a drainage layer and a pound of manure have already been laid, and a layer of not ordinary garden soil, but forest soil mixed with fertilizers and coniferous litter, is poured on top. The size of the pit should be one and a half times larger than the root system of the pine along with the earthen clod. The free space is filled with forest soil with fertilizers, after which the pine is plentifully watered. In the first 2-3 weeks, she will need frequent and abundant watering: at least 2 times a week.
Pests and diseases
Like other coniferous plants, pines often get sick not from infections, but from improper or insufficient care. Sometimes we receive complaints from readers that, for no reason at all, a well-developed pine turns yellow, or that a seedling planted last year died with the onset of spring. And the reason lies in untimely or improper planting or errors in caring for the plant. The health of your garden is solely in your hands, and our task is only to equip you with the necessary information.
Pine trees suffer from fungal diseases that occur primarily due to too dense planting, lack of light and excess moisture.
Rust is the most common disease of pine, which is indicated by spore-filled orange blisters that form on the underside of the crown. To avoid infection of pine with rust, do not grow it close to currants or gooseberries and carry out preventive treatments of the tree with copper-containing preparations.
Pine spinner is manifested by the formation of golden-yellow oblong swellings on young pine shoots. With the development of the disease, the shoots are bent in the shape of the letter S and wounds appear on them, in which pine resin is collected. They destroy pathogens with fungicidal preparations, while simultaneously using immunostimulants and microfertilizers. Needles that have fallen from diseased trees must be burned.
Rust cancer (tar cancer) - a dangerous disease that usually leads to the death of pine trees. You can recognize it by orange-yellow bubbles that appear from suddenly formed cracks in the bark. At the initial stage of the disease, you can save the plant by clearing the wound on the trunk to healthy tissue, treating the wood with a three to five percent solution of copper sulfate and applying a protective composition to the damaged area - Rannet paste or garden pitch with the addition of a fungicide. Sick branches are best cut down, and the saw cuts are disinfected in the same way as wounds on the trunk. Plant residues must be burned.
With scleroderriosis, or umbrella disease , the apical bud dies on pine shoots, the needles die, and the disease covers the entire branch. The disease progresses in wet seasons and in warm autumn, most often affecting cedar and mountain pines. To prevent the spread of infection, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning of dead shoots to a healthy bud throughout the season.
- Sunflower: growing in the garden, types
Snow Shutte appears on young pine trees (under eight years old) immediately after the snow melts: their needles acquire a reddish-brown color, black dots of fungus spores appear on the needles, and then a white coating, due to which the shute and called snowy. With a massive defeat, the death of seedlings and cuttings is possible. The source of infection is the fallen needles of diseased plants, which were not collected and burned in a timely manner. Seedlings are treated with copper-containing preparations twice a season - in May and in the second half of summer.
When bark necrosis pine bark and branches turn yellow, dry out and die. This disease develops most often on a plant weakened by drought, frost and mechanical damage. Sick pines are treated with fungicides at least three times per season - in spring, early summer and autumn, but before spraying, disease-causing formations must be removed from the bark with a swab moistened with fungicide, and dead branches and shoots should be cut to a living bud.
Pine pests can be divided into four groups:
- sucking pests: aphids, hermes, coniferous scale insects, pine root bugs and spider mites;
- conifers: red pine sawflies, pine silkworms, shoot shoots, pine moth caterpillars and pine leaf miners;
- cone pests: cone moths, cone moths;
- root and stem pests: large and small beetles, barbels, gold beetles, elephants and spotted tars.
Proper agricultural practices, conscientious care of pines, especially in the first years of life, and regular preventive treatments with insecticidal and acaricidal preparations can save you from this army of pests.
Propagation of pine
Plants of the genus Pine are propagated by seed and vegetatively by cuttings and grafting. Usually, vegetative propagation methods are more reliable, and results from them can be expected earlier, however, the main method of pine propagation is not vegetative, but a generative method, that is, seed.
Growing from seeds
Seeds for propagation need mature, fresh. Pine cones are harvested in late October or early November: at this time, the seeds in them are already ripe and ready for sowing. Cones should not be lifted from the ground, but removed from the tree. At home, they are laid out on cloth or paper closer to the heater and they are waiting for them to dry and it will be easy to get the seeds out of them. The seeds are stored in a cool place in tightly closed glass jars, and two to three months before sowing, they are sorted out and dipped in a container of water for a while. It is better not to count on those seeds that remain floating on the surface, and the seeds that have sunk to the bottom are subjected to stratification: they are dipped for disinfection for half an hour in a weak (pink) solution of potassium permanganate, then washed and soaked for a day in water to swell, after which mixed with wet sand, placed in a nylon stocking and kept in the refrigerator for at least a month.
Seeds are sown in the second decade of April in light and not necessarily fertile soil, for example, river sand calcined in the oven for 20 minutes at a temperature of 200 ºC. A layer of sawdust 2 cm thick is laid on the sand placed in a container, seeds are laid out on them with a pointed end down, lightly pressing on each seed, and crops are sprinkled on top with a layer of fallen needles 1-1. 5 cm thick, sprayed abundantly from a spray bottle and crops are placed in a greenhouse under a film. Seeds can germinate for a long time, but usually by April the first shoots already appear. Do not forget to ventilate the crops, moisten the substrate and remove condensation from the film.
As soon as shoots appear, they are placed in a bright, warm place, protected from drafts, and at the stage of formation of the second pair of needles in seedlings, they are transplanted into real soil for pines. After 2-3 years, seedlings are planted in spring in open ground at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other, trying not to injure or expose their roots, and also not to shake off mycorrhiza, which is necessary for coniferous crops for growth and development. It is necessary to carefully cut the root of the seedling, lower it into a mash of garden soil (2 parts) and humus (1 part), diluted with water to the consistency of thick sour cream, and then plant it in a pre-prepared hole. In the school garden, pines are watered once a week, the soil around the seedlings is loosened after watering, weeds are removed, and in the second year, before the spring sap flow, rotted manure (500 g per m²), superphosphate (25 g per m²) and potash are added to the soil in the garden. saltpeter (10 g per m²), followed by embedding to a depth of 10 cm. Pines are planted in a permanent place in spring or early autumn 4 years after planting in a school.
Propagation by cuttings
Pine cuttings are best taken in autumn. Cuttings should be taken lignified, 8-12 cm long, with a heel (with a piece of wood from the branch on which the cutting grew). Cuttings are harvested in cloudy weather from the apical lateral shoots of the middle part of the crown facing north. To get the right cutting, you need not to cut, but to tear off the shoot with a piece of wood and bark on it with a sharp movement down and to the side. When preparing the cuttings for planting, the heels are slightly cleaned of needles and burrs, after which the segments are placed for 4-6 hours in a two percent solution of Fundazol, Captan or in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, and immediately before planting, the lower edge with the heel is treated with Kornevin, Epin or Heteroauxin .
Cuttings are planted in a substrate consisting of equal parts of leafy earth, humus and sand, at an angle and covered with a transparent cap to create greenhouse conditions. Every day, the coating from the cuttings is removed for ventilation and removal of condensate from the film. In winter, a box with cuttings can be kept in the basement, and in spring - in the open air. Rooting lasts from one and a half to four and a half months, and the cuttings simultaneously grow both roots and new shoots. The next spring, in May, the soil in which the cuttings grow is watered with a solution of Epin or Kornevin, and they are planted in open ground a year later.
This method of propagating pine trees is for experienced gardeners, but newcomers are said to be lucky. After all, that's how experience is earned: people doing things they've never done before.
The advantage of butt grafting is that this method guarantees that the graft inherits all the properties and characteristics of the mother plant. Plants aged 4-5 years can be used as a stock, and the scion is cut with an increase in age from one to three years. The needles are removed from the cuttings, leaving the needles only near the kidney located in the upper part. All long shoots and lateral buds are removed from the rootstock. Vaccination is carried out at the very beginning of spring sap flow or in the middle of summer. Spring vaccination is carried out on last year's shoot, and summer - on the current year's shoot.
Pine in the winter on the plot
Preparing for winter
All types of pine, except Thunberg pine, are winter-hardy. Even with the onset of cold weather, the processes in the trees do not stop, but only slow down their course. Based on this, it is necessary to prepare coniferous plants for winter. Approximately at the end of November, before the onset of frost, it is necessary to carry out water-charging watering: 2 buckets of water are poured under each pine below one meter, and if the tree is higher, then the water consumption rate rises to 3-5 liters. So that the water goes into the soil, and does not spread over the surface, an earthen dump is made along the perimeter of the border of the near-trunk circle. Winter watering is especially important for one-year-old and two-year-old seedlings, in which the root system is not yet sufficiently developed. Breeds with poor winter hardiness also need it, as well as plants that have undergone formative pruning this year.
From August, the application of nitrogen fertilizers to the soil should be stopped: nitrogen stimulates the formation of green mass, and you need the already formed shoots to grow and mature during the autumn months, otherwise they will die in winter. To speed up the process of their lignification and at the same time strengthen the pine root system, the tree is fed in September with a potassium-phosphorus complex.
An important step in preparing young pine trees for winter is mulching the tree trunks. As a mulch, it is best to use crushed tree bark: it allows oxygen to penetrate to the roots of plants, and when the thaw begins, such a mulch does not prevent the release of fumes, so neither the roots nor the neck under the bark, as happens sometimes under sawdust mulch.
Wintering in the garden
In winter, after a heavy snowfall, wet heavy snow can cause thin twigs to break off and breaks in the skeletal branches of a pine tree. No need to shake the tree and pull its branches: plants are so fragile in winter that the branches crack from any effort. Snow from branches that you can reach should be shaken off with a broom or a brush with a long handle in the direction from the tips to the trunk, and to get higher branches, wrap the end of a board or stick with a cloth, pry the branch with it and swing it up and down.
During a sudden thaw or fluctuation between plus day and minus night temperatures, pine can become covered with a crust of ice, the severity of which can also lead to breaks. To prevent damage to the branches, prop them up, as you did with fruit trees when too many fruits formed on them.
Types and varieties
A huge number of species and varieties of pine can confuse not only an amateur, but also a professional gardener, especially since new varieties and hybrids of this plant continue to appear. We will introduce you to some of the species that are most often found in gardens, squares and parks.
Bristol pine (Pinus aristata)
Or bristlecone pine is an American species native to Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, dry regions of Utah, California and Nevada. This is a bushy tree up to 15 m high, which grows much lower in Europe. Sometimes it is a stunted shrub with green and smooth bark when young, which becomes scaly over time. The branches of the spinous pine are raised, short and stiff, the needles are dark green, five-needle type, densely lying, from 2 to 4 cm long. Cylindrical-ovoid cones appearing in the twentieth year of life reach a length of 4-9see. Plants of this species are photophilous, undemanding to soil, drought-resistant, but do not tolerate smoky city air. Such garden forms of Bristol pine are known:
- Bashful - with a rounded crown;
- Jos Best - with a conical crown;
- Rezek Doll - with a conical loose crown;
- Sherwood Compact is a small tree with a dense conical crown.
Flexible pine (Pinus flexilis)
Also from North America. This plant reaches a height of 26 cm. In its youth, its crown is narrowly conical, later it takes the form of a ball. The bark of the flexible pine is dark brown, at first smooth and thin, and later rough, finely scaly. The branches are slightly curved, in adult pines hanging at an acute angle to the trunk. Young shoots of a dull reddish-brown hue, furrowed, glabrous or covered with light curly hairs. Trihedral, hard, curved dark green needles 3-7 cm long are collected in bunches of 5 pieces. On the tree, they remain up to 5-6 years. Ovate-cylindrical, hanging, shiny, light brown or yellowish cones reach a length of 15 cm. In Europe, the plant has been grown since 1861, has several decorative forms:
- Glenmore – tree with blue-gray needles longer than the main species;
- Nana - dwarf shrub form with needles up to 3 cm long;
- Pendula - a pine tree only under 2 m high with hanging branches;
- Tiny Temple - a very short form with needles 6-7 cm long, dark green on the outside and blue-gray on the inside.
European pine (Pinus cembra)
Or European cedar is found wild in central Europe. Cedar pine reaches a height of 10-15 m. It has brown or rusty-red shoots, the needles are green on one side, gray or bluish on the other, covered with stomatal stripes. Cones are spherical-ovoid, 5-8 long and 4-6 cm wide. The species is winter-hardy, shade-tolerant and durable. Has a number of decorative forms:
- single-leaved - dwarf shrub with needles collected in bunches of 5 pieces;
- green - with bright green needles;
- golden - with shiny yellow needles;
- variegated - with golden-variegated needles;
- Aureovariegata - with more or less yellow needles;
- Glauca - pyramidal pine with silver-blue needles;
- Globe - dwarf form up to 2 m high;
- Pygmea or Nana - compact forms 40-60 cm high with thin and short branches and needles similar to dwarf needles;
- Stricta - a pine with a columnar crown, almost vertical branches directed upwards, and densely pressed branches.
Korean cedar pine (Pinus koraiensis)
Or Korean cedar grows on the coasts of the Amur, in Northeast Korea and Japan. The tree reaches a height of 40 m, and in diameter - from 1 to 1.5 m. The branches of the pine are prostrate or ascending, the bark is smooth, thick, gray-brown or dark gray. Young shoots are light brown, slightly pubescent, trihedral. Green on one side and gray or bluish with oyster stripes on the other, the needles are collected in bunches of 5 pieces. Cones are cylindrical, 10-15 long and 5-9 widesee Cultivated view from 1846. Pine Korean shade-tolerant, stable in the city, decorative. Korean pine should be planted in fresh, fertile, but waterlogged soil. Decorative forms of Korean pine:
- variegated - part of the needles of a light golden hue, part of the needles is golden-spotted or golden-edged;
- curved - the needles are spirally curved, especially at the ends of the branches;
- Glauka is a pine up to 10 m high with a beautiful conical crown with a diameter of 3 to 5 m. The needles are dense, blue-gray, in bunches of 5 needles. Male spikelets are yellow, cones 10-15 cm long are reddish at first, then purple, and brown in maturity;
- Silverey - a variety with long silver-blue needles;
- Anna - pine with a wide oval crown;
- Winton - dwarf form up to 2 m high with a crown diameter of about 4 m;
- Variegata - pine with light yellow or yellow-spotted needles with a yellow edge.
Siberian stone pine (Pinus pumila)
Distributed throughout Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Korea, Northeast China and Japan. For its original appearance, the elfin cedar pine is called the lying forest, the northern cedar, the northern jungle. The species is a tree no more than 5 m high, intertwined with each other by crowns, pressing against the ground and forming dense thickets. The branches of the elfin are pawled, the shoots are short, greenish, with age, gray-brown with red pubescence. Thin blue-green needles up to 10 cm long are collected in a bundle of 5 pieces. The buds are red-violet, but with maturity they turn brown. The species was introduced into cultivation in 1807. Elfin pine is winter-hardy, photophilous, undemanding to soils, resistant to diseases and pests and has the following decorative forms:
- Glauka - shrub up to 1.5 m high with a crown up to 3 m in diameter, powerful ascending shoots and gray-blue needles;
- Chlorocapra - plant the size of the main species, with gray-green needles and yellow-green cones when young;
- Drayers Dwarf is a compact plant with a wide funnel-shaped crown and blue needles;
- Dwarf Blue - a wide low pine with white-bluish needles 3-4 cm long;
- Globe is a relatively fast-growing form with a height and crown diameter of up to 2 m, with thin beautiful needles of a bluish-green hue;
- Yedello - pine tree with a wide spreading flat crown with a nest-like depression in the middle and needles pressed against the shoots, green on the upper side and bluish-white on the lower side;
- Nana - shrub with a dense crown, red spikelets and twisted, bright gray-green needles;
- Sapphire is an unevenly growing form with short blue needles.
Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)
Distributed in Europe and Siberia. Plants of this species reach a height of 20 to 40 m. The trunk is straight, with a high, naturally formed trunk. The crown at a young age is cone-shaped, by old age it is wide, rounded, and sometimes umbrella-shaped. Collected in bunches of two flat, hard, slightly curved needles up to 6 cm long, painted in bluish-green color. Symmetrical ovoid-conical cones up to 3.5 cm thick reach a length of 7 cm. The species is photophilous, winter-hardy, but sensitive to air pollution. It grows quickly, which is a rather rare advantage for pines. Has the following garden forms:
- Alba - pine up to 20 cm high with a crown in the form of a wide umbrella and gray-blue needles;
- Albins - dwarf plant with grey-green needles;
- Aurea - shrub up to 1 m high with a rounded crown, yellow-green in young and golden-yellow in adulthood needles;
- Compressa - dwarf plant up to 2 m high with a columnar crown and appressed needles;
- Fastigiata - pine up to 15 m high with a strictly columnar crown, densely pressed branches and branches and bluish-green needles;
- Glauka – powerful plant with a wide pin-shaped crown and blue needles;
- Globoza Viridiz - a dwarf form up to half a meter high with a rounded or ovoid crown and long hard dark green needles;
- Repanda – broad, flat and splayed pine with powerful shoots and grey-green needles up to 8 cm long;
- Japonica - upright, very slow growing tree with spruce-like crown, slanting branches and short green needles;
- Camon Blue is a medium-sized tree with a pin-shaped crown, dense branches and intense blue rounded needles.