How far apart should i plant pecan trees
Pecan Planting Guide
Planning your Pecan Tree site
The most important factors to consider in choosing a site for planting pecan trees are: soil type, depth, and drainage. Pecans will grow in almost any soil in southern states, except poorly drained soil, hardpan or stiff clays, or thin sands with a high water table. It is most important that the soil should have good water holding capacity. For proper root penetration, it should be several feet deep.
In selecting a planting site, keep in mind the desirable soil characteristics described above. Avoid badly eroded hills. If not eroded, hilltops and north, east, south, or west slopes are satisfactory. In most cases, even bottom land along streams has proved a good location if well drained. The greater movement of the air often causes faster drying of morning dews and rains which help prevent scab infection.
And finally, select a planting site away from buildings and power lines. Always consider the mature size of pecan trees when deciding on a planting site. If planting more than one pecan tree, space at least 40-60 feet apart so they have adequate space to grow.
Pecan Tree COLLECTION
It’s time to start digging! First, you will need to dig a hole three times the width of the size of the pot, and just as deep as the root ball. Plant the tree level with where it grew in the nursery (i.e. the soil line, which is indicated by a color change on the bark) but not too deep. Fill the hole about ⅓ full of topsoil and saturate the soil with water to settle, repeating this operation until the hole is almost full. Most recommendations are to raise the pH of acidic soil for zinc to be taken up through the foliage. Pecans like a pH range of 6.5 to 7. Have a soil test done to determine the pH level of the soil, and if the soil is below 5.6 add dolomitic limestone to your soil as the hole is being filled to raise the pH. Once the hole is filled, construct a water basin around the tree 3 or 4 feet in diameter and 6 to 8 inches deep.
Soils for planting pecan trees may be red, brown, or gray in color, but it is necessary they contain sand or sandy-loam and that the subsoil be of clay or semi-clay structure. During the first growing season, water the trees once a week on clay soils and twice a week for light soils. Adequate moisture must be available to the tree throughout the entire first summer.
If planting only one or two pecan trees, space at least 40-60 feet apart so they have adequate space to grow. If you are planning an orchard and will be thinning trees as they grow, you can plant as little as 20 feet apart.
Optional, but highly recommended: As soon as trees are set, prune the top to balance with the roots. Prune about 10% off the top. Make the cut just above a healthy bud. This will stimulate new growth and ease the stress off the tree while it is establishing new feeder roots.
A soil test is recommended for accurate determination of fertilizer needs before planting. After the first year of growth, soil and leaf analysis should be performed on an annual basis to determine fertilizer needs. A local county extension agent can assist with these samples.
The soil amendments required will vary for each site, so follow soil test recommendations for specific amounts. Nitrogen will not be needed during the year of planting. Nitrogen is necessary for rapid tree growth, but too much nitrogen can burn the roots of young trees. Young trees are best fertilized by frequent application of small quantities of fertilizer. Phosphorous and potassium move slowly in the soil profile, so pre-plant incorporation will provide greater accessibility by the trees.
Do not add any fertilizer to the hole when transplanting trees. In the absence of a soil test, no fertilizer should be added to trees the first year following transplanting until adequate growth is attained. Annual terminal growth for young pecan trees should be from 2 to 4 feet. If trees exhibit this kind of growth,they can be fertilized in June of the first year by application of 1 lb of 5-10-15 or 10-10-10 distributed in a 25 square foot area around the tree. If good growth is not observed, do not fertilize the first year. The following year, 1 lb. of 10-10-10 should be applied in March, May, and June. In the third year following transplanting, apply 4 lbs of 10-10-10 per inch of trunk diameter measured 1 foot above the soil surface. Applications may be split between March and June. Do not place fertilizer within 12 inches of the trunk.
In addition to 10-10-10, zinc sulfate should be soil applied at 1 lb. per tree for the first 3 years following transplanting if soil tests indicate Zinc levels below 15 lbs/A. Zinc moves very little in the soil. Therefore, foliar applications help move zinc into the tree more quickly. Young trees should receive two to three foliar zinc applications at a rate of 1-2 lbs of zinc sulfate per 100 gallons of water when rosette symptoms are apparent or when leaf zinc levels are less than 50 ppm.
Young pecan trees can be safely fertilized with N via fertigation through the irrigation system. Be sure the system is operating correctly and that there are no leaks or clogs. In year 1, fertigate at a rate of 5 lbs N per acre in June. In years 2-4, apply 5 lbs N per acre in April, May, and June for a total annual rate of 15 lbs N per acre. Apply a granular blend of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and zinc sulfate over the tree row at rates of 40 lbs per acre, 40 lbs per acre, and 25 lbs per acre respectively in March or April of years 1 and 2.
5-10-15 or 10-10-10
1 lb. per 25 sq. ft
1st yr: June Only
1 lb. per 25 sq. ft
2nd yr: March, May, and June
4 lb. per inch of trunk
3rd yr: March and June
Granuar Blend of Phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and Zinc Sulfate
(P) 40 lb. per acre / (K) 40 lb. per acre / (Zinc) 25 lb. per acre
Year 1 & 2: March and April
5 lb. per acre
1st yr: June Only
5 lb. per acre
2nd yr: April, May, and June
Water has more of an effect on pecan production than does any other environmental factor. Drought stress affects nut size and filling, leaf and shoot growth, and return crop. Adequate soil moisture is necessary to stimulate strong, vigorous growth from budbreak through shell hardening for nut size, and during the nut filling stage for optimizing kernel percentage. If trees do not receive adequate soil moisture levels late in the season, shuck split and energy reserves are affected.
Pecan trees extract most of their water from the upper 32 inches of the soil profile. Though they are deep-rooted, most of the deep water available to the tree is considered survival water and is not useful for fruit production. The deeper the available water, the less water the tree will usually be able to absorb. Excessive water stress will cause the tree to shed leaves, drop nuts, or only moderately fill the pecans. Water stress in pecan correlates with soil moisture from budbreak through the end of nut sizing. Pecan trees bearing a moderate to heavy crop load may undergo water stress during the kernel filling stage regardless of soil moisture level. This suggests that crop load and nut development drive the tree’s demand for water.
A mature tree can require as much as 350 gallons of water per day during the nut filling stage. Based on this recommendation, if a mature orchard has a plant density of 12 trees per acre with 60-by-60-foot spacing, 4,200 gallons per acre per day may be needed. Bear in mind that in the humid Southeast, irrigation is designed to supplement rainfall.
Clearly, pecans have high water requirements, using as much as 60 inches of total water including rainfall) during the growing season. Check with your state officials to gauge your area's annual rainfall. While the rainfall received certainly meets a portion of the water requirement for pecan trees, periods of moisture stress occur during the growing season, particularly during the months of August and September when pecans are in the kernel filling stage and water demand is at its peak. Thus, irrigation has been proven to markedly enhance pecan production in the region. With increasing agricultural water use, a growing population, and declining groundwater levels, irrigation efficiency in the region is necessary for sustainability.
-Lenny Wells (UGA, Depart. of Horticulture)
Care of Non-Bearing Pecan Trees
Pruning should be done in the first three or four years of a tree’s life. Growers want pecan trees to have a central leader, one main trunk going up the tree from which the lateral limbs or main branches grow. A lot of trees naturally develop two or more main trunks. Pruning allows growers to prevent or correct that. To get good growth, prune no more than necessary. The larger the number of leaves left to grow, the more food will be manufactured for more rapid tree growth. Cut out narrow crotches early to prevent serious splitting when the tree comes into heavy production. Try to space the lateral limbs equally around the trunk of the tree, and have each limb at least 8 inches above another. Select three to five branches for the permanent scaffold system. The lowest of these branches should be no less than 6 feet above the ground.
Pruning is meant to remove excess growth that may not be needed or may be in the way of normal operations. It also removes limbs that are growing the wrong way on the tree.
Pruning can be done at any time of year, but most pecan farmers prune in the winter because fewer tasks need to be accomplished in the orchard this time of year. Pruning should begin when trees enter their second year in the field.
This practice benefits the tree by bringing it back to what the root system can support.
For trees entering their third year of production, remove limbs that are below head high or approximately 6 feet tall. If they aren't pruned away, those limbs will be in the way of equipment passing through the orchard in a few years. The tip of the developing trunk should be pruned so the bud will continue growing the central leader. Farmers should remove buds that are spaced out as opposed to those clustered close together. We advise farmers to cut about an inch or so above the bud.
If a grower waits eight to 10 years to prune their trees, limbs that are producing nuts will need to be pruned off. It’s not too late to prune older trees, it just takes a lot more work. Growers are more likely to encounter big and small limbs protruding out from older, nonpruned trees. Those limbs need to be cut off. Low limbs, and those that create narrow angles on trees, also need to be removed. Depending on how large the limbs are, removal will likely have to be done with a chainsaw.
The male flower and the female flower of the pecan are separate, but they are on the same trees. The male flowers, commonly known as catkins, are produced from lateral buds on the previous season's growth. These buds are formed late in the previous season.
The female flower, a tiny nut-like flower with flared terminal ends, is produced at the end of the current season's new growth. The flared ends (stigmas) of the tiny nuts are the portion of the female flower on which the pollen falls when pollination occurs. Since the female flowers are borne on the current season's growth, the tree must have stored an abundance of food from the previous season.
Pecans are pollinated by wind only. When the catkin matures, the pollen is released. The pollen floats in the wind, and by this means it reaches the flared tips or stigmas of the female flower. Pollination then occurs if the pollen is viable (alive) and the stigma is receptive. Should the catkins mature before or after the female flower is receptive, pollination does not occur. And should heavy rains occur during pollination, the pollen will not be wind borne and pollination will be poor. Thus, to assure pollination, it is important to plant both Type 1 and Type 2 pecan trees within a half mile of each other.
• Type I, or protandrous, pecans are those in which the catkins appear first. Catkins are commonly called tassels because their golden strands hang in clumps throughout the tree.
• Type II, or protogynous, pecans are those in which the female nutlets become receptive before the catkins begin to shed pollen.
The ratio of the two types in an orchard need not be equal; only 15 percent of the trees need to be pollinators for the main variety, as long as they are distributed uniformly throughout the planting. Small orchards may not need pollinators if native or seedling trees are within sight of the new planting; however, large commercial plantings should include pollinators within the orchard.
• Pollination Charts
• Pollen Shed & Pistil Receptivity Chart
Blog: Pecan Tree Articles
FAQ About Pecans
Pecan trees are one of our biggest sellers, and it’s not too late to purchase and plant container pecan trees or bare root pecan trees. Before you purchase a tree, you might find it helpful to read on to get some answers to common questions about our pecans.
4 Interesting Facts About Pecan Trees
Did you know that more than 80% of the world’s pecans are grown in the United States? If you are interested in pecan trees, you also might be interested in a few of these fun facts!
Bare Root Trees vs. Container Trees
Pecan trees are one of our most popular products and there are many varieties to consider. In addition, if you are buying pecan trees online, you also must decide whether to purchase bare root trees or container trees.
Want to add pecan trees to your yard?
Shop our collection of pecan trees and have them shipped right to your door!
Pecan Tree Care - Learn How To Plant A Pecan Tree
Home › Edible Gardens › Nut Trees › Pecan
By: Jackie Carroll
Image by Skapie777
Pecan trees are native to the United States, where they thrive in southern locations with long growing seasons. Just one tree will produce plenty of nuts for a large family and provide deep shade that will make hot, southern summers a little more bearable. However, growing pecan trees in small yards isn’t practical because the trees are large and there are no dwarf varieties. A mature pecan tree stands about 150 feet (45.5 m.) tall with a spreading canopy.
Pecan Planting Guide: Location and Preparation
Plant the tree in a location with soil that drains freely to a depth of 5 feet (1.5 m.). Growing pecan trees have a long taproot that is susceptible to disease if the soil is soggy. Hilltops are ideal. Space the trees 60 to 80 feet (18.5-24.5 m.) apart and well away from structures and power lines.
Pruning the tree and the roots before planting will encourage strong growth and make pecan tree care much easier. Cut off the top one-third to one-half of the tree and all of the side branches to allow strong roots to develop before they have to support top growth. Don’t allow side branches any lower than 5 feet (1. 5 m.) from the ground. This makes it easier to maintain the lawn or groundcover under the tree and prevents low-hanging branches from becoming obstructions.
Bare root trees that feel dry and brittle should be soaked in a bucket of water for several hours before planting. The taproot of a container grown pecan tree needs special attention before planting. The long taproot usually grows in a circle around the bottom of the pot and should be straightened before the tree is planted. If this isn’t possible, cut off the lower part of the taproot. Remove all damaged and broken roots.
How to Plant a Pecan Tree
Plant pecan trees in a hole about 3 feet (1 m.) deep and 2 feet (0.5 m.) wide. Position the tree in the hole so that the soil line on the tree is even with the surrounding soil, then adjust the depth of the hole, if necessary.
Begin filling the hole with soil, arranging the roots in a natural position as you go. Don’t add soil amendments or fertilizer to the fill dirt. When the hole is half full, fill it with water to remove air pockets and settle the soil. After the water drains through, fill the hole with soil. Press the soil down with your foot and then water deeply. Add more soil if a depression forms after watering.
Caring for Pecan Trees
Regular watering is essential for young, newly planted trees. Water weekly in the absence of rain for the first two or three years after planting. Apply the water slowly and deeply, allowing the soil to absorb as much as possible. Stop when the water begins to run off.
For mature trees, soil moisture determines the number, size, and fullness of the nuts as well as the amount of new growth. Water often enough to keep the soil evenly moist from the time the buds begin to swell until harvest. Cover the root zone with 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm.) of mulch to slow water evaporation.
In spring of the year after the tree was planted, spread a pound (0.5 kg.) of 5-10-15 fertilizer over a 25 square foot (2. 5 sq. m.) area around the tree, beginning 1 foot (0.5 m.) from the trunk. The second and third year after planting, use 10-10-10 fertilizer in the same manner in late winter or early spring, and again in late spring. When the tree begins to bear nuts, use 4 pounds (2 kg.) of 10-10-10 fertilizer for each inch (2.5 cm.) of trunk diameter.
Zinc is important for pecan tree development and nut production. Use a pound (0.5 kg.) of zinc sulfate each year for young trees and three pounds (1.5 kg.) for nut-bearing trees.
This article was last updated on
Read more about Pecan
Did you find this helpful? Share it with your friends!
You might also like…
Instruction for growing pecans. VioSad Company Stats
Choose at least two different varieties of pecans for the best crosscut.
Internet shop VioSad promotes the best varieties of pecans, introduced for growing in Ukraine.
It is recommended to respectfully read the description of roslin and request varieties for sawing, proponated in our online store.
Try to plant pecan saplings on the day of harvest.
Before planting, they dip by the water for a few years, to refresh them, so like hot pecans - volgolovny roslina.
Place to plant
Choose the right place to plant your pecan.
Choose a sunny and windless space.
Pecan peas grow great, with a hostile root system, it is to blame for this between trees, but not less than 15-18 meters, one per one, that one per bud.
The soil is due to well-drained, richly nourishing loam.
The soil pH is due to buti 6.0 - 7.0.
Pecan peas love neutral and slightly acid soil.
Pecan trees grown on such soils do not require annual crop fertilization, nitrogen or zinc.
If your soil is too dry or you may need to water your tree more often.
Planting pecan peas
It is necessary to plant a pecan tree in a calm place in the autumn or on the ear of spring.
1) Before planting, place the seedlings in water for a couple of years.
2) Carefully look at the shear root and straighten the vines of the root planting (to stimulate the natural growth), trim, if necessary.
3) Dig up the planting pit of the bedding deep, so that the shear roots spread freely and mow wide, for the placement of wild roots.
Planting hole, not guilty of but less than 1 meter in the depth of 0.5 - 0.6 meters of the top.
Important ! Do not top up the planting hole at any time .
4) Place the tree in a hole, trying not to mow down the tough shear root and carefully lay out the vine roots.
5) Fill the planting hole 3/4 full with water. (Water helps to protect damaged intestines near the roots).
6) Spread a ball of organic mulch (thyrsus, shavings, tree bark, needles, leaves, humus, hay, mowed grass, coniferous litter) along the root zone in order to trim the water and protect the plant from the weeds.
7) Root 1/3 of the top of the tree so that it can be rooted.
Important ! As long as the sadzhants are small, the first three rocks of the stink will require a defense against the sleepy opikiv and gryzuniv. Farm stovbur with white garden farboi.
Keeping an eye on pecan peas
In order for your tree to be guaranteed to prosper and be healthy for a long time, you need to keep an eye on it.
Properly pruning and fertilizing the tree will demonstrate better yield and vigorous growth.
How to fertilize pea pecans
· Great trees should be treated with zinc sulfate, making the leaves of the skin 2-4 types of birch worms.
· Just recently planted a tree of good growth, closer to the middle of summer, add 200 g of ammonium nitrogen at a height of 30 cm from Stovbur.
· Starting from another date after planting for 15 years, add a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer to the wormwood.
· After 15 years fertilize only in birch, and then in grass.
Important ! Dobriva must be applied on a width of 25 - 30 cm from Stovbur .
Watering pecan peas
Pecan peas are also free-spirited, so during the summer season, water the tree 1 time per week.
Pecan pea pruning
Pruning should be carried out in early autumn or early spring, if the tree is at rest and before the ear of the active growing season.
Important! Unique summer cuts, so that pots are formed at the same time .
When trimming, take care of the chicks, which go up to the head stovbur at a 45 degree slope, and remove it, as it grows more horizontally and sharply uphill.
Trimming is necessary to stimulate delineation.
At the bottom of the bag, the smallest heels of the bellows are on a stand 1.5 - 1.8 meters above the ground and equally spaced around the tree.
To achieve such a result, cutting should be carried out for a short time, stretching 5 - 7 years.
How fast do pecans grow?
Pecan trees grow and develop at a moderate rate and gain a maximum of 2-4 feet of growth per year Assuming you are careful.
Is the pecan growing fast?
The growth rate of the walnut tree is very high. Some trees can grow up to 3-5 feet per year.
How tall is a 10 year old walnut tree?
Walnut is a large deciduous tree 20 to 40 m (66 to 131 ft) tall, rarely up to 44 m (144 ft). It is typically 12 to 23 m (39 to 75 ft) long and up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) in trunk diameter. A 10 year old seedling grown under optimal conditions will grow to about 5 m (16 ft) tall.
Do you need 2 walnut trees to grow pecans?
For walnuts to produce nuts, you need two or more different varieties as they require cross-pollination for maximum production. Pecan trees do not bear fruit until they are between four and 12 years old, and this is determined by the cultivar.
How long does it take for a pecan tree to grow to maturity?
Trees begin to produce nuts three to four years after planting. Significant production can be achieved in six to eight years. Good productivity begins in the ninth or tenth year of life. Trees can be productive for 100 years or more.
How fast does the hardy walnut tree grow?
The growth rate of walnut trees is considered moderate and you can expect the trees to grow 13 to 24 inches per year. The growth rate of a tree depends on various factors such as sun exposure, soil, water, drainage, distance, and fertility.
Which tree grows the fastest?
The fastest growing trees.
- Aspen is trembling.
- Oktyabrskaya Slava Red Maple.
- Green giant tree of life.
- river birch
- Dawn Sequoia.
- Leyland Cypress.
- birch paper
- oak pine. Tall shade tree, quickly reaching 70 feet in height, with an average growth rate of 2.5 feet per year.
What is the average height of a walnut tree?
Maturity The pecan grows to a height of 70-100 feet and a width of 40-75 feet when mature.
How far apart should pecan trees be planted?
Always consider the size of mature pecan trees when choosing a planting site. If you are planting more than one pecan tree, space them at least 40 to 60 feet apart to give them enough room to grow. Pecan trees can be planted bare-rooted or in containers.
Are pecans dirty?
This is toxic to many plants, and because pecans are considered "dirty" trees, they produce a fair amount of debris from both leaves and flowers. Pecans do not self-pollinate, so you need to make sure you have trees that bloom in the correct order, unless a neighbor has pecans too.
Will one walnut tree produce nuts?
Often one tree does not produce many nuts because the male and female flowers do not bloom at the same time. A pecan that sheds pollen (from a male cat) before the female flower has matured is a "type I" pollinator.
Do you need male and female walnut trees for walnut production?
Pecan trees are monoecious, meaning that the male and female flowers are on the same tree. The female (pistillate) flowers are at the end of the current season's growth, and the male (ammonia) flowers are at the end of the previous season's growth.
Can I plant a walnut tree?
Pecans need to be cross-pollinated (usually by wind) to spread well. If there are many of these trees in your area, you can probably only plant one. But if you are the only C. illinoinensis gardener in the area, you may need to plant a few to get a nut crop.
In which month do pecans bear fruit?
The pecan harvest period is from October to December. They grow from April to September. It takes seven to ten years for a tree to fully mature and bear fruit.
Does the pecan bear fruit every year?
While walnut trees can produce a crop every year, once they start growing, large walnut crops are produced every two years.