How far apart should magnolia trees be planted
How Far Away From a House to Plant a Magnolia Tree? | Home Guides
By Tia Shamoon Updated November 25, 2019
Magnolia trees (Magnolia spp.) are evergreens with a high resistance to pests and diseases. They tolerate full or partial sun in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 10, depending on the species and cultivar. Planting magnolia trees too close to your home may cause problems because of the tree's large size and the litter it drops. Always consider the mature size of the tree before selecting a planting site. Magnolia trees grow better when properly spaced away from structures on your property.
Summer shade is one of the most common reasons for planting trees near homes. Transpiration cools the air blowing through the trees, helping to lower the temperature of the home. When trees drop their leaves in the winter, their bare branches allow sunlight to pass through, heating the home. Because evergreens do not drop their foliage, do not plant magnolia trees directly south of the house or close enough to block the sunlight during the winter.
Trees provide optimum shade when planted at least 20 feet from the home and at the southwest corner. However, plant the magnolia tree no closer than half its spread at maturity. A mature magnolia tree can reach a spread of 30 feet or more, so planting more than 20 feet for optimum shade is sufficient for keeping foliage from coming into contact with the home’s exterior.
Magnolia Tree Facts
The Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) grows 50 to 90 feet tall in USDA zones 6 through 10. The leaves measure about 8 inches and the flowers can reach 14 inches across depending on the cultivar. In general, plant large trees 30 to 50 feet from the house foundation to prevent damage by the roots. While magnolia roots are not considered invasive, they may seek out leaking water or sewer lines. Also consider your hardscape. If you plant a large magnolia tree within 5 feet of sidewalks or driveways, the roots may break through or raise the concrete to make a tripping hazard.
The size of the magnolia tree’s foliage may hinder the line of sight for drivers leaving your driveway or traveling down the street next to your home. Plant magnolia trees far enough away to prevent them from overhanging your house, but avoid planting them too close to your property easement in the front of the house so that drivers can have a direct line of sight. If you must plant the magnolia in the front of the house, keep it away from windows so that it does not block your view of the property from inside the house. If space is at a premium, consider planting a dwarf magnolia tree.
Though even the smallest magnolias grow up to 20 feet tall, they are slow to reach their mature size. Growing magnolias in pots is possible if you want a magnolia for your courtyard or patio garden. Star magnolia (Magnolia stellata), a native of Japan, thrives in USDA zones 4 through 8, while the sweet bay cultivar 'Henry Hicks' (Magnolia virginiana) prefers USDA zones 5 through 10.
Magnolia trees drop plant litter year-round. Plant them far enough away from any space that may be problematic for cleaning litter, such as pools, driveways or patios. Entryways into the home need to be clear to prevent dragging the litter into the house. Draw a diagram of you house and surrounding landscape before planting magnolia trees. Plan for potential projects that you may want to complete in the future and mark them on your diagram.
Magnolias are slow-growing trees and may be too much of a nuisance to transplant once established. Avoid planting magnolia trees in spaces where you plan to later landscape, build on or expand your outdoor entertaining space.
Magnolia trees release a strong fragrance that you need to consider when planning your landscape. If you are not fond of strong plant fragrances or do not wish to smother other fragrances in your flower garden, plant the tree farther away.
Birds are attracted to magnolia trees and may be messy for cars and other nearby outdoor equipment. Consider what structures are nearby before planting your magnolia tree to avoid having to clean bird excretions off them, such as children’s play equipment, mailboxes and patio furniture.
- University of Florida IFAS Extension: Magnolia Grandiflora "Littlr Gem"
- University of Missouri: Tree Placement on Home Grounds
- USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service: Southern Magnolia
- Missouri Botanical Garden: Magnolia Stellata
- Better Homes & Gardens: Are There Any Dwarf Magnolias I Can Grow in a Pot?
- Missouri Botanical Garden: Magnolia Virginiana
Tia Shamoon has been writing online since 2009, specializing in topics such as interior decorating, party planning, history, family, frugal living and cooking. Shamoon earned her Bachelor of Arts in creative writing and history at the University of Central Arkansas and is currently pursuing her master's degree in teaching at Southern Arkansas University.
How to plant a Magnolia Tree
- Garden Life
- Garden magazine
- How to plant a Magnolia Tree
A blooming Magnolia Tree is a herald of spring for many people. Plant the magnolia tree in spring or in autumn and take care that it receives a sufficient amount of water in the first year.
Purchase advice – root-ball or container plant?
Magnolias are offered in specialist stores either as root-ball or in containers. Magnolias have shallow roots. When digging up a well-developed bedding plant, the roots could quickly be damaged and the plant could eventually need a few years before normal growth is present.
However, the purchase of container plants is somewhat easier as they have been raised in pots. Their roots could completely develop in the pot. Also, the pot plants can be planted from spring until autumn. But, if they are not repotted in time, the plants will age quickly. Have a close look at the roots when purchasing. Blackish, dark roots and a musty smell is a sign for damaged plants. Keep an eye open for light, whitish root-balls which exude a pleasant citrus fragrance.
Choosing a location
Most Magnolia types and varieties clearly enjoy a predominately sunny location. A tree-shaped magnolia needs 4–8 m diameter space. The choice of location for smaller and shrub-shaped as well as pillar-shaped growing varieties can be accordingly smaller.
- Dig a hole with a diameter of 100 cm and 50–60 cm deep. The first rich in humus layer of soil (first layer which was dug up) should be kept separate!
- Mix together 70 litres of rhododendron soil (moor land soil) with the rich in humus soil from the first layer and put back into the hole.
- Unpack the root-ball and place in the middle. (Pay attention to the actual soil mark on the trunk – do not plant any deeper!)
- Place a stabilisation post next to the Magnolia and carefully tie this to the tree.
- With the rest of the excavated soil, form a water trench around the plant pit.
Now water abundantly.
- It does not require extra fertiliser in the first year. Pay more attention to sufficient watering. You may use rhododendron fertiliser for acidic soil locations only after the first year.
Magnolia varieties allow a certain time to pass before they are covered in blooms. Depending on the type, location and previous root damage, this may take a few years. This calls for some patience.
If you have decided on a grafted plant or propagated plant, the capability to bloom can be expected quickly.
Our variety recommendation
- Lavender Princess (Magnolia xsoulangiana)
- Vulcan (Magnolia)
- Sunsation (Magnolia)
Photo: © s_derevianko - Fotolia. com
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Planting and caring for magnolias
This section provides the basic information you need to grow healthy and beautiful magnolias in your garden.
With the right agrotechnics and a good choice of location, deciduous magnolias can be successfully grown in southern Primorye. In natural habitats, magnolias prefer moist mountain forests (Bartels, 1974; Ovsyannikov, 1926; Rehder, 1949; Kosar, 1962, Johnstone, 1955; Blossoming Botanical Gardens of the Chinese Academy of Sciens, 1997). When choosing a place, it is advisable to stay on the ones protected from the wind, especially from the winter cold winds of the north-western direction, characteristic of the south of Primorye. Magnolias prefer well-drained, loose soils, rich in organic matter, with fairly high acidity (Ph 5.5-6.5). They must be sufficiently moist. However, magnolias do not tolerate stagnant waters. Magnolias tolerate acidic soils quite well. Magnolia virginiana grows especially well on acidic soils. One of the reasons for the poor growth of magnolias is the presence of lime in the soil. Thus, places with stagnant moisture, carbonate and saline soils should be avoided.
When choosing a place for planting any tree or bush, one should proceed from its growth and habitus in adulthood. At the same time, one should not forget that magnolias are the "aristocrats" of the garden and their beauty should be visible from different exposures. In addition, you need to remember that magnolias do not like transplants, and a place must be chosen for the life of the plant. The distance between large plants such as obovate magnolia should be at least 6 m. Magnolias are not very fond of open sunny places. They prefer diffused light and light partial shade. Naturally, when choosing a seat, you need to take into account the microclimate, the variability of environmental conditions within a small area of \u200b\u200byour garden, and allocate “warm pockets” for magnolias that are less stable in our conditions, and, first of all, for Sulange magnolia.
Magnolias kobus, willowleaf, stellate, Loebner can grow in open plots, and ornamental forms of Sulange, lilyflower, Siebold are best planted in plots protected from direct sunlight. Magnolias are obovate, three-petalled, with a high intensity of transpiration (Korshuk, 1974) and large leaves, it is good to plant near trees with a deep root system (pine, oak, birch). However, for laying flower buds and abundant flowering, they need lighting at least in the afternoon.
It is better to plant magnolias in spring (April), as their juicy, brittle roots often rot when damaged, and regeneration occurs rather quickly in spring. However, autumn plantings in October also give quite good results. Seedlings with a closed root system (in containers) are successfully planted throughout the growing season. Seedlings, before being planted in a permanent place, are grown in a nursery for 5-8 years. Young plants are sensitive to direct sunlight and shading is desirable for them. They also need regular watering. Magnolias are demanding on soil fertility and moisture, grow well on loose, fertile soil with a pH of 5.5-7.0 with sufficient moisture. The planting hole is usually prepared in advance (for spring planting - in the fall) and should be twice the size of the root ball of the plant at the age of 8 years. In this case, the optimal size of the landing pit is 1 x 1 x 1 x 1m. Drainage (15 cm) is placed at the bottom, then a layer of sand (10 cm), organic fertilizer can be fresh manure (15 cm) on it, then again a layer of sand (15 cm). The pit is filled with rotted peat, soddy soil and sand (2: 1: 0.5). The plant is placed on a mound of soil, in the center of the pit, the root system is straightened and covered with soil. After compaction of the soil, check that the root collar is at the level of the soil or buried no more than 2.5 cm deep. Greater penetration as well as shallow planting is not recommended. After planting, watering is necessary for better contact of the roots with the soil (at least 1 bucket per plant). The plant is attached to a stake. The soil must be fresh, so regular watering should be ensured in the early years. The trunk circle needs to be mulched. For this purpose, it is good to use fallen leaves, sawdust, litter of coniferous trees. When planting, do not dry the root system. When transplanting with an open root system, the roots must be covered with cloth or plastic wrap, which will ensure good plant survival. Seedlings of deciduous magnolias of local reproduction, as a rule, tolerate the winter satisfactorily in open ground without shelter. Only in very severe winters or winters with sharp temperature changes in a number of magnolias (M. Soulange, obovate, three-petal) is the upper part of the annual growth and individual tissues of flower buds damaged. In the spring, parts of the damaged shoots are cut off. It is believed that magnolias do not tolerate pruning and transplanting. Long-term experience of cultivation of magnolias in Kyiv denies this statement (Minchenko, Korshuk, 1987). Zuk J. (1980) also states that magnolias are responsive to pruning. We are of the same opinion. When cultivated under extreme conditions of introduction, the crowns of seedlings are usually formed excessively thickened due to spring or winter damage and the awakening of dormant buds. Therefore, it is recommended from the age of five to carry out formative pruning by removing excessive thickening of the branches. When pruning, dry, curved branches that cross inside the crown are also removed, and mechanically damaged ones are cut out. Slices are smeared with garden pitch. They quickly tighten and overgrow.
In the first 3 years after planting, it is obligatory to keep the near-stem circle clean and loose. In the future, mulched with organic materials (sawdust, manure, peat, rotted leaves, crushed bark), trunk circles can not be loosened. Mulching insulates the roots, serves as an additional source of nutrients, prevents disturbance of the soil structure and significantly reduces the drying of the soil (Zuk J., 1980). Fertilizers and top dressing after planting are recommended to be carried out no earlier than after 2 years. The principles of fertilizing are the same as for other crops (phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied before winter, and nitrogen fertilizers in the spring). Foliar top dressing always has a beneficial effect.
The condition and decorative effect of plants depends on the correctness and timeliness of care.
Author: Petukhova I.P.
| © Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences 2004 - 2022 922 |
outdoor cultivation, planting and care, types and varieties, photo
Author: Elena N. https://floristics.info/en/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19 Category: Garden plants Reissued: Last edited:
- Planting and caring for magnolia
- Botanical description
- Planting magnolia in the garden
Magnolia (lat. Magnolia) is a genus of flowering plants of the Magnolia family, which includes more than 200 species. The first magnolias came to Europe in 1688, and the name of the genus was given in 1703 by Charles Plumier in honor of the botanist Pierre Magnol. Representatives of the genus grow in the tropical and subtropical climate of East Asia and North America. Magnolia is an ancient flowering plant of the dinosaur era that spread in the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods.
Archaeologists have discovered a fossilized magnolia flower that is 95,000,000 years old. And by how easily magnolia today adapts to a climate that can hardly be called warm, it becomes clear how it has been able to survive for so many centuries. In those days when there were no bees yet, magnolias were pollinated by beetles - they have retained this ability to this day.
There is a beautiful and sad legend about magnolia: a Japanese girl named Keiko made a living by creating paper flowers that were beautiful, but, alas, cost a penny. One day, a parrot, whom she fed from time to time, revealed to her a secret: paper flowers can be revived if they are irrigated with a drop of their blood. However, in no case should this drop be the last. Using this secret, the girl became rich, but her greedy lover forced her to work more and more so that he could live in idleness and luxury. One day, Keiko gave her last drop of blood to a paper flower and died... The flower animated by this drop was called magnolia. Since then, the magnolia flower has symbolized the nobility and generosity of the soul.
Planting and caring for magnolia
- Flowering: in early spring, some varieties in early summer.
- Boarding: mid to late October or April.
- Lighting: bright sunlight, partial shade possible for several hours.
- Soil: light, moderately moist, rich in organic matter, slightly acidic or neutral.
- Watering: regular, even constant: the soil under the magnolia should always be slightly damp. Regular watering is especially important for seedlings under the age of three years.
- Top dressing: applied at planting fertilizer is enough for two years. From the third season, complex mineral-organic top dressing should be applied from early spring to mid-summer. For example: a solution of 15 g of urea, 1 kg of mullein and 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of water - this fertilizer in the amount of 40 liters is applied instead of watering once a month.
- Pruning: There is no need to form a magnolia crown, and sanitary pruning is carried out after flowering.
- Propagation: usually by cuttings, layering, grafting. For breeding experiments, you can use the seed method.
- Pests: rose thrips, mealybugs, peach aphids, spider mites or transparent mites, rodents.
- Diseases: chlorosis, seedling rot, powdery mildew, gray mold, black fungus, botrytis and scab.
Read more about growing magnolia below
The magnolia plant may be a deciduous tree or shrub with brown or ash gray bark that is smooth, furrowed or scaly. In height, magnolia can reach from 5 to 20 m. Large scars from leaves and narrow annular scars from stipules are noticeable on its shoots. Magnolia buds are large, as are entire, leathery, emerald green leaves with pinnate venation and slight pubescence from below, which are mostly obovate or elliptical in shape. Single fragrant bisexual terminal or axillary flowers with a diameter of about 6 to 35 cm, white, cream, pink, red, lilac or purple, consist of 6-12 elongated wax petals tiled overlapping each other, arranged in one or more rows. Magnolia blooms in early spring, but some species bloom in early summer. Anyone who has seen a magnolia bloom will definitely want to grow this tree in their garden.
Magnolia fruit is a composite cone-shaped leaflet consisting of many one- or two-seeded leaflets. Magnolia seeds, triangular, black, with a fleshy pink or red seed, hang on the seed threads when the leaflets open.
The magnolia tree, like the magnolia shrub, is a highly ornamental plant. It is especially beautiful in spring: blooming magnolia is a sight that will be remembered forever. But magnolia is valued not only for its beauty: its flowers, fruits, leaves and even bark contain essential oils, which are a unique antiseptic for rheumatism, hypertension and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Planting magnolia in the garden
When to plant
Magnolia does not grow everywhere, but if your area is suitable for growing it, then plant it in a sunny area, protected from the north and east winds, away from large trees so that it does not fall on it shade: slight shading is allowed only in the southern regions. Magnolia also has requirements for the composition of the soil: it should not be highly calcareous or saline, too wet, heavy or sandy. Neutral and slightly acidic soils rich in organic matter are considered optimal. When buying planting material, give preference to a seedling about 1 m high with one or two buds and with a closed root system so that it does not dry out while waiting for planting. Seedlings whose root system is in a container can be planted in open ground in spring, summer, and autumn.
When it comes to planting time, most experts consider the best time for this to be autumn, from mid to late October, when the magnolia seedlings are already dormant. During autumn planting, almost 100% of seedlings take root. Magnolia planting in the spring is carried out in April, but it must be borne in mind that even minor return frosts can greatly harm the trees that have started to grow.
How to plant
When preparing the planting hole, it must be taken into account that its size should be at least twice the volume of the root system of the seedling. The soil of the upper fertile layer removed from the pit should be mixed with rotted compost, and if the soil is too dense, add some sand to it.
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Lay a 15-20 cm thick layer of drainage material - crushed stone, broken bricks or crushed ceramic tiles - in the hole, then place a layer of sand about 15 cm thick on top, and on it a layer of prepared fertile mixture. Place a magnolia seedling in the center of the hole so that the root collar after planting is 3-5 cm above the surface. Fill the remaining space in the hole with soil, lightly tamp the surface, and water the plant liberally. When the water is absorbed, mulch the trunk circle of the magnolia seedling with peat, and on top of it with dry bark of conifers to prevent the soil from evaporating moisture too quickly.
Caring for magnolia in the garden
Magnolia needs constant moisture. Especially in need of regular and abundant watering seedlings aged from one to three years. The soil in the trunk circle should be moist, but not wet, and the water for irrigation should be warm. It is only necessary to loosen the soil in the near-trunk circle with a pitchfork and very carefully, since the magnolia has a superficial root system that is easily damaged by garden tools. Therefore, it is recommended that the trunk circles of magnolias be mulched.
Growing magnolia involves the introduction of fertilizers into its trunk circle. Trees up to two years old have enough nutrition laid in the soil during planting, and from the age of three, you need to start feeding. Fertilize magnolia in the first half of the growing season. As a top dressing, you can use ready-made mineral complexes, the packaging of which indicates the required dosage, but you can make top dressing yourself: dissolve 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of urea and 1 kg of mullein in 10 liters of water. To feed one adult tree, you will need 40 liters of this solution. Bring it instead of watering once a month. Keep in mind that magnolia is easy to overfeed, and if you find that its leaves begin to dry prematurely, stop fertilizing and increase watering when watering.
Magnolia does not tolerate transplanting very well, but if you have such a need, do everything as she likes: find the most suitable place, taking into account the magnolia's growth dynamics. Before digging up the plant, be sure to water it well and remember that the larger the earthen ball on the roots of the plant, the easier it will take root. Magnolia is dragged to a new place on a piece of oilcloth or a sheet of plywood. Transplantation is carried out in the same order as the primary planting: first, a spacious pit is prepared, drainage, sand, and some fertile soil are placed in it, and then a magnolia is placed in the center of the pit and the free space is filled with earth, leaving the root neck of the plant above the surface of the plot. You do not need to compact the soil around the plant much, just lightly press it with your hands.
After transplantation, abundant watering is carried out, and then the trunk circle is mulched. If the transplant was carried out in the autumn, for the winter in the near-stem circle you need to pour a mound of dry earth - this measure will protect the root system of the plant from freezing. The trunk and branches of a transplanted tree are wrapped in a cloth for the winter.
Magnolia does not need formative pruning in the garden, and sanitary cleaning is carried out only after flowering: shoots frozen in winter, wilted flowers, dry branches that thicken the crown are removed. Fresh cuts need to be treated with garden pitch. Do not prune magnolia in the spring, as all plants of this genus are characterized by intense sap flow and can die from wounds.
Pests and diseases
For a long time it was believed that magnolia is immune to diseases and pests and suffers from completely different problems. For example, sometimes yellow spots begin to appear on its leaves - chlorosis. In this case, the veins of the leaves remain green. This is a signal that there is a lot of lime in the soil, and the magnolia root system in such an environment develops poorly and dies. In this case, you need to add acidic peat or coniferous soil to the soil. And you can use commercially available chemicals, such as iron chelate, to restore the required level of acidity.
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Oversaturation of the soil with fertilizers slows down the growth and development of magnolia, since soil salinization occurs from an excess of nutrients. It is possible to determine that too much fertilizer has accumulated in the roots by the edges of the old leaves of the plant that dry out already at the end of July. Stop fertilizing and increase water consumption when watering.
Of the insects, magnolia can be harmed by rose thrips, mealybugs and peach aphids, and during the dry season, spider or transparent mites can settle on the plant. All these pests suck the juices out of the magnolia, weakening the plant. From this, the leaves from the tree begin to fall off already in July or August. Sucking pests sometimes weaken the magnolia so much that it almost does not grow the next year. In addition, they carry incurable viral diseases. It is necessary to fight ticks, thrips, worms and aphids with acaricides - treating the tree with a solution of Aktellik, Aktara or a similar drug.
In winter, magnolia can suffer from rodents eating the roots and root neck of the tree, but you will only know about this if you remove the top layer of soil. If bites are found, treat them with a one percent solution of Fundazol and continue to cover the near-stem circle for the winter only after the top layer of soil freezes. In this case, the rodents will not get to the roots.
Among the diseases in our climate, fungal infections can affect magnolia: seedling rot, powdery mildew, gray mold, soot fungus, botrytis and scab. These diseases can be dealt with if they are detected in time and measures are taken immediately: reduce watering and treat the plant with a fungicide solution. It is possible that the processing will have to be carried out repeatedly. And from bacterial spotting, magnolia is treated with copper sulphate.
Propagation of magnolia
Magnolia is propagated by seed and vegetative methods - cuttings, layering and grafting, but only the vegetative method allows you to get hereditarily identical plants. In fairness, it should be said that generative propagation contributes to the development of new varieties, varieties or forms, moreover, this method is the easiest to perform.
Growing from seeds
Magnolia seeds ripen in September. Spread the collected seeds on paper, shake out the seeds from them and fill them with water for 2-3 days, then rub through a sieve to free them from the seeds. To remove oily deposits from the seeds, wash them in soapy water and then rinse thoroughly in running water. Pack the dried seeds in a plastic bag with wet sand or sphagnum (1: 4) and store until sowing in the refrigerator on the middle shelf for at least 20 days - the seeds must be stratified.
Before sowing, remove the seeds from the refrigerator, disinfect them in a fungicide solution and place them in moist moss for a while so that they hatch. Of the stratified seeds, more than half germinate, but if the seeds are not prepared, there will be much less seedlings.
- Varieties of flowering perennials
Magnolia seeds are sown in grooves 2 cm deep and covered with a layer of soil 1 cm thick. Since magnolia has a tap root system, the seedling container must be at least 30 cm deep. Seedlings are transplanted into open ground by transshipment when the threat of returning frosts has passed. For the winter, they are covered “with their heads” with dry peat.
Propagation by cuttings
Propagation of magnolia from young plants, before the buds open on the tree. The ideal cutting should be green on top and woody on the bottom. Planted cuttings in late June or early July in a greenhouse, where it will be possible to control the temperature and humidity of the air and soil. Sand or a mixture of sand with peat, perlite and vermiculite is used as a substrate. Rooting should take place at a temperature of 20-24 ºC, and then the appearance of roots in the cuttings can be expected in five to seven weeks. Large-flowered magnolia cuttings take twice as long to root. Try to strictly observe the temperature regime, because at a lower temperature the process will be much slower, and at temperatures above 26 ºC, the cuttings will die. During the entire period of grafting, the greenhouse must be ventilated, and the soil must be kept moist.
Propagation by layering
Shrub magnolias are propagated by layering: in spring, a low-growing branch of the plant is pulled at the base with soft copper wire, bent down, fixed and poured a small mound of earth at the attachment point. The process of root formation will go faster if you make an annular incision at the place where the branch is in contact with the soil.
Magnolia can also be propagated by air layering. In late spring or early summer, make a circular cut of the bark 2-3 cm wide on the branch of your choice. Try to do this carefully so as not to damage the magnolia wood. Treat the cut with Heteroauxin, cover the wound with wet moss and wrap with cling film, fixing it above and below the cut. Then tie the branch to neighboring branches so that it does not get damaged in strong winds. Keep the moss moist: spray it several times a month, piercing the film with a syringe of water. After two or three months, roots form at the cut site. In autumn, the cuttings are cut off from the branch and grown at home.
Magnolia after flowering
Preparing for winter
Magnolia blooms in spring or early summer and is a sight to behold: magnolia in bloom is the queen among garden trees. And when this holiday is over, you have to do sanitary pruning of the tree: remove wilted flowers, broken ones, dead in winter from frost and branches and shoots growing inside the crown. But even without flowers, magnolia is decorative due to its beautiful leathery leaves.
Magnolia in winter
When deep autumn comes and the garden begins to fall asleep, your task is to prepare a shelter for the magnolia, because even the most winter-hardy species of this genus can suffer from frost, especially in windy and snowless winters. To avoid frost cracks, wrap the trunk of the tree with two layers of burlap, being careful not to damage the fragile branches. Then, after waiting for real frosts, cover the trunk circle with thick mulch. Now your beauty will not be afraid of frost, mice or other rodents.
Species and cultivars
The largest collections of magnolias are collected in the UK: in the Arnold Arboretum introduction center and in the Royal Botanic Gardens. But there is also an excellent collection in Kyiv, and it is the Ukrainian experience of growing magnolias that gives hope for the promotion of this plant to the east and north. The most common types of magnolia in cultivation are:
Magnolia sieboldii (Magnolia sieboldii)
This is a deciduous tree up to 10 m high, but more often a tall shrub with broadly elliptical leaves up to 15 cm long and fragrant cup-shaped, somewhat drooping white flowers on a pubescent thin pedicel. The diameter of the flowers is from 7 to 10 cm. This is one of the most winter-hardy species, tolerating short-term frosts down to -36 ºC. Cultivated since 1865;
Obovate magnolia (Magnolia obovata)
Or White magnolia comes from Japan and Kunashir Island in the Kuriles. This is a deciduous tree with a gray, smooth bark, reaching a height of 15 m. The leaves of this magnolia are collected in 8-10 pieces at the ends of the shoots, and the beautiful flowers up to 16 cm in diameter, creamy white in color, are distinguished by a spicy aroma. Fruits of bright red color reach a length of 20 cm. This tree is decorative at any time of the year, it tolerates shading and frost well, but it is demanding on the level of soil and air moisture. Cultivated since 1865;
Magnolia officinalis (Magnolia officinalis)
A Chinese plant similar to magnolia obovate, but with larger leaves. Her flowers are also large, fragrant, reminiscent of water lilies, but with narrower petals pointed towards the top. In China, this species is used as a medicinal plant, and in our area magnolia officinalis is still rare;
Magnolia pointed (Magnolia acuminata)
Or Cucumber magnolia from central North America, where it grows in deciduous forests at the foot of the mountains and along the rocky banks of mountain rivers. This is a deciduous tree up to 30 m high with a pyramidal crown at a young age, which becomes rounded over time. The leaves are oval or elliptical, up to 24 cm long, dark green above and grayish green, shortly pubescent below. Flowers up to 8 cm in diameter are bell-shaped and yellow-green, sometimes with a bluish bloom, color. It is the most cold-resistant member of the genus. Cucumber magnolia has a form in which the leaves are either round or heart-shaped at the base, and the flowers are smaller than the main species and canary in color. In the United States, hybrids have also been obtained between pointed magnolia and lily-colored magnolia, united under the name Brooklyn magnolia;
Magnolia stellata (Magnolia stellata)
One of the most elegant and spectacular magnolias native to Japan. This is a small tree or shrub up to 2.5 m high with bare gray-brown branches, narrow elliptical leaves up to 12 cm long and original flowers up to 10 cm in diameter with numerous snow-white, elongated ribbon-like petals directed in all directions, like the rays of a star. . This species has two decorative forms: pink and kei. Some varieties and hybrids of this plant are also popular among gardeners:
- Magnolia Susan - a variety with flowers of a dark purple-red hue on the outside and lighter inside. This variety is part of a series of hybrids with female names - Judy, Betty, Anna, Pinky, Randy, Jane and Ricky - which was bred in the 50s of the last century.
Magnolia liliflora (Magnolia liliflora)
Particularly widespread in cultivation. It is supposedly originally from eastern China, and the plant came to Europe in 1790. Lily magnolia blooms profusely with lily-shaped flowers up to 11 cm in diameter. The flowers are purple on the outside, white on the inside, they have a barely perceptible aroma. Of greatest interest is the decorative form of this type of magnolia Nigre (Nigra) with ruby-red outside and white-lilac inside flowers that open in late April or early May;
Magnolia kobus (Magnolia kobus)
Native to northern and central Japan and South Korea, and in 1862 the species was moved to New York, from where it entered Europe in 1879. In culture, the plant reaches a height of 10 m, but in nature it can grow two and a half times higher. The leaves of the tree are broad, obovate, with a sharp apex, bright green above and lighter below. This magnolia is white, fragrant, with flowers up to 10 cm in diameter. The plant blooms in the ninth or twelfth year. The species is characterized by frost resistance, gas and dust resistance. The northern form of the species is a plant with larger flowers and even more resistant to low temperatures;
Native to the southeastern states of North America. She has a slender cylindrical trunk, a beautifully shaped crown, dark green, large shiny leaves and white flowers up to 25 cm in diameter, with a strong spicy aroma. Even the fruits of this plant are attractive: the original cone-like shape, brightly colored and very showy. At a young age, magnolia grandiflora develops slowly, growing annually by only 60 cm. It does not differ in frost resistance, withstanding colds of at least -15 ºC, but it copes well with urban conditions, is resistant to diseases and pests and is durable. The main decorative forms of magnolia grandiflora are:
- narrow-leaved - a plant with narrower leaves than the main species;
- lanceolate - plant with elongated leaves;
- famous - magnolia with very wide leaves and flowers up to 35 cm in diameter;
- round-leaved - this plant has very dark green leaves and flowers up to 15 cm in diameter;
- early - magnolia, blooming earlier than the main species;
- exonian – tall tree with narrow pyramidal crown shape and oblong leaves pubescent below;
- Praverti - magnolia with a strictly pyramidal crown;
- Gartvisa - a tree with a pyramidal crown and wavy leaves;
- draconian - a plant with a low crown, the branches of which, hanging down in an arc, touch the ground and take root easily;
- gallison - magnolia of higher winter hardiness than the main species.
Magnolia Soulangeana (Magnolia x soulangeana)
This is a hybrid bred in 1820 by the French scientist Etienne Soulange. Since then, more than 50 forms of this hybrid have been registered and are incredibly popular all over the world. Magnolia Sulange is a deciduous shrub or tree up to 5 m high with obovate leaves up to 15 cm long and goblet flowers with a diameter of 15 to 25 cm, sometimes fragrant, and sometimes completely odorless, with petals from pale pink to purple, and only occasionally there are specimens with white flowers. The plant is resistant to adverse climatic factors and grows well on soils of different composition. Of the many garden forms of this hybrid species, the most commonly grown are:
- Lenne - magnolia with fragrant white flowers inside and pink-purple outside;
- Alexandrina - drought-resistant plant up to 8 m high with dark purple outside and white flowers inside;
- Red (rubra) - with pink-red flowers outside;
- German - magnolia with a pyramidal crown shape.