How far apart to plant almond trees
Planting Almond Trees - Stark Bro's
Successfully establishing a young nut tree in your yard starts with your planting site and method. Once a tree is established, it needs little assistance to grow and produce; but you’ll want to make sure you give your tree the best foundation possible.
NOTE: This is part 3 in a series of 10 articles. For a complete background on how to grow almond trees, we recommend starting from the beginning.
Nut trees require fertile soil for good growth, so before you plant, check your soil nutrients and pH. Contact your local County Extension Office for information about soil testing in your area, or purchase one of our digital meters for quick and accurate results. For almonds, your ideal soil pH should be 6.0-7.0. Steer clear of soils that are extremely heavy or poorly drained.
- Space your almond trees 15’ to 20’ apart.
- Dig a hole wide and deep enough to accommodate the root system.
- Wet the roots thoroughly before planting.
- Many nut trees have just one main root, almost like a giant skinny carrot. With most nut trees, this taproot should not be trimmed or bent when planted.
- Spread the roots out in the hole to prevent matting. Do not bend or trim main taproot.
- Plant at the same depth as they were grown at the nursery. Bare root trees will have a noticeable color difference between the roots and the trunk--plant at the depth of this color difference. Place a potted tree the same depth it was growing in the pot.
- Refill hole with enhanced soil. Tamp soil firmly about roots as you add each shovel of dirt.
- When hole is ¾ full, add two buckets of water, the last bucket should be treated with Stark® Tre-Pep® Fertilizer and let soak in. (If planting in the fall, wait to fertilize until spring for best results.)
- Finish filling hole.
- Prune your new bare root tree by cutting off at least one-third to one-half of the top (but not below the bud/graft union). This is essential. This forces your tree to grow a strong sprout that will become the main trunk. Take our word for it: severe pruning at planting time gets your new tree off to the best possible start. Potted nut trees do not need pruning.
- Paint trunk with a white latex paint and/or wrap trunk within 4” of top using Stark® Tree Guards to prevent rodent injury and sun scald.
- Mulch about June 1. Keep all weeds away from trees the first few years with mulch or regular cultivation.
- All-In-One variety only grows to about half the size of a normal almond tree, only around 15 feet tall. This makes it ideal for back yards where space is an issue. It is considered the best crop for home orchards. It is a self-pollinating tree, which means it does not need another tree near it in order to bear fruit, so you can grow just one tree. This also makes it valuable because it can be used as a pollinator to pollinate almond trees that cannot self-pollinate. The fruit from this tree ripens in late September or early October and is considered a soft-shelled nut.
- Hall’s Hardy variety is a hard shell small nut variety, which ripens in October. This variety also has a pink bloom and is often planted just for its beautiful flower. It is a full size almond tree that does better with a pollinator such as the Garden Prince or and the All-In-One. The Hall’s Hardy is very cold tolerant and in fact requires 600-800 chill hours to fruit.
NEXT: Soil Preparation for Almond Trees
Previous: Choosing a Location for Almond Trees
In This Series
- Soil Preparation
Care & Maintenance
- Pest & Disease Control
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Planting Almond Trees - Wikifarmer
Planting of young almond trees in the field can take place during winter (before blossoming).
Before planting, we have to label the tree positions in the field. In general, almond trees are planted in rectangular or hexagonal patterns. The young almond trees are normally not planted in less than 18 feet (5,5 meters) distance between them, especially when the soil is fertile enough. If they are planted in less than 18 feet distances, after a few years, the overcrowding and the mutual shadowing of trees will decrease the quantity and quality of production and will make harvesting and pruning more difficult. (However, there are innovative methods suggesting 4 X 4 feet (1,2 X 1,2 meters) distances, but with a very short life expectancy of the trees). Typical distances are 20 X 20 feet (6 X 6 meters), 23 X 23 feet (7×7 meters) and 18 X 18 feet (5,5 X 5,5 meters). 20 X 20 feet distances result in 109 trees per acre, or 270 trees per hectare, while 18 X 18 feet distances result in 134 trees per acre or 330 trees per hectare. (1 hectare = 2,47 acres = 10.000 square meters). Keep in mind that commercial almond growers plant one row of trees of the pollinating variety for every three rows of the main variety, so as to ensure cross pollination, which is necessary for the fruit set. This also facilitates the harvesting and sorting of each variety, as they collect and sort each variety of almonds by harvesting the corresponding row.
We then have to dig and open the holes. The holes have typically dimensions 1,5 X 1,5 feet (45 X 45 cm) and a depth of 2 feet (60 cm). Keep in mind that the young almond trees are often planted without the nursery’s soil ball. The seedlings are often planted at roughly the same depth, as they were planted in the nursery, and then we have to put plenty of surface soil to the base of the root system of seedlings. When adding the soil, we have to press it gently, until the complete filling of the pits, so as to avoid causing damage to the young and sensitive root system. Planting is followed by the watering of seedlings. Many almond farmers then add a small amount of manure around the seedling base. They do this in order to prevent the germination of weeds’ seeds and to maintain adequate soil moisture. In some countries, almond growers place a special weed-preventing mat around the base of the newly planted almond tree and they cover its trunk with a special white cover in order to avoid sunburn (ask a local licensed agronomist).
You can enrich this article by leaving a comment or photo of your almond orchard tree spacing, plant population and planting methods.
1.) Almond Tree Info & Uses
2.) How to grow an Almond Tree from seed
3.) Growing Almond Trees for Profit
4.) Almond Tree Climate Requirements
5.) Almond Tree Soil Requirements & Preparation
6.) Almond Tree Propagation
7.) Almond Tree Pollination
8.) Planting Almond Trees – Number of Almonds Trees per hectare and acre
9.) Almond Tree Pruning
10.) Almond Tree Water Requirements
11.) Almond Tree Fertilization
12.) Almond Tree Harvest & Yield
13.) Almond Tree Pests and Diseases
14.) Q&As Almond Tree
15.) Bulk Almonds for Sale
Do you have experience in Almond Tree cultivation? Please share your experience, methods and practices in the comments below. All the content you add will be soon reviewed by our agronomists. Once approved, it will be added to Wikifarmer.com and it will influence positively thousands of new and experienced farmers across the world.
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planting and care, photo, cultivation, pruning, grafting, types and varieties
Author: Elena N. https://floristics.info/ru/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19 Category: Fruit and berry plants reprinted: Last amendments:
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- Landing and Care for Almond
- Botanical Botanical Lesson Planting Lesson
Plant almond (Prunus dulcis) is a small tree or shrub of the subgenus Almond of the genus Plum of the Rosaceae family. The subgenus unites about 40 species of almonds, but ordinary almonds are more often grown in culture. Even though almonds are considered nuts, they are actually stone fruits. The almond tree comes from the Mediterranean and Central Asia - it appeared in these areas long before our era. Today, almonds, in addition to Central Asia and the Mediterranean, grow in California, China, the Western Tien Shan, the Crimea, the Caucasus, in the vineyards of Slovakia, the Czech Republic and South Moravia.
The almond tree prefers gravelly and rocky slopes with calcium rich soil at an altitude of 800 to 1600 m above sea level, although in Israel it grows much lower. Almonds are located in nature in small groups of 3-4 trees or bushes at a distance of 5 to 7 meters from each other.
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Planting and caring for almonds
- Planting: at the beginning of March or the last days of September.
- Flowering: in March or April, before the leaves appear.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- Soil: well-drained and breathable chernozems, loams, sandy soils with a high lime content and a pH of 7.7. Groundwater at the site should be deep.
- Watering: regular: one bucket of water when the soil in the trunk circle dries to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Saplings are watered more often than mature trees. In case of difficulties with the delivery of water in a season with a normal amount of precipitation, two plentiful irrigations per season are sufficient: spring and autumn water recharge.
- Top dressing: at the end of April or at the beginning of May, a solution of 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of water is added to the tree trunk. In autumn, for digging, 1 kg of manure and 20 g of double superphosphate and potassium sulfide are added to the trunk circle.
- Pruning: in spring, before the start of sap flow, and in autumn, after leaf fall, sanitary pruning is carried out. Formative pruning is done after flowering.
- Propagation: by budding, shoots, layers, sometimes seeds (stones).
- Pests: spider mites, almond seed-eaters, plum codling moths, aphids, plum sapwood beetles and leafworms.
- Diseases: cercosporosis, rust, moniliosis, gray rot (botrytis), scab, clasterosporiasis (perforated spotting).
Read more about growing almonds below. suffered from drought. The shoots of this branchy plant are of two types: shortened generative and elongated vegetative. Almond leaves are lanceolate, with a pointed tip, petiolate.
How do almonds bloom? Light pink or white almond flowers up to 2.5 cm in diameter consist of five petals. Almond blossom begins in March or April - before its leaves bloom. The fruit of the almond is a dry, velvety to the touch oval drupe with a leathery green pericarp, which, after drying, is easily separated from a stone 2. 5 to 3.5 cm long, having the same shape as the fruit, but often dotted with grooves.
Almond begins to bear fruit from four to five years, full fruiting occurs in the tenth or twelfth year, and the tree bears fruit from 30 to 50 years. With good care, an almond tree can grow 50 to 80 years in your garden, and some specimens can live up to 130 years.
The common almond has two varieties - bitter almond grown in nature and sweet almond grown in cultivation. The almond is a plant that requires cross-pollination, and in order for it to begin to bear fruit, at least three more almond pollinating varieties must grow in close proximity to it, the flowering period of which must be the same. In addition to remarkably tasty fruits, the value of almonds is represented by its decorative qualities. Almonds are a wonderful honey plant, exuding a magical aroma during flowering. Since almonds are pollinated mainly by bees, they bear fruit best if there are 3-4 hives on the site or somewhere close to it.
Almond is a relative of such fruit trees as apple, pear, plum, apricot, cherry plum, peach, chokeberry, mountain ash, wild rose, hawthorn, quince and other representatives of the rose family known in culture. From our article you will learn how almonds grow in the middle lane, how almonds are planted and cared for, what types of almonds exist, what varieties of almonds are more adapted to our climatic conditions, what are the benefits of almonds, and also for whom and what can lie harm almonds.
When to plant
Almonds can be grown from seed, and we will tell you about this in the section on plant propagation, but it is best to grow almonds from a one-year-old seedling. Seedlings are planted in the ground in early spring - early March - or in autumn, in the last days of November. Choose a sunny area for almond trees, although they grow well in partial shade, but the seedlings must be protected from drafts and strong winds.
Best ground for almonds - water and breathable chernozems, sandy or loamy soils with a high lime content - optimum pH 7. 7. Acidic, chloride or saline soils are unsuitable for growing almonds, as well as areas with high standing groundwater.
- Cherry plum: growing in the garden, pruning, grafting
Almond seedlings planted in autumn take root much better than those planted in spring. Two weeks before planting, pits are dug in the area allotted for almonds with a diameter of 50-70 cm and a depth of up to 60 cm at a distance of 3-4 m from each other in a row and 5.5-6.5 m between rows. A layer of crushed stone or broken brick with sand is laid in each pit for drainage and mixed with fertile soil consisting of sand, humus and leafy soil in a ratio of 1: 2: 3, 5-6 kg of rotted manure and a pound of superphosphate are added. If the soil is acidic, dolomite flour or lime should be added to it in an amount of 200-300 g. Two weeks later, when the soil in the pit settles, you can start planting almonds.
How to plant almonds? Planting an almond tree is not much different from planting a plum or apricot tree. Dig a support into the center of the pit - a pole of such a height that it rises half a meter above the level of the site. Place a mound of earth in the center of the hole. Dip the roots of the seedling into a clay mash with the density of store-bought sour cream and place the tree on a mound so that the root collar is slightly above the surface level. Fill the hole with fertile soil, compact it and water the tree with 10-15 liters of water. When the water is absorbed, tie the seedling to a support and mulch the near-stem circle with a layer of peat or dry earth 3-5 cm thick so that the mulch does not come into contact with the root neck of the tree.
How to plant in spring
If for some reason you had to postpone planting almonds in the spring, you still need to dig holes for them in the fall. Lay a drainage layer of sand and gravel in them, pour a layer of fertile soil mixed with fertilizers and leave the pits until spring. At the beginning of March, before the juice begins to ferment in the trees, almonds are planted in the same order as they are done in autumn.
Growing almonds in the garden
Caring for almonds
Almonds are planted and cared for in accordance with the agricultural practices of the crop. You will have to perform procedures such as watering, loosening and weeding the trunk circle, pruning and feeding the plant, as well as prevention against diseases and pests. And if you do everything right, then you have to harvest a good harvest.
How to care for almonds? At the end of March, you need to make the first loosening of the trunk circle to a depth of 10-12 cm, and then during the growing season, carry out 3-4 more loosening to a depth of 8-10 cm. Keep the trunk circle clean, remove weeds in a timely manner.
Harvest the almonds when the outer green shell darkens and begins to easily separate from the kernel. The collected fruits are peeled and laid out in one layer to dry, after which they are stored in cloth bags.
Despite the fact that almonds are drought-resistant, they grow and bear fruit better under conditions of timely and sufficient irrigation. Almonds growing in sandy soil need more frequent and abundant watering than those grown in clay and loamy soils. When you find that the soil under the almonds has dried out to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, pour a bucket of water into the near-stem circle. Waterlogging can lead to rotting of the root neck of the plant.
- Photo of myrtle
Seedlings need more frequent watering than mature trees: maintenance watering should be done once every 10-14 days.
How to grow almonds without water? If you do not have the opportunity to irrigate almonds during the entire growing season, spend at least autumn and spring watering watering the plant.
Almonds in the garden are in need of nitrogen, so in late April or early May, 20 g of ammonium nitrate diluted in a bucket of water is added to the near-trunk circle of each adult tree. Under the autumn digging of the site, 1 kg of manure, and 20 g of potassium sulfide and double superphosphate are added to the trunk circle of each tree. In the aisles of young plants for the first 5-7 years of life, it is desirable to grow green manure.
The cultivation of almonds requires preventive treatments of trees against pests and diseases. In order to destroy pathogens and harmful insects that have overwintered in the soil of the near-trunk circle and cracks in the bark of a tree, in early spring, before the buds open, treat almond trees with a one percent solution of Bordeaux mixture. And at the end of the growing season, after the end of leaf fall, spend the autumn spraying of almonds with Bordeaux liquid or its analogues in order to destroy pests and pathogens that have settled down for the winter.
Almonds in Siberia
Despite the fact that almonds do not hibernate without shelter in the middle zone, there are frost-resistant plant species and varieties that are successfully cultivated not only in Vologda and St. Petersburg, but also in the forest-steppe and steppe parts of Siberia . Frost-resistant species include steppe almonds, or low, or Russian, or bean, or almond. This is a shrub up to 1.5 m high with brown or reddish-gray bark, lanceolate, leathery, shiny, serrated along the edges of dark green leaves up to 8 cm long and up to 3 cm wide. undemanding to the composition of the soil and easily propagated.
There are two garden forms of steppe almond: white-flowered and Gessler - with bright pink flowers. In spring, flowering branches of steppe almonds amaze with their beauty. On the basis of the bean, breeders have bred such highly decorative varieties as Anyuta, Pink Flamingo, Mechta, White Sail, Pink Fog.
The kernels of the fruits of the steppe almond are edible and tasty. Another advantage of this species is that it quickly recovers even in those cases when it freezes in a harsh snowless winter.
- Microbiota: cultivation and care
Almonds in Moscow and Moscow region
In conditions of Moscow and Moscow region, besides the bean tree, the three-lobed almond grows well, which winters normally without shelter and quickly recovers in case of slight freezing. The most persistent in the conditions of winters near Moscow were the forms of the plant grafted onto the rootstock of the blackthorn. Nevertheless, it is desirable to protect even trees of cold-resistant varieties from frost - to cover their stems with lutrasil. And in order to prevent freezing of the shoots, it is necessary to remove the apical buds at the end of July or the beginning of August - this procedure stimulates the rapid lignification of the shoots, after which the almonds will not be afraid of frost.
When to prune
Almonds need shaping and sanitary pruning, while mature trees require a rejuvenating treatment. Sanitary pruning is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, when the almonds enter a dormant period, and formative pruning is done after the flowering of almonds.
How to cut
Form the crown of almonds like plum, apricot, peach or nectarine - three tiers of skeletal branches are brought out. Immediately after planting the seedling, it is cut at a height of 120 cm, while the stem near the tree is formed with a height of 50-70 cm.
Thinning pruning of fruit-bearing trees removes crown thickening and irregularly growing branches. When freezing flower buds, annual shoots are shortened.
After winter, even before bud break, frozen annual growths of almonds are shortened, cutting them down to healthy tissue, broken, diseased or deformed branches and shoots are removed. After the end of flowering proceed to the formative pruning of the tree. On a seedling planted in autumn or spring, there are usually at least three branches located at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other - they are shortened to 15-20 cm, and on the central conductor for the next 2-3 years new tiers of skeletal branches are laid, which should be one from the other at a distance of 20-30 cm.
Unnecessary shoots for the formation of the crown are pinched several times during the summer, and those that are needed are shortened no later than July, as soon as they reach 50-60 cm in length. In the second and third years of almond growth, unnecessary shoots are cut out, the rest are shortened. Upon completion of the formation of the crown, the central conductor is cut so that the last skeletal branch of the almond is 55-60 cm lower than the conductor. 3-4 eyes. Annual shoots that do not interfere with the proper development of branches do not need to be cut.
Pruning in autumn
In autumn, after leaf fall, sanitary pruning of trees and shrubs is carried out: dry, broken, diseased shoots and branches thickening the crown are cut. If you have to cut or cut down a thick branch, do not forget to treat the cut with garden pitch, and if for some reason you did not have time to cut the almonds before the start of winter, transfer the sanitary pruning to spring.
Propagation of almonds
Under natural conditions, almonds are propagated by seed, but in cultivation, reproduction by budding is preferred, since it takes too much time to grow a tree from a seed. Nevertheless, you should know how you can grow almonds from the stone, if only because in this way you can grow a stock for a varietal cutting. You will need bitter almond seeds to grow rootstocks, but if you can't get them, you can use sweet almond seeds. In addition to these two methods, if your almond grows not as a tree, but as a bush, they resort to propagating the plant by shoots and layering.
Growing almonds from seeds
Sow seeds in spring or before winter. If you decide to sow almonds in the spring, you need to stratify the seed material - place them in the vegetable box of the refrigerator for 3-4 months. Almond seeds are sown in furrows 8-10 cm deep at a distance of 10 cm from each other, keeping a distance of 45-60 cm between the furrows. The seeds will germinate next year, in April, and you will need to water them, weed and loosen the plot. In July, when the seedlings reach a height of 50-60 cm, the side branches on the trunks below 10-12 cm from the surface level should be cut with pruners into a ring. During these periods, the thickness of the seedling stem in the region of the root collar approaches 1 cm, which means that the tree can already be used as a stock, but first it must be transplanted to a permanent place and allowed to take root.
Grafting of almonds
Almonds are also propagated by budding. As a stock, not only almond seedlings are used, but also plums, cherry plums and blackthorns. It is better to carry out the procedure in the midst of sap flow - in mid-April or at the end of August, in the cool time of the day - at 16 o'clock in the afternoon or early in the morning. Two days before the procedure, the stock is watered abundantly so that during budding the bark is well separated from the wood. For the scion, developed straight shoots with formed vegetative buds are selected. So that the scion does not lose moisture, all leaves are removed from it, leaving only petioles no more than 1 cm long.
The bole at the grafting site is wiped from dust, then a T-shaped incision is made in the region of the root neck with a sharp knife and the bark is carefully folded back at the point of convergence of perpendicular lines. From the scion, a shield with a kidney is cut so long that it fits into the incision on the rootstock. When you cut the shield, grab a thin layer of wood besides the bark with a budding knife and, trying not to touch it with your hands, insert the shield into the T-shaped incision on the rootstock, firmly press the bark against it and fix the grafting site by wrapping it with plaster or tape, but so as not to close the kidney itself with them.
If after 2-3 weeks the rest of the petiole falls off and the eye is green, then the budding was successful and the patch can be loosened. If you carried out budding at the end of summer, then the fixing bandage should not be removed until next spring, and it is better to spud the root collar with the graft with earth. In the spring, when you make sure that the bud has taken root, free the root neck from the ground, and the grafting site from the plaster or tape, then cut the stock just above the grafting site, and if it is windy in your spring, then the cut should be made 10-12 cm above the grafted kidneys. When shoots begin to appear from dormant buds below the budding site, they should be removed immediately, not allowing them to become woody.
Propagation by shoots and cuttings
Almonds growing in a bush after pruning, as a rule, form a shoot. In the second year, when the roots of the shoots become strong, the offspring are dug up and transplanted to a permanent place.
If you decide to try propagation by layering, choose flexible shoots for this, lay them on the ground, fix them in several places with wire pins and cover with a layer of earth about 20 cm thick. loosen the soil around it and remove weeds. After about a year or a little more, when a strong root system has formed at the layer, it is separated from the mother plant, dug out and planted.
Diseases of almonds and their treatment
Diseases of almonds affect the plant in cases where the agrotechnics of the crop is disturbed or it is weakened by improper or untimely care. Most often, almonds suffer from scab, cercosporosis, rust, moniliosis, gray rot and clasterosporia.
Cercosporosis - This fungal disease most often affects the leaves of almonds, but if the disease progresses, the petioles and shoots of the plant may also be affected. The first signs of the disease can be detected in June - rounded red-brown spots with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm appear on the leaves, and in conditions of high humidity a grayish coating forms on them. Over time, in the center of the spots, the leaf tissue dries up and falls out, the plant has to grow new leaves, which takes a lot of effort, and this negatively affects the development of the fruit. As a fight against the disease, as soon as its first symptoms are detected, almonds are treated with fungicides.
Scab - this disease affects not only leaves, but also flowers and shoots of almonds. As preventive measures against scab, one can consider the cultivation of disease-resistant plant varieties, digging the site after leaf fall, preventive spring and autumn treatments of almonds with Bordeaux liquid, timely pruning and burning of diseased shoots and branches. They cope well with scab, as well as with other fungal diseases, drugs from the category of fungicides.
Rust - this disease appears as small red spots on the upper side of the leaf blade, and brownish pads form on the underside of the leaves. The spots grow, merge, from which the leaves dry and fall prematurely. As a rust control, the treatment of almonds with an aqueous colloidal suspension of sulfur is used. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to remove plant debris from the site in the fall and dig up the soil.
Moniliosis - the causative agent of this disease penetrates through the pistil of the flower and affects young shoots, leaves and flowers of almonds. You can get rid of moniliosis by timely treatment of almonds with fungicides - for example, Horus.
Clusterosporiasis, or perforated spot, affects all stone fruits. The almond is no exception. Warm rainy weather contributes to the emergence and rapid development of the disease. The disease affects leaves, flowers, shoots and fruits, however, typical signs of clasterosporiasis appear primarily on almond leaves - small spots of red-brown, raspberry or red-violet hue. They gradually increase in size, merge, and the tissue in their center dies, brightens and falls out. A distinctive feature of the disease is a pronounced dark border around the spots, which makes it possible not to confuse clasterosporiosis with other diseases. With a strong defeat, gum begins to flow from the bark of damaged shoots.
To combat the disease, almonds are treated with Horus, Kuproksat, Skor, Topaz or Vectra, spraying the plant the first time at the beginning of flowering, the second time after flowering, then two weeks after the second treatment.
Gray rot, or botrytis, is manifested by the formation of brown, rapidly increasing in size spots on leaves and shoots. In conditions of high humidity, the plant is covered with a gray fluffy coating, consisting of spores of the fungus. This plaque is carried by the wind, and neighboring plants become infected with gray rot. To combat this fungal disease, fungicides such as Topaz, Champion, Kuproksat, Oksikhom are used.
To avoid gray rot infestation, try not to plant too densely and avoid putting fertilizers with a high concentration of nitrogen on the leaves. When symptoms of the disease appear, it is necessary to cut out the affected areas, and then treat the almonds with one of these drugs. You can use the coating of the affected areas by diluting 30-40 g of Rovral fungicide and 300-400 g of CMC glue in a bucket of water.
Pests and control of almonds
Among insect pests, almonds are most affected by spider mites, almond seed-eaters, aphids and leafworms.
Almond seed beetle spends the winter in damaged almonds, which is why it is important to remove plant debris from the tree and from the trunk circle in autumn. Carrying out preventive work (spring and autumn spraying of trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid) can also reduce the risk of damage to almond nuts by the seed beetle. For guaranteed plant protection, carry out another treatment of almonds immediately after flowering.
Leaf roller, or rather, its caterpillar, feeds on leaves, while folding them. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to cut and destroy the masonry of leaf-rolling butterflies and leaves rolled up by caterpillars, and in early spring, when the temperature in the garden rises above 4 ºC, treat the trees with Bordeaux liquid or Prophylactin, dissolving half a liter of the drug in 10 liters of water. If the caterpillars have bred, you will have to resort to treating almonds with insecticides such as Actellik, Calypso, Fufanon, Ditox, Tagore, Zolon and other similar preparations.
Aphid is a ubiquitous and very dangerous pest that feeds on the cell sap of leaves and young shoots of almonds and carries incurable viral diseases. The fight against it must be merciless, especially since it can give nine generations in one season. As a preventive measure, you can plant umbrella plants near almonds - dill, fennel - which will attract hoverfly aphid eaters to your garden. It is better to destroy aphids with folk remedies - an infusion of wormwood, tansy, tobacco dust, hot pepper, garlic, onion, dandelions, tomato and potato tops. To defeat the pest, 3-4 treatments are required. Of the insecticides, Biotlin and Antitlin do well with aphids.
Spider mite colonizes almonds during drought. It multiplies rapidly, its population lives in the thinnest web woven by ticks. This pest feeds, like aphids, on the cell sap of leaves and young shoots. As a result of the activity of spider mites, the plant weakens, and any diseases can affect it, including those carried by spider mites. It is useless to use insecticides against ticks, since they are arachnids, so the fight should be carried out with acaricides (Apollo, Omite, Flumite) or insectoacaricides (Agravertin, Akarin, Kleschevit, Fitoverm).
Varieties of almonds
Sweet varieties of common almonds are divided into hard-shelled, from which the shell is removed with tongs, and soft-shelled, from which the skin is removed by hand. We offer you several well-established varieties, among which you can choose almonds for your garden:
- Jubilee - a late flowering drought-resistant variety with a medium-thick shell and a dense, sweet, dry core;
- Ayudagsky is a late-ripening, early-growing productive variety that begins fruiting in the third or fourth year after planting. The variety is soft-shelled, the core is flat-oval, dense and sweet, light brown in color;
- Sevastopolsky - heat-resistant and drought-resistant late-ripening variety of very high productivity with soft shells and dense, sweet white kernels;
- Mangup - drought-resistant late-ripening variety, rarely damaged by pests and diseases, with soft shells and hard, dense, sweet oily kernels;
- Fragrant late-flowering variety with hard shells and fragrant, dense and oily kernels of excellent taste;
- Dessert is a frost-resistant, self-fertile variety with a rough, soft shell and oval sweet kernels with a buttery taste. Primorsky and Spicy varieties are suitable as pollinators;
- Primorsky is a productive, self-fertile variety with a fan-shaped crown, with a stable dormant period, with elongated oily fruits. Dessertny and Alenik varieties are suitable as pollinators.
In addition to those described, varieties Yalta, Nikitsky 62, Paper-shell, Rims, Nikitsky late-flowering, Nessebar, Dabkov, as well as Californian varieties Nonparel, Neck plus ultra, Carmel, Padre, Mission, Monterey and Sonora are in demand in the culture.
Varieties for the Moscow region
As we have already mentioned, it is problematic to grow any of the common almond varieties in the conditions of the Moscow region - cold winters are to blame, after which the plant may not recover. Therefore, it is better to grow steppe almonds, or the so-called beaver, in the Moscow region, the decorative effect of which is beyond praise, and the nuts are almost as good as the fruits of sweet almonds in taste.
Properties of almonds - harm and benefits
Why are almonds useful? Almond kernels contain up to 67% fatty oil. Almonds are one of the world's best plant sources of protein, containing up to 30% of the same amount of protein as lean meats, and are high quality, almost completely absorbable protein. In addition, almonds contain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and manganese, sugars, enzymes, a powerful antioxidant vitamin E and B vitamins. , increases the production of sperm in men. It is recommended for patients with asthma and pleurisy, it is indicated for ulcers and abrasions in the intestines and bladder. Italian scientists have experimentally proven that regular consumption of almonds increases the body's resistance to viral infections.
The peel of almond kernels contains ten times more antioxidants than the kernels themselves. And, by the way, it is used for tinting wines and making brandy.
In folk medicine, almonds with sugar are used to treat anemia, anemia, insomnia and cough. Almond kernels have analgesic, anticonvulsant, enveloping and softening effects.
Despite their calorie content, almonds, when used correctly, contribute to weight loss, since part of the fatty acids contained in it are excreted from the body without having time to assimilate. If you eat no more than 30 g of raw (not fried or salted) nuts per day, this will help you reduce lipids, normalize cholesterol levels and lose weight.
Almond oil is a valuable product. It is used for inflammation of the lungs, asthma, otitis, stomatitis, heart and kidney diseases. It has a beneficial effect on the skin, eliminating irritation, moisturizing it and giving it elasticity. Almond oil is one of the best remedies for strengthening hair, stimulating its growth and giving it shine and elasticity. It is quickly absorbed and activates the process of regeneration of body cells, so it is used as the basis for various ointments and creams.
For some people, almonds can be a strong allergen. Patients suffering from obesity should limit the use of almonds due to their high calorie content.
Unripe kernels can be dangerous because their cyanide content causes poisoning. Spoiled or expired kernels should be treated with caution - they can be poisonous. Do not give almonds to young children because the nut kernel can be inhaled.
- Read related topics on Wikipedia
- Peculiarities and other plants of the Rosaceae family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
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planting, cultivation, care.Personal experience of growing When there is still snow on the banks of the Neva and the Moskva River, almonds bloom in the Crimea. And inhaling its aroma, once again it seems that we live almost in paradise. Almonds are good not only for their delicious spring aroma, but also for tasty, healthy nut fruits with medicinal properties. However, if you want to plant this beautiful plant in your home, keep in mind that almonds are quite thermophilic. If there are varieties for your climate, great!
We planted our “almonds” when we planned our first pregnancy, stocking up our “drugs” ahead of time for pregnancy and lactation. Almonds increase the level of lactation (in other words, the amount of breast milk) in a nursing mother.
Almonds are dried and eaten, added as a spice to various dishes. In addition to fruits, almonds are valued for their aesthetic appearance and very pleasant aroma during the flowering period.Ads by
There are two main planting methods: either a stone or a seedling is planted in the ground. I will say right away that the second method is much simpler - I had a chance to watch the neighbors who really wanted to grow almonds from seeds.
If you still want to grow an almond tree from seed, plant them in the spring. Because if you lay the bones in the ground in the fall, as, by the way, our neighbors did, they run the risk of not surviving until spring - field rodents will thank you very much and eat them with pleasure.
As for planting seedlings, it also has a number of its own characteristics. If you want almonds to bear fruit, you need to plant at least two, and preferably three plants. Pollination features are shown.
A girl planting an almond tree
We had no particular problems with planting - the seedlings were sold with a clod of earth near the roots (it seems that almost all of them are sold this way). We were advised to plant in the sunniest place, protected from the wind. Somewhere we did just that, dug small holes (25-30 cm deep) at a distance of about 3 m from each other, where the seedlings were lowered along with a clod of earth.
Tied to a cane pole (we sell such long sticks in supermarkets to support plants) and watered every time the soil dried up.
Now, having talked with many almond lovers, I know that traditionally the bottom of the planting hole is covered with crushed stone and sand, and lime is added to the soil. But when we planted almonds (and it was almost 9 years ago), I didn’t know about it, respectively, and planted without any special tricks directly into the ground, since it’s already excessively sandy with us.
Caring for almonds
Almonds are an unpredictable plant, in some (probably, it depends more on the soil) it grows beautifully and, which is typical, bears fruit without fertilizers and a special watering regime. Others fertilize and water, but do not get a bountiful harvest.
- Watering almonds
With the watering regime, everything is relatively simple: when the soil under the plant is dry, you need to pour a bucket of water under it. And it is important not to overdo it - it can harm the root system of the plant. If the almonds are not watered enough, the flowering period will be reduced, and as a result, the volume of the crop obtained will be reduced.
Abundance of fruiting directly depends on watering
- Almond fertilizer
In spring, almonds are fertilized with rotted manure, and in autumn with superphosphates and potassium sulfide.
- Pruning almonds
Almonds should be pruned regularly, removing dry and diseased branches. Decorative pruning also does not harm the plant. It is usually carried out after flowering, cutting off annual shoots in order to form a tree crown.
- Diseases of almonds
One of the most common diseases of almonds is gray rot. There are no specialized means of protection against it. (If suddenly someone knows, I will be grateful if you share in the comments.) Pruning infected branches helps a lot. But it is important to cut it on time, before the appearance of spore-bearing pads. We saved one plant in this way, but two more did not have time.
There are other diseases that are dangerous for almonds, such as moniliosis. To save the plant from it, it is necessary to spray with a Bordeaux mixture.
- Pests of almonds
Neighbor goats became the main pests for our plant :) Luckily, they did not eat all the leaves.
But in general, almonds are most often affected by aphids, leafworms and codling moths. Luckily, we didn't have to deal with the last two. And the aphids, it was the case, got there - they washed the leaves with laundry soap (solution, of course), we did the same with rose leaves, and the voracious insects retreated.
Almond blossoms in April, filling the area with the maddening smell of their flowers.
These marvelous flowers then form fruits, which, depending on the variety of almonds, ripen in June-July.
They are usually harvested when the outer shell of the fruit cracks. Then the nuts are separated from the inedible outer shell (we are not talking about the nut shell, but about the outer green skin) and dried for several days.
Choice of almond variety
The choice of one or another almond variety largely depends on the climatic zone (and, accordingly, the way it is planted). For the southern regions, where almonds are planted directly into the soil, large-sized varieties are well suited.
Inhabitants of the northern regions, who grow almonds in tubs, prefer dwarf varieties. It is understandable - growing a three-meter plant in a tub is a dubious pleasure.