How fast do japanese lilac trees grow
How to Grow and Care for a Japanese Lilac Tree
The Japanese lilac (Syringa reticulata) is a deciduous tree-form lilac attractive enough to serve as a specimen. It has a moderate growth rate, an upright growing habit, and a rounded shape. It is a mid-size tree belonging to the olive family and grown for the panicles of white flowers that are 6 to 12 inches long, which it bears for about two weeks in early summer. Seeds follow the flowers and last through the winter, giving the plant (along with its graceful form and pretty bark) some visual interest for the winter.
The best time to plant a Japanese lilac tree is in the late winter or early spring. Late fall is also an acceptable planting time.
|Common Name||Japanese lilac tree, tree lilac|
|Botanical Name||Syringa reticulata|
|Mature Size||20-30 ft. tall, 15-20 ft. wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full, partial|
|Soil Type||Well-drained, moist, clay, loamy, sandy|
|Soil pH||Neutral, acidic|
|Flower Color||Creamy white|
|Hardiness Zones||3-7 (USDA)|
|Native Area||East Asia|
Japanese Lilac Care
The Japanese lilac is very different from the plant most people associate with the word "lilac," so it helps to familiarize yourself with it before you consider buying one. It has no real issue with pests or diseases and is more resistant to powdery mildew disease than the common shrub-form lilacs (Syringa vulgaris). With its superior resistance to powdery mildew disease, the tree's leaves add to its beauty. Though these lilac plants are resistant to powdery mildew disease, it's still a good idea to space them far enough so that they have good air circulation.
The lilac is small enough to grow near a deck or patio and lacks an aggressive root system, which means it's safe to plant near patios, walkways, driveways, and septic lines.
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
vili45 / Getty Images
You will be most happy with a Japanese lilac tree if you grow it in full sun. It will survive if grown in partial sun, but it won't produce as many flowers.
Since it needs well-drained soil, mix compost into the ground when you plant Japanese lilac trees. The compost will loosen the soil, promoting proper moisture flow. This is particularly important in clay-rich soils.
Keep the ground evenly moist, but make sure it drains well. Mulch will help with water retention. So will compost. Suitable water retention means you won't have to water the plant as often.
While a Japanese lilac tree can live in soil of average fertility, it does better in more fertile soil. Feed the plant by mixing soil amendments into the ground every spring. Buy a balanced fertilizer if you feel an extra boost is needed. Make sure to follow instructions on the bag carefully since over-feeding can burn the plant. After applying the fertilizer every spring, hose down the soil so that the fertilizer goes down to the roots.
Types of Japanese Lilac Tree
Tree-form lilacs come in three subspecies, having subtle differences from one another (such as the Chinese being a bit smaller, etc.):
- Japanese lilac tree (Syringa reticulata subsp. reticulata)
- Chinese lilac tree (Syringa reticulata subsp. pekinensis)
- Amur lilac tree (Syringa reticulata subsp. amurensis)
Cultivars are also available. The cultivars generally bear more blooms than the species plant and, for this reason, may be preferred over the latter. Cultivars include:
- 'Summer Snow': A smaller tree (20 feet high), this plant is even more tolerant of pollution than the species plant, making it an excellent street tree.
- 'Chantilly Lace': This is one of a few choices available with variegated foliage. In this case, the leaves bear creamy yellow margins. It grows to 20 to 30 feet high and 15 to 25 feet wide. Partial sun is better for this type.
- 'Ivory Silk': This is the most popular cultivar. At a maximum height of 25 feet, it stays a little shorter than the species plant. It begins blooming at an early age, and it bears many panicles.
- 'Signature': Gardeners truly interested in a continual sequence of blooms love 'Signature' because its panicles, although smaller than those on 'Ivory Silk,' come out a week or two later. Grow both to extend the bloom period.
- 'Ivory Pillar': This Japanese tree lilac sports a columnar form (25 feet high and 15 feet wide).
Comparison of Tree Lilacs and Common Lilacs
While common lilac shrubs and Japanese lilac trees belong to the same genus (Syringa), there are important differences between them, beyond the fact that you can more easily train the latter into tree form.
- Flower scent: Common lilacs have one of the plant world's most fragrant blooms, but many people feel that tree lilacs have flowers that smell overly sweet. The smell is often compared to the pungent smell of the flowers of privet shrubs (Ligustrum).
- Bloom time: A Japanese lilac tree flowers a bit later, giving you color in early summer (rather than late spring). This fact is useful as you plan out the sequence of blooms in your garden.
- Bark: The Japanese lilac tree's bark is a pretty brown, studded with lighter lines (called "lenticels"), as on cherry trees, whereas the common lilac's bark is an uninspiring gray.
Perform maintenance pruning on a Japanese lilac tree as you would on any tree or shrub. This means removing damaged, dead, and diseased limbs as soon as you find them, thereby reducing the chances that your plant will experience severe pest or disease infestations. Also, occasionally prune out some of the limbs from within the canopy of mature trees to improve air circulation. Focus on removing any branches that are crossing and/or rubbing against each other.
Beyond this maintenance pruning, Syringa reticulata often needs help in achieving the classic tree form. If left to its own devices, it will sometimes become multi-branched, rather than growing with a single trunk. To this end, prune off low branches each year in early spring until you expose as much trunk as you desire. Such pruning is especially important in the early years when you are training your plant to become a tree.
Propagating a Japanese Lilac Tree
Japanese lilac trees can be propagated from cuttings taken in the late spring or early summer. Once the cutting is planted in the soil, it should take root in about six weeks. Here's how:
- Select a healthy branch, and use pruning shears to cut a 4 to 6-inch leafy cutting. Make sure to cut it at a 45-degree angle when taking the cutting from the branch.
- Dip the cut edge into a root hormone powder formulated for softwoods.
- Prepare a 10-inch container with drainage holes, with potting soil, and make a 2-inch deep hole with your finger in the center of the soil.
- Put the cutting, with the cut edge down, in the hole, and press the soil down around the cutting.
- Water the pot until the soil is evenly moist. Do not over-wet.
- Place the potted cutting in partial or dappled sun and keep the soil damp during the rooting period.
How to Get Japanese Lilac Trees to Bloom
These trees love to show off their fragrant flowers in the late spring and early summer. To get the most blooms from the Japanese lilac tree, plant in full sun and do a maintenance pruning. The flowers will last about two weeks and then produce green-colored clusters, which turn into yellow seed capsules that last during the cool months. Songbirds enjoy feasting on the seed capsules.
How to Grow and Care for Japanese Tree LilacsSyringa reticulata
There’s a house on my street with a large Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) growing in the middle of the yard.
It produces the most beautiful clusters of fragrant, cream-colored flowers each spring, and it’s a dream to catch a whiff of them when you walk by.
If you love lilacs and you want to add a lilac tree to your garden instead of – or in addition to – a shrub, this is the guide for you. This species will make a stunning, relatively trouble-free addition to your yard.
We link to vendors to help you find relevant products. If you buy from one of our links, we may earn a commission.
To learn more about growing lilacs, check out our guide.
Are you ready to find out how to plant a Japanese lilac? Let’s get started!
Here’s what I’ll cover:
What You’ll Learn
- What Is Japanese Tree Lilac?
- How to Grow
- Growing Tips
- Pruning and Maintenance
- Cultivars to Select
- Managing Pests and Disease
- Best Uses
- Quick Reference Growing Guide
What Is Japanese Tree Lilac?
As you probably guessed from its common name, the Japanese tree lilac is native to Japan, specifically the northern part of the country, and gardeners began cultivating this deciduous tree there as early as 1876, according to the experts at Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest in Clermont, Kentucky.
The full name for this tree is S. reticulata subsp. reticulata. There are two additional subspecies that are related to Japanese lilac trees, but they hail from other geographic regions and are a tiny bit different.
The S. reticulata subspecies pekinensis, or the Chinese lilac tree, is native to China; and S. reticulata subsp. amurensis, also known as the Amur lilac, is native to Korea and eastern Russia.
The Japanese lilac is in the same genus as shrub lilacs – Syringa, which comes from the Greek “syrinx,” meaning pipe, and refers to the hollow plant stems found in some Syringa species. Reticulata is a variation of the Latin “reticulatus,” which means netted, and refers to the netted vein pattern in the leaves.
Japanese tree lilacs are part of the olive family, Oleaceae, along with other fragrant, flowering plants like jasmine (Jasminum spp.) and privet (Ligustrum spp. ).
Some gardeners even say the flowers of S. reticulata smell more like privet than common lilac, S. vulgaris – a potential drawback, depending on your preferences.
S. reticulata is suited to Zones 3 through 7, making it perfect for northern gardeners.
It grows 15 to 30 feet tall and 15 to 20 feet wide, larger than other lilacs, and the canopy develops in a pleasing oval or round shape that is wider at the base and narrower at the top.
The tree blooms a little later than the common lilac, in June instead of May. The small flowers last up to two weeks and are borne on panicles that can be up to a foot long.
The leaves are simple but beautiful, vivid green with an oval shape, and they turn gold or yellow in the fall.
After blooming, the flowers turn brown and, if they were pollinated, produce small, pod-like capsules containing two winged seeds.
The capsules will stay on the tree even after the leaves fall off in wintertime. Eventually, wind and storms will scatter them throughout the area for the birds to enjoy.
S. reticulata bark is a beautiful brownish-red color that matures to gray. Over time, the bark becomes more rough, developing gray scales.
If allowed to grow naturally, as a large shrub, it will have multiple trunks, though it can be pruned into a tree form with one main trunk.
While you can propagate lilacs from cuttings, your success rate may be low. But you can always give it a try, and it’s the best way to get an exact clone of the parent plant – unlike attempting to grow it from seed.
Growing these plants from seed is a lengthy and time-consuming process. In a study for the American Society for Horticultural Science, researchers found that the seeds lose viability as they dry out, meaning you’d need to collect them fresh off a tree before they lose their natural moisture.
Dry seeds have a low germination rate, and they need soaking and two months of cold stratification to sprout. After that, plants propagated from seed can take four to five years to begin blooming. Most gardeners opt to propagate lilacs from cuttings or purchase young plants instead.
When it comes to growing these trees commercially, nurseries typically use grafting or budding methods to propagate new trees. Bare root plants that have not been grafted onto other types of rootstock are also available.
The easiest way to grow a Japanese tree lilac is to purchase a live plant from a nursery or garden center.
If you still want to give home propagation a try, we’ll cover rooting cuttings below, and then explain how to transplant a young bare root plant or potted tree into your yard.
The best time to root lilac cuttings is in late spring or early summer, when blooms are spent and growth has begun again.
Before you start, fill four eight- to 10-inch pots with a mixture of half sand and half potting soil. Make sure the pots have adequate drainage holes. Water each so the medium is moist, and use your finger to poke a two-inch-deep hole in the center of each one.
Choose a branch that’s relatively young but not too young: it should bend easily and break. If it doesn’t bend at all, it’s too old; if it bends but doesn’t break, it’s too green.
Using a sharp, clean pair of pruners, make a 45-degree cut on a young branch that’s three to five inches long, and contains at least two to three nodes with leaves growing. For the best chance at getting at least one cutting to root, take three more cuttings.
Remove the leaves from the bottom two inches of each branch, making sure to leave at least two leaves at the top of each cutting.
Dip the cut end of each young branch in a rooting gel product like Olivia’s Cloning Gel, a special formula containing plant hormone indole-3 butyric acid derived from the white willow tree (Salix alba).
Olivia’s Cloning Gel
You can purchase Olivia’s Cloning Gel in two-, four-, or eight-ounce bottles from Arbico Organics.
Place each cutting in its pre-watered container, burying two inches of the stem. Cover with a humidity dome and place atop a heat mat for best results; you want the cuttings to stay warm and moist.
You can also use a gallon-sized plastic bag to cover each cutting, affixing it to the container with a rubber band.
Make sure your cuttings receive a few hours of indirect sun from a window, but not intense sun. Keeping them on a kitchen table set a few feet away from a window is ideal.
Keep the cuttings evenly moist, removing the humidity domes to water the rooting mix every two or three days, or whenever the top of the soil starts to feel dry.
Roots should form within four to six weeks. To check, gently tug a cutting upward. If it resists your efforts, roots have formed.
Remove the humidity dome and heat mat, and set the pot or pots in a sunny windowsill to receive four to six hours of indirect sunlight a day.
If you don’t feel any resistance, give the cuttings another two to three weeks to produce roots before tossing them out.
When new leaves begin to grow, increase that time to six to eight hours of sun every day, or use a grow light to supplement what the window gives your plants.
Fertilize your new plant, or plants, with a fertilizer for acid-loving plants in the spring after the cuttings take root.
Dr. Earth Organic Acid Lovers Fertilizer
Dr. Earth’s Organic Acid Lovers formula is available in a one-pound package from the Home Depot.
This is a 3-4-3 NPK formula that works well for lilacs. Use two tablespoons for each gallon of potting soil.
For reference, an eight-inch round pot holds about one gallon of potting mix, and a ten-inch pot holds three.
Water your fledgling trees any time the top inch of soil dries out. To check the soil moisture, poke your index finger down about an inch into the potting mix.
With the right amount of water, sun, and patience, your new Japanese lilacs should grow reliably indoors, all winter long. When springtime comes, you can begin to harden the plants off by placing them outside for increasing amounts of time each day.
Once your lilacs are accustomed to spending most of the day outside, it’s transplant time!
Whether you’re transplanting a young, potted tree, a bare root plant, or a cutting you propagated yourself, the process of transplanting is similar.
The best time to plant your tree outdoors is somewhere between March and November, as long as the soil is workable.
Bare roots should be put in the ground in early spring or late fall, or whenever the trees in the surrounding area are dormant. It’s best to plant these promptly after you receive them, if you’re able to.
First, choose a site outdoors that receives six to eight hours of sun every day. The area should have well-draining, organically rich, slightly acidic soil. If you’re not sure what type of soil you have, you can conduct a soil test.
Next, dig a hole that’s as deep and wide as the root ball you’re working with.
If you’re planting a bare root specimen, the hole should be as deep as the mass of roots and about six inches wider.
Before you dig the hole for a bare root plant, unwrap it from its packaging and soak the roots in water for at least half an hour, but not longer than two hours. Bare root plants need to stay moist through planting time.
Work well-rotted compost or manure into the soil. You’ll want to work two inches of compost or manure into the soil inside the entire perimeter of the tree’s drip line to make sure the root system gets the nourishment it needs as it stretches out beyond the initial planting hole.
To remove a potted plant or tree from its container, use a trowel or a hori hori knife to loosen the root ball, prying it away from the edges of the pot. Grasp the base of the young tree and tip the container to the side, gently tugging the plant out.
Loosen the root ball with your fingers and place the Japanese lilac inside the hole you dug for it. For a grafted tree, the scar should be at least two inches above the soil.
For a bare root plant, create a bump of soil at the bottom of the hole and fan the roots out over it. In either case, make sure to avoid covering any part of the main trunk or the stem.
Backfill with soil, tamping it down to remove air pockets, water your plant thoroughly, and then step back and enjoy the sight of your new Japanese lilac tree, all planted up in your yard!
If you are planting more than one, make sure to allow enough space for mature dimensions.
You may wish to spray newly planted shrubs with deer, moose, and/or rabbit repellent. While mature specimens are resistant to mammalian munching, young plants may suffer damage.
Liquid Fence Deer and Rabbit Repellent
Home Depot sells 32-ounce bottles of Liquid Fence, which helps to deter mammals from your tender young trees.
If you live in a windy area, you may need to stake your tree with a flexible material, such as nylon stockings, and a wooden post.
Avoid staking the tree more than two-thirds of the way up the trunk to allow it to move and grow stronger, and remove the stake after one year.
How to Grow
When it comes to growing conditions, this gorgeous tree likes well-draining, slightly acidic soil, but it can adapt to anything with a pH range between 5.0 and 7.5.Photo by Dan Keck, Wikimedia Commons, via CC BY-SA.
It prefers evenly moist soil but tolerates drought, especially if grown somewhere with mild summer weather.
In the weeks after planting, give your tree a deep watering every two to four days, or whenever the top inch of soil dries out.
After about six weeks, the plant should be well-established, and you can reduce watering to about once a week in the absence of rain, or whenever the top three inches of soil dry out. To check the soil, poke your index finger all the way down into the dirt.
When the soil freezes, you can stop watering until the ground thaws again. Then, resume watering, but only once or twice a month until the leaves begin to emerge.
Fertilize once a year with a balanced, 5-5-5 NPK fertilizer, or the Dr. Earth Organic Acid Lovers formula mentioned above, in early springtime before buds begin to bloom.
For the Dr. Earth fertilizer, sprinkle two cups of fertilizer for every inch of trunk diameter over the entire drip line area, and carefully work it into the top inch or two of soil.
Water thoroughly after applying. Follow package directions for your selected product otherwise.
To help hold in moisture and suppress weeds, spread a two- to three-inch layer of mulch made from organic material inside the drip line.
- Water every two to four days until established, and once a week thereafter, in the absence of rain.
- Fertilize each spring before blooming begins.
- Mulch with organic material to help suppress weeds and hold in moisture.
Pruning and Maintenance
Japanese lilac trees are fabulously low-maintenance plants, but they do appreciate a yearly trim.
Make sure you prune during a dry spell, when there’s no rain in the forecast, as this can help to prevent bacterial blight. We’ll dig deeper into that in a moment.
When you prune, plan to remove any broken, dead, or diseased branches from your tree every year, preferably in late winter just before active growth resumes in the spring.
This is also an ideal time to remove any branches that are growing inward or rubbing against each other. Friction between branches can result in wounds that allow pests and disease pathogens to infiltrate your lilac.
You can also remove branches that aren’t contributing to the overall shape of the plant.
Just be sure to use clean, sharp pruning shears and cut at a 45-degree angle, making your cuts about a quarter-inch above a leaf or bud node. Avoid pruning the plant back by more than a third in a given year.
To maintain a tree form, remove any suckers that appear at the base of your S. reticulata. This will help to prevent your plant from developing multiple trunks, and taking on a more shrub-like appearance.
After your pretty, cream-colored flowers bloom and turn brown, deadhead them to promote the healthy growth of the tree.
Cultivars to Select
When it comes to this species, there are many options to choose from. Here are a few of my favorite Japanese tree lilac cultivars.
Each of them is suited to Zones 3 through 7, and each produces fragrant flowers that attract a range of pollinators.
If you’re looking for the species variety, you can purchase a three- to four-inch, multi-stem bare root plant from Nature Hills Nursery.
If you love variegated leaves, ‘Golden Eclipse’ is the cultivar for you. This small tree, which grows just 20 feet tall with a spread of 15 feet at maturity, features leaves with deep green centers and golden-green edges.
The flowers are a deeper cream color than what you’ll see in other cultivars, but they still bloom at the same time, in late spring or early summer.
‘Golden Eclipse’ is perhaps the least fussy of an already undemanding species!
Do you want an upright, narrow Japanese lilac tree (or two) to frame your yard? Ivory Pillar™ (aka ‘Willamette’) is your cultivar.
This tree reaches 20 feet tall but just 12 feet wide at maturity, and grows in an upright, pyramidal shape. Its slightly more compact form makes it ideal for yards with limited space.
Ivory Pillar™ blooms just as prolifically as the rest of its species siblings. The flowers are creamy, but closer to white than those of ‘Golden Eclipse.’ And the leaves are a rich, medium-dark green.
You can purchase Ivory Pillar™ plants from Nature Hills Nursery.
This popular cultivar grows 20 to 25 feet tall and 15 to 20 feet wide, producing fragrant, cream-white flowers in the late spring.
Selected in 1973 by growers at Sheridan Nursery in Ontario, Canada, this is one of the oldest and best-loved cultivars around.
‘Ivory Silk’ has a rounded crown, giving it a pleasing, classic tree shape, and it makes an excellent addition to a driveway border or flower garden. The deep green leaves perfectly frame the heavy blooms.
You can purchase live plants that are five to six feet tall from FastGrowingTrees.com.
How lovely is the name “snowdance?” It brings to mind clusters of off-white, fluffy blooms dancing in the wind, and that’s exactly what you get with First Editions® Snowdance™ (aka ‘Bailnce’).
This full, luscious tree grows 15 to 18 feet tall and 18 to 20 feet wide, and it blooms heavily in late spring or early summer.
Snowdance™ grows in a classic, vase-like shape and becomes a breathtakingly lovely tree with strong lateral branches as it matures.
It’s the type of tree you’d plant in your front yard as a stunning showpiece for the neighborhood, or in the backyard so you can gaze out at it from your kitchen window.
With dark green leaves and gold-hued cream-colored flowers, this showstopper boasts improved pest and disease resistance – which is impressive, since the species plant is already noted for these qualities.
Plants are available for purchase from Nature Hills Nursery.
Managing Pests and Disease
One of my favorite things about S. reticulata is how resistant it is to most pest and disease attacks.
It’s resistant to deer and moose, for starters. And according to the experts at the University of Minnesota Urban Forestry Outreach and Research Nursery and Lab, S. reticulata shows notable resistance to powdery mildew, a problem that plagues the common lilac. It also resists borers and scale.
Nancy Pataky at the University of Illinois Extension agrees that diseases are few and far between for these plants, but one issue to watch out for is bacterial blight, caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.
Bacterial blight isn’t terribly common in S. reticulata, but when it strikes, it can spread quickly, causing plenty of damage. The bacteria favor wet weather and tend to attack new shoots first.Photo by Jerzy Opioła, Wikimedia Commons, via CC BY-SA.
Infected leaves develop brown, water-soaked spots and take on a crimped appearance. Left untreated, infected stems can become girdled before dying off.
Pataky says rapid treatment, including removing affected shoots and spraying the entire tree with copper fungicide, may help.
To avoid bacterial blight, make sure your pruners are cleaned and sanitized any time you trim the tree. Only trim or prune on dry days with no rain in the forecast – at least a full day before and after your pruning date.
If you’re growing a fruit orchard, why not add a Japanese lilac tree to the mix? This tree pairs well with other scented, blooming specimens, and helps to attract pollinators to your orchard.
Or, create a border along the perimeter of your yard to add some privacy in the summertime.
You can also do what my neighbor did and simply plant a Japanese lilac in the middle of your yard as a show-stopping plant that also provides shade and a perfect place to picnic.
And of course, remember to cut a few panicles of flowers and bring them indoors to liven up your home with your own delightful Japanese lilac blooms!
Quick Reference Growing Guide
|Plant Type:||Deciduous, woody shrub or tree||Flower/Foliage Color:||Cream-white/dark green, variegated|
|Native to:||Japan||Tolerance:||Moderate drought, deer (when established)|
|Hardiness (USDA Zone):||3-7||Soil Type:||Organically rich|
|Bloom Time/Season:||Late spring-early summer||Soil pH:||5.0-7.5|
|Exposure:||Full sun||Soil Drainage:||Well-draining|
|Planting Depth:||Depth of root ball||Attracts:||Bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, other insect pollinators|
|Height:||15-30 feet||Companion Planting:||(Cornus), coneflower (Echinacea), apple (Malus)|
|Spread:||15-20 feet||Uses:||Border, shade, orchard|
|Common Diseases:||Bacterial blight||Species:||Reticulata|
Stop and Smell the Lilacs
If you cultivate one of these lovely plants at home, you won’t be able to help going out under your tree each June, and forgetting your to-do list entirely so you can enjoy the fragrant clusters of flowers.
And why stop yourself? You’ll have earned it.
Have you ever grown your own Japanese lilac tree? We’d love to hear your stories and any questions in the comments below!
Before you go, check out these additional articles on lilacs next:
- 23 of the Best Lilac Varieties to Grow at Home
- How to Grow Lilacs in Pots and Planters
Lilac - planting and care, pruning and varieties
In the article we discuss lilac . We talk about its characteristics, varieties, planting and care. You will find out where to buy lilac seedlings with delivery by Russian post.
Lilac is a genus of shrubs that belong to the Olive family. The genus consists of about 10 species that are distributed wild in Southeast Europe and Asia, mainly in China.
Lilac leaves opposite, usually entire, falling in winter. The flowers are white, pink or purple, located in panicles at the ends of the branches. The fruit is a dry bivalve box.
The height of the lilac ranges from 2–8 m, the diameter of the trunks is 20 cm. Young trunks are covered with smooth bark, old ones with cracks.
Foliage blooms early and stays on branches until frost. Lilac bloom is influenced by several factors: its variety and weather conditions. As a rule, lilacs bloom from late April to early June.
With proper care, the life expectancy of lilacs is about 100 years. The culture is easy to care for, it calmly tolerates frosts. In terms of popularity, the plant occupies one of the leading places among ornamental shrubs along with hydrangea and garden jasmine.
Lilac pests and diseases are:
- bacterial necrosis;
- bacterial rot;
- powdery mildew;
- verticillium wilt;
- lilac hawk hawk;
- lilac moth;
- lilac leaf mite;
- lilac bud mite;
- mining moth.
To protect the plant from diseases and pests, preventive treatment of the crop against pathogens should be carried out in a timely manner. Only in this case, you can be sure that the tree is protected and will bloom in full force!
Over a century and a half, approximately 2,300 hybrid lilac species have been bred. They are classified by the shape of the flowers (double and single), by the color of the petals (white, purple, bluish, pink, purple, complex), by size (the flowers are small, medium and large).
Many beginner gardeners wonder what time to plant lilacs. The most optimal time for planting lilacs in open ground is the period from mid-July to early September. It is not recommended to plant a crop in spring or autumn, since in this case the tree does not take root well and practically does not grow during the year. It is necessary to plant the plant in a sunny area with moderately moist soil, its acidity should be in the range of 5.0–7.0.
How you choose the right seedling for planting depends on how the tree will grow and develop. When buying, pay attention to the root system, it must be undamaged and not dry. Before planting a tree, it is necessary to remove all injured and dry roots from it, and shorten the remaining ones by a length of 30 cm. You will also need to remove injured stems, and shorten very long ones.
When planting several seedlings, the distance between them should be 2–3 m. With medium or high soil fertility, it is enough to dig a hole 50 cm deep and wide. With sandy soil, the size of the hole must be doubled, since it will additionally need to fill it with nutrient soil mixture (humus, wood ash and superphosphate). If the soil is acidic, then wood ash will need 400–600 g.
Lay a layer of drainage on the bottom of the planting site, then cover it with soil mixture in such a way that a mound is formed. Then place the seedling in the middle of the hole just on the resulting mound. Spread the lilac roots and fill the hole with soil mixture at the rate of 20 kg of humus mixed with 30 g of superphosphate and 200 g of wood ash.
The root collar of the planted crop should be 2–4 cm higher than the surface of the plot. Water the tree well, and after absorbing the liquid, cover the soil surface with a layer of mulch 5–7 cm thick.
Caring for lilacs
Growing lilacs in the garden is quite easy, as it does not take much time to care for. This shrub can grow without your participation, but it is still recommended to water it systematically from the beginning to the middle of summer as the soil dries up. Under one bush, 2-3 buckets of water should be poured.
Loosen the surface of the tree circle 3–4 times per season to a depth of 4–7 cm. It is important to remove weeds in a timely manner. In August-September, the crop should be watered only in case of a long drought. After 5-6 years, the lilac will turn into a dense and beautiful shrub.
For the first few years, lilacs are fed with only a small amount of nitrogen. From 2 years old, 65–80 g of ammonium nitrate or 50–60 g of urea are added under the lilac. Experienced gardeners advise feeding the plant with organic matter by pouring 10–30 liters of slurry under the tree bush. Once every 2-3 years, lilacs need to be fed with phosphorus and potassium.
Many growers strongly recommend repotting lilacs 1-2 years after planting. This is due to the peculiarity of lilacs to quickly consume all the nutrients in the soil. In this regard, after 2 years, the soil is no longer able to provide lilacs with all the necessary substances, despite systematic feeding.
It is not recommended to transplant 3-year-old lilacs before August. Young plants should be transplanted at the end of flowering at the end of spring, otherwise they will not have time to take root well before the first frost. The pit for transplantation should be the same size as for planting.
All injured and damaged branches must be removed before transplanting. After that, dig the shrub along the perimeter of the crown and pull it out of the soil along with the ground. Then move the tree to a new seat, and cover it with a sufficient amount of fertile soil.
Lilacs do not need to be pruned before they are several years old. At this time, skeletal branches are in the process of formation. In the 3rd year, you should begin to form the crown - this process will take you several years.
Pruning should be done in spring before sap flow and buds begin to swell. To do this, select 5-7 equidistant beautiful branches from each other, delete the rest. Also cut out the entire root shoot.
Remove about half of the flowering stems the following year. The basic principle of pruning is the presence of no more than 8 healthy buds on 1 skeletal branch, and the removal of the excess part of the branch to prevent plant overload during flowering.
Sanitary pruning should also be carried out during shaping pruning. To do this, remove injured, withered, painful or cold-damaged branches.
If desired, you can give the lilac the shape of a tree. To do this, purchase a seedling with a powerful straight vertical branch. Shorten it to the height of the trunk, after which form 5–6 skeletal branches from the growing shoots. Also systematically free the trunk and near-stem circle from overgrowth. After the end of the formation of the standard lilac, annually thin the crown.
Lilac is propagated by seeds only by specialists in nurseries. Gardeners use vegetative methods to propagate varietal lilacs: layering, grafting and cuttings. You can buy already grafted seedlings or own roots obtained from layering or cuttings.
The advantage of own-rooted lilacs over grafted ones is less exactingness, quick recovery after winter, easy reproduction by vegetative methods. Own-rooted lilacs have great durability.
Types and varieties of lilacs
There are about 30 types of lilacs, most of which grow in gardens and parks. Below we will talk about the most popular types of lilacs that are suitable for growing in the Moscow region and other regions of the country.
Miss Helen Wilmot
Miss Helen Wilmot terry variety of lilac was bred in France. The tree reaches a height of 2. 5–3 m. The plant has large snow-white inflorescences, which are collected in panicles of 3 pieces. It begins to bloom from 2-3 decades, flowering lasts 2-3 weeks.
The variety is drought-resistant, negatively related to the close occurrence of groundwater.
Miss Helen Wilmot is easy to care for, it is enough to water and feed the crop in a timely manner, remove weeds. It is also necessary to carry out formative pruning to maintain the decorative shape of the shrub.
The plant can be used on the site both singly and in groups with other trees.
This is a natural type of hybrid lilac, in which the inflorescence is formed from several lateral buds. The size of a Chinese lilac bush is about 3 m.
The Chinese lilac is unpretentious to the soil, but prefers to grow on loamy, alkaline and fresh soils. It is desirable to water the plant as often as possible during flowering, and in the summer - only on very hot days.
Primrose is a shrub variety reaching a height of 2–2. 5 m, with a dense and spreading crown. It has green-yellowish buds, in the open sun it fades to white.
The historic birthplace of this plant is France. Sensation is a straight-growing deciduous shrub that grows up to 3 m in height. The flowers are dark lilac with a whitish border.
Sensation blooms at the end of May.
This variety of lilac has good frost resistance, which allows it to be grown in central Russia. Charles Jolie is a dense, large shrub with a rounded crown. It grows up to 3.5–4 m in diameter. It grows by 30-50 cm per year. The plant has flowers of a pinkish hue, collected in large inflorescences.
This shade-loving variety of lilac is found in broad-leaved forests of the Far East. Amur lilac needs well-moistened soil.
The culture is a multi-stemmed tree with a lush spreading crown. It can grow up to 20 m in height. It is cultivated as a shrub, the height of which does not exceed 10 m. The shrub reaches a height of 7 m. Dense branched stems are directed upwards. Dark green leaf plates reach a length of 12 cm, have a ciliated edge.
This variety of lilac reaches 1.5 m in height. The length of the leaf plates is only 2–4 cm. Meyer is a frost-resistant species, suitable for growing in the Moscow region.
This hybrid was bred by crossing lilac finely cut and Afghan. The shrub reaches a height of 3 m. Popular forms are:
- white lilac with white flowers;
- red lilac with red flowers;
- dissected - dwarf Persian lilac with spreading branches and small openwork leaf plates.
This hybrid was bred by crossing common lilac and broad-leaved lilac. There are several popular forms of lilac:
- Esther Staley - the buds have a red-violet hue, the diameter of the flowers is about 2 cm. The length of the inflorescences is about 16 cm.
- Churchill - the buds have a purple-red color.
- Purple Glory - dense inflorescences consist of simple flowers of a purple hue.
This type of lilac is also called lagerstroemia. Indian lilac is a deciduous tree-like, but most often shrubby plant. The area of natural growth is China, but the culture has received its distribution from India and Southeast Asia. As a garden crop, lagerstromia can be found in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea coast.
There are varieties of culture that have an ampelous form of growth. In nature, the plant can grow up to 10 m, but when cultivated indoors, it rarely reaches a meter.
The first Indian lilac buds can be seen already in early January. Abundant flowering occurs at the beginning of July and continues until mid-autumn.
Beauty of Moscow
A popular lilac variety all over the world. The height of the bush reaches 3–4 m, the diameter of the crown is about 3 m. It begins to bloom in late May or early June with double white flowers, which at first have a pink color with a mother-of-pearl tint.
Where to buy lilac seedlings
You can buy lilac seedlings in our online seedlings store. We offer high-quality and healthy seedlings of both lilacs and other ornamental, fruit crops and shrubs. You can buy berry bushes from us at attractive prices with delivery by mail throughout the country.
We love our customers and offer each customer a nice gift as a bonus. We give a free consultation on the proper planting, cultivation and care of the acquired crop.
Place an order with us if you want to have a high yield and enjoy pleasant fruits or attractive shrubs!
outdoor cultivation, pruning, propagation, photo
Author: Elena N. https://floristics.info/ru/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19Category: Garden Plants Returned: Last amendments:
- Botanical description
- Planting lilacs in garden
- Care of lilacs in the garden
- Growing conditions
- Care during flowering
- Pests and diseases
- Giacintic lilac (Syringa X Hyacinthiflora)
- Useful links
LINGS BINEMENSIONS - Maslin's bush, which includes various sources from 22 permissions. . Plant common lilac (lat. Syringa vulgaris) is a type species of the genus Lilac. In the wild, lilac can be found on the Balkan Peninsula, along the lower reaches of the Danube, in the Southern Carpathians. In cultivation, the lilac shrub is used as an ornamental plant, as well as to protect and strengthen slopes subject to erosion. In European garden culture, lilac began to be grown from the middle of the 16th century, after the Roman ambassador brought it from Constantinople. The Turks called the plant "lilac", and in the gardens of Flanders, Germany and Austria they began to grow it under the name "Turkish viburnum" or "lilac".
In those days, lilac occupied a very modest position in European ornamental horticulture due to the short flowering period, small flowers and loose panicles, however, after the Frenchman Victor Lemoine took up plant breeding, several dozen varieties of long and luxuriantly blooming lilacs with dense inflorescences of the correct form. In addition, Lemoine created varieties of various colors with double flowers. After Victor, his son Emil and grandson Henri were engaged in lilac breeding. In total, Lemoine bred 214 varieties of lilac. In France, lilac breeding was also carried out by Charles Balte, Auguste Gouchot and Francois Morel, in Germany by Ludwig Shpet and Wilhelm Pfitzer. At the beginning of the 20th century, Jan van Tol, Klaas Kessen, Hugo Coster and Dirk Evelens Maarse bred new varieties of lilac in Holland, and Karpov-Lipski in Poland.
At the beginning of the 20th century, interest in lilac also arose in North America, where Gulda Klager, John Dunbar, Theodore Havemeyer and other well-known breeders from the USA and Canada were breeding new plant varieties. On the territory of the former USSR, selection work with lilacs was carried out in Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. Today there are more than 2,300 varieties of lilac, differing in the shape and size of flowers, their color, flowering time, height and habit of the bushes. Two-thirds of these varieties were obtained with the participation of the common lilac species.
Planting and caring for lilacs
- Flowering: early or mid May, sometimes late April.
- Landing: from the second half of July to the beginning of September.
- Lighting: bright light, light partial shade.
- Soil: Moderately moist, rich in humus, pH 5.0-7.0.
- Watering: only in the first half of summer as the soil dries up. Water consumption for each bush - 25-30 liters. In the future, watering is carried out only in a prolonged drought.
- Top dressing: for the first 2-3 years, a little nitrogen fertilizer is applied under the bushes: from 1 to 3 buckets of slurry under each bush. Potassium-phosphorus fertilizers in the amount of 30-35 g of potassium nitrate and 35-40 g of double superphosphate for each adult bush, followed by irrigation, are applied once every 2-3 years. However, the best fertilizer for lilacs is a solution of 200 g of ash in a bucket of water.
- Pruning: lilacs are pruned from the age of two in spring, before the start of sap flow.
- Propagation: by grafting, layering and cuttings.
- Pests: leaf or bud mites, hawks, lilac moths and leaf miners.
- Diseases: powdery mildew, bacterial (nectrium) necrosis, verticillium and bacterial rot.
Read more about growing lilacs below. smooth on young.
Lilac leaves bloom early, do not fall until the very frost and can reach a length of 12 cm. They are opposite, usually entire, sometimes pinnatipartite. Depending on the type of lilac, the shape of the leaves can be oval, heart-shaped, ovoid or elongated with a pointed tip. Leaf color is light or dark green. White, lilac, purple, blue, violet or pink flowers, collected in terminal drooping panicles up to 20 cm long, consist of a short bell-shaped four-pronged calyx, two stamens and a corolla with a long cylindrical tube and a flat four-part limb. When does lilac bloom? Depending on the type of lilac, local climate and weather, flowering occurs from late April to early June. In any case, you will not miss this phenomenon: blooming lilacs will make themselves felt with a subtle, delicate and very pleasant aroma. The fruit of the plant is a bivalve box in which several winged seeds ripen.
Lilac lives under favorable conditions up to a hundred years. It does not require complex care, is not afraid of frost, and along with hydrangea and mock orange, or garden jasmine, is one of the most popular ornamental shrubs.
Planting lilacs in the garden
When to plant
Unlike other shrubs and trees, lilacs are best planted from the second half of July to the beginning of September. Planting lilacs in spring or autumn is impractical, since the plant does not take root well and practically does not grow in the first year. Plant lilacs in well-lit areas. The plant prefers moderately moist, humus-rich soils with a pH of 5. 0-7.0.
When purchasing lilac seedlings, pay attention to the condition of their root system: it must be developed and well branched. Before planting, the roots are shortened to 30 cm, broken, diseased or dried roots are removed. Too long shoots are also shortened, and the damaged ones are removed.
How to plant
Depending on the type and variety of planted plants, the distance between lilac seedlings should be from 2 to 3 m. How to plant lilac in the garden? First you need to prepare planting pits with sheer walls. The size of the pits in soils with good or medium fertility should be 50x50x50 cm, and when planting in sandy or poor soil, the size is doubled with the expectation that when planting the pit will be filled with a fertile substrate consisting of humus or compost (15-20 kg ), superphosphate (20-30 g) and wood ash (200-300 g). If the soil in the area is acidic, then the amount of ash is doubled.
- Juniper Chinese Spartan - what must be added to the planting pit, what kind of care will be required?
A layer of drainage material (expanded clay, crushed stone, broken brick) is laid at the bottom of the planting pit, on which a hill of fertile soil mixture is poured. The seedling is set in the center of the pit on a hill, its roots are straightened and the pit is filled to the top with the substrate. The root neck of the seedling should be 3-4 cm above the surface level. After planting, the plant is watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, the near-stem circle is mulched with a layer of humus or peat 5-7 cm thick.
Caring for lilacs in the garden
Caring for lilacs in the garden will not be difficult even for a lazy gardener. How to grow a lilac? It will grow by itself, you only need to water it in the first half of summer as the soil dries up, spending 25-30 liters of water for each bush, and loosen the soil in its near-stem circle 3-4 times per season to a depth of 4-7 cm while removing weeds. In August and September, lilacs are watered only in case of a prolonged drought. After 5-6 years, with easy care, your seedling will turn into a lush bush.
As for top dressing, in the first 2-3 years only a small amount of nitrogen is applied under lilac: from the second year - 50-60 g of urea or 65-80 g of ammonium nitrate for each bush. Although organic fertilizers act much more effectively on the plant, for example, from 1 to 3 buckets of slurry for each plant. To obtain a solution, one part of cow manure is diluted in five parts of water. Fertilizer is applied into a shallow furrow dug along the perimeter of the near-stem circle no closer than half a meter from the trunks.
Potash and phosphate fertilizers are applied once every 2-3 years at the rate of 30-35 g of potassium nitrate and 35-40 g of double superphosphate per adult plant. Granules are introduced to a depth of 6-8 cm with mandatory subsequent watering. But the best complex fertilizer for lilacs is a solution of 200 g of ash in 8 liters of water.
Lilac transplantation 1-2 years after planting is a must for experienced gardeners. And here's why: lilac very quickly sucks out all the nutrients from the soil, even if you carried out regular top dressing, so after two years the soil no longer has the energy that the plant needs for intensive growth and bright flowering.
Three-year-old lilacs are transplanted not earlier than August, and young bushes - at the end of spring, immediately after the end of flowering, otherwise they will not have time to take root. First, prepare the landing pits, as described earlier. Before transplanting, inspect the bush, remove all damaged, dry and unnecessary shoots and branches of lilac. Then the bush needs to be dug along the projection of the crown perimeter, removed from the ground along with an earthen clod, laid on oilcloth or dense fabric and moved to a new pit, which should be so much larger than the bush's earthen clod that a significant amount of nutrient soil could be added to it. .
Young plants up to two years old do not need pruning, because they have not yet formed all the skeletal branches, but in the third year they need to start forming the crown, which will take 2-3 years. Lilacs are cut in the spring, before the start of sap flow, until the lilac buds begin to swell: only 5-7 beautiful branches are left equidistant from each other, and the rest are cut off. Root growth is also removed. The next year, about half of the flowering shoots will have to be cut. The pruning principle is that no more than eight healthy buds are left on each skeletal branch, and the rest of the branch is cut off so as not to overload the plant during the flowering period. Simultaneously with the forming pruning, sanitary pruning is also carried out: frozen, broken, diseased and improperly growing shoots are removed.
- Amaranth: growing from seeds, types and varieties
If you want to form a lilac in the form of a tree, you need to choose a seedling with a straight and strong vertical branch for planting, shorten it to the height of the stem, and later form 5-6 skeletal branches from the growing shoots, while clearing the stem and near-stem from the shoots a circle. When the standard lilac is formed, you will only have to thin out the crown annually.
Care during flowering
In the spring, when the weather is warm, the wonderful smell of lilacs spreads around the garden, which is very attractive to the beetles. You will have to manually collect Maybugs from the bush. During the active flowering of lilacs, it is necessary to cut off about 60% of flowering shoots - this is called pruning "for a bouquet" and is done to more intensively form new shoots and lay flower buds for next year. If you want lilac branches to stand in a vase longer, cut them in the early morning, and split the bottom of each cut branch. When the bush fades, it is necessary to remove all wilted brushes from it.
Pests and diseases
Lilac is practically invulnerable to pests and harmful microorganisms, but under certain circumstances it can be affected by powdery mildew, bacterial necrosis, verticillosis and bacterial rot, as well as leaf or bud mites, hawk moth, lilac moth and mining moth.
Bacterial, or nectrium, necrosis appears in August: green lilac leaves turn ash-gray, and young shoots turn brown or brown. To avoid damage, you need to thin out the crown of the plant, thereby increasing its ventilation, remove diseased areas and prevent pests from appearing on the lilac. If the lesion is too strong, the bush will have to be uprooted.
Bacterial rot affects leaves, shoots, flowers and buds of lilacs. It can also appear on the roots as wet, rapidly growing spots. As a result of the development of the disease, the leaves lose turgor and dry, but do not fall off immediately, the shoots dry and bend. 3-4 treatments of lilacs with copper oxychloride with an interval of 10 days will help you cope with the disease.
Powdery mildew is caused by a fungus and easily affects both young and mature plants: the leaves are covered with a loose grayish-white coating, which becomes dense and turns brown with the development of the disease. The disease progresses in dry hot summers. When the first signs of the disease appear, the affected areas should be cut and burned, and the bush should be treated with a fungicidal preparation. In early spring, the soil should be dug up with bleach at the rate of 100 g per m², being careful not to disturb the lilac roots.
Verticillium wilt is also a fungal disease that causes lilac leaves to curl up, become covered with rusty or brown spots, dry and fall off. Drying starts at the top of the bush and progresses very quickly. To stop the disease, you need to spray the bush with a solution of 100 g of laundry soap and 100 g of soda ash in 15 liters of water. Treatment of a diseased plant with Abiga-Peak is also effective. Affected areas should be cut off and burned with fallen leaves.
- Two obligatory autumn fertilizers - without them, the plants will not gain strength for the new season!
Lilac hawk moth is a very large nocturnal moth with a marble pattern on the front wings. In the caterpillar stage, it is also quite large - up to 11 cm in length. You can also recognize it by a dense outgrowth in the form of a horn in the back of the body. Not only lilac, but also viburnum, meadowsweet, ash, currant and grapes can become a victim of the hawk caterpillar. The pest is destroyed by treatment with a one percent solution of Phtalofos.
Lilac Moth lives in light forests and hedgerows. She gives two generations in one season. As a result of the vital activity of its small caterpillars, only veins rolled into a tube remain from the leaves, and the buds, flowers and buds disappear completely. You can destroy the pest by treating lilacs with Karbofos or Fozalon.
Lilac leaf mite is a small insect that sucks juices from the underside of lilac leaves, causing them to dry and turn brown. A large number of ticks can destroy a large lilac bush in two weeks. To prevent this from happening, treat the plant by leaves with a solution of copper or iron sulphate, do not forget to thin out the crown, feed the bush with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and burn fallen leaves in autumn.
Lilac bud mite spends its life in the buds of plants: it feeds on their juice and hibernates in them. As a result, the buds are deformed, the leaves and shoots from them grow weak and underdeveloped, the lilac stops blooming and may die. In order to avoid such consequences in early spring, as soon as the frosts pass, remove dry foliage and basal shoots from under the bush, dig the soil in the near-stem circle to a full bayonet with turning the earth over and treat the lilac with a solution of copper sulphate.
Mining moth infects the leaves of plants, which is why they are first covered with dark brown spots (mines), and after a while they curl up into a tube, as if from fire. Sick bushes stop blooming and die in a year or two. The pest is destroyed by abundant treatment of the leaves with Bordeaux liquid, a solution of Fitosporin-M or Baktofit, and for the purpose of prevention, it is necessary to remove and burn plant residues in the fall, and before frosts and in early spring, deeply dig the soil in the near-trunk circle.
Lilac seed propagation is carried out mainly by specialists in nurseries. In amateur gardening, varietal lilacs are propagated by grafting, layering and cuttings. Both own-rooted lilac seedlings, grown from layering and cuttings, and grafted, go on sale. Own-rooted lilac is not as capricious as grafted, it recovers more easily after frosty winters, reproduces well vegetatively and, therefore, is more durable.
The rootstock for varietal lilac can be common lilac, Hungarian lilac and common privet. Lilacs can be budded in summer with a dormant bud or in spring with an awakening bud, and spring grafting is preferable, since the survival rate of cuttings at this time is quite high - about 80%. For spring budding, cuttings are harvested in February or March and kept in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0 to 4 ºC wrapped in paper. Cuttings are cut from ripened annual shoots, on which the bark has already turned brown.
Rootstock is also prepared in advance: lateral shoots are cut at a height of 15-20 cm, root growth is removed. The thickness of the root neck of the stock should not be thinner than a pencil, and the bark should easily move away from the wood, for which the stock should be watered abundantly a week before grafting. On the day of grafting, the ground is raked from the root neck of the stock, the grafting site is wiped with a damp, clean cloth, the stump of the stock is split in the center to a depth of 3 cm with a budding knife. splitting the stock, completely immersing the areas cleared of bark into it, and wrap the grafting site with adhesive tape so that its sticky side looks out. Then, all damages and places from which the kidneys were removed are treated with a garden pitch, and a plastic bag is put on the grafted stalk, fixing it to create a greenhouse effect below the grafting site. The package is not removed until the buds begin to swell on the scion.
Budding is carried out on a dry, fine day from 5 to 10 am or in the evening, from 4 to 8 pm.
Propagation by layering
To perform this method of propagation, find a young shoot that begins to lignify, drag it in two places in spring (at the base, and also retreating another 80 cm) with copper wire, trying not to damage the bark, then lay the shoot in a groove deep 1. 5-2 cm, leaving the top on the surface, and fix it in it with hairpins. When the shoots growing from the cutting up reach 15-17 cm, spud them with fertile soil at least half the height. Do not forget to water the cuttings all summer long, remove the emerging weeds and sprinkle the ground under the growing shoots 1-2 more times. With the onset of cold weather, the layers are separated in places of constriction, cut so that each part has a shoot with roots, and the pieces are sent to the school for growing or immediately planted in a permanent place. Do not forget to protect young plants wintering in the garden from the cold.
Propagation by cuttings
Since lilac cuttings are difficult to root, two rules must be observed:
- cuttings should be harvested immediately after the end of flowering or during it;
- cuttings are cut in the morning from young plants, choosing non-lignified shoots of medium thickness with short internodes and 2-3 nodes inside the crown.
The lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, the upper ones are shortened by half, the lower cut is made obliquely, and the upper one is at a right angle. Lilac cuttings are lowered with an oblique cut into a solution of a root formation stimulator for at least 16 hours.
For successful rooting, it is advisable to use a greenhouse or cutting box. The best rooting substrate is a mixture of sand and peat in equal parts, although sand can be partially replaced with perlite. A substrate treated with Fundazol or Maxim is placed in a sterile seedling container with a layer of about 20 cm, and 5 cm of calcined river sand is poured on top of it. Before planting, the lower ends of the cuttings are washed from the root-forming solution with clean water, after which the cuttings are planted in a layer of sand at such a distance from each other that their leaves do not touch each other. The cuttings are sprayed with water from a spray bottle and covered with a transparent lid. If you don't have a cutting box or greenhouse, cover each cutting with an inverted 5 liter clear plastic bottle with a cut-off neck. Contain rooting cuttings in partial shade. Make sure that the sand under the cuttings does not dry out and spray the air under the coating with water to create one hundred percent humidity, and to prevent fungal infection, spray once a week with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
The roots of the cuttings appear after 40-60 days, and after that it will be necessary to air the cuttings every evening, and eventually the bottles are removed completely. If the roots appeared in the summer, the cuttings are planted in a light area in light, slightly acidic soil and covered with spruce branches for the winter, but if rooting occurred closer to autumn, the cuttings are left to winter at the rooting site, and they are transplanted into the garden only in spring. Lilacs bloom from cuttings in the fifth year.
Growing from seeds
If planting and caring for lilacs in the garden seemed too simple and insipid to you, and you are not looking for easy ways in life, you can try growing lilacs from seeds. Lilac seeds are collected in autumn in wet weather, after which the boxes are dried for several days at room temperature, then seeds are extracted from them, which are subjected to stratification: mixed with wet sand in a ratio of 1: 3, placed in a bag or container and stored in a vegetable box in the refrigerator. within two months. All the time of stratification, the sand should be slightly wet.
Lilac seeds are sown in the second decade of March in well-steamed or roasted garden soil to a depth of 15 mm. Crops are moistened with a spray bottle. Shoots may appear in two weeks, but sometimes seeds can take up to three months to germinate. Two weeks after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings dive in increments of 4 cm, and with the onset of stable heat, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
You can also sow seeds before winter in slightly frozen ground - this will free you from the stratification procedure. In the spring, the emerging shoots dive and send for growing.
Lilac after flowering
Mature lilac winters well without shelter, but the root system of young seedlings is insulated with a layer of peat and dry leaves up to 10 cm thick.
Types and varieties
There are about 30 types of lilac, and many of them are grown in parks and gardens. We will try to introduce you to the most popular species and give a description of the lilac varieties that are most popular in garden culture.
Amur lilac (Syringa amurensis)
A shade-tolerant hygrophyte that grows in broad-leaved forests of northeast China and the Far East and prefers well-moistened soils. Amur lilac is a multi-stemmed tree with a dense, spreading crown, reaching a height of 20 m. In cultivation, this species is grown as a shrub up to 10 m high. they are dark green above and lighter below, and turn purple or orange-yellow in autumn. Small cream or white flowers with a honey aroma are collected in powerful panicles up to 25 cm long. This species is frost-resistant and winters without shelter. Amur lilac is used for single and group plantings and hedges. Cultivated since 1855.
Hungarian lilac (Syringa josikaea)
Native to Hungary, countries of former Yugoslavia, Carpathians. This is a shrub up to 7 m high with dense, branched, upward-pointing shoots and broadly elliptical, shiny, ciliated along the edges, dark green leaves up to 12 cm long. From below, the leaves are bluish-green, sometimes pubescent along the midrib. Small purple flowers with a weak aroma are collected in narrow, rare panicles divided into tiers. The species is characterized by unpretentiousness, resistance to urban conditions and is widely used in single and group plantings. The Hungarian lilac has been cultivated since 1830.
Most often grown two garden forms of the species:
- pale - with pale purple flowers;
- red - with reddish-violet inflorescences.
Meyer's lilac (Syringa meyeri)
This is a compact species up to 1. 5 m high with small broadly elliptical leaves 2-4 cm long, tapering towards the top and ciliated at the edges. On the upper side, the leaves are dark green, bare, on the lower side they are lighter and pubescent along the veins. Fragrant light lilac-pink flowers are collected in erect inflorescences from 3 to 10 cm long. The plant is frost-resistant.
Persian lilac (Syringa x persica)
This is a hybrid between Afghan lilac and finely cut lilac. This is a shrub up to 3 m high with thin but dense pointed lanceolate leaves up to 7.5 cm long and light purple fragrant flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in wide loose panicles. This hybrid has been in cultivation since 1640.
The plant has several popular forms:
- white lilac – variety with white flowers;
- red - form with red flowers;
- dissected-leaved - dwarf Persian lilac with spreading branches and small openwork pinnately lobed leaves.
Chinese lilac (Syringa x chinensis)
It is a hybrid between common lilac and Persian lilac. This species was bred in France in 1777. Chinese lilac reaches a height of 5 m. It has pointed ovate-lanceolate leaves up to 10 cm long and fragrant flowers up to 18 mm in diameter of an intense purple hue in buds and reddish-purple when blooming, collected in drooping broad-pyramidal panicles up to 10 cm long.
The most popular forms of Chinese lilac are:
- double - terry purple lilac;
- pale purple ;
- dark purple is the most spectacular Chinese lilac variety.
Hyacinth lilac (Syringa x hyacinthiflora)
A hybrid obtained by Victor Lemoine from crossing broad-leaved lilacs with common lilacs. The leaves of this hybrid species are heart-shaped or broadly ovate, with a sharp apex. In autumn they turn from dark green to brown-purple. The flowers of this species are similar to the flowers of the common lilac, but are collected in looser and smaller inflorescences. Cultivated view from 1899 years old
The most spectacular is the terry form of this hybrid, but, besides it, this species is represented by such varieties of lilacs:
- Esther Staley - a plant with purple-red buds and fragrant flowers of a bright purple-red shade up to 2 cm in diameter with petals folded back. The flowers form inflorescences up to 16 cm long;
- Churchill - red-violet buds of this lilac become silver-purple fragrant flowers with a pink tint;
- Pyuple Glory - a variety with very large simple purple flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter, forming dense inflorescences.
As for the common lilac, which has been cultivated since 1583, it is represented by many varieties of domestic and foreign selection.
- Red Moscow lilac – variety with purple-purple buds and dark purple fragrant flowers up to 2 cm in diameter with bright yellow stamens;
- Violetta – a variety known since 1916 with dark purple buds and light purple semi-double and double flowers up to 3 cm in diameter. Flowers have a weak aroma;
- Primrose - yellow lilac: greenish yellow buds and light yellow flowers;
- Belicent – a tall straight shrub of this variety is decorated with openwork coral-pink fragrant inflorescences up to 30 cm long and large, oval, slightly corrugated leaves.
In addition to those described, such varieties of garden lilacs as Belle de Nancy, Monique Lemoine, Amethyst, Ami Schott, Vesuvius, Vestalka, Galina Ulanova, Jeanne d'Arc, Cavour, Soviet Arctic, Defenders of Brest, Captain Balte, Katerina Havemeyer, Kongo, Leonid Leonov, Madame Charles Suchet, Madame Casimir Perrier, Dream, Miss Ellen Wilmott, Montaigne, Hope, Lights of Donbass, Memory of Kolesnikov, Sensation, Charles Joly, Celia and many others.