How fast do northern red oak trees grow
Red Oak vs. White Oak Tree Growth Rate & Key Differences
Red oak, white oak, which oak? Oak trees may all seem the same, but there are differences between them that are worth knowing of. Their growth rate, maximum size, bark and leaf color, and adaptability are some things to consider when planting an oak.
In truth, white oak trees have grey bark that tends to be divided into small, vertical blocks on the tree, while red oak trees have dark red/grey/brown bark with a scaly texture. White oaks live up to 600 years and grow 18in annually, while red oaks live up to 500 years and grow 24in annually.
Truthfully, oak trees are quite durable, they are beautiful, and they can grow to last incredibly long. When it comes down to it, personal preference is a big player in choosing a tree, and we want to give you the right keys to do so.
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What is the Lifespan of a Red Oak vs. White Oak?
There’s no question that red and white oaks have significant differences, but what exactly does that mean? Why does it matter?
For one, the lifespan of these two species can say a lot about longevity, their prime, and what to expect from each species.
White oaks as individual plants live for around five hundred to six hundred years.
Lake Forest College research shows that red oaks, while similar in lifespan, do have a timeline that is cut a bit shorter than that of their white oak counterparts. Red oaks live about three hundred to five hundred years.
So, we can see that the lower end of the typical lifespan of a white oak corresponds to the higher end of that of the red oak species.
While let’s face it, that many hundreds of years are still almost longer than we may be able to comprehend, there is a good deal of variety within what that looks like between red and white oaks.
If you’re interested in learning how long oak trees live, you can view our guide and data of the full lifespan for each common oak tree here.
How Quickly Does An Oak Tree Grow?
Okay, now let’s talk about annual growth. White oaks grow incredibly slow at a rate of about 12 to 24 inches per year, which is relatively slow in relation to other trees of a similar caliber.
Red oaks are pretty similar in this regard. Thanks to research from the Nebraska Forest Service, we see that red oak trees grow at a rate of about 18 to 24 inches per year. On average, this happens just a little more quickly than the typical white oak.
Physical Characteristics of Red & White Oak Trees
One of the most identifiable traits of difference between white oak trees and red oak trees is, naturally, their physical traits. Most commonly, this includes their various bark, leaf, and color differences.
If you’re interested, you can read our guide with the pros and cons of the best oak trees to plant here.
Bark color provides the most noticeable difference between red and white oak trees and is KEY to identifying the difference between each.
Red Oak Tree Bark Color
When trees are still young and trunks are thin, the bark is a smooth light grey. The winter sun causes this light color to be quite reflective, and the bark is surprisingly smooth before age has a chance to change its design. This can sometimes be seen on large branches of a mature tree.
The bark of a red oak tree has a dark color that can only be described as red/grey/brown and has a scaly texture with thin, rounded ridges. Twigs end in a cluster of buds, and the red oak ends in reddish-brown twigs that display light-colored buds.
As the bark ages, ridges develop and leave the trunk a mix of shiny grey with dark fissures coming through. On old trees, the bark deepens further to be a dark brown shade. In very aged trees, the very bottom portion of the trunk sports fissures that are deeper and ridges that are no longer the flat, even texture of a middle-aged tree. In old trees, there is a more pronounced texture and darker colors that range from dark grey to black.
White Oak Tree Bark Color
The bark of a white oak tree is grey and tends to be divided into small, vertical blocks thanks to shallow fissures that run the length of the trunk. These thin, irregular flakes vary from light to a deeper, more ashen grey color.
Twigs are grey to purple in color, with buds that have blunt points. This is a bit unlike those of the red oak, which are a bit softer with more muted edges and coloring.
Leaf Shape and Color
Below, we’re going to break down the leaf shape and color for red oak trees and the major differences for each. If you’re interested in learning the difference between oak and maple trees overall, you can read our piece on the major leaf and bark differences of oak and maple trees here.
Red Oak Tree Leaf Characteristics
These moderately shiny leaves have a wide variety of colors throughout the seasons; in the summer, they range from light to deep, dark green, and then shift to gold or crimson as the summer creeps on.
The leaf of a red oak tree is smooth, almost shiny. As deciduous trees, they have some irregular bristle-tipped teeth. They, on average, are about 4 to 10 inches long and 3 to 6 inches wide.
In the fall months, the leaves of a red oak continue to deepen to either a vibrant orange or an even deeper crimson. In the fall, these leaves can be bright red, maroon, crimson, golden-yellow, yellow-brown, or a mix of color even darker but just as stunning.
White Oak Tree Leaf Characteristics
White oaks have leaves that range from 5 to 9 inches long, while their width is smaller at 2 to 4 inches. Instead of more jagged, bristled points, they have blunt-ended ones that vary in size and shape based on the location and other trees around.
The leaves are pretty thick and may not fall from the tree throughout the winter months, unlike those of the red oak. They will fall off eventually but do tend to last longer and provide a very picturesque contrast of bright white against a deep reddish-brown color.
Best Oak Tree Hardiness ZoneOld northern red oak tree (Quercus rubra) with colorful autumn leaves in a park.
Do you ever find yourself wondering what exactly the best growing zone for an oak tree is? Have you wondered if that differs between red and white oaks? Well, we are certainly glad that you’ve kept reading this far because this one’s for you!
First, what on earth is a hardiness zone?
The USDA defines different hardiness zones across the country, which can be found on a map here. Oak trees fall into the lower number range, which means that they are hardier trees. Okay… and?
Well, this means that these trees can do well in lower temperatures.
The way that the USDA hardiness zones work is that each zone represents a range of 10 degrees Fahrenheit. The zones are then divided into letters A and B. They break down the 10-degree temperature range in half, the lower 5 degrees of the range and the higher.
For example, zone 5 represents minimum temperatures in the range of -10 to -20 F. SO, subzone 5a would be referring to temperatures of -10 to -15 F, and subzone 5b refers to -15 to -20 F.
Does that make sense? If you aren’t quite there, we get it. This is a lot of letters and numbers to think about. So, we are going to explain a little more.
A hardiness zone deals with the information on what types of plants can survive certain climate conditions, including the ability to survive in a given minimum temperature range. Queue our hardiness, or growing, zones!
Hardiness is a measure of how well a plant will survive cold temperatures; the USDA zones cover the basics of these temperatures and predictions but, like most systems, cannot account for every factor.
Precipitation, elevation, and freeze dates are some things that get overlooked in this system. It is, however, the standard, and so, therefore, we are explaining in those terms.
Now, does that make more sense? Let’s talk about what hardiness zones our oak trees fall into. Spoiler alert, this is one of the biggest similarities between these two species.
Also, if you’re thinking about planting an oak tree in your backyard, refer to the hardiness guide and check out our piece on planting oak trees in your backyard.
Best Red Oak Tree Hardiness Zone
The Ohio Department of Natural Resources tells us that red oak trees thrive in partial to full sun and can be found in USDA hardiness zones 3 to 7. Generally, temperatures from 10 to -30 Fahrenheit are going to be survivable when it comes to red oak.
Red oak trees generally can survive up to USDA hardiness zone 8. Red oak trees can live anywhere from 300-500 years and can reach a full height of up to 140ft. Annually, red oak trees can grow up to 24in per year.
White Oak Tree Hardiness Zone
Now, here’s some interesting info for white oak trees.
White oaks range from zone 3b to zone 9b. Generally, varieties of white oak trees can survive in temperatures as low as 30 to -40 Fahrenheit. White oak trees can live anywhere from 500-600 years, grow up to 18in annually, and reach a full height of 80ft.
The reason for this range that we see for both types of oak is that some varieties of white oak may be a bit less hardy than others. Additionally, there are many factors to consider when looking at these zones. Temperature is not the only extenuating circumstance that could cause issues with a tree.
Oak Tree Adaptability
Red and white oak trees are quite adaptable, but what kind of soil do they like, and where do they grow best? Well, let’s get to it!
Red Oak Tree Soil Preference
Red oaks can thrive in any soil. It doesn’t get much more adaptable than that, does it?
Red oak trees prefer moist, deep soil that is rich and slightly acidic, but it can easily adapt to dry soils with neutral or even slightly alkaline pH.
White Oak Tree Soil Preference
One type of soil that white oaks do not thrive in is that which is shallow, too compact, or overused.
White oak trees grow their very best in areas that have moist yet well-drained soils. However, like red oaks, they are adaptable to more adverse conditions thanks to their deep root system that allows them to tolerate drought as they mature.
This species thrives in areas with slightly acidic, deep, rich soil where the sunlight beams and the water is not too abundant.
How Tall Do Red and White Oak Trees Grow?
Red and white oak trees can get pretty dang tall! Below, we’ve outlined a bit of a scenario for you regarding the natural growth of these oak trees.
Red Oak Tree 10 Year Height
At 10 years, the red oak tree is starting to get taller, so much so that it has now outgrown the people who planted it.
After 10 years, red oak trees are still quite young, but the trunk is getting a bit wider, and the height begins to make it look like a substantial tree. Red oak trees will be 15 to 20 feet tall at 10 years after first being planted.
White Oak Tree 10 Year Height
The white oak begins its first portion of life a bit more gently; following the red oak closely, a white oak tree will be 10 to 15 feet tall after 10 years of growth. Still taller than any person, it has not quite matured to the thickness or texture of a mature tree.
Red Oak Tree 25 Year Height
After 25 years, the red oak tree doubles and triples its size and will grow 35 to 40 feet tall. After 25 years, red oak trees will stand above a typical 2-story home and tower over people, younger trees, and most suburban architecture.
White Oak Tree 25 Year Height
At 25 years after being planted, a white oak tree will reach about 30 to 40 feet tall. At this point in its lifespan, the white oak tree is now a close competitor in the height category to the red oak.
Red Oak Tree 50 Year Height
50 years after the red oak tree was planted, it is about the height of a 4-story building, reaching 55 to 65 feet tall.
White Oak Tree 50 Year Height
Did someone say a 4-story building after 50 years? Try a 5-story since the white oak is now generally taller for its age at 50 to 75 feet tall.
What is The Peak Height of an Oak Tree?
Overall, both red and oak trees have remarkable heights once fully grown. Here’s a peek at their full height below.
Red Oak Tree Peak Height
White oaks may have surpassed the red ones at the three 50 year mark, but let’s not forget that there are a ton of varieties of this species, and the northern red oak is one of them.
In many forests, red oak trees grow straight and tall, reaching a peak height of anywhere from 90 feet to an incredible 140 ft tall, while the trunk’s diameter reaches around 2 to 3 feet.
White Oak Tree Peak Height
The peak height of white oak can vary between the types of trees that fall under this title.
White oak trees often mature to something between 50 and 80 feet tall but are they are capable of growing upwards of 100 feet tall. 80 to 100 feet is a common range when we get to the ‘highest’ range of mature growth in this tree. In the individuals that grow to about 100 feet, the diameter of the trunk is going to be about 3 to 4 feet.
These get HUGE.
That’s a Wrap!
Now that we know a little more about the major types of oak trees, how they grow, where they thrive, and what they can be expected to become in a few centuries, it’s clear that there is a lot to know about oaks.
Red and white oaks are similar trees but, at the end of the day, there are many differences that shape their identities as individual species.
Keep in mind that white oaks tend to live a little longer, so if you’re worried about your descendants reaping the benefits of a specific tree you’ve planted, this might be the one for you.
Red oaks, however, grow a little faster at 18-24 inches per year and can thrive in any type of soil. Now that is a combination of speed and adaptability that we can support.
Really, the choice is yours. What shade of bark or height do you want? What is a better option for your environment? The questions may be endless, but we hope this provides you with a good reference of what tree might just be the one for you.
Thanks for reading! Now, go plant a tree!!
Cook, E. R. (1985). A time series analysis approach to tree ring standardization (dendrochronology, forestry, dendroclimatology, autoregressive process). The University of Arizona.
LeBlanc, D. C., & Terrell, M. A. (2011). Comparison of growth–climate relationships between northern red oak and white oak across eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 41(10), 1936-1947.
Dougherty, P. M., Teskey, R. O., Phelps, J. E., & Hinckley, T. M. (1979). Net photosynthesis and early growth trends of a dominant white oak (Quercus alba L.). Plant Physiology, 64(6), 930-935.
Tardif, J. C., & Conciatori, F. (2006). Influence of climate on tree rings and vessel features in red oak and white oak growing near their northern distribution limit, southwestern Quebec, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36(9), 2317-2330.
Northern Red Oak Trees for Sale - Buying & Growing Guide
by John Haryasz | Horticulture Writer and Landscape Designer – last update on February 2, 2022
Location is crucial when planting a northern red oak tree. You’ll need to find a place that has plenty of open sun exposure as well as plenty of space above and to the sides into which your tree can grow. Make sure there are no structures or utility lines that will interfere with your tree’s future growth.
After finding the right location, plant your northern red oak in the spring or fall. Dig a hole that is as deep as the root ball is tall and as twice as wide as the root ball’s width.
Watering and nutrients
Just after planting, you should give your northern red oak plenty of water to keep the soil moist. Once your tree is older, it will need very little water from you and will be able to survive moderate droughts.
Fertilize your northern red oak twice per year, once in spring and fall. Nitrogen is the nutrient that is most important to this plant’s healthy growth, so make sure that the fertilizer you use has plenty. Potassium is the next most important nutrient for this tree.
Northern red oak is a species that responds well to pruning. When the tree is young, you can handle pruning on your own with a pair of loppers or hand pruners. In early spring, remove any branches that are dead, dying, or damaged in some other way.
When your tree gets a bit older, you should be more careful about pruning. Since this tree grows very large, its branches will eventually become more than you can handle on your own. Hire a trusted tree care team to prune any mature northern red oaks and keep them healthy.
Pests, diseases, and animals
There are many problems that can befall a northern red oak. Among the most common issues are oak wilt and root rot. However, northern red oaks can also suffer from oak leaf blister, powdery mildew, and iron chlorosis.
While some of those northern red oak afflictions have no remedy, that does not mean they are inevitable. In fact, many northern red oaks live long, healthy lives as long as they receive the right conditions and care.
Achieving maximum results
Providing the ideal soil for your northern red oak will give it the best chance of growing into the spreading shade tree you desire. The best soil for this species is acidic, somewhat sandy, and has good drainage.
How fast does northern red oak grow?
One of the greatest benefits of northern red oak is that it is a relatively fast-growing species compared to other large shade trees. When growing in the ideal setting, this tree will grow as much as 2 feet per year. Impressively, it can maintain that rapid growth rate for a decade or more. That quick growth is why this tree is so commonly used in large-scale landscape designs for parks and golf courses.
Does northern red oak have acorns?
Like just about any other oak species, northern red oak produces acorns as its fruit. Those acorns appear in the early fall and have a distinct shape that sets them apart from the acorns of other oaks. The defining characteristics of a northern red oak acorn are a generally rounded shape with a length of around one inch and a flat cap that covers about a third or less of the acorn itself.
Are northern red oaks poisonous?
Although it is one of the most widespread trees in the U.S., northern red oak is a surprisingly dangerous plant. Nearly all parts of this tree are poisonous, including the leaves, bark, and acorns. The danger here is that northern red oak contains a toxic substance called tannin. When ingested, that toxin can harm both humans and animals.
Do northern red oaks have fall color?
In fall, northern red oak's deciduous leaves transform from green to a shade of red. At times, that shade is vibrant and can rival nearly any other tree that changes color in autumn. However, in other scenarios, the fall leaves of northern red oak can be closer to brown, which is far less impressive. But while the fall color of this tree can be hit or miss, it remains valuable for the summer shade it creates.
How is northern red oak used?
Northern red oak is an excellent plant choice for landscape designers who want to provide shade for large areas. It also works well as a street tree as it can withstand some unfavorable conditions. The wood that northern red oak produces is also an exceptionally useful material. Builders use it to create everything from cabinets to railroad ties.
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Verified Buyer April 26, 2021 at 4:07pm
Excellent shipping experience.
Shipping was great. Trees arrived in good condition and stood very well upon transplant. So far so good!
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I bought two and they both arrived healthy. They are starting to bloom and it's very fun to watch.
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Just a stick
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Buying was easy and fast delivery. Hopefully it's alive in the spring.
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trees came in good shape. no problems
Conditions for the successful cultivation of oak
Oak has a huge variety (up to 600) species. They are common in the temperate and tropical zones of the northern hemisphere, they even go to the north of South America. Many species are forest-forming species, others occur as an admixture. According to their requirements for growing conditions, they are very different from each other.
Among them there are both moisture-loving and drought-resistant, light-loving and shade-tolerant, enduring rather low temperatures and very thermophilic species. Oaks can be evergreen and deciduous, and their leaves are entire, serrated, more or less lobed.
Occasionally, oak grows in a bushy manner, some species are low trees, most species are mighty giants with a spherical crown, powerful trunks and a root system strongly developed both in depth and in width. Staminate or pistillate flowers are in different inflorescences. The fruit is an acorn surrounded by a cupule covered with scales on the outside. Oaks are propagated by acorns sown in autumn, as they quickly lose their germination capacity. For spring sowing, they must be stored at a temperature of 2-4 C. Oak can also be propagated by cuttings, but they have a low percentage of rooting. In the first year of life, the resulting taproot makes it difficult to transplant, therefore, to obtain a developed fibrous root system, it should be cut. At first, the oak grows slowly in height, after the 5th year the growth rate of the main shoot increases sharply.
This is one of the most durable breeds. Its bark, wood, acorns are used. The latter contain a large amount of starch, they are used to prepare a coffee substitute, alcohol or feed pigs. In some species of oak, acorns are sweet, edible fresh and roasted. Cork oak bark is used to make cork. The wood, bark, galls formed on the leaves, as well as the plush, contain a lot of tannins (tannins) used for tanning leather. Oak is indispensable in landscaping. It has long been the main tree along with linden in the creation of landscape parks; it is often found in manor parks in the temperate zone. It is planted in clearings with single-standing trees, creates groups, arrays, alleys, and is used in forest belts in the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones.
Oak in garden landscape design
When we think of oak, we immediately imagine a thousand-year-old fairy-tale giant. It must be admitted that young oaks also have a solid growth ... If they are allowed. So, before settling an oak tree, let's think about what we want to see in 10-20 years. The slender oak can be a solitary lawn, but it is also possible to use its bushy form as a framing or hedge. Keep in mind that oak blooms late, so in spring you will see its openwork crown against the background of young foliage of other plants.
Planting an oak tree
The easiest way to grow an oak tree is from a mature acorn. Acorn, like many large seeds, germinates very easily. This is the most reliable way, and if you entrust this business to a child, then it is fascinating and useful. Just imagine how the child will run every day to check if the acorn has sprouted. And fantasize how he will tell his children and grandchildren that he once planted that huge oak tree himself ...
You can transplant a small oak tree from the forest or from the country street where he himself grew up. But keep in mind that even a very young oak tree has a very long root, it is difficult to dig it out entirely, especially from dense forest soil intertwined with many roots, or from a compacted roadside. The oak tree will not tolerate the slightest damage to the tap root.
Decorative molds are now also on sale. Among them there are species resistant to the main scourge - oak powdery mildew. There are also forms with an unusual color of foliage. By the way, do not get carried away with unusually colored species. Individual plants with red, golden or striped leaves look interesting against a green background. The garden, full of colorful foliage even in summer, looks at least unnatural. When laying out parks and estates, the old masters played subtly with various shades of green.
Weeding and watering in the first years of life. Control and prevention of powdery mildew, especially in very young trees. This fungus does not affect the entire tree, but only affects the foliage. But the loss of foliage is dangerous for fragile plants.
Cutting and shaping
This is important. Without pruning, oak cannot be accommodated in the country house. For many trees and shrubs, I recommend starting molding as early as possible. Not so with oak. Strong pruning of a young oak turns it into an oak bush. If a hedge is not included in your plans - cut later, let the stem form. After that, you can try yourself in topiary art - to form a ball on a leg with a haircut, for example.
What is subtle? Shearing only growth throughout the crown promotes branching and thickening. This is a technique of topiary art. To maintain the natural shape of the crown, the branches must be cut "from the trunk." We remove part of the growth and entire branches. In this case, the crown turns out to be openwork and even lets in a certain amount of sunlight.
Red oak occupies one of the very first places in Russia in terms of popularity among other types of oak. This is not surprising: red oak is the most frost-resistant among its counterparts. Its frost resistance is 40 degrees, and if the root system is solid and the tap root is not cut, then the degree of its frost resistance increases. Despite the fact that oaks do not grow in the wild on the territory of the Tomsk region, there are specific examples of the fact that oak grows successfully in our country!
Red oak - a slender tree up to 25 m tall, with a dense tent-like crown. The trunk is covered with thin, smooth, gray bark, cracking in old trees. Young shoots are reddish-felt, annual shoots are red-brown, smooth. The leaves are deeply notched, thin, shiny, up to 15-20 cm, with 4-5 pointed lobes on each side of the leaf, reddish when blooming, dark green in summer, lighter below, in autumn, before falling off, scarlet-red in young trees, the old ones are brownish-brown.
Red oak blossoms at the same time as the leaves open. Acorns are spherical in shape, up to 2 cm, red-brown, as if chopped off from below, in contrast to English oak, ripen in the fall of the second year. It bears fruit steadily and abundantly from 15-20 years. When young, it grows faster than European oaks.
Conditions for successful oak cultivation are as follows:
- a good place to plant. Red oak loves dry and bright places with acidic soil (pH 5.5-7.5), so there is no need to pour ashes into the planting hole. It can not be planted where the soil is flooded in the spring, as well as where there is constant stagnation of water. Oak does not like stagnant water, so when landing at the bottom of the pit, it is imperative to pour drainage. And so that in a few years, when the earth in the planting pit settles, the root neck does not end up in a depression where water can accumulate in the spring, you need to plant an oak tree so that after the pit is finally filled with earth, the root neck of the seedling is on a small mound (the root neck is something where the roots meet the trunk). Over time, the mound will settle, and the root collar will be flush with the soil level. Oak is photophilous and prone to a disease called powdery mildew, so it must be planted in a bright, well-ventilated place;
- seedling health. So that the oak does not get sick with powdery mildew, it should be sprayed from time to time with an infusion of kombucha (1-2 cups of a monthly infusion per bucket of water) or shungite water, or a mixture of these solutions. But we must remember that this is a means of prevention, not control. When this fungal disease appears, it is already too late. In general, it is pointless to fight fungal diseases with the help of "chemistry", but prevention with the help of the above means gives excellent results;
- in no case should you fertilize plants with fresh manure! An excess of free nitrogen contained in manure forms loose tissues in all parts of the plant, the wood of such branches and trunks with loose tissues does not ripen by autumn, and in winter a plant fed with manure can freeze severely or even die. Also, manure-fed plants are attacked by pests and diseases, especially fungal diseases.
In red oak, unlike pedunculate, acorns ripen not in one season, but in two. And yet, an essential addition that needs to be mentioned for the successful cultivation of oak. Many plants (especially forest plants) grow very slowly without mycorrhiza on their roots. What is mycorrhiza? You probably know the different hat mushrooms that grow in the forest. So, these same mushrooms are already fruits, and the body of the mycelium itself is located in the upper layer of the soil, its hyphae (thin threads of the body of the fungus) spread horizontally for many meters, the roots of plants and forming mycorrhiza on their surface, mycorrhiza is a commonwealth of roots of different plants and fungi. Without this mutually beneficial community, some plants do not grow at all or grow very poorly, especially if they find themselves in unusual conditions. There are myceliums that specialize in some particular plants, and there are universal ones. For example, porcini mushroom grows under pine and oak, boletus under aspen, birch boletus under birch, fly agaric under different plants, common fungus is a very versatile mycorrhizal mushroom, if you manage to have it in your garden, then any plants will be happy with it, and grow and bear fruit very productively. How to infect oak roots with mycorrhiza? Find an old overgrown porcini mushroom or common oyster mushroom in the forest, bring them home, soak them for a day in a bucket of water (preferably rain or from some clean reservoir). After a day, pour this water into the holes made around the oak trunk, mulch the soil around the trunk with leaves from the forest, sow forest grasses or green manure in this place, and in no case ever loosen or dig the soil around the trees. In this case, the growth of the mycelium is disrupted, and it may die. This is the main secret of growing mycorrhizal fungi: they do not grow where the soil is loosened or dug up. When the mycelium grows (about three years later), the first mushrooms will appear. This will be a sign that you did everything right.
Red oak does not need shelter for the winter. It is prone to decay of the root neck, so you need to make sure that the root neck is ventilated and does not get wet from weeds (especially wood lice). In order to avoid root collar rot, spring melt water and ground water should not be allowed to be heated. If you have close-lying groundwater on your site, then you need to plant it on a mound and arrange drainage in the pit (fill in broken brick or expanded clay, pebbles with a layer of 15-20 cm).
Pedunculate oak (Q. robur)
One of the most important forest-forming species in Russia, widely distributed in nature from Western Europe to the Urals. In the north of the forest zone it grows along the valleys, to the south - in mixed forests with spruce, and further south it forms pure oak forests. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, it grows along gullies and ravines, not reaching such a powerful development as in the forest zone. In urban plantations, oak can be found throughout the territory of natural distribution, with the exception, perhaps, of especially arid places. Not a single forest park, city park, old manor can do without it. The beginning of planting oak forests was laid by Peter I. The importance of oak in the national economy is great. It produces construction timber of very high quality. Beautiful and durable, it is used in carpentry, furniture, cooper production, in shipbuilding and car building, is used for the manufacture of parquet, and is also widely used for firewood.
Oak wood is light, with a beautiful pattern, after lying under water for a long time, it acquires a dark color (bog oak) and is especially valued in furniture production. Oak bark contains up to 20% tannins, wood - 6%. They are widely used for tanning leather. In a zone favorable for its growth, the oak reaches a height of 40 m, the trunk diameter exceeds 1 m. The largest old specimens live up to 1000-1500 years, while having a trunk diameter of 4 m. strong branches. Mature trees have thick, deeply fissured, grey-brown bark. Young shoots are olive-brown, then red-brown. Leaves up to 15 cm long and 7 cm wide, oblong-obovate, with ears at the base, with 6-7 obtuse, long lobes, the depressions between them reach a third of the width of the plate.
Leaves are shiny, glabrous, green above, lighter below. In the spring, in May, when the leaves begin to bloom, stamen catkins become visible at the base of the shoots. Pistillate flowers sit in the axils of the leaves on long peduncles of 2-5 pieces. Acorns are oval, 3.5 cm long and 2 cm in diameter with a spike at the top, brown-yellow, shiny, on the stalk, which is why this species is called petiolate. The plush is shallow, cup-shaped, 1 cm tall, the scales covering it are gray-pubescent. Acorns ripen in October. Oak grows best on degraded chernozems and gray forest loams, with sufficient moisture. It is demanding on mineral and organic nutrition, protection from wind and direct sunlight, especially at an early age, but it is drought and salt tolerant.
The majestic stocky giant of the forest oak is beautiful at any time of the year. In spring, it pleases with its light yellowish-green foliage and long graceful yellow inflorescences-earrings; in summer, he appears as a mighty giant with a dense dark crown, and so dense that it is able to protect both from the scorching sun and from heavy rain. In autumn, the oak appears in a new guise. Its foliage turns yellow, and then acquires a dark brown color. It falls much later than other trees. In winter, an oak, even in a leafless state, is able to charm with its power, when its deeply furrowed thick trunks loom against the background of fallen snow, and the branches and branches intertwined in a bizarre graphic pattern resemble the fabulous Berendey's kingdom.
In our nursery you can buy oak seedlings wholesale and retail.
description, where it grows, planting and care, reproduction
Red oak (quercus rubra in Latin) was brought to the territory of Russia only in the last years of the 19th century. In spring and summer, it is not much different from other trees, but with the onset of autumn, its foliage turns into unusual shades that amaze with its beauty. This is what led to the choice of the name - red oak. Its wood is among the most valuable. It has a bright brown-red color and a noble structure. This tree is popularly called Canadian, holly or northern oak. 9Ol000 oak tree
Red oak can reach a height of about 25 m. The closer to the base of the tree, the wider the span of the branches. This tree received such unusual names due to the special color and shape of the leaf plates. In autumn, against the background of yellow-leaved trees, red oak looks especially bright.
Main characteristics of red oak:
- Lifespan . On average, it is from 300 to 400 years. However, there are specimens that are about 2 thousand years old. When the tree is 150 years old, it will reach its maximum height. But in width it increases throughout life.
- Bark . While the plant is young, its trunk reaches a diameter of about 0.4 m, while its surface is covered with a grayish thin bark. In mature trees, a wide trunk is covered with cracked bark of a dark gray color.
- Flowering . Oak blossoms in the last weeks of spring. In this case, the duration of flowering is about 7 days. The opening of flowers occurs at the same time with the appearance of young foliage.
- Fruits . Slightly rounded acorns are formed on the branches, the largest of which are about 20 mm in size. Their nose is rounded. The first fruits are formed on the tree in the second year after planting in autumn. Regular fruiting is observed after the tree is 15–20 years old.
- Leaves . Its length is about 20 centimeters. The plates are narrow, glossy, have deep grooves and lobes, pointed on each side. After opening, the leaf plates have a slightly reddish tint. In summer, they are green, and with the onset of the autumn period, the leaves of young trees turn scarlet-red, and those of old specimens turn brownish-brown.
- Root system . It is well developed and can go deep into the soil up to 20 m.
- Preferences . It does not impose special requirements on the soil. Grows well in acidic soil. It reacts negatively to excessively wet and calcareous soil.
- Temperature . The plant is not afraid of either heat or severe frosts.
- Growth rates . While the tree is young, it is slow growing. However, over the years, the rate of growth increases significantly.
- Lighting . For planting red oak, it is recommended to choose shaded areas. Moreover, it grows best when its top is fully lit by the sun.
Magic of Ukrainian Polesye: Red oak
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Where red oak grows
Red oak comes from North America. It prefers to grow on the coasts of various water bodies, and it chooses areas without excessively wet soil. This tree is one of the typical plants of Canada.
This oak was brought to the territory of European countries in the 17th century. It can be found in France, England and Germany. On the territory of Russia, the oak is most widespread in the northern latitudes, and it can also be seen in the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden. Excellent resistance to frost. You can see the red oak in the forests of Yekaterinburg, the Oryol and Moscow regions, and also in the North Caucasus. It can also be seen in the parks of Ukraine, Belarus and Estonia.
Outdoor planting and maintenance
Red oak seedlings are best planted on a sunny site. Here, he adapts faster and better after disembarkation, and this will also make it much easier to care for him. If the lighting is excessively poor, then the tree will grow extremely slowly and will not bear fruit.
Frost and strong winds do not pose a particular danger to such a plant. When choosing a place on the site, it is imperative to take into account the fact that the crown of the oak is quite wide and its development should not be interfered with by nearby plants and buildings. And such a plant has a developed and powerful root system, which also needs a sufficient amount of space.
When planting a seedling, make sure that its root collar is not buried. For planting, an open area illuminated by the sun at least from morning to afternoon is best suited.
During the first years of cultivation, this crop needs special care. The tree must be watered in a timely manner, weed grass should be removed from the near-trunk circle and pests should be dealt with as necessary. Completely stop watering about 30 days before the end of leaf fall. Does not need preparation for wintering.
Red oak can be grown from an acorn if desired. First you need to prepare acorns. Their collection is carried out during fruiting (from the beginning to the second half of the autumn period). At first, a small root will appear from the acorn, pointing down. Then the formation of a green stem will begin, on which 3 leaf blades should grow. In order to enhance the growth of side branches, mandatory pinching of young seedlings is carried out.
Step-by-step description of the propagation of Canadian oak seeds (acorns):
- Acorns are soaked for a day in warm water, in which a growth stimulant is first dissolved. Immediately before sowing the seed, it is immersed in a solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour.
- Sowing medium is moist and poor. Ideal composition: river sand (30 percent) and peat (70 percent).
- Acorns are placed vertically in the soil mixture. Fill them on top with a layer of substrate about 20 mm thick.
- The crops are covered with glass or foil and transferred to a cold place where they will stay for 8 weeks. The optimum air temperature is from 2 to 5 degrees. Quite often, crops are placed on the lowest shelf in the refrigerator.
- Seeds must germinate under cover, and the temperature must not be changed. Make sure they get enough moisture.
- When young shoots appear, the crops are already grown at room temperature.
This plant is characterized by undemanding nature and unpretentiousness. The grown seedlings are planted in open ground in the summer, this will allow them to take root well before the onset of severe frosts. Do not forget to carry out timely pruning of dead dried branches. Before the onset of winter cold, it is recommended to cover a young tree with a film or other covering material.
How to grow Oak from an acorn. From an acorn to a 25cm seedling.
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Meaning and application
In ancient times, red oak was considered to be the most important tree. He showed off in almost all city squares, and believers worshiped him during the rituals. It was believed that any part of this tree has healing powers. It was strictly forbidden to cut it down, as this could cause the wrath of the gods.
Later, oak was used in a variety of industries: agriculture, weapons industry, for the preparation of medicines and food. It was used to create ink for manuscripts. Wood is used for the manufacture of materials for decoration and furniture, and it is also used in applied arts. It is highly valued and wear resistant. The wood has a high density and hardness, so it is very difficult to process, but easy to polish. If you properly care for red oak products, they will last a very long time (more than 100 years). When a tree is first cut down, the wood has a light color, but over the years it becomes more saturated and dark. High-strength wood is not afraid of sudden changes in temperature.
Wood is used in the leather industry, shipbuilding and construction, and is also used to make doors, barrels, veneers and parquets.
Benefits of red oak:
- The leaves are used to prepare a decoction used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs, and it is also taken for colds.
- The wood is used to make incense sticks. They do not distort the smell, but rather improve it.
- Infusion of leaves and bark increases the immune defense of the body, and also helps with headaches.
Oak infusion is used for:
- colitis and colic;
- varicose veins;
- heart failure and liver disease;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- peptic ulcer;
- body fluid incontinence;
- bleeding gums.