How fast do pink dogwood trees grow
How to Grow and Care for Pink Dogwood Trees
How to Grow Cornus Florida
David Beaulieu is a landscaping expert and plant photographer, with 20 years of experience. He was in the nursery business for over a decade, working with a large variety of plants. David has been interviewed by numerous newspapers and national U.S. magazines, such as Woman's World and American Way.
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Updated on 02/08/22
Reviewed by Andrew Hughes
Andrew Hughes is a certified arborist and member of the International Society of Arborists specializing in tree heal care. He founded and runs Urban Loggers, LLC, a company offering residential tree services in the Midwest and Connecticut.
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The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
In This Article
Growing From Seed
Common Pests and Diseases
Frequently Asked Questions
The pink dogwood is notable for the many pastel flowers that it produces each spring for about two to four weeks. Like other dogwoods, the pink varieties are very good landscape trees for the rest of the year, too, with green foliage that turns purplish in fall, and reddish berries that draw butterflies and birds. At a growth rate of about 1 foot per year, the pink dogwood tree can quickly become a robust addition to the landscape.
|Common Name||Pink dogwood, pink flowering dogwood|
|Botanical Name||Cornus florida f. rubra|
|Mature Size||15 to 30 ft. tall, with a similar or somewhat greater spread|
|Sun Exposure||Partial shade|
|Soil Type||Moist but well-drained|
|Hardiness Zones||5, 6, 7, 8, 9|
|Native Area||North America|
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
Pink Dogwood Tree Care
Plant pink dogwood trees in well-drained, acidic soil. They are not heavy feeders, but you can improve performance by furnishing at least moderately fertile ground for them.
Since Cornus florida var. rubra is an understory tree in the wild, it is best to grow it in partial shade in the landscape (particularly in hot climates). But some homeowners do grow pink dogwood trees in full sun (especially in the North), and this can work as long as you supply the plants with enough water. Applying a few inches of mulch during the hottest part of summer will help protect the tree's root system and help the soil retain water.
Pink flowering dogwoods thrive in partial shade but can handle full sun with appropriate mulching and watering.
Dogwoods thrive in rich, slightly acidic soil. By far the most important soil condition for pink flowering dogwoods is good drainage.
Water needs are average, but you should never allow your pink dogwood to dry out altogether. Water deeply during periods of drought or heat.
Temperature and Humidity
Flowering dogwoods thrive in shady, dark locations with plenty of rich, damp soil. While they can tolerate a fairly wide range of soil conditions and temperatures, they do not do well if they are too hot or dry.
If your soil is acidic, well-drained, and rich then there is no need for fertilizer. If it is not, you will need to apply soil amendments including compost both when planting and periodically thereafter. Apply a 4-to 6-inch layer of mulch around your pink dogwood.
Types of Dogwood Tree
Although Cornus florida var. rubra is one of the better pink dogwoods, it is not the only one. Cornus kousa Satomi is a form of pink Japanese dogwood. Other varieties, cultivars, and species also have their merits, including:
- Cherokee Chief (Cornus florida): This is a cultivar with red flowers that is otherwise similar to Cornus florida var. rubra.
- Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas.): is a flowering dogwood relative that, in spring, bears small, yellow flowers in clusters.
Some types of dogwood trees are grown as much for their pretty leaves as for their flowers. Wolf Eyes dogwood (Cornus kousa Wolf Eyes) and Golden Shadows pagoda dogwood (Cornus alternifolia Golden Shadows) have variegated leaves. There are also some shrubs commonly used in landscaping that are types of dogwoods, including yellow-twig Tatarian dogwood (Cornus servicea Flamiramea) and its red-barked cousin.
Since flowering dogwood is valued for its horizontal branching patterns, take care to prune away storm-damaged limbs that would mar the plant's appearance. Careful pruning can help return a storm-damaged tree to its attractive shape. Beyond this, little pruning should be necessary. Dead branches can be pruned off at any time. If you notice limbs rubbing against one another, you can prune to open up the canopy—the best time for this type of pruning is in late winter or early spring.
Propagating Pink Dogwood
Taking cuttings of pink dogwood in early June is the best time to ensure the cutting will grow roots. Here's how to make a successful cutting:
- Start with a moist mixture of perlite and peat moss in a 7-inch pot. Create a hole in the middle for the cutting. Make sure the pot has good drainage.
- Choose a cutting that is healthy and straight. It should have new leaves at the top and be flexible, not the type of wood that snaps or breaks upon bending. Cut the stem at a 45-degree angle with very sharp shears. It should be cut 1/2 inch below a leaf node.
- Using a very sharp blade, cut 1/2 inch up on either side of the cutting, coming up from the cut end.
- Immediately dip the cutting in water and then in rooting hormone. Make sure the powdered hormone covers the first few inches of the stem. Insert it into the prepared hole in the pot.
- Use a planting dome to cover the dogwood cutting. Make sure the wire dome and the bag over it are at least 1 inch away from the top of the dogwood cutting.
- Mist the cutting with water before sealing the bag.
- Place the plant, dome and all, under grow lights for 18 hours each day. The plant should be about 12 inches below the grow light.
- After five weeks, open up the bag and test for roots by gently moving the cutting. If there is resistance, it has roots. If not, close up the bag and wait another three weeks.
- When the cutting has grown roots, acclimate it by opening the bag for an hour at a time, increasing the intervals until the bag is removed. When the cutting starts shooting up new growth, it's ready to be planted outdoors.
How to Grow Pink Dogwood From Seed
Though it is possible to grow dogwood trees from seed, the odds are that they will not be pink dogwood trees, as the trees tend to produce seeds that result in white dogwoods. The best way to ensure a pink dogwood for your landscape is to propagate the cuttings from an existing dogwood tree.
Once a dogwood tree is established in the landscape and growing leaves, it will be able to handle winter as long as it's in the proper zones for growth. Help it along with thick mulch around the base.
Common Pests and Plant Diseases
Spot anthracnose disease is known to pose a problem flowering dogwood. Some cultivars of Cornus florida are more tolerant of it than others, so be sure to ask your local county extension office for recommendations on which cultivars to plant in your region, or how to treat the disease if your dogwood already has it. In areas where the tree is particularly susceptible, it may be best to take the path of least resistance and simply plant another type of tree. Powdery mildew is another common problem for flowering dogwood.
The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
Doubrava, Nancy et al. “Dogwood Diseases & Insect Pests.” Clemson University Extension Office. Clemson.edu. N.p., 17 Feb. 2021.
Pink Flowering Dogwood for Sale - Buying & Growing Guide
by Jo Cosgrove | Ecological Gardener, Horticulturist, and Educator – last update on December 10, 2021
The pink flowering dogwood tree enjoys partial shade, but it requires at least five to six hours of sunlight per day. The species thrives in well-drained, slightly acidic soil. Once you have determined your planting location, dig a hole as deep as the tree’s root ball and twice as wide. Place the tree in the hole and backfill it with dirt. Tamp down the soil lightly and water thoroughly, adding more soil if settling occurs. A two to three inch layer of mulch helps retain moisture as the plant establishes itself.
Watering and nutrients
Water your newly planted dogwoods every few days, keeping the soil consistently moist but not soggy. Established trees should be watered once per week. Do not allow the soil to completely dry out between waterings or your trees may develop problems with discolored foliage and bloom production. Fertilize your dogwood trees between March and June, before the heat of summer comes. Apply a light layer of compost or all-purpose fertilizer, gently working it into the soil around your trees.
The pink flowering dogwood relies on many different insects and animals for pollination. The inside of the flower is a cluster of numerous tiny flowers that contain pollen. The flowers on the ‘rubra’ cultivar bloom April through May, opening up their buds to attract bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, and other pollinators. Once pollinated, the pink flowering dogwood tree produces tiny, dark, red berries that provide a source of food for birds and animals. The flowering dogwood is monoecious, as it has both male and female flowers and will always produce fruit.
Prune when the tree is dormant, during late autumn or winter. Remove any dead, dying, or diseased branches and dispose of infected branches away from other dogwood trees. When pruning, sterilize your shears between cuts to prevent spreading infection. Prune any small twigs or overlapping branches, to encourage air circulation throughout the tree’s canopy. Never prune in the spring, as boring insects may invade the wounded areas on the dogwood.
Pests and diseases
Dogwood anthracnose is the biggest threat to flowering dogwood trees. If this fungal infection is ignored, your trees will likely die within a few years. To remedy an anthracnose infection, remove the diseased parts of the tree and promote proper airflow. Aphids and scales are common pests found on dogwood trees, to eliminate them, try spraying the tree with a strong stream of water. If that does not solve the problem, neem oil or an insecticide can be applied. It should be noted that scales are notoriously difficult to eradicate, so you may need the help of a professional arborist. Proper care and maintenance of your pink flowering dogwoods are the first line of defense against most pests and diseases.
How big do dogwood trees grow?
In ideal light conditions, the pink flowering dogwood can grow up to 40 feet tall with a wide, rounded canopy. In shady conditions, these trees tend to take on a more “leggy” profile as they reach for the light. The trees have a moderate to fast growth rate, taking about 25 years to reach their maximum height. The average lifespan of pink flowering dogwoods is about 80 years, but some individuals have been known to live past 100 years.
How does the ‘rubra’ cultivar compare to other dogwood varieties?
There are many varieties of flowering dogwood trees classified as Cornus florida. The most notable characteristics of the different varieties are their flower and foliage color. The ‘Barton’ cultivar features white blooms with pink spots and tips. The foliage of the ‘Welchii’ variety is variegated, transitioning between green and cream-white. The Japanese dogwood is similar in appearance to the pink flowering dogwood, but its blooms appear in denser bunches.
Why is my dogwood tree not blooming?
There are a variety of factors that lead to a dogwood tree not blooming. Young dogwood transplants may take two to three years to produce their first set of flowers. Wild dogwood trees grow in partial shade, so too much or too little sunlight causes issues with flowering. Avoid a late spring frost killing your dogwoods flower buds by covering the trees during the cold snap. Over or under-watering may also cause issues with flowering.
How isCornus florida propagated?
Purchasing trees from a nursery is the best way to start a new set of pink flowering dogwood trees for most gardeners. The species also grows well from seed. Planting seeds in the fall will cause new trees to emerge in the spring, as long as they go through a period of cold stratification (subjecting the seeds to both cold and moist conditions). Cuttings can also be taken and rooted successfully, although this is a more specialized process that requires the use of IBA treatment, misting, and other uncommon techniques.
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planting and care in the open field, pruning, properties, photo
Author: Elena N. https://floristics.info/en/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19 Category: Garden Plants Retrained: Last amendments:
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- Planting and Care for Kizil
- Botanical description
- When to plant
- 0086 belongs to the genus of the dogwood family, whose representatives in nature number about fifty. Most often these are deciduous woody plants - shrubs or trees, but sometimes they are herbaceous perennials or woody winter green plants. The genus Kizil is made up of four subgenera. The word "kizil", borrowed from the Turkic language, means "red" - apparently, by the color of the berries of the most famous type of dogwood. Plants of this genus are widespread in Eastern and Southern Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, China and Japan.
People began to cultivate dogwood a very long time ago: even the Romans and ancient Greeks were engaged in the selection of the best forms of the plant for cultivation in gardens and, as Virgil claimed, not without success. In the middle lane, dogwood began to be grown in the 17th century, under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, a great lover of all kinds of plant curiosities, and interest in dogwood was caused by the extreme usefulness of its fruits, which were used in those days in the form of a decoction.
The first settlers to America used dogwood to clean their teeth, and the American natives used it to make arrows. Later, shuttles for weaving equipment, door handles, hammer handles, and tennis rackets were made from very hard cornelian wood. It is claimed that even the Holy Cross was made of dogwood. The Pacific dogwood flower is the official flower of British Columbia, a province in Canada, and the flowering dogwood tree is the official tree of the US states of Missouri and Virginia.
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Planting and caring for dogwood
- Planting: in autumn, at the very beginning of leaf fall.
- Flowering: in April-May.
- Lighting: partial shade.
- Soil: rich in lime. Groundwater on the site should not be higher than 1.5 m.
- Watering: moderate and regular.
- Top dressing: in the first half of the growing season, the nitrogen component should prevail in the fertilizer, in the second half - the potash component.
- Pruning: regular, dormant in late winter or early spring.
- Propagation: by green cuttings, layering, grafting or seeds.
- Pests: snails and caterpillars.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, leaf spot.
Read more about the cultivation of dogwood below
The most famous representative of the genus is the common dogwood shrub, or male dogwood, up to 2. 5 m high with shiny red-orange hanging shoots that, when in contact with the soil, easily take root, bright green opposite or alternate leaves and milky-white flowers, collected in inflorescences up to 5 cm in diameter, which bloom in May and bloom for two weeks. Dogwood fruits with one or two seeds, ripening from August to October, vary in both shape and color. In cultivated forms, they reach a length of 3 cm, the shape is usually elongated-cylindrical, however, there are also species with almost round, like cherries, fruits, as well as barrel-shaped and even pear-shaped.
Fruit color is usually bright red, but forms with pink, yellow, purple and even black berries are known. And the taste of dogwood berries differ: they can be sweet, tart or tart-sweet, juicy or dryish. The plant itself can be formed both in the form of a bush and in the form of a tree. Dogwood is quite frost-resistant, but at a temperature of -30 ºC, the ends of the shoots freeze over. The dogwood bush lives for more than a hundred years.
When to plant
The time when it is time to plant dogwood is easy to guess - as soon as poplar leaves begin to fall. Planting dogwood in autumn is preferable to spring because in spring you will have to plant dogwood in a very short time period between how the earth warms up and sometimes when dogwood buds begin to bloom. Choose a semi-shady area for dogwood with lime-rich soil on the south or southwest side, on which groundwater is no higher than one and a half meters. Dogwood also grows in acidic soils, but this negatively affects both its development and the quality of the crop.
Dogwood is located no closer than 3-5 meters from the fence, buildings and other trees. In order for the dogwood to bear fruit, it must have a couple in the garden, and preferably two, and they should be placed no further than 3-5 meters from each other.
How to plant
Dogwood seedlings ready for planting should be two years old, about 1. 5 m high, with a trunk diameter of about 2 cm, and should have 3-5 skeletal branches. Dogwood planting is carried out in a hole with a diameter and depth of about 80 cm. Having dug a hole, drive a stake into it, to which you will then tie the seedling. The stake is driven in from the side where the wind usually blows.
The top, fertile layer of soil taken out of the pit, mixed with humus and mineral fertilizers, pour it into a hill in the center of the pit, place a dogwood seedling on the hill, carefully straighten its roots, fill the pit with fertile soil with fertilizers, supporting the seedling so that its root neck turned out to be 3-4 cm above the plot level. Water the seedling with three buckets of water, and when it is absorbed, the soil will settle and the neck will be flush with the surface, cut the shoots of the seedling to a third of the length, tie it to a support and mulch the near-stem circle with humus or dry soil from the lower, less fertile soil layer.
- Fat Woman - Money Tree - Crassula
Caring for dogwood
Growing conditions in the garden
Planting and caring for dogwood is not much different from planting and caring for any other fruit shrub - dog rose or barberry, for example. Dogwood care consists in watering, loosening the soil on the site, removing weeds from it, pruning the shoots of the plant and top dressing.
The peculiarity of dogwood is that there is no periodicity in its fruiting, that is, it gives a harvest annually. The laying of the next year's crop is carried out in May-June of the current year, and until the end of the vegetative period, flower buds that form simultaneously with the growth of shoots must be finally formed. That is why it is so important to water and fertilize dogwood in a timely manner. In order for the water not to spread over the site, but to go to the superficially located root system, make a circular furrow around the bush and pour water into it.
Try to maintain a balance in moistening the dogwood: there should be enough water, but excessive watering is unacceptable. After watering, the soil on the site is loosened no deeper than 8-10 cm, while getting rid of weeds. As for top dressing, in the first half of the season, fertilizers with a nitrogen-phosphorus component are used, and in the second they focus on potash - for example, wood ash is added to the soil. Dogwood responds well to compost and humus, but the most important thing for the growth and fruiting of dogwood is the presence of calcium in the soil - keep this in mind.
Dogwood cultivation requires regular pruning. In winter or early spring, during the dormant period, remove from the bush all damaged, dry and frostbitten branches that are easy prey for fungi or harmful insects. Before cutting the branch, dip the scissors in a 1:3 bleach solution so as not to transfer pathogens that may have settled on the dogwood to healthy branches.
Shorten or cut to the base stems that are too old to encourage new growth. Cut out branches and shoots growing inside the bush. If your bush is grafted, remove all shoots below the grafting site. You most likely won’t have to do a formative pruning, since the plant has a natural beautiful crown.
Pests and diseases
As a rule, dogwood is not affected by pests or diseases. But sometimes, extremely rarely, the plant suffers from a fungal rust disease, manifested by yellow spots on the leaves. Destroy the fungus by treating the plant with Bordeaux liquid. Dogwood is also rarely affected by powdery mildew, which is fought with colloidal sulfur, as well as spotting, against which dogwood is treated with the same Bordeaux mixture. Of the pests, the dogwood snail bug and the multicolor caterpillar can be disturbed - the first is destroyed by treating the plant with lime, and the second - with Parisian greens.
Features of care in the Moscow region
For some reason, it is customary to think that dogwood does not take root in Moscow and the Moscow region, but this is not true. Plant breeders have bred plant varieties that can tolerate thirty-degree frosts, so dogwood develops normally and bears fruit abundantly even in the middle zone. Planting and caring for dogwood in the Moscow region is no different from growing a plant, for example, in Stavropol or Ukraine.
- Technology for growing large potatoes - we get a 15-liter bucket from each bush
Sometimes, however, the ends of its young shoots freeze over in winter, so they have to be cut off in spring. In order to avoid such unpleasant surprises, young dogwood for the winter should be covered with burlap for several years, and the near-stem circle of dogwood, both young and adult, should be mulched for the winter with a thick layer of peat or humus.
In amateur gardening, dogwood is propagated mainly vegetatively, but seed propagation is also quite possible.
Growing from stone
Dogwood pits are de-pulped and placed in wet moss or sawdust for a whole year, constantly maintaining a moist environment - thus stratifying the seeds before sowing. The dogwood stone does not break up into cotyledons, so it should be immersed in the soil no more than 3 cm.
Unstratified seeds germinate only after two years, and not all of them. Stratified seeds germinate in the year of sowing. Seed care is normal: watering, fertilizing, weeding, at the very beginning of growth, shading from scorching rays. During the first year, seedlings grow only up to 3-4 cm, by the end of the second - up to 10-15 cm, and in autumn they can be planted in open ground in a nursery. Dogwood fructifies from seeds only after 7-10 years.
Seeds of wild dogwood species are used for seed propagation, then, when young seedlings grow from them, they are used as rootstocks for cultivated dogwood species.
Propagation by cuttings
Only green cuttings from bushes no younger than 5-6 years old are suitable for cuttings of dogwood - lignified cuttings take root very poorly. Cuttings 10-15 cm long are cut early in the morning from shoots in the active growth phase, each should have a well-developed growth point and two pairs of leaves. Cuttings after cutting immediately put in the water. The oblique lower cut should pass below the kidney by half a centimeter-centimeter.
Before planting, the cuttings are stripped of the lower pair of leaves and kept for six to twelve hours in a three percent solution of heteroauxin. Then they are washed, planted at an angle of 45º in a shady place, in soil sprinkled on top with a layer of well-washed sand 7-10 cm thick, and covered with polyethylene so that there is a backlash of 15-20 cm between the film and the cuttings. After planting, the cuttings are watered , and in the future, the soil is kept in a slightly damp state, avoiding direct sunlight on the cuttings.
- Planting seedlings of petunias grown in bandage and paper cups
It is necessary to water the plot through a fine sieve so that the water does not flow in a stream, but splashes. The temperature under the film should be about 25 ºC, and as soon as it rises above, lift the film to ventilate. The cuttings take root in two to three weeks, after which they begin to harden - this will take about two weeks of time, then the film is removed, and the strengthened cuttings are fed with liquid ammonium nitrate (30 g per bucket of water). The next autumn, the bushes are planted in a permanent place.
Budding is carried out in August-September on planted and rooted two-year-old seedlings of wild dogwood, and cultivated plant varieties are used as scion. With a sharp knife, an incision is made on the rootstock crosswise - horizontally and vertically, and the vertical incision is made up to 3 cm deep. A bud with bark, leaf petiole and part of the wood is cut from the scion, inserted into a vertical incision, carefully pushing the bark on it to the side , and fix the scion with budding tape (you can use stationery tape).
After two or three weeks, if you did everything right, the petiole will fall off. In October, the film can be removed. Emerging rootstock shoots must be removed.
Propagation by cuttings
Horizontal arcuate annual shoots are used as cuttings. In the spring, as soon as the soil warms up, dig it around the dogwood bush with the addition of fertilizers, level it, make grooves in it, bend down and lay the intended shoots in them, pin them and sprinkle them in the place of attachment with soil, and pinch the tops. When green shoots 10-12 cm high develop at the attachment points at the layering, sprinkle them up to half with earth, after 2-3 weeks, when the shoots add the same amount in growth, sprinkle them up to half again.
In autumn or the following spring, cuttings are separated from the mother plant and planted in a permanent place.
Dividing a bush
This method is used when it is necessary to transplant a dogwood bush to a new place. In the spring, before the buds swell, or in the fall, a month before frost, the dogwood is dug up, all old branches are removed from it, the root system is carefully freed from the soil and the bush is cut into several approximately equal parts, each of which has good roots and healthy aboveground part. Before planting, the old roots are cut out, the rest are slightly shortened.
Dogwood is also propagated by root suckers, if they grow from a rooted plant, the shoots are separated from the bush and transplanted to a new place. In a grafted plant, root shoots grow from a rootstock - a wild type of dogwood, you are unlikely to need it.
Species and varieties
Common dogwood (Cornus mas)
The most famous species of the genus is common dogwood, which we have already described. We only add that the most popular forms of dogwood are:
- Pyramidalis - dogwood with a pyramidal crown shape;
- Nana - dwarf dogwood with a spherical crown;
- Variegata dogwood with white-banded leaves;
- Aurea - dogwood with golden leaves;
- Aurea variegata - dogwood with yellow variegated leaves.
White dogwood (Cornus alba)
Also a very widespread species in cultivation, which occurs naturally in China, Japan, Korea and almost throughout Russia. It is a shrub up to 3 m high with flexible, thin branches of predominantly red-orange color, although there are forms with black-red and red-brown branches. Its young shoots are covered with a bluish bloom. The leaves of plants of this species are broadly ovate, slightly wrinkled, 10-12 cm long, dark green on the upper side of the plate, whitish below, in autumn they turn dark red-lilac. Small white flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, collected in corymbose inflorescences, abundantly cover the bush in the first half of summer and again in early autumn.
White spherical fruits with a blue tint ripen just in time for the second flowering of the white dogwood. This species has many decorative forms:
- silver-edged - a plant with a creamy-white border along the leaves, which turn from green to carmine red in autumn. The color of the bark is also red. Bush height 2-3 m;
- Elegantissima is a very winter-hardy, fast-growing form of dogwood up to 3 m high, with showy red shoots, conspicuous in winter, and leaves with uneven cream border, spots and stripes;
- Sibirika Aurea – shrub 1.5-2 m high with pale yellow leaves on erect red shoots and creamy-white flowers, sometimes blooming again in autumn, simultaneously with the ripening of bluish fruits;
- Sibirika Variegata is a two-meter-tall dogwood with a wide creamy-white border, stripes and spots on the leaves, which change from green to purple in autumn, while the border and specks remain cream. Shoots in winter retain a red-coral color of the bark. This plant bears fruit poorly, grows slowly, very suitable for small gardens.
Red dogwood, or blood-red (Cornus sanguinea)
Grows in the undergrowth of deciduous and mixed forests, along the banks of rivers and lakes from the Baltic to the lower reaches of the Don and from the south of Scandinavia to the Balkans. This is a deciduous shrub up to 4 m high with a branched crown and drooping shoots of different colors - green, red, purple. Its leaves are round, ovate, bright green with fine pubescence on the upper side and densely pubescent, and therefore whitish, on the lower side. Leaves turn bright red in autumn. Small, dull, whitish flowers are corymbose many-flowered inflorescences up to 7 cm in diameter. They bloom for 15-20 days.
Numerous black fruits look elegant and contrast against bright red leaves. Decorative forms of red dogwood:
- Greenest - with shoots, leaves and green fruits;
- Variegata is a shrub up to 4 m high with variegated yellow leaves and pale green young shoots that turn burgundy with age. The fruits are blue-black;
- Mitch's dogwood - the leaves of this form are pale yellow in small spots.
Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)
Native to eastern North America. This is a deciduous tree with a spreading dense crown that blooms before the leaves bloom. Autumn foliage is bright red. Varieties:
- Cherokee Chief – tree height 4-6 m, red-pink bracts;
- Rubra - bracts from light pink to bright red, bush height 4-6 m.
Offspring dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)
Also from North America, where it grows in moist forests along the banks of streams, climbing to a height of 450 to 2700 m above sea level. The species is close to the white dogwood, but differs primarily in the ability to give a lot of offspring around the bush. It is a shrub up to 2.5 m high with red-coral shiny shoots, bright green leaves, milky-white flowers collected in inflorescences up to 5 cm in diameter and bluish-white fruits.
Decorative forms of dogwood offspring are:
- White-edged, to which cultivar White Gold belongs is a medium-sized shrub with a white border around the edges of green leaves;
- Flaviramea is a fast-growing shrub with a round shape of a bush 2-3 m high and wide. Its bark is yellow in winter and spring, and yellowish-green in summer and autumn. The foliage is green, reddish in autumn, but not all - many leaves do not change color;
- Kelsey - a dwarf shrub no more than a meter high and up to one and a half meters wide with reddish or bright green bark and green leaves that do not fall until late autumn, although changing color to orange or dark red.
It grows naturally in Japan and China. This is a winter-hardy deciduous shrub up to 9 m in height with graceful graceful bracts. In autumn, the leaves turn bright red. Varieties:
- Gold Star - green leaves with a yellow pattern, bush height 5-7 m;
- Milky Way tall shrub, creamy white bracts.
There are a number of creeping dogwoods, which botanists distinguish in a separate genus - Swedish and Canadian dogwoods, the Svida genus, which includes Georgian and Meyer dogwoods, stands apart.
Properties of dogwood - harm and benefits
When the medicinal properties of dogwood are described in the literature, they mean, first of all, plants of the common dogwood species. What is dogwood useful for, and what properties does it actually have?
Firstly, its fruits contain vitamin C in greater quantities than lemon, and have an anti-scorbutic effect, so dogwood fruits are used to make a paste for astronauts and seafarers.
Secondly, the tannins contained in the fruits hold the stool together. Berries are also useful for patients with diabetes, as they lower blood sugar levels and increase the activity of the pancreas to produce the necessary enzyme. Dogwood has anti-inflammatory, choleretic, diuretic, bactericidal and astringent action. Dogwood berries increase appetite, improve digestion, normalize blood pressure, relieve headaches, and speed up metabolic processes in the body.
Dogwood is used in the treatment of cystitis, gout, skin diseases, swelling of the legs, inflammation of the veins, intestinal diseases, including diarrhea and dysentery. It must be said that not only the fruits of dogwood have healing qualities, but also its flowers, bark, leaves and roots.
We offer you several recipes that can help out in difficult times:
Dogwood leaf tincture: Pour 50 g of crushed dogwood leaves into a glass of food alcohol, infuse for two weeks, then strain. Take 10-15 drops with water three times a day. This tincture is used to treat hemorrhoids, eczema, gout, skin infections, and expel intestinal parasites.
Decoction of dogwood fruits: Pour a tablespoon of dried berries with a glass of water, boil over low heat for 20 minutes, then infuse for 2 hours, strain and take a quarter of a glass 3 times a day before meals in case of beriberi.
Decoction of dogwood bark and roots: Pour a teaspoon of crushed cornelian roots and bark with a glass of water and boil for 15 minutes, then insist for two hours, strain and drink for rheumatism 3 times a day, 2 tablespoons.
In addition, drinks and dogwood jam have wonderful medicinal and gustatory qualities. Dogwood fruits are dried for the winter and a tasty and healthy decoction is prepared from them.
The use of dogwood berries and juice is not recommended for people with high acidity, constipation or sluggish intestinal motility, as well as for those who have an unstable nervous system or individual intolerance to dogwood.
- Read related topics on Wikipedia
- Peculiarities and other plants of the dogwood family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
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planting and care in the open ground, species and varieties with photo
Dogwood (Cornus) is a member of the dogwood family. This genus includes about 50 species. Dogwood is often a deciduous tree or shrub, but in some cases it is a perennial herbaceous or woody winter green plant. This genus has 4 subgenera. The word dogwood is borrowed from the Turkic language, and it translates as "red", probably this plant was named after the color of the fruits of the most common species. Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found in Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Japan, China and the Caucasus. People began to cultivate dogwood since ancient times. So, the ancient Greeks and Romans selected the best types of dogwood for cultivation in gardens, and according to Virgil, they achieved some success in this matter. In the middle latitudes, such a plant began to be cultivated in the 17th century, under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who showed considerable interest in outlandish plants. At the same time, dogwood, due to very useful fruits, from which decoctions were prepared in those days, aroused special interest in the king. The first people who settled in America used such a plant to clean their teeth, while the natives of this mainland made arrows from it. Since dogwood wood is very hard, over time, door handles and hammers, tennis rackets and shuttles for weaving equipment began to be made from it. There is information that the Holy Cross was also made from this plant. The Pacific dogwood flower is the official flower of British Columbia, a province in Canada. At the same time, the flowering dogwood tree is the official tree of such American states as Virginia and Missouri.
- 1 Features of the shrub Kizil
- 2 Planting
- 4 Dogwood propagation
- 4.1 Seed propagation
- 4.2 Cuttings
- 4.3 How to propagate by grafting
- 4.4 How to propagate by cuttings
- 4.5 How to propagate the division of the bush
- 5 types and varieties of kizil with photos and names
- 5.1 The ordinary (Cornus Mas)
- 5. 2 Kizil White (Cornus Alba)
- 5.3 AD sanguinea)
- 5.4 Blooming (Cornus florida)
- 5.5 Kizil Jacortion (Cornus Stolonifra)
- 5.6 Kizil Cousa
- 6 Benefits and damage0012
- 6.2 Popular recipes
- 6.3 Contraindications
Features of the dogwood shrub
The most famous species of this genus is the common dogwood (male), which is a shrub. It reaches a height of 2.5 meters and has glossy orange-red hanging stems. If the shoot is in contact with the surface of the soil, then it takes root quickly enough. Alternate or opposite leaf blades are painted in rich green. Milky-white flowers are part of inflorescences with a five-centimeter diameter. Flowering begins in May and lasts for half a month. Fruits may have 1 or 2 seeds, their ripening occurs in August-October, they may vary in shape and color. In cultural forms, the length of the fruit is three centimeters, as a rule, their shape is elongated-cylindrical, but it can also be almost round, and also pear-shaped or barrel-shaped. As a rule, the color of the fruit is rich red, but yellow, black, pink, and purple are also found. The fruits also differ in their taste, so they can be tart, sweet, sweet-tart, dry or juicy. The dogwood itself can be formed as a bush or as a tree. This is a frost-resistant plant, however, if the temperature drops below minus 30 degrees, then the tips of its stems freeze. A bush of such a plant can live for more than a hundred years.
The most delicious dogwood - "Semyon"
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What time to plant
It is recommended to plant dogwood in open ground immediately after the leaves begin to fall. In autumn, planting such a shrub is much better than in spring. The fact is that in the spring you need to have time to plant a seedling in a fairly short time period, namely, when the soil warms up, but the buds have not yet begun to open. For such a shrub, a site located in partial shade and located on the south or south-west side of the garden is well suited. The soil must be saturated with lime, while groundwater should not lie closer than 1.5 m to the soil surface. Dogwood can also be grown in acidic soil, but at the same time it will develop worse, and the quality of the fruit will noticeably decrease. Between the shrub and any building, fence or other plant there should be a distance of at least 3–5 m. 3–5 min.
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Seedlings used for planting must be 2 years old. They should reach a height of 150 centimeters, and their trunk should have a two-centimeter diameter, while the seedling should have from 3 to 5 skeletal branches. The depth and diameter of the landing hole should be about 0.8 m. When the hole is ready, a stake should be driven into it, which will serve as a support for the seedling. In this case, it is recommended to place the stake on the side from which the wind blows most often. When digging a hole, the top layer of soil saturated with nutrients must be combined with mineral fertilizers and humus, then the resulting mixture must be poured into the center of the planting pit with a mound. It will be necessary to install a seedling on this mound, in which the roots are then neatly straightened. Then the pit should be covered with the same soil mixture, while the root neck of the plant should rise 3–4 centimeters above the soil surface. Water the planted plant using 30 liters of water. After the liquid is completely absorbed, the root neck should be flush with the soil surface. Then it will be necessary to shorten the stems of the plant by 1/3 and tie it to the stake. The trunk circle should be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or dry soil from the lower layer of the earth, which is not so fertile).
Cornelian cherry should be grown in much the same way as other fruit bushes (for example, barberry or gooseberry). Such a shrub must be watered in a timely manner, weeded, cut, fed, and you also need to regularly loosen the soil on the site. This plant has one feature, namely, there is no periodicity in its fruiting, which means that it produces a crop every year. Harvest for next year is laid from May to June of this year. In this case, flower buds must have time to fully form before the end of the period of active growth, their formation occurs at the same time as the growth of the stems. In this regard, timely watering and top dressing are very important for dogwood.
To prevent liquid from spreading over the soil surface during irrigation, it is necessary to make a furrow around the shrub. This will allow the superficially located root system to be well saturated with water. Water the plant should be moderate, while avoiding stagnation of liquid in the roots. When watering is completed, it is necessary to weed and loosen the soil surface to a depth of 8 to 10 centimeters and in no case more. Until the middle of the season, fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus are used for top dressing. At the same time, from the second half, dogwood is fed for the most part with fertilizers containing potassium (for example, wood ash). Also, the plant responds well to fertilizing with humus or compost. But in order for it to give a good harvest, the presence of calcium in the soil is simply necessary.
Dogwood needs systematic pruning. In winter or at the beginning of spring, when the dogwood is still at rest, it is necessary to cut off those branches from the bush that are injured, affected by frost or dried up, since it is on them that pests or pathogenic microbes most often settle. Each time, cutting off a branch, it is necessary to dip the scissors in a solution of bleach (1: 3). If this is not done, then pathogens can easily be transferred to healthy plant tissues. Excessively old shoots should be shortened or cut to the ground, this will stimulate the growth of young stems. It is also necessary to remove the stems and branches that grow inside the shrub. If the bush is grafted, then it is necessary to cut off all the stems located below the grafting site. It is necessary to form a crown in very rare cases, since it naturally has a very spectacular appearance.
Diseases and pests
Dogwood is highly resistant to various diseases and harmful insects. However, dogwood can become infected with a fungal disease such as rust, but this happens extremely rarely. In an infected specimen, yellow spots appear on the surface of the leaf plates. To get rid of this disease, it will be necessary to treat the plant with Bordeaux liquid. Another plant occasionally falls ill with powdery mildew, which is disposed of with the help of colloidal sulfur. And it also happens that dogwood gets sick with spotting, which Bordeaux liquid helps to cope with. Also, a snail bug can settle on a shrub, which is destroyed by spraying a bush with lime, and a multicolor caterpillar can also disturb it, it is killed with Parisian greens.
Dogwood in the Moscow region
Most gardeners believe that such a plant will not survive in the Moscow region and Moscow, and therefore it cannot be cultivated there. But it's not. Thanks to the labors of breeders, frost-resistant varieties of dogwood were born that can not die even at a frost of minus 30 degrees, in connection with this, the plant can be quite successfully grown even in the middle lane, while it will give a rich harvest. It will be necessary to plant and care for the shrub in the same way as in places with mild winters. However, it happens that in winter the tips of the stems of the plant freeze slightly, and with the onset of spring they will need to be cut. In order to protect a young plant from frost, in the first years of its life it will be necessary to cover it with burlap, while the near-trunk circle must be covered with a thick layer of mulch (humus or peat) for both old and young shrubs.
Amateur gardeners propagate dogwood most often by vegetative methods, but sometimes seeds are also used for this.
Before sowing, the previously de-pulped stones must be stratified. To do this, they are placed in moistened sawdust or moss, where they should stay for about 12 months, while the environment must be constantly moist. On the cotyledon, the stone does not separate, in connection with this it must be buried in the soil by about 3 centimeters. If the seeds are not subjected to stratification, then the seedlings will appear only after a couple of years, while only a small part of the seeds will germinate. If you sow stratified seeds, then seedlings can be seen in the same year. It is necessary to take care of crops and seedlings as usual, or rather, water, feed, weed in a timely manner, while at first they will need protection from direct sunlight. By the end of the first year, the seedlings will reach a height of only 30–40 mm, and by the end of the second, their length will be 10–15 centimeters. In autumn, two-year-old seedlings can be transplanted into open soil in the nursery. The first fruits on such a plant will appear only after 7-10 years.
Seeds for sowing are taken from wild plant species. After the young seedlings grown from them get stronger, they are used as rootstocks for cultivated species of this plant.
Dogwood can only be propagated by green cuttings, which are taken from bushes no younger than 5 or 6 years old. Lignified cuttings root very weakly. The length of the cuttings varies from 10 to 15 centimeters, they are cut in the early morning from actively growing stems. It should be remembered that each cutting should have 2 pairs of leaf plates and a well-developed growth point. Cut cuttings should immediately be placed in water. When harvesting cuttings, it should be noted that the cut at the bottom should be oblique and pass 5–10 mm below the kidney. Before planting the stalk, all the leaves must be cut off from the bottom of it, and it should be placed for 6–12 hours in a heteroauxin solution (3%). After that, the cuttings should be washed in running water and planted in a shaded place at an angle of 45 degrees. From above, the soil should be sprinkled with washed sand, while the layer thickness is from 7 to 10 centimeters. Then the plantings should be covered with plastic wrap so that between its surface and the handle there is a backlash of 15–20 centimeters. Plantings should be well watered and then make sure that the soil is slightly moist all the time, while the cuttings should be protected from direct sunlight. Watering should be done through a fine sieve, as water must necessarily be sprayed. Under the film, the temperature should not be more than 25 degrees, so if it becomes excessively hot under the shelter, then you need to raise it so that the plantings are ventilated. The cuttings will give roots after 15-20 days, then it will be necessary to start hardening them, which lasts about half a month. When the plant is hardened, the shelter will need to be removed for good, and the cuttings should be fed using liquid ammonium nitrate for this (30 grams of the substance per 10 liters of water). When the next autumn period comes, the plant will need to be planted in a permanent place.
How to propagate by grafting
Budding takes place in August and September, for this, rooted or planted seedlings of wild dogwood are used, which should be 2 years old. As a scion, cultivars of dogwood are taken. Armed with a sharp knife, a cross-shaped incision should be made on the surface of the rootstock, while the depth of the vertical cut should be about 30 mm. From the scion, it is necessary to cut out a kidney with a piece of bark, a petiole of a leaf plate and a small part of the wood. It should be placed in a vertically located incision, while the bark on it must be carefully pushed apart in different directions. To fix the scion, you should use an budding tape, or you can take a simple stationery tape. If everything was done according to the rules, then after 15–20 days the petiole should fall off. In October, the tape is removed. Next, you need to timely remove the emerging shoots of the stock.
How to propagate by cuttings
To obtain cuttings, choose a one-year horizontally arranged arcuate stem. In the spring, after the soil warms up, you will need to dig up the soil around the bush, while adding fertilizer to it. Having leveled the surface of the soil, it is necessary to make grooves in it. Then, in these grooves, it will be necessary to bend and put the stems that you have chosen to receive layering, they are fixed and covered with soil at the point of contact with the ground. Next, you need to pinch the tops of future layers. After green stems up to 10–12 centimeters high grow at the place of fixation with the ground near the layer, they must be covered with earth by ½. After 15-20 days, when the shoots will increase in growth by the same amount, they must again be sprinkled with earth by ½ part. In autumn, or with the onset of the next spring period, cuttings should be cut off from the parent plant and planted in a permanent place.
How to propagate by dividing a bush
This method of propagation is used only when it is necessary to transplant a bush. This can be done in the spring before the buds swell or in the autumn - 4 weeks before the onset of the first frost. To do this, you need to dig a dogwood and cut off all the old branches from it. Then you should carefully remove the earth from the root system, and only then divide the bush into several parts of approximately equal size. At the same time, each division should have good roots, as well as a non-sick and non-injured aerial part. Before planting a delenka, it is necessary to remove the old roots from it, and shorten the remaining ones a little.
In the event that you have planted a rooted plant, it can be propagated by root offspring. To do this, you need to dig up the growth and plant it in a new place. If the dogwood is grafted, then its root growth will grow from the stock. And since wild types of dogwood are often used as a stock, it is recommended to simply remove such shoots.
Types and varieties of dogwood with photos and names
Common dogwood (Cornus mas)
This species is the most popular among gardeners, and you can find its detailed description above. Most Popular Varieties:
- Pyramidalis . Its crown shape is pyramidal.
- Nana . Dwarf variety with a crown in the form of a ball.
- Variegata . The leaves have a white margin.
- Aurea . Leaf plates are golden in color.
- Aurea variegata . Variegated leaf plates are painted yellow.
White dogwood (Cornus alba)
This is also a fairly popular species that can be found in the wild in Japan, China, Korea, and almost throughout Russia. This shrub reaches a height of 3 meters. Its thin flexible branches are orange-red in color, but there are varieties with brown-red and red-black branches. On the surface of young stems there is a bluish coating. The shape of slightly wrinkled leaf plates is broadly ovate, their length varies from 10 to 12 centimeters. Their front surface is dark green, and the wrong side is whitish. In autumn, their color changes to a dark purple-red. Small white flowers in diameter reach 5 centimeters, they are part of the corymbose inflorescences. Lush flowering is observed twice a year, namely, until the middle of the summer period and back in September. White berries of spherical shape have a blue tint, and they fully ripen by the beginning of repeated flowering. Common decorative forms:
- Silver bordered . Green leaf plates have a white-cream border. In autumn, they change their color to carmine red. The bark is red. The bush reaches a height of 2 to 3 meters.
- Elegantissima . It has a very high frost resistance and grows quickly. The bush can reach a height of three meters, the stems are red in color, which looks especially impressive in winter. The leaf plates have an uneven cream-colored border, and there are also stripes and specks on the surface.
- Siberia Aurea . The height of the bush can vary from 1.5 to 2 meters. On erect stems of red color are pale yellow leaf plates. Flowers creamy white. When the pale blue fruits begin to ripen, re-flowering may begin.
- Sibirik Variegata . The bush can reach a height of 2 m. The leaf plates have a wide border, stripes and spots, which are painted in white and cream color. The main background of the leaves is green, while in autumn it becomes purple, and the edging and stripes with spots do not change their color. In winter, the bark on the stems remains coral red. This variety gives a poor harvest, and the bush itself is slow-growing. It is great for small gardens.
Red or blood-red dogwood (Cornus sanguinea)
Under natural conditions, this species can be found from the Balkans to the southern part of Scandinavia and from the lower reaches of the Don to the Baltic, while it prefers to grow in the undergrowth of mixed and deciduous forests, as well as on the shores of lakes and rivers. In height, such a deciduous shrub reaches 4 meters, while its crown is branched. The stems are drooping and may be red, green or purple. The ovoid rounded leaf plates have a rich green front surface with small pubescence and a whitish back surface with dense pubescence. In autumn, the leaves change their color to rich red. Small dull white flowers are part of many-flowered corymbose inflorescences, reaching a diameter of 7 centimeters. Flowering in this species lasts from 2 to 3 weeks. A lot of black berries ripen on the bush, which look very impressive against the background of rich red foliage. Decorative shapes:
- Greenest . Stems, leafy fruits and berries are green in color.
- Variegata . The height of the bush reaches 4 meters. Variegated leaf plates have a yellow color. Pale green young stems turn burgundy over time. Blue-black berries.
- Mitch's Dogwood . There are small spots on the surface of light yellow leaf plates.
Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)
Homeland is the eastern part of North America. Such a deciduous tree has a dense and spreading crown. Flowering is observed before the opening of the leaf blades. In autumn, the leaves turn deep red. Grades:
- Cherokee Chief . It reaches a height of 4 to 6 meters. The color of the bracts is pink-red.
- Rubra . The height varies from 4 to 6 meters. The color of bracts can vary from rich red to pale pink.
Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)
Naturally found in North America, where it prefers to grow on the banks of streams in moist forests, while climbing to an altitude of 450-2700 m above sea level. This species is very similar to white dogwood, but unlike it, a large number of offspring grow near the bush. Such a shrub reaches a height of 250 centimeters, has glossy coral-red stems, rich green leaf plates, milky white flowers, which are part of the inflorescences, reaching a diameter of 5 centimeters. The berries are whitish-blue. Decorative shapes:
- White bordered . The White Gold variety is related to it - it is a medium-sized shrub with green leaf plates with a whitish border.
- Flaviramea . Such a shrub grows very quickly and has a round shape. The width and height of the bush can reach from 2 to 3 meters. The crown is yellow in winter and spring, and greenish-yellow in summer and autumn. Part of the green leaves in autumn becomes pale red, and the rest does not change its color.
- Kelsey . In such a dwarf shrub, the height can reach 100 centimeters, and the width is about 150 centimeters. The bark can be deep green or light red. The leaf plates are green, they do not fly around until late autumn, but at the same time they turn orange or dark red.
This species is native to China and Japan. This is a deciduous winter-hardy shrub, the height of which can reach up to 9meters. The bracts are graceful and very beautiful. In autumn, the leaves turn deep red. Grades:
- Gold Star . The height of the bush reaches from 5 to 7 meters. On the surface of the green leaf plates there is a yellow pattern.
- Milky Way . The bush is quite tall. Bracts are creamy white.
There are also creeping dogwoods, their specialists identified them as a separate genus (Canadian and Swedish dogwoods). The genus Svida also stands out, which includes Meyer's and Georgian dogwoods.
Dogwood - cultivars
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Benefits and harms of dogwood
As a rule, the literature describes the benefits of dogwood. The benefit of this plant lies in the fact that its berries contain a lot of vitamin C, even more than lemon. And they also have an antiscorbutic effect, in connection with this, a paste is made from such berries for long-distance sailors and astronauts. The fruits also contain tannins, which effectively hold the stool together. These berries are recommended to be eaten by diabetics, as they lower blood sugar levels, and also make the pancreas work more actively, which produces the necessary enzyme. Also, this plant has a choleretic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, diuretic and astringent effect. The fruits of such a plant improve appetite, normalize digestion, normalize blood pressure, eliminate pain in the head, and improve metabolic processes in the body. This plant is used to treat gout, swelling of the legs, intestinal diseases (for example, dysentery and diarrhea), cystitis, skin diseases and inflammation of the venous vessels. Medicinal properties are available both in the berries of the plant, and in the foliage, roots, flowers and bark.
- Leaf tincture. Combine 200 ml of edible alcohol with 50 grams of finely chopped leaves. The tincture will be ready after half a month, it remains only to strain. Drink 3 times a day, 10-15 drops, diluted with water. The remedy is suitable for the treatment of eczema, skin infections, hemorrhoids, gout, and is also used to get rid of intestinal parasites.
- Decoction of berries. Combine 200 ml of water with 1 large spoonful of dried fruit. The mixture should be boiled for a third of an hour over low heat. Then she should brew for a couple of hours. Strained broth should be drunk in ¼ tbsp. with beriberi three times a day before meals.