How fast do shagbark hickory trees grow
A Tree For Me Hickory | Knowledgebase
If I were to be so fortunate as to someday be interviewed by Barbara Walters, I would be ready to answer her famous question, “If you could be a twee, what kind of twee would you want to be?” (“twee”, meaning “tree” in Barbara Walter-eese).
“The twee, that would be me,
would be a Hick-o-wee.”
A Shagbark Hickory to be specific. You see, just thinking about the tree brings back sentimental thoughts of my youth. It brings a tear to my eye. Barbara Walters would be proud. She loves to make people she interviews cry. She loves to tear at your heartstrings just like Shagbark Hickories do to me.
When I was a little boy, as far back as I can remember, my brothers and sisters and I would go out to the creek. This was a wild area only a few blocks away from our home on the south side of Burlington, Wisconsin in western Racine County. We’d pack a lunch, or mom would, and off we’d go for a day of fun and adventure in our native woods.
Us kids, aged 7 to 12 or so, would visit our favorite trees to load up on hickory nuts to later crack on the concrete stoop that was our front porch. It was a big event. We prepared for it each year. We would scout out the trees weeks beforehand to see which ones had nuts. There was only one tree that would produce every year. The others would bear fruit every other year. When they were ready, we would gather them and put them in piles under the trees. Then we would husk them so that we wouldn’t have to haul home extra weight. We’d fill multiple paper grocery bags full of nuts. We were very productive, squirrelly kids.
It wasn’t like it was work though. We’d have fun! Nature’s distractions were all around us. We’d throw sticks and husks at each other or go over by the creek to see if there were any frogs. There was just a lot of cool stuff out by the creek and hickory nuts were just one of those things.
Once we got back home we would get some hammers and start cracking. As I said before, we’d go on the front stoop of the house. Cracking Hickory nuts is a fine art. Getting them out in the biggest piece possible was the desired feat. If you got an entire half of nut meat out in one piece, you’d scream for joy! Most of the time it was tiny bits and pieces with an occasional shell mixed in. This could be extremely painful if you vigorously chewed on your tasty accomplishment which we usually did. It was competitive nut-cracking. The reward was to be able to stick a handful of half nut-meat pieces into your mouth and smile as your cohorts watched you. We sure had fun!
Just like out in the woods we would eventually get distracted and go running from our positions on the front stoop to go play games in the back alley or some other kid activity. Meanwhile the hammers, bags of nuts, and bits and pieces of broken shells were strewn all over in the front of the house. You wouldn’t believe how far some of those shells will fly when hit with a hammer. Anyway, our mother used to like to walk around in her stocking feet. When she would eventually encounter one of the sharp shells she’d scream at us to clean up the front porch. We’d scatter even further than the nut shells. This would happen every fall, as sure as you could count on the trees turning color.
That was Hickory nut season then and it sticks with me to this day. I’ll love those trees forever.
After growing of Hickory nut trees here at Johnson’s Nursery. I’ve come to appreciate them in an adult way, but no more important way than I knew as a child.
Hickories have been used by people for numerous purposes over the years. Native Americans used hickory wood to make bows for hunting. A syrup flavored by an extract from Shagbark Hickory bark was used by Native Americans and is currently a delicacy in fine restaurants throughout the U.S. Hickory is a favorite wood to use for smoking meats. Because of its strength, durability, and beauty, hickory lumber is used to make furniture, paneling, dowels, tool handles, and ladders.
Left: Shagbark Hickory foliage in fall color | Right: Shagbark Hickory has thick husks and tasty nuts
There are two species of Hickory native to Wisconsin, Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) and Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis). They are closely related to Pecan (Carya illinoiensis) which is good eating in its own right (and a lot easier to crack). Unfortunately, it’s difficult to get Pecans to bear nut crops in the short Wisconsin growing season. That’s why Shagbark is the Carya species of choice for our area. Both native species are not commonly found in garden centers, yet both are successfully grown by Johnson’s Nursery. Serious disease and insect problems are not common on Carya species in southeast Wisconsin. I have seen a canker disease, probably Poria spiculosa, doing significant damage to trees east of Portage, WI.
Shagbark Hickory is native to every state bordering the Mississippi River and east with the exception of Florida. In Wisconsin, the tree is quite common in the southern half of the state, but is not native up north. It is most prevalent in dry, open woodlands. You’ll often see it with Hill’s Oak (Quercus ellipsoidallis), Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa), White Oak (Quercus alba) and Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) to name a few. Where it really excels is on sandy soils where Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) struggles. It will tolerate heavier soils and performs perfectly well in them. It is just not as competitive in these soils in the wild. Shagbark Hickory is easily identified by its long exfoliating 1-2” wide strips of gray bark. Its leaves are 8-14” long with leaflets that range from 4-6” long and ½ to 2-1/2” wide. Fall color ranges from clear yellow to rusty-orange to tan to golden brown. Individuals are quite variable in fall color. One of the most ornamental characteristics of the tree is its colorful new growth as it first emerges in the spring. The beautiful pinks and chartreuses are as dramatic as most flowers. The nuts are typically borne every other year in husks that are 3/16” to 3/8” thick and, of course, are the tastiest of any nut in existence. My grandmother used to feed all the kids in the neighborhood her famous chocolate chip cookies. When she put Hickory nuts in them, they weren’t as readily available to the neighbors. They had to be rationed.
Left/Middle: Shagbark Hickory bark | Right: Shagbark Hickory newly emerging shoot in spring
As an adult with experience and education, my Hickory nut picking and cracking have become more sophisticated. Let me explain. Each hickory tree grown from seed has nuts with their own unique set of genes which determine its nut characteristics; just like us humans each have our own individual characteristics. All the nuts from a particular hickory tree will be identical. So each tree will have nuts with their own specific size, shape, and convolution pattern on the inside. It’s just like an apple tree bearing apples with a distinct size, shape and taste. It’s just like each of us having our characteristic finger print that differentiates us from all others. The same goes for Hickory trees. You may be wondering why I am going on and on about this. It all relates to getting the Hickory nuts out in halves instead of little bits and pieces. I’m still obsessed with that. The point I want to make is that some Hickory trees produce nuts that can be more easily cracked out of the shell in big pieces. Some have convolution patterns in the interior of the nut that are not as deep as others. This convolution pattern is called the key (see picture to left). When the key has shallow convolutions it is much easier to get the nuts out in halves. Bingo!!! This is the point. This is the answer to the ultimate question of how to have consistent hickory nut cracking success! You check the trees for their key before picking them up so you only gather from trees that will increase the likelihood of cracking out in halves. This is done by cutting the nuts tangentially to see the key before picking up quantities of the nuts. This technique will allow an increase in cracking efficiency. Selecting nuts with thinner shells and using improved nut crackers rather than a hammer can make things even better.
Left: Shagbark Hickory keys. The top are two identical nuts from the same tree with the same key. The bottom is three different keys from three different trees | Right: Hunt’s Nut Cracker, one of the best for Hickory
The other species of Hickory native to Wisconsin is Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis). This tree differs from Shagbark with sulfur yellow buds that are quite noticeable in the winter. It has a smooth gray bark without any exfoliation. Mature specimens can have a vase form similar to an elm. Bitternut Hickory is most commonly found in Sugar Maple or Oak forests in more moist shady situations than you would find a Shagbark Hickory. They are quite common in the hedgerows around the nursery in Menomonee Falls. The nuts of Bitternut are not edible as they are very high in tannins. Squirrels and chipmunks usually avoid them for a while until they have run out of their preferred foods. The nuts are generally smaller than Shagbark with a thin husk that is about 1/16” thick. It is a fast growing hickory when compared to Shagbark. We can grow Shagbark Hickory to 1-1/4” diameter in about 10 years. A Bitternut Hickory will reach that same size in about 8 years. It is a gorgeous tree and should be used more for landscaping.
Left: Bitternut Hickory has a vase form like an Elm | Right: Bitternut Hickory smooth gray bark
Left: Shagbark Hickory dormant stick and buds | Right: Bitternut Hickory sulfur yellow dormant buds
Left: Bitternut Hickory’s nuts have a thin husk, but are unpalatable | Right: Bitternut Hickory leaf in full fall color
Growing Hickories is a slow process. However, contrary to much that is said about them being difficult to transplant B&B, we have not found this to be the case. We can successfully dig both native Hickory species in late fall and early spring with very few losses. Watering and mulching is critical to success in the first two years of establishment. You must make sure they have an even supply of water available to the newly establishing root system throughout this time period.
I hope I have been able to touch each and every one of you with a bit of my Hickory knowledge and sentimentality. Just remember.
When you are no longer hearing from me,
and you see a Hick-o-wee,
take a close look at the twee,
It could be me!!!!
Visit Our Public Inventory
Share Via Email
Sign Up For Newsletter
Total Guide To Shagbark Hickory Tree – What You NEED To Know – GrowIt BuildIT
The Shagbark Hickory Tree is a deciduous hardwood tree native to Eastern North America that grows 90′ tall by 70′ wide in optimum growing conditions of full sun & well drained soil. Prized by both humans and animals, it produces edible nuts in late Summer & hosts dozens of insects. It’s lumber is used for flooring, cabinets, and great firewood.
In this article I will teach you everything you need to know about this tree, from interesting facts, grow and care, wildlife associations, diseases, and how to germinate the nuts.
In this article
- Shagbark Hickory Facts / Quick Reference
- Pros and cons of the Shagbark Hickory Tree
- How to Identify Shagbark Hickory
- Shagbark Hickory Nuts – production, edible, storage
- How to Grow and Care for Shagbark Hickory Trees
- How to grow Shagbark Hickory from Seed / Nut Germination
- What Wildlife, Pests, and Diseases effect Shagbark Hickory
- Where to buy Shagbark Hickory Trees
- Uses of Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory Facts / Quick Reference
For a tree that looks shapely and stately far away, but curious and interesting up close, look no further than Shagbark Hickory. This amazing tree provides interest to landscapes, beauty to horizons, and life to insects, birds, animals, and humans.
Facts about Shagbark Hickory tree
- After impressing his backwoods soldiers with his toughness, future President Andrew Jackson was given the nickname “Old Hickory”.
- Will typically grow to 60-80′ tall, but in nature can reach a staggering 130′ (40 m)
- The bark of Shagbark Hickory is one of the most distinct in North America, with large 1′ long strips of bark that peel off the trunk.
- The bark can be used for flavoring syrup. If the bark is baked, and then boiled to make a tea, it can be turned into syrup by adding equal parts sugar.
- Shagbark Hickory tree produces edible nuts that are grown commercially. The meat of the nut tastes similar, but milder than Black Walnut.
- The meat of the nut of Shagbark Hickory is nutritious, with lots of protein and fiber.
- The tough wood was sought by Native Americans for making bows and snowshoes
Native Range of Shagbark Hickory
The native range of the Shagbark Hickory runs from Minnesota to Southern Texas, East to South Carolina and the Atlantic Coast, and then North to New England and parts of Canada.
The Shagbark Hickory tree has adapted itself to one of the largest native ranges of all Hickory trees. It has adapted to the hot temperatures of Southern Texas, and the frigid Winters of Minnesota and Maine. If you live in the continental US and are east of the Missouri River, chances are you could grow this tree.Native Range of Shagbark Hickory Tree. Source   
Shagbark Hickory Tree quick reference table
|Common Name||Shagbark Hickory, Shellbark Hickory, Scalybark Hickory, Carolina Hickory, Shagbark|
|Scientific name||Carya ovata|
|Color||In Spring, yellow/Green/Red drooping catkins of flowers at the end of young twigs/shoots|
|Fruit||Green nuts, 2-3″ diameter ripen in late Summer|
|Crown Spread||40-50′ wide in the open.|
|Light Requirements||Full sun / Partial Shade|
|Soil Types||Sandy loam, Clay, Loam|
|Moisture||Well drained moist to dry/medium moist soils.|
|Maintenance||Picking up nuts and unwanted seedlings, 20 years after you planted it.|
|Typical Use||Nut production, landscaping|
|Fauna Associations||Bees, bumblebees, hummingbirds, butterflies, and moths. Game birds eat seeds. Deer browse foliage.|
|Larval Host||Over 50 species of insect larvae, including butterflies and moths|
|Sowing Depth||1/4″ (6 mm)|
|Stratification||None required. Seed must be scarified.|
|Native Range||Appalachian Mountains, Ozarks, Isolated driftless regions of United States|
|Growing Zones||USDA Zones 3-8|
Pros and cons of the Shagbark Hickory Tree
A mature Shagbark Hickory tree can produce hundreds of delicious edible nuts every year. They can start producing at 10 years of age, but don’t come into full production until year 40. However, they can produce bumper crops every 1-3 years for 200+ years!
Shagbark Hickory lumber is frequently used in flooring for it’s durability and hardness. But depending on the tree you can obtain some of the most beautiful contrasting colors of light wood with dark brown designs. It can provide a truly unique and beautiful appearance.
Shagbark Hickory trees turn a beautiful yellow to orange color in fall. They can be quite striking as isolated specimens or massed.Beautiful Autumn colors of Shagbark Hickory that is behind my home.
Mature Shagbark Hickory trees are valuable from nut production, lumber, or even just firewood. Growing these trees is a long term investment that can pay off for future generations.
Great for wildlife
There are over 180 insects that utilize Shagbark Hickory trees for food. These insects make up the base of the food chain. These insects will feed other insects as well as birds, which further contribute to the food chain. All of this is saying nothing of the nuts produced, which is a preferred food of chipmunks and squirrels.
The tall stately ovoid crown of a Shagbark Hickory makes a beautiful appearance set against the horizon. These trees grow very large, but are somewhat contained in comparison to many other large trees such as Oak.
Very often unique and exotic trees become popular in suburbia. Well, our own native species have much to offer! The large peeling plates of the Shagbark Hickory are eye catching and unique.
Shagbark Hickory trees produce Juglone. Juglone is an allelopathic chemical that will inhibit the growth of some other plants such as tomatoes. A general recommendation is to keep Juglone sensitive plants 50′ away from the crown of a Juglone producing tree.
There is one silver lining to it producing Juglone. This Juglone has been found to also have insect repellent properties, as the European Elm beetle Scolytus multistriatus will not eat the bark of the tree. 
Nuts in the yard
As much as I sing the praise of the delicious and nutritious Shagbark Hickory nuts, they certainly won’t be welcomed by everybody. The nuts (with husks) are up to 3″ diameter, and could easily get sent flying by a lawnmower. One can also trip on the round nuts while still in their husks. And finally, people who have children that have nut allergies may not want the nuts around.
All good things come to those who wait, and that definitely applies to Shagbark Hickory trees. The growth rate is roughly 1′ per year, making it a slower growing tree. This is a tree you will be planting for your children or grandchildren to enjoy, unfortunately.
How to Identify Shagbark Hickory
Trunk & Crown
Shagbark Hickories will typically reach heights of 80′ tall with a straight trunk up to 3-4′ diameter and a oblong or ovoid crown. As a general rule, the crown width of a Shagbark Hickory will be 1/4 to 1/2 of the height. So it is a tree that is much taller than wide. The upper branches will be ascending of the trunk, while the lower branches are descending.A good example of the Shagbark Hickory crown. Note how the width of the crown is approximately equal to half the height
Shagbark Hickory Bark Identification
The mature bark of Shagbark Hickory is very rough textured or ‘shaggy’ and medium gray in color. One can easily peel strips or plates of the thick bark from the tree. Bark plate/strips can easily reach 1′ in length that warp or curve away from the trunk.The distinct bark of a mature Shagbark Hickory Tree
Young bark is medium gray and more smooth, as is the branch bark as well.Immature Bark of a Shagbark Hickory Tree
Shagbark Hickory Leaf Identification
Shagbark Hickory leaves are distinct (like all Hickories) in that they are compound, odd-pinnate with 5 leaflets. And individual leaflet is 3-8″ long and half as wide, is broad-elliptic in shape and will have serrated edge. The upper surface of leaflets is medium to dark green and the underside is lighter or pale green. Leaflet petioles (stems) are shorter measuring roughly 1/8″ long.
As a monoecious tree, male flowers are 4-6″ long and appear at axils of leaves from the previous season. While female flowers are short spikes that are 1/4″-5/16″ long and appear on new shoots. Pollinated female flowers will turn into nuts that ripen in late Summer / early Fall.Flower of Shagbark Hickory Tree in Spring
The root system of Shagbark Hickory consists of a deep and extensive tap root system. This makes Shagbark Hickory a tough tree that can stand tall against heavy winds.
Shagbark Hickory Nut
The nut of Shagbark Hickory trees can be found as a single fruit or in clusters of three nuts. Nuts are 1 to 2.5″ long and kind of an oval shape. They are covered in a green husk that will shrink and peel away from the nut as it dries after falling from the tree.Nuts on Shagbark Hickory tree
Nuts will ripen in late Summer, and generally begin falling from the tree from September through December. They are easy to pick up, harvest and store. Shagbark Hickory nuts weigh approximately 1/6 oz (4.5 g), and the meat of the nut is quite tasty, having a slightly milder flavor than Black Walnut.
How long does it take for Hickory Trees to produce nuts?
A Shagbark Hickory tree can start to produce nuts at 10-15 years of age, and will reach commercial seedbearing age at approximately 40 years of age. It will be able to produce nuts of sufficient commercial quantity for 60-200 years. 
How many nuts are produced by a mature Shagbark Hickory Tree?
Grown in the open, some commercial seed bearing Shagbark Hickory trees can produce 50-70 liters of nuts in a bumper crop year. Typically, high seed producing crops occur every 1-3 years. The diameter and crown size are the best indicators of how many seeds a tree can produce.
Surveys of a forest in Southeastern Ohio that is dominant or codominant with Shagbark Hickory trees measured the amount of nuts produced over a six year period. The table below shows some variation of that amount of nuts one could expect in a forest environment (with other trees competing for sun) based on a trees diameter breast height.
|Tree Diameter Breast Height (d.b.h)||Age (years)||Seeds / year|
|8.1″ (20.7 cm)||60||16|
|10.3″ (26.1 cm)||75||36|
|17.8″ (45.1 cm)||90||225|
Tips on harvesting Shagbark Hickory nuts
Shagbark Hickory nuts are one of the most preferred foods among squirrels and chipmunks. So much so that it can be difficult to harvest any nuts once they begin falling from the tree. I have a large mature Shagbark Hickory that borders my backyard, but the crown is almost completely over a forest. Because of this, I almost never get any Hickory nuts from this tree, as the squirrels and chipmunks gather them as quickly as they fall.
So, what is the best way to harvest these nuts? Simply to find a tree that is more exposed or out in the open. Trees that are isolated along fences or in pastures that have at least 50′ of open space before a forest will not have all their nuts taken by squirrels and chipmunks. This is because the open space between the tree and other areas is a ‘swoop zone’ for hawks, owls, and other predatory raptors! The squirrels can’t go foraging at will because they are exposed.A tree out in the open is best for harvesting nuts
So, work hard to find trees that have at least some opening around them, and you should have better luck collecting Hickory nuts. Also, float test all nuts you collect. Any nut that floats is not fully formed and should be discarded.Waiting to be cracked.
Cracking Hickory Nuts
Cracking Hickory nuts is not too difficult, as far as nuts go. One can to so with a pair of channel locks, although you may wish to wear safety glasses when doing so. It is easier to crack the nuts if you use a vise, or the absolute easiest way is with this nutcracker. It is BY FAR the easiest way to crack any nut.
For pulling the meats out, you should use a nut picker, or even a small pair of wire cutters.
Nutritional value of Shagbark Hickory nuts
It is easy to understand why Shagbark Hickory nuts were so prized by Native Americans and pioneers, as Shagbark Hickory nuts are high in calories, fats, protein and dietary fiber, but low in cholesterol. They are very high in Vitamin A and B5 compared to other nuts, as well as Potassium, calcium, and magnesium. 
Storing Shagbark Hickory Nuts
Shelled Shagbark Hickory nuts can be frozen and stored. Husked nuts that sink in water, but still in their shell can be stored for one year or more.
How to Grow and Care for Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees that are planted in their preferred growing conditions of sun/soil/moisture will not require any special treatment or care. That is the true secret of successfully growing anything – place the plant/tree in conditions that it prefers.
Natural Habitat of Shagbark Hickory
You can find the Shagbark Hickory tree growing in a wide variety of natural settings. It will grow best in more humid climates, but has adapted itself to a variety of settings. It can be found growing on river bottoms with alluvial soil that drains well, on south facing slopes in it’s northern range, all throughout the Appalachian Mountains, and hardwood forests.  
In it’s northernmost range it is frequently found on South facing slopes, while in the South it is found on more loose, alluvial soils. Shagbark Hickory trees are often found growing near other similar sized hardwoods such as Oak and Maples. One may also find Pawpaw trees growing amongst hickories.
Shagbark Hickory trees will grow best in full sun, which is at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. But it will tolerate partial shade, which is four to six hours per day. To maximize the growth rate, plant Shagbark Hickory trees in full sun.
For soil requirements, Shagbark Hickory trees grow best in loam, but will grow fine in clay and tolerate sandy loam. The key is that the soil drains well.
For moisture, Shagbark Hickory trees can tolerate slightly moist to dry sites as long as the soil drains well. The deep taproot of Shagbark Hickory allows it flexibility in that it can draw water from the deep ground.
As a native plan, Shagbark Hickory trees will not require supplemental fertilizer.
How to grow Shagbark Hickory from Seed
Growing Hickory Trees from seed is a fun activity, and not too difficult to do. In this section I’m going to tell you how to harvest nuts, test their viability, and plant them.
Harvesting nuts for seed
You may begin collecting nuts from Shagbark Hickory trees in late Summer to early Fall. Once you observe the nuts falling naturally from the tree, you may begin to harvest them. For nuts that have fallen to the ground, be wary of any damage to the husk. This may indicate that insect larvae has burrowed into the nut, making it non-viable.
You will want to leave the nuts out in a well ventilated area to dry out for easy husk removal. As the husk dries it will shrink, and naturally peel away / release itself from the nut. Then peel the husk off and store the nut in the refrigerators. Do not let the nuts completely dry out though, as nuts that totally dry out will not be viable.
Inspect each nut you remove the husk from. If you see any small holes present, discard the nut. Small holes are evidence that insect larvae has burrowed into the nut and begun eating the meat.As this nut was drying the frass appeared. A clear indication of an insect that has infested this nut.
Testing viability of Shagbark Hickory nuts
To test if a Shagbark Hickory nut is viable, drop it in a small container of water. Nuts that sink in water are fully formed and viable. Nuts that float should be discarded, as the nut did not fully form, or it could also have disease or insect larvae inside.
Storing nuts for planting
Viable nuts can be stored for germination in subsequent years. Nuts should be stored in sealed containers at 90% humidity at 40F. After two years, the nuts will have a lower germination percentage, but will only need 60 days cold stratification instead of 90-120. 
Planting Shagbark Hickory nuts
Shagbark Hickory nuts must go through a process known as cold-moist stratification of approximately 120 days. This happens naturally in nature by the nut being planted by Squirrels. We must do this too either by cold-stratifying the nuts in the refrigerator or via Winter Sowing the nuts. 
Cold stratifying Hickory nuts in the refrigerator
To cold stratify Hickory nuts in the refrigerator, mix up equal parts of moist sphagnum peat moss and sand (or vermiculite). You want the mixture to be moist, but not wet. If you squeeze a handful, only a few drops of water should drip out. Place the mixture in a large zip-lock bag or Tupperware container (with lid).
Place the nuts inside the mixture, and set it inside the refrigerator for three to four months (90-120 days). Hickory nuts that are stratified can be planted out in Spring to a depth of 2″ deep by placing the nut on it’s side.
Planting Hickory nuts in containers
Soak the Hickory nut in water for 24 hours before planting. Then fill a deep container (6″ deep minimum) with moist potting soil. Plant a Hickory nut 2″ deep, placing the nut on it’s side. Do not let the container completely dry out.
Winter Sowing Hickory Nuts
You can place a container with Hickory nuts outside for winter sowing, but you need to make sure that the pot does not totally freeze solid. To counteract the risks from freezing temperatures, you can either overwinter the pot in an unheated garage or shed, or bury the pot into the ground. Don’t forget to protect the pot from foraging squirrels!
Protecting your planted nuts
*Important* Hickory nuts should not be allowed to freeze solid. If prolonged freezing temperatures are expected, move any pots to an unheated garage or shed. Alternatively, you can bury the pot roughly 3/4 of it’s height into the ground, as this will help protect the nut from freezing.
Also, squirrels and chipmunks eat Hickory nuts as a food source. You must protect any pot or location with Hickory nuts by covering with chicken wire, hardware cloth, or a cage.
Direct Sowing Shagbark Hickory Nuts
If you know the final location you would like to grow a Hickory Tree, dig a hole approximately 2″ deep and place a viable nut on it’s side and then bury it to 2″ depth. Squirrels may attempt to dig up your nut, so protect the location by covering with chicken wire, hardware cloth, or a cage.
Seedling growth and development
Shagbark Hickory nuts will have hypogeal germination, resulting in a deep taproot and not much growth above the soil. Surveys have shown that at one year, a hickory seedling will have a taproot approximately 1′ long (30 cm) but only 6″ height above ground. While at year 3, their taproot will be over 2.5′ deep (80 cm), while top-growth is only 8″. Shagbark Hickory seedlings
Note that young seedlings of Shagbark Hickory are tolerant of shade, as most dense hardwood trees that may have to start under a forest canopy. But after some years, it will require sufficient sunlight to survive. In nature this normally occurs as other trees fall down, opening holes in the forest canopy. But, more sun will mean more growth both above and below the soil. 
Video guide to growing Shagbark Hickory from seed
Below is a video guide we made on how to grow Shagbark Hickory trees from seed. It covers all required steps as we have laid out here. And, you may recognize some of the footage from our pictures. I hope you enjoy:
Can you transplant Hickory seedlings?
Hickory seedlings are notoriously difficult to transplant, as the taproot can easily reach 1′ in depth by the end of the first year. If you find a sapling that is 2′ tall, well the taproot can easily go down 2-3′ and get thicker in diameter! It is therefore recommended that you purchase new trees or grow them from seed yourself.
Shagbark Hickory Growth Rate
The growth rate of Shagbark Hickory is slow to medium depending on conditions, generally being between 6-12″ per year. As the tree ages it will add more height per year. The trunk diameter will be around 1″ at 10 years, and 4″ at 30 years.
What Wildlife, Pests, and Diseases effect Shagbark Hickory
Shagbark Hickory nuts are one of the most preferred foods of chipmunks and squirrels. In fact it can be difficult to collect any nuts yourself if the trees are in a heavily wooded area, as Squirrels are free to collect every nut they can.
In addition to squirrels and chipmunks, bear, fox, rabbits, mice, and several bird species have been documented to eat the nuts to some degree. 
Deer and Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees are deer resistant. The foliage is not browsed. Bark of saplings may be chewed by rabbits during times of heavy snow. But in general only livestock will eat Hickory foliage when other forage is unavailable.
The Shagbark Hickory tree hosts caterpillars of the Banded Hairstreak, Hickory Hairstreak, and over forty moths making it a host plant of high ecological value.Caterpillar on a Shagbark Hickory leaf
Woodpeckers will make use of Hickory trees by feeding on the many insects that feed on the wood.
There are over hundred and eighty insects that feed on the bark and wood, but most do not cause significant damage. However, holes made by woodpeckers who eat these insects can cause a discoloration in the wood, making the lumber less desirable.
There are several different insects that can have a negative effect on the Nut harvest. The Hickory Shuckworm, Hickorynut curculios, and Pecan Weevil can all cause much of the nuts to drop prematurely.
Hickory Bark Beetle
The Hickory Bark Beetle is most damaging insect to Hickory trees. Large infestations can occur during drought. These beetles act as a vector for multiple fungi that cause significant lesions under the bark, resulting in crown die back and death. To help prevent this disease, keep your tree watered with weekly deep watering during drought.  
One additional pest that effects large trees in the open is the Twig Pruner, Elaphidionoidesvillosus, which will attack twigs and branches resulting in their death. This can severely effect the appearance and form of younger trees.
Shagbark Hickory can be effected by over one hundred fungi, most of which are mushroom like saprophytes. There are also some that can effect foliage or cause trunk or root rot.
Canker rot can cause significant damage to Hickory trees. They form around dead branch stubs and can spread to and throughout the heartwood. If you notice any visible cankers near stumps where limbs were pruned or dead branches you should consult with an arborist.
Other common diseases that can effect Hickory are leaf cankers that initially looks like purple or reddish spots on upper leaf surfaces, and brown spots on the underside of the leaf. Witches broom may also form from either mildew that invades leaves/twigs or virus caused by sucking insects. 
Although Shagbark Hickory is resistant to Verticillium Wilt, it can get Crown Gall can cause tumors or wart-like growths on roots near the base of the trunk. This disease can be fatal if untreated.
One other note – powdery mildew can effect Shagbark Hickory. Although it’s effect is just cosmetic.
Where to buy Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees are not sold in regular garden centers or big box stores. Partly this is because of the trees taproot make transplanting difficult. And thus only very small trees, smaller than most people would like to buy them, are available.
However, there is one company I am aware of that carries Shagbark Hickory trees in the form of Bare Roots. Cold Stream Farm is a bare root tree supplier out of Michigan. I have no affiliation with this company, but have been a customer of them (twice) in the past. I was always pleased with their product, so consider this an endorsement.
Varieties of Shagbark Hickory
There are a number of varieties of Shagbark Hickory available that have been ‘selected’ for nut size and ease of cracking. These may only be available regionally, but they include:
- ‘Wilcox’, which was discovered in Ohio
- A natural variety ‘Porter’, which is from Pennsylvania
- ‘Harold’, which was found in Wisconsin
- A naturally occurring variety ‘Grainger’ in Tennessee
Uses of Shagbark Hickory Trees
Shagbark Hickory trees can make a nice specimen, or beautiful row for a windbreak or landscape border. Their deep taproot mean they can withstand heavy winds or derechos. Unfortunately their slow rate of growth prevents them from being popular.
Shagbark Hickory nuts are sweet and edible, and easy to crack in comparison to other tree nuts. It has been reported that only Pecan has greater domestic commercial value for nuts. They are much easier to process than Black Walnut. As their husks dry and naturally shrink/peel they fall off easily.
If you are interested in harvesting Hickory nuts, I highly recommend you have a look at this nutcracker. It is BY FAR the easiest way to crack any nut.
Hickory lumber is very hard, with a Janka hardness of over 1700 lbf. It is one of the hardest woods native to North America.  It’s high hardness, but flexibility make it an excellent choice for applications that may require shock resistance such as hardwood flooring, tool handles, gym flooring, or other gymnasium applications.Wooden mallets carved from Hickory by the author. Note the beautiful contrasting grain coloration.
Hickory lumber can often produce interesting grain patterns that can be desirable for artistic table top or furniture applications, flooring, or cabinetry. The problem one may run into though is supply, as often the lumber comes from mixed lots resulting in inconsistent grain patterns/colors (for flooring applications).
Shagbark Hickory has a very high heating value. It has historically been utilized for making wood charcoal, and is excellent for heating homes or in the form of wood pellets.
For smoking meat
Shagbark Hickory wood is frequently used in smoking and barbecue. The wood adds a rich smoky flavor and is often used in smoking / curing different meats. For example, one can commonly encounter “Hickory Smoked” bacon in the supermarket.
Due to the slower growth rate of Shagbark Hickory, it pairs well with White Oak, which as a similar growth rate. And, you often find both species together in the forest. It can be outcompeted for sunlight by faster growing trees such as Pin Oak or Maple.
Pawpaw can also be a good understory tree to plant near Shagbark Hickory, and they are often found growing in close proximity.
Native American uses of Shagbark Hickory
Native American tribes had many uses for Shagbark Hickory, the most obvious one being food. But documentation exists of approximately 50 uses by 12 different Tribes.
Culinary uses ranged from storing nuts to use as a Winter food to making soups, puddings, and pies. Wood and bark was boiled to make syrup and sugar. Nut meats were also boiled and strained to make a ‘Hickory milk’ that was said to taste similar to cream. 
Medicinal uses include using fresh shoots as an inhalant for headaches, an infusion of bark was used as a gynecological aid, the bark was used in a tonic as a ‘cure all’. The Iroquois also used bark for arthritis, to treat worms, and as a skin or hair product.  
The wood was prized by several tribes in bow making. Noted for it’s flexibility and strength, Shagbark Hickory would make a strong bow. It has been noted that one wanted a piece of wood that had both sapwood and heartwood, with sapwood closest the user. Wood was also used to make snowshoes.
 – Graney, David L. “Carya ovata (Mill) K. Koch Shagbark hickory.” Silvics of North America 2 (1990): 219-225.
 – Farrar, John Laird. Trees of the northern United States and Canada. Iowa State University Press, 1995. pp203-204.
 – Sternberg, Guy. Landscaping with native trees : the Northeast, Midwest, Midsouth & Southeast edition, 1995, pp. 70-71.
 – Gilbert, Barry L., James E. Baker, and Dale M. Norris. “Juglone (5-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone) from Carya ovata, a deterrent to feeding by Scolytus multistriatus.” Journal of Insect Physiology 13.10 (1967): 1453-1459.
 – Alasalvar, Cesarettin, and Fereidoon Shahidi. Tree nuts: Composition, phytochemicals, and health effects: An overview. CRC press, 2008. pp
 – Robison, Scott A., and BRIAN C. McCARTHY. “Growth responses of Carya ovata (Juglandaceae) seedlings to experimental sun patches.” The American midland naturalist 141.1 (1999): 69-84.
 – Juzwik, Jennifer; Haugen, Linda; Park, Ji-Hyun; Moore, Melanie. 2008. Fungi associated with stem cankers and coincidental scolytid beetles on declining hickory in the upper midwest. In: Jacobs, Douglass F.; Michler, Charles H., eds. 2008. Proceedings, 16th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 2008 April 8-9; West Lafayette, IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-24. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 476-482.
 – Juzwik, Jennifer; Park, Ji-Huyn; Haugen, Linda. 2010. Hickory decline and mortality: Update on hickory decline research. In: Feeley, Tivon, comp. Iowa’s forest health report 2010. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry: 53-58.
 – North American Ethnobotany Database. Accessed 22AUG2022
 – Gilmore, Melvin R., 1919, “Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region“, SI-BAE Annual Report #33, page 74
 – Waugh, F. W., 1916, “Iroquis Foods and Food Preparation“, Ottawa. Canada Department of Mines, page 123
 – Oberle, Brad, et al. “Progressive, idiosyncratic changes in wood hardness during decay: Implications for dead wood inventory and cycling.” Forest ecology and management 323 (2014): 1-9.
Recent Postslink to How Long Does It Take For Compost To Heat Up
How Long Does It Take For Compost To Heat Up
A steaming pile of compost. My backyard. When constructing a new compost pile we as gardeners can be very anxious for it's temperature to rise and for the pile to get hot. And, if you are new to...
Continue Readinglink to Frost Aster - A Complete Guide For Facts, ID, Growing
Frost Aster - A Complete Guide For Facts, ID, Growing
Frost Aster is a common Fall flower to grace seemingly every roadside ditch or any piece of unattended ground in Eastern North America. Scientifically known as Symphyotrichum pilosum, it grows up to...
Hickory, hickory, hazel, pecan are the names of the same tree, which grows mainly in the southern states of the USA and in China. The name Kariya comes from the Greek. Karyon, which means nut, and pecan is an abbreviation for the English "powcohicora" - this is how this plant was called in the language of the Indians who inhabited the current territory of Texas. What exactly it means, in our time is no longer known. But it is known that this plant is a symbol of Texas, it gives not only industrial wood, but also nuts, excellent in taste and nutrition, reminiscent of walnuts in composition.
Scientists - botanists believe that hickory can be called an "antediluvian" plant - after all, it survived the Ice Age 50 million years ago. So it can be called a real American old-timer - all other hardwoods are much younger.
Despite its "historic" age, hickory is still young and full of vigor, actively growing in the eastern United States and is an important group of hardwood trees in the forests of this region. The botanical classification divides this species into two groups - true hickory and pecan-hickory. The main difference is that hickory pecans produce tasty and healthy fruits, while real hickories produce only wood. The wood of both groups is almost the same and is often sold together.
Hickory trees grow rather slowly, especially in the first years. In order for the wood to mature and the tree to reach a meter thickness and a height of 40-50 meters, one has to wait about two centuries. And then the same amount more so that the tree "gets old" and stops bearing fruit. Hickory is photophilous, loves moist slightly acidic soil, resistant to diseases and pests. Relatively frost-resistant - withstands short temperature drops to −20 ... -25 ° С.
On the other hand, the wood turns out well - hard, heavy, strong. A more durable tree does not grow in America. The mechanical performance of wood depends on the age of the tree, but fruit-bearing pecan hickories have slightly softer wood than true hickory. The density is about 815 kg/m³, and the Brinell hardness is 4.3 kPa/mm. The wood is resilient, wear-resistant and impact-resistant. Hickory is quite difficult to process with manual and mechanical tools, it is difficult to stick together. When connecting parts made of hickory with nails and screws, holes must be pre-drilled - otherwise cracks may occur. Cracks can also occur during drying - hickory shrinks a lot and requires a special, long drying regimen. On the other hand, it bends perfectly when steamed and accepts dyes, mordants and bleaching compounds, and is also easily polished.
Hickory is a heartwood. The sapwood is light, almost white, slightly crossed by inconspicuous brown lines, sometimes it can have a bluish tint. The core has a brown color of various shades - from pale to rich brown-red. The texture of the wood is large, fine-fibered, the fibers are straight, less often wavy.
The indigenous people of America - the Indians - made bows and tomahawk handles from hickory, and the white colonists of the 18-19 centuries. they used durable wood for the axles and wheels of carts and wagons, on which they traveled to the West for a better life, and sawdust and wood chips are still used to smoke meat and fish delicacies. They are formed as waste from the main use of wood - it is used to make objects that must be strong, durable and beautiful. As in previous centuries, a certain proportion of American walnut is used to make tool handles and knives. Especially beautiful are the handles of handmade knives, made from the place where the sapwood and the heartwood come into contact — this combination of textures and colors gives an amazing decorative effect.
Materials for interior design are also remarkable - this includes furniture, wall panels and lining, as well as flooring - solid and parquet boards, piece parquet. The high wear resistance of such coatings makes it possible to use them for decorating not only residential, but also commercial premises - restaurants, dance floors, plazas, bars, etc. Increasingly, in the production of solid hickory flooring, various components and colors are used simultaneously with brushing and additional tinting. In some cases, the technology of artificial aging and mechanical peeling of the surface is used to give the look of an old floor - there is no limit to the imagination and flight of creative thought of architects and designers. They make hickory and stairs - beautiful and reliable, as well as wooden parts of sports equipment - beams, logs, horses.
The Encyclopedia of Brockhaus and Efron reports that in the 19th century attempts were made to acclimatize and grow hickory in the German forests, but history has shown that they failed. Hickory sawn wood was highly valued in those days - in Boston in 1889 it was sold at 1 ruble 80 gold kopecks per cubic foot. It is curious that the fruits in those days were used mainly for fattening pigs. This is probably justified, since in Russia at that time the most “delicious” piglets for the master's table were fed with walnuts ...
Nowadays, much more is known about the benefits and taste of pecans. The fruits grow on the tree in clusters, up to 10 pieces, thin-skinned, smooth, with brown stripes, the nuts have a sweet and oily seed. Because they resemble olives in shape (though much larger), hickory hazel pecans are sometimes referred to as "olive nuts"—another name that introduces general confusion in the definition of the breed. The pecan nut is widely used by Americans as a food product, in cosmetics and medicine, its seed is softer and tastier than that of its close relative, the walnut.
Traditional pecan pie with maple syrup in the states for Thanksgiving and Christmas. In the confectionery industry, the production of real pralines is unthinkable without the use of pecans - they give this dessert a surprisingly delicate and exotic taste. With pleasure, nuts are also eaten raw, nut oil is extracted from them - both for culinary and cosmetic purposes. Pecan oil is high in Vitamin E, a naturally occurring antioxidant, an essential ingredient in anti-aging skin creams that scavenges free radicals to quickly and effectively rejuvenate skin. In its pure form, it is an excellent massage oil. Fortunately, this product is now available to our compatriots who care about their beauty and attractiveness.
- "Old Hickory" was the nickname given to Andrew Jackson, the 7th President of the United States. He was distinguished by firmness and stubbornness.
- Hickory wood was the material for the Wright Brothers' first airplane.
- Pecan is not only a nut, but also a small predator of the mustelid family that lives in North American forests and preys mainly on porcupines. Although it is very difficult to imagine how it is possible to get a porcupine with the help of teeth and claws.
description of heart-shaped, oval, fringed, Illinois hazel, planting, care, other nuances of growing crops
The fruits of the hickory tree in botany are defined as a false drupe. Their top layer is a soft green rind that turns brown and stiff over time. When the fruit ripens, the shell cracks into four parts.
Under the husk there is a “pit” with a nut inside. The bony shell is of different thickness. It is devoid of cracks and holes, which is why its splitting is a very laborious task. But such a device does not allow caterpillars, worms and other pests to penetrate the fetus. The nuts themselves are small, yellowish white or brown in color.
All trees of this genus are divided into two large groups. The former have bitter and unsuitable fruits for humans. Nevertheless, squirrels, foxes, chipmunks, rabbits and birds eat them with pleasure. Trees of the second group have sweet and very healthy nuts. Edible hickory nuts are often grouped together under the name "pecan".
How to get from a nut or stone?
Optimum conditions for growing from seeds
Manchurian walnut seeds should be planted in fertile soil and then carefully monitored.
Walnut does not tolerate acidic soils, its optimal pH level should be about 7 units
If this indicator is lower, it is better to choose another place for planting, or use means to neutralize acidity (the most accessible of them is wood ash).
It is important to pay attention to the illumination of the site chosen for planting, because the plant loves light. It is best to choose the south side of the site, where the sun's rays hit the most.
The soil must be moist, but the water must not stagnate - for this it is necessary to loosen the soil regularly.
As for the optimal temperature for growing Manchurian walnut: when planting seeds, the average daily temperature should not be less than +10 degrees, but slight fluctuations in weather are not critical for this plant.
When to start work?
Seeds can be sown in spring and autumn, but pre-winter planting is preferred. Planting time in different regions differs slightly, but it should be borne in mind that this is a heat-loving plant, so if you want to grow a Manchurian walnut in Siberia, it is better to plant it in May or September, while in more southern regions the plant can be planted in April or October.
Purchase and preparation of material
Planting material can be purchased at any specialized store. It is better to choose planting material that is about a year old - it is already fully ripe, but it is not old and will germinate well.
Walnut seeds must be free of any damage, cracks, mold or rot.
Once the nuts for planting have been selected, they need to be prepared.
- If you plan to sow in autumn, you can soak the seeds in water for 10 days. Water must be changed at least once every two days.
- If planting is planned in the spring, seeds can be prepared by soaking them in warm water for a month, with a daily decrease in temperature, bringing it to +7 degrees. Thus, stratification (hardening) of seeds will occur.
How to plant correctly: scheme and technology
- Before planting seeds, it is necessary to fertilize the soil with wood ash or humus, and then carefully dig it up.
- Then you need to form holes about 8 cm at a distance of at least 15-20 cm from each other (if you plan to plant several nuts).
- After that, the nuts are carefully laid out on edge in the holes and covered with earth. To preserve moisture in the soil from above, it must be covered with a special material.
After the seedlings sprout, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil - it must be:
- cleared of weeds;
- and irrigate (the soil must always be slightly damp).
Additional illumination of seedlings may be necessary if the weather is cloudy and the seedlings obviously do not have enough light. To do this, you can use fluorescent lamps.
Grown seedlings also need to be watered and fertilized regularly. You can already begin to form the desired shape of the crown and cut off all the dry branches.
Rules for planting outdoors
Seedling seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place either immediately or after a year, when the seedling is already relatively mature.
- The soil must be prepared with fertilizer and dug up.
- For planting plants, you need to form holes about 70-80 cm deep, lay drainage on the bottom, place the seedling strictly vertically in the center of the hole and tie it to a peg.
- Then you need to fill the hole with earth to the end and water the plant abundantly. The holes should be at least 10 meters apart from each other, since mature trees have a large root system and a wide crown, so they should not interfere with each other's growth. The walnut should be planted at approximately the same depth at which it grew in the previous place . It is also desirable to keep the location of the nut relative to parts of the world.
After planting the seedling, you need to monitor the condition of the soil, loosen it and also keep it constantly moistened, this is especially important in the first year. You can apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers and wood ash - then the plant will be pleased with its rapid growth
In the future, care for the seedling will be reduced to watering up to 3 times a month. In a young tree, it is recommended to whitewash the trunk and branches to protect them from sunburn. For the winter, young seedlings need to be covered.
An important element of caring for this plant is preparing the seedling for wintering. The nut must be wrapped with burlap or other material, fixing it tightly. You also need to place the covering material on the near-stem circle of the plant. Near the tree it is worth placing poison against rodents.
Agrotechnical methods used in the cultivation of hazel do not differ from those of other walnut and fruit trees. However, a competent approach accelerates the adaptation of the seedling and affects future yields.
Irrigation is especially important for crops in the first 3 years of life. At an older age, the tree easily tolerates short-term drought. The regularity of moisture affects the yield, size and taste of the nut. The taste becomes sweeter and richer.
When watering, the main thing is to prevent stagnant water, which negatively affects the root system of the tree and can provoke decay of thin lateral roots. The drainage layer laid during planting successfully copes with this function.
Watering schedule varies according to weather and climate. In the hot summer period, the tree is watered more often and more abundantly. In late autumn, the last water-charging watering is carried out.
Fertilizers are applied in spring and autumn. At the end of March, pecans are fed with nitrogen fertilizers: urea (nitrate) or mullein. Fertilizers of this type stimulate the growth of shoots, the growth of green mass. It is for this reason that they should not be applied before winter.
In autumn, young growth requires fertilizer with potassium-phosphorus complexes. This type of top dressing accelerates the maturation of wood and has a positive effect on laying the next year's crop.
Properly carried out top dressing will allow you to harvest the first crop in 5-6 years after planting.
Pruning or shaping the tree is carried out once a year, most often in spring or autumn. The procedure is of a formative or sanitary nature. In the first case, pruning is carried out among young seedlings, in which the shoots are completely removed. This allows you to form the correct healthy crown. The branches on which the inflorescences form are not touched.
Rejuvenating or sanitary pruning is carried out on mature trees. Remove old, damaged, frozen and diseased branches. The same fate befalls improperly growing branches.
Where does it live?
The natural habitat of this plant is Northeast China, Korea, Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories, Amur Region. It grows in mixed and cedar forests, because the proximity to coniferous plants has a beneficial effect on the development of the nut. Often this tree can be found in river valleys and along streams.
Manchurian walnut easily tolerates cool weather, relatively undemanding to the soil, easily adapts to any conditions. It is thanks to these qualities that the plant has spread to almost all regions of Russia.
Now the tree is widely used for landscaping urban areas, and summer residents are very fond of it - after all, such an exotic tree will decorate any garden.
LANCASTER NUT GROWING IN THE GARDEN
I. M. Sechenov. Photo of the author.
A new horticultural crop has appeared - the Lancaster walnut. An adult tree of such a nut, the only one in Moscow, grows in the Botanical Garden of the Moscow Medical Academy. I. M. Sechenov. Garden employees have been distributing this plant among gardeners in the Moscow region for several years now. So Muscovites have the opportunity to grow nuts tastier than walnuts.
Lancaster walnut is a hybrid of gray walnut and heart walnut.
Gray walnut native to North America. Externally, the tree is very similar to the Manchurian walnut with slightly smaller leaves and fruits. It is quite photophilous, grows quickly, does not freeze even in harsh winters. Only flowers occasionally suffer from late frosts. Unfortunately, the tree is heavily affected by fungi, especially tinder fungi, so it is short-lived.
The fruits of the gray walnut have numerous outgrowths with sharp branching edges, partitions inside the nuts, the outer soft shells (flats) are difficult to separate.
Heart-shaped walnut - originally from Japan. The height of the tree in natural conditions is up to 15 m, in Moscow it reaches 9-10 m. The leaves are up to one meter long with 11-15 leaves. The fruits are small - only 3-4 cm long and up to 3 cm wide, heart-shaped, with a thin sharp "nose", smooth on the outside and without partitions inside. These nuts are considered the most delicious of the Moscow nuts. The fat content of their fruits is higher than that of a walnut, and the content of tannins is less, so they do not tickle in the throat.
In the harsh winter of 1978/79, when the temperature in Moscow dropped to -42 o C, the heart-shaped walnut growing in our botanical garden froze to death. It recovered and fruited again in 1992. He endured without loss the winter of 2006 with a decrease in temperature to -36 ° C and bore fruit. We have sown the first "harvest" we have gathered. Seedlings appeared in a year, and after another five years, the only tree remaining from the crops bore fruit in the garden. But the nuts turned out to be completely different from the fruits of the heart-shaped nut. They were much larger and had a characteristic fruit surface. We were later able to determine that we had grown a hybrid known as the Lancaster walnut. So, “accidentally”, a new garden culture appeared in the garden collection. Ripe nuts we distributed to friends. Several horticultural firms also received them. As a result, hybrid walnut seedlings appear on sale from time to time, and fruits at specialized autumn exhibitions.
Now a few recommendations for those who can buy nuts. They must be sown immediately, because they need stratification. Their germination is from 30 to 70%. Therefore, for a guaranteed result, we recommend planting at least three fruits, and in absolutely clean soil. Keep in mind that nuts that land on grass will not germinate.
Arrange nuts horizontally. They do not like deep embedding, it is enough just to lightly sprinkle them with earth or simply fallen leaves. Another warning: wintering nuts are a favorite delicacy of mice, so it is advisable to close the plantings for the winter, for example, with a metal mesh with cells with a diameter of no more than 5 mm. Shoots appear late - in June or even July. First, a rapidly growing white root grows from the “nose” of the fruit, then a green stem with two leaves. The cotyledons and the nuts themselves remain in the soil.
It is possible to replant walnut seedlings only at the age of up to three years, they do not tolerate transplantation well, because already in the first years of life the root of the plant grows twice as long as the ground part. So, if you intend to replant the seedling in the future, before sowing the nut, bury a sheet of slate or iron at a depth of 40-60 cm, then the root will rest against this barrier and will grow horizontally for some time.
By the age of six, the nut begins to bear fruit, at which time the height of the tree reaches 5-6 m, then its growth rate decreases slightly. The fruits of the new hybrid inherited the best qualities from their parents: the size of the fruit - from the "father", gray walnut, and the taste and lack of partitions inside the fruit - from the "mother", heart-shaped walnut. The fruits are flattened, with a sharp long nose and almost smooth longitudinal ribs, the cupule is easily separated. The Lancaster walnut tree grows tall, tolerates pruning quite well, and it is better to remove the lower branches, then the plant will rise up, almost without shading the surrounding plantings, and the ripe nuts will fall by themselves.
Fruit picking and preparation for sale
The total area of pecan plantations cultivated in America is about 150 thousand hectares. The collection of nuts used for sale is carried out both on artificial plantations and subtropical forests located in the eastern regions of America.
The collected nuts are dried and then sorted according to quality and size. Some of them are cleaned using special equipment and subjected to further processing: fried, rolled in spices. From the kernels damaged during mechanical cleaning, nut butter is prepared, crumbs, which are used for cooking various dishes, pastries, and confectionery.
How to propagate araucaria by cuttings at home: how to root a plant
Araucaria is usually propagated by cuttings in July. The tops of plants are cut into cuttings (1–5 from each plant, depending on size and age). Cuttings are not cut from the lateral branches, since after rooting, a horizontal direction of growth is observed and creeping shoots develop.
The cuttings are cut in a semi-lignified state about 3-4 cm below the whorl. Before propagating araucaria, the cuttings are dried for a day after cutting; before planting, the leaked resinous milky juice from the cut is cleaned and sprinkled with charcoal. Each cutting is planted in a peat-sand substrate or perlite. The cuttings are planted shallowly, without covering the whorl knot, and for stability they are tied to a small peg.
Problems when caring for a houseplant araucaria heterophyllous: pests and diseases
Alas, diseases and pests harm any plant, araucaria.
If the air temperature is too high, dusty or if the earthen clod is very dry, not only the needles, but also the lower branches can fall off.
At low humidity and high temperatures, araucaria are often affected by spider mites.
When the stems of the plant are covered with brown pustules, this means that it is attacked by scale insects. They sit motionless on the plant sucking the sap and secreting a sticky liquid. A small number of insects can be removed with the blunt side of a knife and wipe the leaves and stems with soapy water. If there are a lot of pests, insecticide treatment at intervals of 30 minutes will help get rid of the problem, then repeating this event after 7–10 days for 1.5–2 months.
Transplant araucaria carefully, because if the roots are damaged, the soft needles turn yellow, the branches wither. Araucaria does not tolerate overdrying of the earthen clod, nor excess moisture.
Brown hazel bark
Human cultivating and living in fringed kernels, pecans, egg-shaped brown, etc. They have a lot of protein, amino acids, microelements and vitamins.
Or sirimi, in dried or fried look. Sip on them vipіchku, add to the salad or porridge. Gorіh-pecan satisfies hunger for a long time, provides the body with energy and at the same time cleanses the blood, lowers cholesterol levels.
Hickory fruits contain 19 different vitamins and minerals. They are rich in potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, saline, selenium and folic acid, which is the most important for humans. In the city, there are also vitamins A, B 1 , B 5 , C, E. But there are no traces of them, without practice, the body can only get a hundred grams of gorikhiv on the extraction.
From the fruits of hazel to sprout oil, as if by dominance, turn over the olive. Yogo їdyat and vikoristovuyut zovnіshno. The oil boosts immunity, and when applied to the skin, it gives firmness, calmness and soothes.
Planting and propagation
Pecan nuts are propagated in several ways: grafting, seedlings, budding and seeds.
The seeds are usually harvested after the nut has fully matured, in autumn. After that, they are sown in prepared soil or stratified several months before spring sowing. First prepare beds with deep furrows
It is important that the seeds are at least 7 centimeters deep in the soil. On average, one and a half or two dozen seeds are sown per meter of beds
When they are already in the ground, it will be necessary to cover the planting material with it, and then moisten the soil. It is necessary to pour a little water so that it soaks the ground, but does not stagnate on the surface. So that it evaporates more slowly, soil mulching can be used.
As a result, the emergence of seedlings can be observed in a month.
Pecans grow quite slowly at first. During the year, the stem of the plant can grow up to 30 centimeters. By the age of three, growth will be about 60 centimeters. Strong good seedlings in the first year can already be transplanted to a permanent place where they will take root. Gardeners leave weaker plants for another 1-2 years until they get stronger.
When the seedlings are ready for planting, the root system must be constantly moistened, and if necessary, they can be fed with fertilizer.
You can grow pecans in a greenhouse, conservatory and even on a balcony, if the owners are willing to allocate time for this. To transplant a grown seedling, they usually take a large spacious container. A wooden box will do.
It is imperative to take into account what particularities of cultivation must be observed for individual varieties of walnut. For example, hazel needs a long period of complete rest, and at the same time, from November until the beginning of spring, the plant should be kept at a temperature of about 10-12 degrees. At this time, the frequency of watering decreases.
It is possible to grow pecans from seedlings, but owners should be aware that this method has its own difficulties. The main problem is that the finished seedlings have a very sensitive root system. Even with the slightest damage that can be overlooked, the plant can die. Therefore, when transporting pecan seedlings, you need to be extremely careful. The root system of the hazel variety has lateral and central roots (mixed system). Before planting a seedling in the soil, you need to dig a deep and wide hole so as not to break the processes. It is desirable that the land be fertile and soft. If there is an admixture of clay in it, then you can first add a little sand to create drainage. Thus, water after watering will not stagnate.
If there is no good fertile land on the site, then before planting it must be prepared independently or purchased from a specialized store.
Good soil increases seed germination and also allows seedlings to grow better. In the future (in a few years) this will no longer be critical, as the plant will take root and take root.
Planting and care
On the Russian territory, the cultivation of gray walnut has been practiced for a long time, but in small quantities. They plant a gray walnut in parks and gardens.
The plant is demanding on the soil and conditions around:
- does not respond well to transplants;
- the soil must be nutritious;
- High humidity required;
- space must be provided for normal growth;
- development requires a lot of moisture, at least 20 liters per tree.
To plant a seedling, dig a hole 40x40 cm. Its depth should be about 0.5 m. First, a drainage layer is laid on the bottom of the hole. A mixture of sand, fertile soil and peat is poured on top. Each component is taken in equal quantities.
The roots of the seedling are neatly straightened in the hole. Top the plant sprinkled with soil. The circumferential circle is mulched. At first, a young plant is watered constantly so that the moisture does not evaporate, mulching is performed.
Araucaria flower propagation at home by seeds (with photo and video)
Araucaria is propagated by seeds, cuttings and grafting.
Seeds are sown immediately after harvest, as they quickly lose their viability. They are sown one by one in cups filled with a mixture of peat and sand with the addition of a small amount of charcoal. Moisturize, cover with a layer of sphagnum on top, put the pots in a room with a temperature of 18–20 ° C, periodically spray and ventilate. Shoots appear unevenly - from 2 weeks to 2 months. Seedlings are left in cups until the roots of the plant entwine the whole lump, after which they are transplanted into large containers.
The video “Reproduction of araucaria at home” clearly demonstrates how to grow a culture from seeds:
Theoretically, araucaria can be propagated by apical cuttings with pre-planting treatment with growth substances and at a high temperature of the substrate (23-25 ° C). However, often when propagating araucaria by cuttings, a plant with a cut top stops normal growth and development. Therefore, young araucaria is bought in a store. Damaged araucaria shoots are not restored.
If you still decide on this experience, find out how to propagate araucaria at home correctly.
Nuances of growing and caring for walnuts in the regions
You can grow walnuts in different regions. In each case, there are certain features.
How to grow a walnut tree in the Moscow region
To grow a walnut tree in the Moscow region, you should choose frost-resistant varieties: Sadko - dwarf, height 4-5 m, Velikan - yield up to 100 kg, the first at 5-6 years of age, Ideal - height up to 5 m, early fruiting, high frost resistance, Moscow region - early harvest, good winter hardiness, Harvest - height up to 6 m, good immunity, fruiting from 4 years.
The root system of these varieties is better developed, and if the branches are damaged in winter, the plant quickly recovers.
Walnuts should be planted in the Moscow region in the spring before the buds swell on the trees. Plant care is standard. In winter, it should be covered with snow.
Walnut grows successfully in the Pharmaceutical Garden of the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University
Growing walnuts in the Leningrad region
On some streets of St. Petersburg, you can see walnuts that successfully grow and bear fruit. You need to choose only frost-resistant varieties. Otherwise, the tree may take root, but not bear fruit
The same problem occurs after severe freezing, therefore mulching and shelter for the winter is important. For this, the following points are important:
- Choose early-ripening varieties so that the crop has time to ripen and the branches do not freeze in winter.
- Plant a walnut on the south side of the plot.
- Draft protection is important, with a fence or solid wall on the north side.
- Plant the walnut in spring after stratification.
- Immediately choose a permanent place.
- Do not use growth promoters. Its artificial acceleration weakens the plants.
- Avoid severe pruning.
- Thick mulch around the tree trunks for winter. Bend young trees to the ground and carefully cover until spring.
Notice! In Siberia, the protection of trees from birds is important. This will help covering material or fine mesh.
Walnut cultivation in the middle lane
Peculiarities of growing a walnut tree in the middle lane are similar to those in the Moscow region. This is a spring planting, a choice of frost-resistant varieties, winter backfilling with snow. In the second half of summer, trees are effectively fed with ash. At the same time, the wood ripens better, the plant prepares for winter.
Rules for growing walnuts in the Urals
Walnuts can be grown in the Urals. The rules are:
- The site must be closed from the wind.
- Plant young seedlings with a slight slope to make them easier to bend down for the winter.
- In the first years of the tree, wrap the covering material in 2-3 layers. In the future, you can simply throw it on the nut and press down with bricks. Shoot it at the end of May.
- Make mouse baits under cover.
- Maintain soil fertility.
Benefits of Hazelnuts
Man cultivates and eats the kernels of fringed hazel, common pecan, egg hazel, etc. Their fruits are very sweet and the fattest among all existing nuts. They contain a lot of protein, amino acids, trace elements and vitamins.
They are eaten raw, dried or fried. Sprinkle them with pastries, add to salads or cereals. Pecan nut satisfies hunger for a long time, saturates the body with energy and at the same time cleanses the blood, lowers cholesterol levels.
Hickory contains 19 different vitamins and minerals. They contain a lot of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, selenium and the most important folic acid for humans. The nut also contains vitamins A, B 1 , B 5 , C, E. But you should not overeat them either, the body can easily cope with only one hundred grams of nuts per day.
Hazelnuts are used to make oil, which surpasses even olive oil in its properties. It is eaten and used externally. The oil improves immunity, and when applied to the skin gives it elasticity, soothes and softens.
How to use: medicinal properties and contraindications
In folk medicine
- The fresh leaves of this plant are believed to have anti-inflammatory and soothing effects. So, in China and Japan, ground Manchurian walnut leaves were used to heal open wounds and fungal skin lesions. Now on their basis special ointments are produced.
- There are also oils based on walnut kernels, which are used to treat scratches, ulcers, inflammation of the throat and mouth.
- An infusion of Manchurian walnut leaves is used as an expectorant for lung diseases.
- Walnut shell decoction is excellent for stomatitis.
Thus, the Manchurian walnut is an extremely valuable plant, which is increasingly used not only in folk medicine, but also for the wide production of medicines.
Manchurian nut is not the most used ingredient in cooking, but it can be used in interesting recipes. So, on the basis of this fruit you can cook:
- Various tinctures.
Recipe for vodka
For preparation you will need:
- 0.5 kg of unpeeled, but thoroughly washed nuts.
- Spices to taste (you can use cinnamon, vanilla, cloves).
- Put the nuts in a jar.
- Then fill them with vodka, add spices and close the jar tightly.
- It should be placed in a dark place for a month.
- After a month, strain the contents of the jar and pour into a clean container.
This tincture can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 3 years. The tincture has general strengthening properties, improves immunity.
Caution: people suffering from peptic ulcer, cirrhosis, kidney disease, pregnant and lactating women should not drink this drink at all. How to use: dilute 7-8 drops of tincture in half a glass of water and drink before meals
How to use: dilute 7-8 drops of tincture in half a glass of water and drink before meals.
How to make honey at home?
For preparation you will need:
- 0.5 kg of unpeeled but thoroughly washed nuts.
- 5 st. l. flower honey.
- Spices to taste.
- Place nuts in a jar, fill the container with vodka.
- Then close the jar and place it in a dark place for two weeks.
- Then open the jar, pour the liquid into another container, add honey and spices, mix thoroughly and leave for another 3 days in a dark place.
- After that, strain the tincture and bottle it - it is ready for use.
It, like vodka tincture, should be diluted with water: 10 drops of tincture are needed for half a glass of water. You also need to drink it before meals.
Manchurian walnut is a truly unique plant. It not only decorates summer cottages and the urban environment, but is also used in industry, medicine, and cooking. Be sure to take a closer look at it, because perhaps this tree is what your garden needs!
In order to get a harvest from a tree, they organize care, which consists in proper watering, timely fertilizing and soil care.
Watering the plant
The frequency of watering depends on the weather conditions. If the spring turned out to be wet, then it is watered only during the hot period. Otherwise, watering is done several times in the spring.
It is better to water a sharafuga, like a plum, by sprinkling. Or they dig a groove at a distance of 0.