How fast does a walnut tree grow


Complete Guide to Black Walnut Trees – Juglans Nigra – GrowIt BuildIT

Updated January 15th, 2022

The Black Walnut Tree is a large deciduous tree native to Eastern North America that produces edible nuts in the fall. Growing to heights of 120′ (40 m) by 50′ wide (~15 m) in optimum conditions, the Black Walnut can make an excellent shade tree. The main drawback for the Black Walnut is a chemical its roots produce and secrete called Juglone, which kills many different species of plants should their root come into contact with it.

So, one must be aware of that fact, and chose companion plants accordingly.

In this article:

  • Black Walnut Tree Facts / Quick Reference
  • What are the pros and cons of Black Walnut Trees?
  • Identification / Characteristics
  • Black Walnut Toxicity
  • How to Grow and Care for Black Walnut trees
    • How to Germinate Black Walnuts
  • What Wildlife, Pests, and Diseases effect Black Walnut trees?
  • Where to buy Black Walnut Trees
  • Uses of Black Walnut Trees

Facts

  • It is hardy from USDA zones 4-10. Check your USDA zone here.
  • Growth RateBlack Walnut Trees grow between 12-30 inches per year (30-70 cm), depending on conditions
  • Can start producing nuts as early as 5 years old, with significant production once it reaches 10 years old
  • Nuts attract a wide variety of wildlife (squirrels, chipmunks, etc)
  • A true favorite of woodworkers (and the author), the dark closed-grain heartwood has a beautiful dark brown color
  • The scientific name of Black Walnut is Juglans nigra [2]
  • All parts of the tree, but particularly the roots produce Juglone, which can prevent growth or kill certain plants growing under or near them
    • Want to see full list of plants that should not be grown under Black Walnut Trees? Click HERE
  • Shavings from Black Walnut should not be used as horse bedding, as it is toxic to horses

Black Walnut Tree Native Range

The native range of the Black Walnut Tree is North America, primarily East of the Rocky Mountains. Although it has become naturalized in some Western states such as Utah, California, and the Pacific Northwest. [1]

Source [1]

Black Walnut Tree Reference Table

Common NameBlack Walnut
Scientific nameJuglans Nigra
Bloom TimeLate Spring
Bloom Duration2 weeks
ColorGreen/yellow
Bloom SizeSmall florets, 1/8” wide (3 mm)
Flower CharacteristicsFlorets will be hang down, arrayed on a stem. Female florets are several to a group and the same size as male.
Height80-130’ (24-40 m)
Spacing/Spread12’ (4 m) (for nut production)

25′ (8 m) for general landscaping

Light RequirementsFull sun – Full Shade
Soil TypesClay, Loam
MoistureMoist to Medium
MaintenancePick up the walnuts each year! Or let the squirrels do it
Typical UseWoodlands, border, planting for nut production, timber
Fauna Associations~ 40 species of moths and insects feed on Black Walnut. Squirrels, chipmunks, eat nuts.
Larval HostOver 20 different moths
Sowing Depth1”
StratificationPlant in fall, direct sown
Native RangeUSDA Zones 4-9
Sources [1]

Pros and Cons of Black Walnut Tree

Pros

Shade Tree

Black Walnuts grow quickly and can reach towering heights. This makes them a potential shade tree for any home. Just make sure you space them away from the house accordingly to avoid walnuts clogging your gutters.

Beauty

The general shapeliness of a Black Walnut tree make them very attractive when grown in the open, free from competition/shading. When allowed to branch fully they can be a very attractive tree.

Food

Black Walnut trees will produce large crops of edible nuts for free. There are different manners of processing or removing the husks. But Black Walnuts are nutritious and can be used in a variety of foods, or eaten by themselves.

Hardwood

The lumber that can be produced from Black Walnut is absolutely beautiful. The straight closed grain can be used in a variety of applications from furniture, cutting boards, and even smaller art projects.

Cons

Fall Cleanup

Mature Black Walnut trees will produce nuts each year, but roughly every 5th year they will have a bumper crop. This can lead to tons of small golf-ball sized green balls littering streets, sidewalks and yards. Although the squirrels and chipmunks will bury most of them, working around them can be annoying until they are buried.

Juglone Poisoning

The roots, bark, and leaves of Black Walnut trees produces a chemical known as Juglone that is toxic to many plants. Furthermore it can be an irritant to your skin if you are susceptible.

Black Walnut Identification, Physical Description, and Characteristics

Black Walnut Trees grow tall! Over 100′ for a mature tree, and they can branch to 50′ diameter. The rough bark can be mistaken for Ash or Tulip Poplar trees, with its rough vertical ridges. But the leaves are more unique, being ‘compound’.

A true confirmation of a Black Walnut Tree can always be done in the Fall (September/October), by looking for the many 2-4″ diameter nuts that will be in the tree, and all over the ground. And should you see the cross section of the log, you will have no problem identifying it by the dark-brown heartwood surrounded by white/yellow sapwood.

Trunk/Bark

Typically the trunk will be quite long and not have branches, making it excellent for lumber. Black Walnut bark consists of rough ridges that run vertical. Significant branching can/does occur in the upper 2/3 of the tree. At full maturity, the trunk of the Black Walnut can be up to 6′ diameter (2 m).

Bark of a mature Black Walnut tree, Juglans nigra

The limbs will have more immature bark, which will be much smoother. You often see the limbs having bark that is smoother than the mother trunk in various species, such as Redbud or Shagbark Hickory.

Leaves

The leaf of the Black Walnut Tree are compound, with alternate leaves. The total compound size is around 18″ (30-60 cm) long, give or take 6″, and approximately 6″ wide (15 cm).

The size of the individual leaf is approximately 1″ (25 mm) wide by 3″ (~75 mm) long. The leaves on the tip of the compound are shaped differently than the others, being smaller or misshapen. Individual leaves are shaped like a spear-tip, and have serrated edges like a saw.


Black Walnut Leaves

Black Walnut leaves turn yellow in Fall when temperatures begin to drop. Also, it is one of the first trees to have its leaves change color in Autumn. So, when you see Black Walnut leaves turning yellow, you know cooler temperatures will follow soon!

Black Walnut Tree leaves turning yellow in Fall. Note that no other tree species is changing color, as the Black Walnut is the first.

Flower

In Spring Black Walnut Trees will produce small florets and bloom. Since Black Walnut trees are monoecious, it will have both male/female flowers and will self-pollinate. The male flowers are attached to stems that hang down cylindrically, and are about 5″ long (12 cm). Female florets are in small groups on a small spike, and will have 3-6 florets. The size of both male and female florets are about 1/8″ (3 mm).

Black Walnut Tree Flower

The female florets will eventually turn into large, golf ball sized nuts. These nuts will have an outer green husk that eventually turns yellow to black. A mature nut will be the size of a ping-pong ball, with a black/shriveled and rough texture.


Black Walnuts that have been husked.
How long until a Black Walnut Tree produces walnuts?

For Black Walnut trees grown out in the open, or in landscaping application, seeds may start being produced at 4-6 years of age. When it comes to trees grown within the forest it may take 20-30 years until nuts are produced. [1]

Root

The root system of Black Walnut Trees consists wide-spread lateral roots and a deep taproot. The root produces a chemical called Juglone, that inhibits or prevents growth of certain plants. This mechanism helps reduce competition, raising the chances of the individual tree to survive and collect nutrients.

Black Walnut Trees poisoning other plants

Black walnut trees produce a chemical in their roots called Juglone that will poison and kill other plants and trees. Juglone is chemically known as C10H6O3 or 5 hydroxy-1, 4- napthoquinone. This chemical will slowly stress and kill susceptible plants. [2]

I’ve done some exhaustive research compiling all known plants that are susceptible to Juglone poisoning. Head over here to get the full list of known plants that will die from Juglone ==>HERE

What plants grow well near Black Walnut Trees?

We have also researched and compiled a complete listing of plants known to grow well near Black Walnut Trees. These plants are impervious to Juglone. Our information is based Scientific Journals, University Studies, and Ag Extension resources.

You can read our full list of 201 Plants that are tolerant of Black Walnut Trees ==> HERE

Grow and Care of Black Walnut Trees

This tree likes moist soil that is moist. It will grow in a variety of conditions and almost any soil, from sandy to clay – the main thing is that it needs moist, well-draining soil to thrive. It can tolerate occasional flooding, as evidenced by its propensity to grow near streams, creeks, ponds. If you provide it the necessary space, moisture and good soil, then you can expect significant year over year growth.

How to care for

Not much care is required. Just provide this tree with conditions that it prefers, and you will have a thriving tree to be enjoyed by future generations.

Maintenance

The biggest maintenance job for this tree is cleaning up the nuts. If you plant this near a sidewalk or street, it will be littered with the nuts. When crushed, there is a black husk that stains skin, clothes, and pavement. It is difficult to remove the color. Eventually the squirrels will likely get all the nuts and bury them, but not before they start to break down naturally and stain areas.


A street littered with black walnuts…until the squirrels find them!

While the Black Walnut tree can provide excellent shade, food for you and wildlife, and is beautiful, the walnuts falling to the ground can be a bit messy in some applications. If you would like a tree that looks great, provides nice shade, grows fast, and supports wildlife then I suggest you look at the Pin Oak Tree.

How to Propagate Black Walnut Trees from seed

Black Walnut trees can be propagated from collected nuts. After the walnuts naturally start falling from the tree, you should collect some from the tree itself, not the ground. Then, remove the husk and test the black walnuts viability by seeing if it sinks in water. Plant viable Black Walnuts 1-2″ deep. Trees will sprout in the Spring.

If you collect some black walnuts and wish to grow them from seed, you first need to do a test to make sure the nut is a viable seed. Also, Black Walnuts need to undergo cold moist stratification or be winter-sown to germinate.

Testing Black Walnut seed viability

Checking viability of the walnut itself is quite easy.

  1. Put on rubber gloves and get a sharp knife. I use a hunting knife, but a chef’s knife would work well too.
  2. Cut around the husk, then twist the knife to pop-off and remove the husk. This can be a dirty job, so the gloves are important. The husk of Black Walnuts can stain almost anything.
  3. Rinse the nut a few times to clean.
  4. Drop the nut into water and let it sit for 60 seconds. If a walnut sinks, then it is viable. If the walnut floats, discard it.
Testing black walnut seed viability

After husking and discarding nonviable Black Walnuts, you should plant them or stratify them. One thing to note, squirrels, chipmunks, and other rodents will dig up walnuts to eat. So you need to have a way to protect them. If you are not prepared for that yet, then consider storing them in the fridge by cold-moist stratifying them until you are ready to winter-sow the seed.

Cold Stratify / Storing Walnuts for germination

To cold stratify and store Black Walnuts prior to planting, get a large 1-gallon zip-lock bag and some sand or vermiculite. Mix the sand/vermiculite with water so that it is damp. The amount of dampness is that if you squeeze a handful only a couple of drops should drip from your hand.

Then, place your Black Walnuts into the center of the mixture, and place into the zip-lock bag. Store this in the fridge until you are ready to plant.

How to plant and germinate Black Walnuts

Since Black Walnuts need a cold treatment, winter-sowing is the easiest method. Just let mother nature do the work for you.

  1. Fill a container with moist potting soil.
  2. Planting Depth – Plant Black Walnuts 1-2″ deep into the soil (2.5-5 cm)
  3. Set the container outside in a location that receives morning sun and afternoon shade
  4. Protect the container from squirrels and rodents. Hardware cloth, screens, or something similar with a rock on top works great.
  5. Germination will occur in roughly the middle of Spring, once temperatures begin warming up overnight
Black Walnut seedling right after germinationI had 60% germination rate of Black Walnut Trees

Video guide to growing Black Walnut Trees from seed:

Below is a short video on how to grow a Black Walnut tree from Seed. This video contains all information you need to successfully germinate the nuts.

Wildlife, Pests, and Diseases

Fauna Associations of Black Walnut Tree

More than 20 different species of moth larvae feed on black walnut trees, making it a valuable part of the ecosystem. Additionally, there are another 20 or so insects whose larva bore into the bark to feed. [1]

Chipmunks and squirrels will collect and bury nearly all the nuts, to use as food throughout the winter. In that regard they are valuable for our ecosystem. Also, by way of burying them they help propagate the species. [1]

Pests

A condition known as ‘Thousand Canker Disease’ effects mature Black Walnut Trees. A predatory beetle walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) eats on the tree, providing a vector for a fungus to lead to cankers on the tree. The condition can prove fatal several years after first noticed.

Disease

General fungal issues also effect foliage of Black Walnut trees. Both white mold and bull’s-eye leaf spot can negatively effect the trees appearance and health.

Uses for Black Walnut Trees

Landscape Use

Black Walnut trees make excellent shade trees. Their ability to grow up to 30″ per year make them one of the faster growing hardwoods. The main drawback to Black Walnut trees in a yard or sidewalk is the nuts that will fall, that can be a tripping hazard and make a mess.

Food

This nutcracker makes fast work of opening the delicious walnuts. It’s the best I’ve found.

Black Walnuts are edible and nutritious tree nuts that are grown and prized for food. [1] Black Walnuts are often used in baking, as a topping on ice cream, or salads. Ground walnuts can also be used as a breading. Although one must harvest them prior to squirrels and chipmunks that quickly bury and cache the nuts.

Nuts can be de-husked and dried for storage. Cracked nuts can be frozen and preserved for up to two years, making Black Walnuts a valuable food that can be stored long-term. Homesteaders in particular should take note of this valuable protein source.

Lumber

Black Walnut lumber is one of the most prized and valuable hardwoods native to North America. The ability of the tree to reach large trunk diameter and height make large boards possible, and lots of them available within a single specimen. The lumber is used commonly as veneer, gunstocks, and furniture. [1][4]

Lumber from Black Walnut Trees that grow in yards

If you are reading this and have a few tall Black Walnut trees in your yard, you may be thinking you are sitting on a small fortune. While it is possible you could have trees with valuable trunks, sadly it is unlikely that you could get more than a few hundred dollars for your trees.

Yard trees often grown in the open will have many knots and branching that diminish the value greatly. Furthermore, most professional loggers will not haul equipment to a residence for a single tree, as the overhead costs are too high. In general, you need 10-20 acres of hardwood forest at a minimum for a professional logger to come harvest timber. [3][5]

That being said yard trees are not without lumber value. Depending on the market one may attract a small hobbyist with a portable sawmill to come for general lumber or the recent trend of making live-edge or slap boards.

Recently a 250 year old Black Walnut Tree was illegally cut down for lumber. A man mistakenly thought the giant 72″ trunk diameter tree was his. Ultimately, he was paid ~$2,000 for the tree, and the loggers sold the tree for over $10,000.

General woodworking with Black Walnut

Black Walnut wood is so beautiful that anyone with a basic skill of hand tools can create works of art. Yours truly has rescued pieces of firewood to create small Christmas gifts such as the business card holder below. And even split logs lengthwise to make rustic benches.

A business card holder I made as a gift. I used two pieces of Black Walnut firewood.

The closed grain wood of Black Walnut wood makes it a great choice for cutting boards, mallets, and bowls/spoons.

Related ==> Learn how to make your own mallet from a log HERE!

Medicinal

There are over 70 uses for Black Walnut Trees documented by 16 different tribes. [6] Most common uses is eating the nuts for food, or using the bark/husks as a dye.

Bark was used by the Cherokee “cautiously” as it was toxic. Often as a dermatological aid, toothache, an infusion for smallpox, and as a dye. The nuts were eaten and wood used for furniture and carving.

Many other tribes utilized the bark in decoction, infusions, or rubbed on skin to treat various ailments. Symptoms such as carhartic, ringworm, inflammation, intestinal, or emetic issues were all treated in some manner with the bark.

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References:

[1] – Russell M. Burns, Silvics of North America: Hardwoods, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 1990, pp391-399. https://srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/1548 . Retrieved 18JUL2021

[2] – Charles J. Soderquist. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 11, 782; Publication Date:November 1, 1973; https://doi. org/10.1021/ed050p782

[3] – Steve Norman, Research Ecologist. Forest Economics and Policy (RWU-4804). United States Forestry Service, https://srs.fs.usda.gov/econ/timberprices/yard-trees/, Retrieved 18JUL2021

[4] – Allyson Brownlee Muth and David R. Jackson; Valuing Standing Timber, https://extension.psu.edu/valuing-standing-timber, Retrieved 18JUL2021

[5] – Georgia Peterson, How Much Lumber in that Tree?, Michigan State University Ag Extension, Publication E2915, 2015; https://www.canr.msu.edu/resources/how_much_lumber_in_that_tree_e2915

[6] – Black Walnut Tree, Native American Ethnobotany Database. http://naeb.brit.org/uses/species/2034/ retrieved 18JUL2021


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Black Walnut

Black Walnut

Juglans nigra, or Black walnut, is native to the eastern one-half of Kansas.  It reaches a height of 70 to 90 feet and spread of 30 to 40 feet.  This tree grows about 2 to 3 feet per year.

Leaves, Stems and Fruit
Leaves are compound, alternately arranged on the stem and range from 12 to 24 inches long with 13 to 23 leaflets. The leaflets are 3 to 5 inches long, 1 to 1 1/2 inches wide. They are rounded at the base, tapering to a sharp point at the tip and are paired except at the tip of the leaf. When crushed, the leaves give off a pungent odor. Flowering occurs in May and June. Fruit is a large round nut covered by a husk ripening in September or October. Bark varies in color from brownish to brownish-gray on young stems to a dark chocolate brown at maturity. 

Use
Timber - Walnut is the premier timber species in eastern Kansas. The wood is used in making high quality furniture, cabinets, veneers, paneling, gun stocks and novelties.
Human Food - The nut meat has a delicious flavor and is highly prized for its food value. It is used in candies, ice cream, cookies, etc.
Wildlife - The nut serves as an important food source for squirrels as well as other wildlife species.
Firewood - Black walnut's moderate growth rate and heat value, along with ease of splitting, makes it worth considering for use in firewood plantations.

Adaptation and Soil
Black walnut has adapted statewide and grows best on deep, fertile, well-drained, bottomland soils. On upland sites, growth often is greatly restricted and isn’t adequate for timber production, but may be adequate for wildlife habitat.

Spacing
Spacing for timber, fuelwood and nut plantings may vary from 8 x 8 feet to 15 x 15 feet. Periodic thinnings during the life of the stand are used to reduce the number of trees for maximum productivity.

Culture
One-year-old, bare-root seedlings, 12 to 18 inches tall or stratified nuts (those that have undergone cold treatment) are used in plantings. Successful plantings require that a proper site is selected, the soil is thoroughly prepared and good weed and grass control is practiced.  Stratified walnut seed may be planted instead of seedlings if adequate protection from rodents is provided. Squirrels have been known to eat an entire field of recently planted nuts if not protected. It is best to plant at least two nuts at each planting spot to ensure proper stocking rate. The soil must not dry until the new roots are well established.

Pests
Walnut has very few major insect enemies. The most serious is the walnut caterpillar. Trees defoliated by heavy infestations may suffer loss of growth but are seldom killed.  Disease is not a major concern in walnut plantings on good sites. However, on poor sites or on damaged trees, walnuts may be subject to canker.  It is susceptible to some chemicals commonly used on Kansas crops.

Soil Information
Average Height in 20 Yrs: 
-Eastern26-28 ft.
-Central24-26 ft.
-Western18-22 ft.
Growth Rate:Medium
Native Species:Native to Kansas
Windbreak Value:High
Wildlife Value:High
Lumber Products:Yes
Fuelwood Products:Yes
Drought Tolerance:Medium
Texture:2
Soil Saturation:No Tolerance
Salinity Tolerance:No Tolerance
pH Range:5. 5-7.5

How a walnut grows, what a tree looks like when it needs to be harvested

Content

  • 1 Where does a walnut grow
    • 1.1 Where does a walnut grow in the world
    • 1.2 Where does a walnut grow in Russia
    • Does a walnut grow in 1.3 Moscow region
  • 2 How does a walnut grow and ripen
    • 2.1 What does a walnut tree look like
    • 2.2 How many years does a walnut grow
    • 2.3 How long does a walnut grow before fruiting
    • 2.4 How quickly a walnut
    • 9000 2.5 grows how many nuts give walnut
  • 3 When to harvest walnuts
    • 3.1 when the walnuts are harvested in the middle lane
    • 3.2 walnuts ripen in Crimea
  • 4 How to understand that a walnut is ripe
  • 5 How walnuts are harvested
  • 6 Conclusion

The birthplace of the walnut is Central Asia. On the territory of Russia, the tree appeared thanks to Greek traders, hence the corresponding name - walnut. Walnut grows almost all over the world. It is successfully cultivated in Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus. Hazel gained popularity due to the beneficial properties of fruits, green mass and bark.

Where the walnut grows

Walnut grows almost everywhere: some varieties are well suited for planting in the northern regions. Some species can tolerate long frosts, are practically immune to pests. The preferred place of growth is in well-lit, spacious, not wetlands. Hazel grows rapidly on hills, in loamy soils.

Where the walnut grows in the world

The tree grows in places with a temperate climate, however, prefers the southern regions. Wild landings can be seen on the territory of Transcaucasia and in the Talysh mountains. Often, wild hazel grows in the humid gorges of the Himalayas. Nuts are specially grown in China, India, Austria, Greece. They practice planting in the gardens of Germany and Italy.

Walnut plantations can be seen in the Tien Shan mountains, on the territory of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. These forests are considered the largest in the world.

Where the walnut grows in Russia

Trees are common in the middle lane, they are also regularly planted in the southern regions of Russia. They practice landing in the Moscow and Leningrad regions. In the northern regions, cultivation is worse. The tree does not tolerate prolonged low temperatures, the maximum limit is 30 degrees below zero.

Important! Long frosts are detrimental to walnuts, low temperatures affect the quantity and quality of the crop.

Breeders develop varieties that can grow for a long time at very low temperatures. But in most cases, such seedlings practically do not bear fruit.

Do walnuts grow in the Moscow region

Walnuts are successfully grown in the Moscow region. The tree grows in gardens and park areas. In the state register of selection achievements there are more than 25 varieties that take root well in this area. Trees tolerate frost well, and in summer they are able to withstand a long absence of watering.

It should be remembered that the planting of each seedling has its own agricultural practices and characteristics. Proper care will help grow a strong tree with high yields.

In the Moscow region, it is recommended to plant seedlings away from drafts. In the first years of life, the main trunk is fragile, so it can break off in strong winds. The best option for landing would be a well-lit area near buildings and buildings. When planting in a summer cottage, attention should be paid to the fact that in the process of growth the tree obscures a large area, so vegetables must be planted away from the nut.

Important! Walnut during the growth process releases phytoncides, which can harm other vegetation.

How does a walnut grow and ripen? Therefore, at the age of 25–45 years, the seedling is considered young and is in the juvenile period. A feature of the walnut is that the quantity and quality of the crop increases with age.

Walnut grows well and develops under optimal climatic conditions. Tolerates dry weather and mild frosts. However, returning frosts are dangerous for the seedling. Spring sharp change in temperature is detrimental to vegetation. The main shoots and leaves are damaged, which later affects the yield. Over time, new branches are formed, but this takes a lot of time.

The fruit ripening period on the tree is August-September, rarely October. The exact harvesting period depends on the region of growth and the variety planted.

There are several types:

  • early;
  • medium early;
  • late.

Each species has differences in the period of flowering and final fruiting. For each region, the appropriate variety should be selected.

What a walnut tree looks like

During the period of active development and growth, a walnut tree forms a wide trunk, reaching 30 m in height, 2 m in diameter. The color of the bark is grayish-white, the crown is dense and wide with a large number of branches. The root is powerful, it goes deeper into the ground by more than 7 m. The lateral root system is quite long - more than 10 m.

The alternate leaves are compound, pinnate. The length of the plate is 5–7 cm. The green mass with a peculiar aroma looks very attractive during flowering. The flowers are small, green, collected in neat earrings. Flowering period: end of April - beginning of May, duration - 2 weeks. In late-ripening varieties, buds may re-bloom - in the middle of summer. Pollination occurs with the help of wind or pollen from nearby plants.

Walnuts grow on sprawling trees with a crown diameter of about 20 m. Fruits are hard, brown in color, have a four-lobed seed, covered with a thin film. The peel is green, dense in structure, slightly wrinkled and bumpy.

How many years does a walnut grow? When planted in optimal climatic conditions, it can grow and bear fruit well up to 600 years. Wild trees in forest areas can live for more than 1200 years.

How long does a walnut grow before fruiting

The period of full growth and development of the plant depends on the variety. On early ripening species, the first fruits appear 3–6 years after planting. Mid-season and late-ripening before the first fruiting grow and develop for at least 10 years. From 10–12 years old, a tree can produce from 1 to 5 kg of crop per season. Mature trees that have reached the age of 50-60 bear fruit abundantly.

Attention! The older the tree, the higher the yield.

How fast the walnut grows

Mid-season and late varieties grow for quite a long time, often they can survive more than one owner. Early maturing trees grow much faster, but these species require some care.

How many nuts does a walnut produce? This indicator may vary depending on the age of the tree, the region of growth and the quality of care. A seedling that is about 10 years old bears little fruit - a maximum of 5 kg of fruit per year.

When to harvest walnuts

Regular walnuts ripen in early autumn. A more accurate harvest time depends on the region in which it is grown. During the ripening of the crop, the foliage on the branches acquires a dull color, and the fruits fall to the ground on their own.

It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with some signs by which you can determine the exact timing of harvesting:

  • cracking of the green pericarp;
  • Most leaves yellow;
  • Harvest dates can be determined by knowing the varietal characteristics of the plant.

When walnuts are harvested in the middle lane

Growing a plant in the middle lane is a laborious process. In this region, hazel trees bear fruit irregularly. When creating favorable conditions for growth, you can harvest a good harvest. The fruits begin to fall from the tree by August, but most of them do not separate the pericarp well. The harvested crop is first placed in a dark, cool place, after full ripening, it is well dried in the sun.

When walnuts ripen in the Krasnodar Territory

In the Krasnodar Territory, the harvest takes place a little later. Full ripening of walnuts in this region occurs in mid-September. The trees growing in Krasnodar are significantly different from those grown in other regions: their fruiting is plentiful, the main part of the harvest is impressive in size.

When walnuts ripen in Crimea

Crimea belongs to the region where walnuts are actively grown. Due to favorable climatic conditions, the tree grows throughout the Crimea. Fruit picking is carried out closer to August. However, in order to avoid spoilage by rodents and other pests, some gardeners prefer to harvest much earlier. Unripe fruits with a green pericarp are knocked down with a stick and left to dry under the sun. After a couple of days, the peel is easily separated, then drying is performed.

How to tell if a walnut is ripe

When it's time to harvest, the fruit begins to fall off the tree. It should be remembered that the tree matures and grows unevenly, so harvesting is not carried out in 1-2 days, sometimes this process drags on for weeks. After the ripened fruits have fallen to the ground, it is recommended to collect within a day, otherwise there is a high probability of damage by rodents and insects.

Another indicator of maturation is the cracking of the pericarp. This process can occur right on the tree. Therefore, the harvesting procedure can be carried out earlier, I used a roll to churn fruits.

Attention! In order to avoid damage to walnuts, experienced gardeners recommend using special harvesting tools: the process is comfortable for the gardener, the fruits are not damaged.

How walnuts are harvested

Timely harvesting of a ripe crop is a very important task. Having correctly determined the exact timing of ripening, you can begin to harvest the fruits.

Due to the fact that the tree is tall, manual harvesting is a rather laborious process. Often, ripe walnuts are knocked down with a stick or removed with a special roll for collection. The collected fruits are shaken well, cleaned of green peel. If the pericarp does not separate well, the crop is dried in the sun.

Harvesting rules for walnuts:

  1. Fruits that have fallen to the ground must be harvested within 24 hours, otherwise there is a high risk of damage to the crop by mold. Earth moisture destroys the amniotic membrane, spoilage of the product begins.
  2. If the harvest is done with a stick, ripe nuts and unripe nuts in the pericarp may fall to the ground. Such a crop should be harvested in separate containers. Fruits with pericarp should be kept for several days in the basement or cellar.
  3. If unripe fruits are harvested, place the crop in a dark, cool place, wait for full ripeness. This procedure must be performed with nuts that do not separate the pericarp. When the shell begins to move away well from the shell, the crop is fully ripe.
  4. Walnuts can be harvested when the protective skin of the fruit begins to crack. To do this, shake the branches of the tree. However, as practice shows, it is quite difficult to knock down most of the nuts with this method, so gardeners resort to using long objects.
  5. Well-ripened fruits may be damaged if they fall on hard ground. In this case, it is recommended to use special harvesting tools.

Conclusion

Walnut grows in almost every region. By creating optimal conditions for growing a tree, you can get a plentiful and high-quality harvest. It should be noted that at least 10 years pass from the moment of planting to the first fruiting. In the process of active growth, the tree needs some care. To obtain an early harvest, it is recommended to choose early-ripening varieties adapted to the climatic conditions of the region.

cultivation and care, how many years to grow

Content

  • Walnut features
  • Characterization of walnut fruit
  • Basic guidelines for growing nuts
  • Planting material
  • Walnut planting site
  • Walnut care
    • Watering walnut
    • Fertilization
    • Walnut trimming
  • Walnut diseases
  • Rules for the collection and storage of fruit

Walnut or walnut grows in almost every garden. This is a tall tree with a wide crown, which produces extremely useful fruits with an unusual taste. Planting a nut and caring for a young plant is easy. You need to know how a walnut grows and what it needs for normal development.

Walnut bears fruit annually

Walnut brings rich harvests every year. The fruits have almost the same high nutritional value as hazelnuts and are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, micro and macro elements.

Features walnut

Every person at least once in his life saw walnuts and tasted their fruits. In the middle lane and southern regions, this tree can be found not only in the summer cottage, but also in the park or by the road. Voloshsky nut is very unpretentious to habitat conditions, tolerates frost and heat. Appearance of the walnut tree:

  1. The tree reaches a height of 25 m.
  2. The trunk can reach from three to seven meters in diameter, it is covered with gray bark.
  3. Wide crown, up to 20 m in diameter.
  4. The leaf is compound, consists of 2–5 pairs of large ovoid leaflets.
  5. There are male flowers (catkins) and sessile female (pistillate) flowers.
  6. Unripe fruit covered with green leathery skin. After ripening, the peel bursts, releasing a globular fruit. The edible core is enclosed in a hard woody shell.

Leaves and flowers bloom at the same time - in May. The walnut re-blooms sometimes in early June. The flowers are pollinated by the wind.

Wild walnut grows in Transcaucasia, in the north of China and India, in Iran, in the Balkans. The plant is distributed throughout Ukraine. In the northern regions of Russia, walnuts grow, but do not develop into large trees. Plants withstand low temperatures down to -20 °C. With prolonged severe frosts, the nut freezes.

Moderately moist, humus-rich soils are ideal for walnut. It is important that the soil is well breathable. The root system of the tree descends to a depth of 4 m and extends along the sides for 20 m.

Walnut lives for centuries, the average age of a large tree is 200-250 years. Throughout its life, the plant retains the ability to bear fruit.

The walnut tree can grow to enormous size

Characteristics of walnut fruit

How many years must pass from the moment of planting the seeds of a nut to the first fruiting? Usually the first nuts appear on the 10-12th year of the tree's life. The plant begins to give rich harvests for 25–30 years. The fruits ripen in mid-September - early October.

The fruit of the walnut is enclosed in a green leathery shell (pericarp). The walnut ripens in it. When the process is completed, the skin dries and cracks. Inside is a bone with an edible core. The peel does not open on its own, it is very strong, tree-like. Inside the shell has a cavity divided into partitions. Partitions break the nucleus into equal parts.

Walnut kernels are shaped like a brain. Outside, they are covered with a thin light brown skin. The taste of the fruit is unusual, sweetish, the skin is a little tart, sometimes bitter or sour. The average weight of one walnut (including the shell) is 5–17 g.

Nuclei contain a large number of useful substances. These are unsaturated fats, proteins, vitamin B1, provitamin A. The fruits are widely used in cooking, traditional medicine, and the food industry.

Walnuts are very nutritious

Basic tips for growing nuts

Voloshsky nut is a valuable tree that gives many extremely useful and tasty fruits. The most difficult task is to wait for these very fruits and keep the tree healthy. Before growing a walnut, you need to consider several important aspects:

  • selection of landing site;
  • selection and preparation of planting material.

It is necessary to immediately study the rules for caring for seedlings, the features of their growth and development. You can plant a walnut at home in separate tubs with prepared soil or in a greenhouse. When the plants reach a certain age, they are planted in open ground.

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Planting material

In order for the nut to grow well, it is important to choose the right and high-quality planting material. There are two ways to plant a nut:

  • seeds;
  • seedlings.

Seedlings have a developed root system, so they grow and bear fruit faster. After planting the seeds in the ground, it should take about a year for the main root to form.

Seeds can be bought or prepared by yourself. Harvesting is carried out during the period of fruit ripening, when the green shell dries up and begins to crack. Collect several large and smooth fruits. They are dried at home. Then the seeds need to be kept for about 100 days at a low temperature (0–10 ° C). If the shell is thin, you need to keep them for 50 days at 18 ° C. This is done to prepare the seeds for real environmental conditions.

Seedlings are grown from seeds in a film greenhouse. To get a direct shoot, the nut must be lowered sideways into the hole. A hole is dug to a depth of 7 cm for small seeds, for large seeds - 11 cm. Seedlings grow from seeds in 2 years.

Seedlings ready for planting can be purchased immediately. It is important to pay attention that there is no plaque on the trunk and branches, so that all the leaves are fresh and not dry.

Walnut seedlings will allow you to harvest faster

Walnut planting site

Before planting a walnut, it is very important to choose the right place on the plot. To do this, you need to take into account several factors:

  1. A dense, wide crown and large green leaves require intense sunlight.
  2. The walnut has a spreading root system that needs a lot of free space. If you plan to plant several plants, the distance between them should be at least half a meter.
  3. Walnut does not like excessive moisture. Waterlogged soils are not suitable for the plant. The close occurrence of groundwater will also not be beneficial.

The ideal place for planting a walnut is a hill. The plant needs soil that is high in carbonate and moderately moist. Loamy soils are well suited.

The soil for planting walnut must be prepared and cultivated in advance. The earth is dug up to a depth of 80 cm-100 cm. Manure mixed with a small amount of ash and the addition of superphosphate is brought to the entire depth. As the walnut tree grows, the topsoil is replaced and enriched each year. The processing area is equal to the size of the crown.

When stable warm weather is established (mid-April - early May), you can plant seedlings in open ground.

Walnut loves space and good lighting

Walnut Care

It is very important to ensure that young trees are properly cared for so that their root system develops normally. Basic factors for proper walnut tree care:

  1. Watering. Young trees like moderately moist soil. Watering walnuts is carried out during the period of active growth - in spring and autumn.
  2. Top dressing. There are several important features of fertilization that will help you get more fruit.
  3. Cutting. Be sure to remove dry and damaged side shoots.

Mature trees do not require special care. If the planting site and soil have been chosen correctly, the tree will grow well and bear fruit every year. Trees need to be watered during a drought, periodically fertilize, renew the soil.

Watering walnut

Young trees need regular watering. For the active growth of roots, trunk, branches and leaves, you need a lot of water. Watering the trees begins in mid-April and ends at the end of September. Basic watering rules:

  • one tree needs 3 buckets of water;
  • watering is carried out twice a month.

When the tree reaches a height of 4-5 meters, the frequency of watering is reduced to 1 time per month. During periods of drought, plants need to be watered more intensively. It is necessary to water the soil under the root and around the tree so that the earth is evenly moist.

A young nut needs three buckets of water twice a month

Fertilization

Walnuts are fed in spring and autumn. The plant needs nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers. There are several rules for applying top dressing:

  • nitrogen fertilizers are applied in spring;
  • Phosphates and potash fertilizers are applied in autumn before digging the ground.

Plants that are 20–50 years old are fed with ammonium nitrate (7 kg), potassium salt (2–2.5 kg), superphosphate (10 kg).

Young plants during the first years of fruiting (2–3 years) should not be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. This is necessary so that in the future the nut gives more fruit.

Walnut trimming

Pruning of young trees is carried out to form a crown. Usually the plant copes with this task on its own. Cut dry, damaged, unnecessary side shoots.

Pruning should not be carried out in the spring, as this may affect the healthy growth of the plant, it will lose a lot of moisture. Branches can be pruned in early summer. The escape is removed twice. In the first year, most of the branch is removed, leaving a small knot (7–10 cm). In the second year, the already dried up remnant of the twig is cut off. This is done in the spring. The cut is treated with garden pitch.

Walnut pruning: first year, second year, third year and fourth year

Walnut diseases

Diseases and pests can significantly affect the growth and development of the walnut tree. Most common walnut diseases:

  1. White spotting. A fungal disease that affects the leaves, light green spots appear on them. The structure of the leaf in the spot area becomes sluggish and corrugated. Treatment and prevention of the spread of the disease to neighboring trees - spraying with copper preparations.
  2. Brown spot. The most common and dangerous walnut disease. Parasites infect immature fruits, leaves and branches. Brown and black spots, ulcers appear on them. The kernels of the fetus rot. The plant during the disease is severely depleted, cannot tolerate winter frosts, fruit buds are not laid in full. Affected shoots are pruned and destroyed away from walnut trees. Plants are treated with special fungicides. In autumn, the leaves from under the nuts must be removed.
  3. Philostiktosis (leaf spot). On the entire surface of the leaves, first white, then brown spots of various sizes appear. The crown is gradually thinning. The disease can lead to rotting of the roots and trunk.

Nuts are also affected by a variety of insects - codling moth, white butterfly caterpillars, wart mites, nut moths. Insecticides will help to cope with them.

If tinder fungi grow on the nut, they must be cut off. To prevent fungal diseases in some regions, tree trunks are covered with lime with the addition of copper.


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