How long before hazelnut trees produce


Hazelnut Trees Are Easy! - Cornell Small Farms

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Native hybrid hazelnuts provide a crop that is consistently in short supply, well known by consumers, and nearly grow themselves. 
by Dawn and Jeff Zarnowski
Tasty and healthy hazelnuts are used in many food products desired by consumers and are chronically in short supply.  Almost all hazelnuts consumed in North America are sourced from either Oregon or Turkey.  Yet, hazelnut trees are native to the eastern half North America from Louisiana to Georgia in the south, to Manitoba and Quebec in the north.  The native hazelnut trees (Corylus americana) are hardy, disease resistant and are very tolerant of a wide range of growing conditions, and yet there is a shortage of nuts.   The native nuts tend to be small and are not as tasty as the European hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) that that have been selected for quality for hundreds and thousands of years.    This is where hybridization of the two hazelnut species for the past century has yielded new varieties that have the best qualities of both.  Hazelnut organizations have formed to promote growing this native crop with improved qualities.
Another wonderful thing about hazelnut trees is you don’t have to wait long before the tree will bear nuts for you to eat.   Hazel trees start bearing in as little as 4 years and heavy yields in year six or seven.   Also, you can choose to grow it as a bush or a single stem tree.  A multi-stem bush will form if you don’t mow or cut down the shoots that grow near the base of the tree.   In bush form it will grow 8 feet to 12 feet tall.  In bush form, the hazelnut allows for easy hand picking of the nuts, and carefree environmental plantings for erosion control or as a hedge.  If you choose to grow it as a single stem tree it will grow 14 feet to 16 feet tall and nearly as wide.  Once the tree is big enough to shade the base, the shoots won’t grow.   The native hazelnut tree is adaptable and easy to grow; but, it took many generations of hybridizing to generate native trees with large tasty nuts.

Hybrid hazel trees with jumbo grade sized nuts are successfully grown without pesticides or fungicides in USDA zones 4b/5a, in the Finger Lakes region of New York.

The reason the European hazelnuts (a.k.a. filberts) were grown on the west coast was to keep the tasty European trees far away from the native trees that harbor a blight known as Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB) caused by the fungus Anisogrammaanomala.  Also, the tender European varieties tend to be less cold tolerant and are better suited for USDA zones 7/8.
Hazel orchards in the Northwest are now slowly being decimated by EFB as the disease has spread throughout the region.  Hybridization of native blight resistant hazel trees to the European hazel in North America has been documented since 1921 by Carl Weschcke.  The Northern Nut Growers Association (NNGA) has been in existence for over 100 years.   NNGA is a group of hobbyist and professionals that grow and breed nut trees.  NNGA and similar associations such as Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG) have assisted with hazelnut improvement for over 94 years.  In the past few years, more organizations have formed to promote hazelnut trees as a food crop throughout North America.
Hazelnut production is expanding with the Ontario Hazelnut Association that formed just a few years ago to promote hazel orchards just north and west of the New York border.  Ferrero, the makers of Nutella, is a $8.8 billion dollar company, that consumes 25% of the world’s crop, has a massive factory, just over the New York border, in Brantford Ontario Canada.  There is Upper Midwest Hazelnut Development Initiative (UMHDI) to develop hazelnut cultivars and orchards in Wisconsin, Michigan and surrounding area.  The Hybrid Hazelnut Consortium was formed to research and promote hybrid hazelnuts utilizing Rutgers University, Oregon State University, University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the Arbor Day foundation.   Support to grow hazelnut trees has expanded greatly in the last few years as new hybrid trees come to market.
From a financial standpoint, hazelnuts are an ideal specialty crop, as they are in continuous short supply and have high profit margins.  Retail pricing for in-shell hazelnuts averages $6.00 a pound and shelled raw bulk hazelnuts are currently selling for $14.99 a pound in local grocery stores.  The cost per pound of hazelnuts currently limits consumption.  The future for increased hazelnut consumption is excellent, as Europeans consume up to eight times what an American consumes.

How controlled pollination is done at a breeding orchard in Cortland, NY. New hybrids of trees are generated by controlled pollination. Pollen is first blocked from receptive flowers by Tyvek bags. Once the pollen shed is done the flowers are then hand pollinated from another quality tree.

Hazelnuts provide a very profitable income well above what any annual grain crop can, after the necessary 6-year wait before the trees produce a significant amount of nuts.   Assuming only 2000 pounds of nuts (up to 2800 lbs. should be attainable) at direct wholesale pricing of only $2.50 per pound (we currently sell for $3.50 per pound) amounts to $5000.00 per acre.   In contrast, the average corn crop yields 160 bushels per acre in New York and at a current price of under $4.00 per bushel equals only $640 per acre.  Hazels require similar annual input costs as corn, and organic sustainability should be readily achievable as the hazel tree is native unlike most annual crops grown.
Hazel flowers are wind-pollinated, so no bees or butterflies are needed for pollination. Hazels have separate male flowers, called catkins, that form in late summer and shed pollen early in the spring before leaves emerge.  Female flowers emerge from a bud and require pollen from a second tree, because its own pollen is self-incompatible.  Therefore, two pollen compatible strains of hybrid trees are planted in an orchard.
The majority of the cost to establish an orchard is in the first two years.   First the field must be cleared of rocks, with pH adjusted to range from 6.5 to 7.0pH.    Deer fencing for the orchard and individual tree protection is suggested.  The animals find that the nut trees are tasty and the leaves, buds, and bark are readily consumed by deer, moles, voles, and mice.  Protection is needed for the first three years until the tree is large enough to not be bothered by any animal. Young hazel trees need irrigation to ensure good survivability and growth, until the roots grow deep enough to not need irrigation thereafter.
Ideally, a commercial orchard will use clones of hazel trees with known characteristics.  Clones of hazels are traditionally done with layering.  Layering is accomplished by encouraging the shoots that are pushed up from the roots of the mother tree to grow its own roots.  The shoot (a.k.a. sucker) is cut away from the mother tree and replanted on proper spacing.  Sources of cloned trees are rapidly expanding using new hybrids that have proven themselves over many years of careful watching and measuring.   There are numerous sources of seedling trees and a conscientious tree nursery will only use seed from the best trees.  Hazelnut trees can be planting any time of year.  Please verify that the trees are hybridized for many generations to help ensure your buying quality trees.  Trees are available all year long and can be sourced from the following list and several other nurseries:

  • Grimo Nut Nursery layered and seedling trees at http://www.grimonut.com/
  • Oikos Tree Crops seedling trees at  https://oikostreecrops.com/
  • Z’s Nutty Ridge layered and seedling trees at http://znutty.com/

Hazelnuts offer a great opportunity for and any agricultural system from a backyard to a large farm.  Different agricultural systems incorporating hazelnuts include: silvopasture, permaculture, agroforestry and woody agriculture.  These systems utilize trees as an integral part of a sustainable agricultural practice. We believe this trend will continue to grow and lead both environmentally and economically over annual grain crops.
Dawn and Jeff have been growing and breeding hazelnut trees for over 23 years at Z’s Nutty Ridge LLC and can be reached at Find us at: [email protected] 
Like us at: https://www.facebook.com/zsnutty.ridge
Office Phone: 607 756 4409

How to Grow Hazelnut Trees

Corylus spp.

One of the things I was most eager for when I became a homeowner was finally having the space and time to grow my own fruit and nut trees.

I was especially excited when I learned that hazelnut trees (also known as filberts) only take three to five years until the first harvest comes in.

Hazelnuts are relatively quick and easy to grow, they don’t require as much space as other nut trees, and they produce sweet, delicious nuts each summer.

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Ready to grow your own? I bet you are!

Read on to learn the ins and outs of growing hazelnut trees.

What You’ll Learn

  • What Are Hazelnut Trees?
  • Cultivation and History
  • Propagation
  • How to Grow
  • Growing Tips
  • Cultivars and Species to Select
  • Managing Pests and Disease
  • Harvesting
  • Preserving
  • Recipes and Cooking Ideas
  • Quick Reference Growing Guide

What Are Hazelnut Trees?

There are several different species in the Corylus genus, many of which produce the edible nuts we know as hazelnuts or filberts.

Hazels are typically categorized as members of the birch family, Betulaceae, though some botanists have further split them into a subfamily called Corylaceae.

C. avellana, the European or common hazelnut, C. maxima, often referred to as the giant filbert, and C. americana, the American filbert or hazelnut, are a few of the most commonly grown varieties.

Depending on species, hazelnuts typically range from eight to 20 feet tall with a 15-foot spread, and can be grown as shrubs or small trees in USDA Hardiness Zones 4-9.

Since they are fairly compact and can be pruned easily, these are a great choice if you don’t have a ton of space for growing trees.

They have fuzzy, heart-shaped, serrated leaves that are a few inches in length, and produce showy yellow catkins in the early spring, followed by large nuts encased in papery husks in the late summer or fall.

Cultivation and History

Hazels are native to many parts of the Northern Hemisphere, and can be found growing wild in cool deciduous forests.

They have been a symbol of wisdom and inspiration throughout history, with written references to hazels dating back centuries.

They are mentioned in the Bible for their nutritional value and healing ability, as well as in ancient Greek and Roman mythology.

It was said that Hermes, the messenger of the Greek gods, carried a staff made from the wood of a hazel tree to provide wisdom and guide him in his travels.

Grown commercially mostly for their nuts, the wood is also used for making baskets, tool handles, fencing, and lightweight coracle boats.

Oil from the common hazel (C. avellana) is also used in food products and cosmetics.

And of course, hazelnuts are a crucial ingredient in what may be the world’s most popular chocolate spread. They are also used to make praline and chocolate truffles, and are an ingredient in Frangelico liqueur.

Propagation

Filbert trees can be propagated in a number of ways. You can start them from seed, transplant nursery stock, or grow them from runners.

From Seed

If you have lots of time and you’re not in a rush to bring in your first harvest, starting from seed can be a very economical option.

If you can find wild seeds from another hazel tree, it may even be free!

Before sowing your seeds, you can test their viability by submerging them in water. Discard any that float to the top.

Next, score the seeds to aid germination. You can do this by using a file to carefully create a small slash in the outer seed coat.

In the fall, plant the seeds in the garden 15 feet apart and two inches deep, with the slightly pointed side facing downward.

Protect them over the winter with a cold frame or a thick layer of mulch.

You can also start seeds in pots in the fall. Plant one seed an inch or two deep in an eight-inch pot filled with potting soil. Germination takes several months, so be patient!

Keep the pots outside on a covered porch, or somewhere that they won’t become waterlogged.

Once the weather warms in spring, water regularly to maintain consistent moisture, and seedlings should appear after a few weeks.

Alternatively, you can cold stratify seeds indoors by putting them into a zip-top bag filled with one part sand and one part peat moss.

Keep it in the refrigerator over the winter and then move the bag to a warm place in your house for a few days, or until you see signs of germination.

After the seeds have sprouted, plant each seedling in an eight-inch pot filled with potting soil.

Continue to grow the seedlings in the pots over the summer, keeping them in part shade, and transplant into the ground in the fall once seedlings reach eight to 10 inches in height.

From Seedlings or Transplanting

Saplings purchased as nursery stock or started from seed the previous year can be planted in the ground in late fall or winter during dormancy, to prevent heat stress and reduce the need for watering.

Space transplants 15 to 20 feet apart and plant them in holes dug to the depth of the roots and twice as wide

From Runners

You can also propagate filberts from the suckers that appear around the base of an existing shrub, or from underground runners.

During early dormancy in the late fall, dig up a sucker and the attached roots. Replant runners about 15 feet apart a foot below the soil line.

Stooling, or mound layering, is a method that involves piling soil around the base of an established shrub, leaving it in place for a year, and then dividing the new rooted stems that have developed for replanting.

This technique is common in commercial growing, though it can certainly be done in the home garden as well.

How to Grow

Find a spot in full sun, or in part shade if your climate is hot and dry.

As a rule of thumb, filberts need at least four hours of direct sunlight per day for good nut production, and about 15 to 20 feet of space to spread out, so be sure to space your plants appropriately.

Hazelnuts are monoecious, which means they produce both male and female flowers on the same tree, although they may not bloom at the same time.

While American hazelnuts can self-pollinate, European hazelnuts are self-incompatible, meaning that though a single plant has both male and female flowers, they are not able to self pollinate.

Additionally, not all varieties will cross pollinate. When selecting cultivars, it is important to plant more than one variety and pay careful attention to compatibility recommendations for pollination.

Even if planting a self-pollinating species, it is still recommended to plant more than one variety to improve yields.

To plant bare root saplings or potted shrubs purchased from a nursery, wet the roots thoroughly prior to planting, then dig a hole as deep and twice as wide as the root ball and place it in the hole.

Refill the hole, mixing in equal parts compost and sand or peat moss if working with heavy clay soil.

Tamp down as you fill in the hole to remove air pockets. The soil line should be even with the surrounding soil.

Water deeply after planting.

Once hazelnuts get going, they can really grow quickly, averaging 13-24 inches per year!

Soil and Climate Needs

Hazels can grow in most soil types, as long as it’s well draining. They don’t do well in boggy, waterlogged areas, and they are best planted in light soils with a pH of 5.5 to 7.5.

ƒSoil that is too rich in nutrients will cause vegetation to flourish at the expense of the fruit.

They are adapted to USDA Hardiness Zones 4-9, and some varieties can even be grown in Zone 3, though springtime temperatures that dip below 15°F after the flowers bloom can lead to crop loss.

Watering Needs

While the mature trees are drought tolerant, young shrubs need constant moisture and should never be allowed to fully dry out.

Water each week during the growing season until they are well established, taking special care to water deeply during dry weather.

Aim for about an inch of water every 10 days or so for the first two seasons after planting.

Pruning and Maintenance

One nice thing about hazelnuts is they can be shaped into shrubs or trees, depending on your preference and available space.

If growing as a shrub, they don’t require much pruning, other than removing the suckers that grow out of the base of the plant in the spring.

This helps to focus the plant’s energy on the main stem.

If shaping into a tree, remove the lower and hanging branches, keeping three to five stems at the top of the main “trunk” or leader.

During the winter in the first season of growth when the plant is still dormant, select a few of the strongest, largest, most evenly-spaced branches. Prune off all other branches and cut back any other suckers at the base.

Continue to remove other new branches each year in late winter or spring for the next few seasons until the leader branch has grown to a reasonable height.

Growing Tips

  • Choose two or more varieties for pollination.
  • Select a location in sun or part shade with at least four hours of direct sunlight a day.
  • Prune to remove suckers, or remove lower and hanging branches to shape into a tree.

Cultivars and Species to Select

There are 26 different species in the Corylus genus, as well as a number of hybrids cultivated for nut production, disease resistance, and ornamental value.

Over the years, growers have developed a number of hybrids between the C. avellana, C. maxima, and C. americana species to create varieties that have the best qualities of each, selecting for the large tasty nuts of the European types and the hardy disease resistance of the American varieties.

Corylus Avellana

The European filbert, also called the common hazel, European hazelnut, or cobnut, is a beautiful deciduous shrub often found in the wild growing on forest edges, in wooded slopes, and along stream banks.

It is easy to grow as a shrub and attractive year round, producing showy yellow catkins in early spring and large, sweet nuts in the fall.

There are a number of cultivars available:

Barcelona

This cultivar is very popular for the home gardener as well as for commercial production. It produces huge crops of rich and flavorful nuts and can be easily grown as a shrub or a tree.

‘Barcelona’ matures to 15-18 inches tall and wide, and requires cross pollination by another cultivar.

Contorta

Also known as Harry Lauder’s Walking Stick, ‘Contorta’ is an ornamental variety adored for its unique gnarled and twisting branches.

‘Contorta’

It has something to offer in all four seasons, with bold yellow catkins in early spring and attractive green leaves that turn a bright yellow in fall.

Two to four-year-old plants are available from Nature Hills Nursery.

Ennis

‘Ennis’ is a high-yielding cultivar of C. avellana that produces very large, attractive nuts with brown striped shells. It requires cross pollination with ‘Halls Giant.’

Unfortunately it is highly susceptible to Eastern filbert blight.

Hall’s Giant

While this cultivar does not produce large crops, it is the main pollinator for ‘Ennis’ as it sheds large quantities of pollen late in the season.

‘Hall’s Giant’ hails from France and is a vigorous grower, with moderate resistance to Eastern filbert blight.

York

This compact cultivar produces average sized nuts with healthy kernels. It produces a large number of catkins and releases large amounts of pollen during its flowering period.

It is resistant to Eastern filbert blight and is a great choice for a pollinator, as it is compatible with many other varieties.

Corylus Maxima

Known generally as the giant filbert, C. maxima is a closely related species to the European hazelnut.

It is similar in appearance to C. avellana, though it is typically a bit more tree-like.

Corylus Americana

The American hazelnut is a great choice for northern growers. It is tolerant to both heat and cold, and is resistant to Eastern filbert blight, which can plague the European varieties.

This fast-growing easy-care shrub produces nuts in the fall and is also useful as a windbreak.

Corylus americana

What’s more, it adds wonderful fall color, ranging from vivid orange, yellow, and gold to deep, rich reds.

You can purchase two- to four-year-old shrubs from Nature Hills Nursery.

Managing Pests and Disease

While growing filberts is relatively easy, there are a few common issues to watch out for. Here are a few of the animals, pests, and diseases that you may encounter.

Herbivores

Hazelnuts are delicious! If you don’t want to share your nuts with forest friends, keep an eye out for critters large and small that may want in on your crop.

Deer and rabbits both enjoy munching on the leaves, branches, and catkins.

And squirrels, of course, love to eat the nuts. While it isn’t easy to keep them off your trees, it is a good idea to be vigilant and try to pick the nuts before the squirrels do!

Wire cages can also be very useful to protect young trees from hungry herbivores.

Insects

There are a number of insects that also enjoy eating hazelnuts. Keep your eye out for these common pests to reduce damage to your crop.

Filbert Worm aka Acorn Moth (
Cydia latiferreana)

The adults are small reddish brown moths with a thin brown band running across the wings, and the larvae are about 1/2 inch in length with a dark brown head and a beige to pink body.

The larvae overwinter in the soil, emerging as moths in spring and laying eggs on hazelnut husks.

The young larvae that emerge then enter and feed on the developing nuts, tunneling their way through and completely destroying the kernels.

The nuts may also become infected by secondary bacterial or fungal pathogens.

Predatory insects such as parasitic wasps will eat the larvae happily.

Try incorporating lots of flowering perennials like dill, daisies, and marigolds to encourage the presence of beneficial insects and reduce pests.

Large-scale growers often use mating disruption pheromones to reduce the population of acorn moths in their orchards.

Nut Weevils (
Curculio nucum)

This beetle is characterized by its elongated snout and ranges from about 1/4 to 1/2 inch in size.

The adult beetles munch on buds and leaves in the spring, damaging foliage, and lay their eggs in the developing nuts in early summer.

The larvae emerge in late summer to feed on the nuts, creating holes in the shells.

The infected nuts do not drop, and often end up being harvested along with the healthy remainder of the crop, at best creating a nuisance for harvesting, and at worst effectively ruining the crop.

One way to remove weevils naturally is to place tarps under the trees during the late summer after a rainstorm, and shake each tree until the adult weevils fall to the ground.

They will remain still for a few minutes after falling, at which point they can be collected in a bucket of soapy water and disposed of.

You can continue to repeat this method until early fall.

Disease

The diseases that tend to plague filberts are those that thrive in wet soils. You can do a lot to mitigate disease risk by planting your trees in places that are not waterlogged, with well-draining soil.

Eastern Filbert Blight

The fungus Anisogramma anomala causes cankers to form on branches and blossoms, leading to rapid wilting and dieback of foliage and branches.

This is a serious issue for the European species, C. avellana, in particular.

Cankers appear as dark, raised lumps on infected plant tissue. Remove and dispose of branches with cankers.

You can learn more about Eastern filbert blight in our guide here.

Armillaria Root Rot

Armillaria root rot is caused by the fungus Armillaria mellea, aka oak root fungus.

Leaves infected with this fungus will become discolored and drop, followed by branch die-off and the eventual death of the entire plant. Yellow mushrooms may also appear at the base of the plant.

Once this disease takes hold, plants need to be removed and disposed of. The best way to prevent armillaria is to plant resistant rootstock.

Bacterial Blight

This bacterial disease causes damage to young branches, as well as the death of buds and leaves.

Caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. corylina, it spreads from infected nursery stock and can overwinter in lesions on branches or trunks.

This is a particularly problematic disease in the Pacific Northwest. Remove and dispose of diseased branches.

Bacterial Canker

Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas avellanae, is a particular problem in European hazelnuts.

New growth withers, and buds and leaves die, remaining attached to the tree after healthy leaves drop in the fall. Cankers can also be seen, appearing as gray areas on the bark.

Cut out and dispose of infected plant matter to prevent further spread.

Harvesting

It takes four years or so for trees to produce nuts.

When the plant is mature enough for the first harvest, the nuts will drop from the branches as they ripen in the autumn.

All you have to do is rake them into a pile or put a tarp under the tree to collect them.

See our complete guide for harvesting hazelnuts here.

Preserving

Dry the nuts by laying them on trays and putting them in a warm place out of the sun for a few weeks, turning the nuts every couple of days.

Once they are fully dry, scrape off the papery husks. You can shell them or store them in the shells.

In the shell, they will keep at room temperature for several months. Eat shelled nuts within a few weeks or refrigerate them for up to a year.

Recipes and Cooking Ideas

Whether roasted on an open fire, toasted and served atop a salad, or crushed and sprinkled over a decadent chocolate cake, having a stock of homegrown hazelnuts around the kitchen sure opens up some interesting culinary possibilities!

For a hearty hazelnut-infused dinner, try this wholesome pumpkin kamut with pecorino and hazelnuts.

Kamut is a chewy whole grain that is high in protein, and this dish resembles risotto.

Photo by Kelli McGrane.

Topped with some fresh grated cheese and toasted hazelnuts, this hearty meal is sure to leave you satisfied. Find the recipe on our sister site, Foodal.

If you are in the mood for a decadent treat, look no further than this mouthwatering recipe for dark chocolate hazelnut truffles.

Photo by Felicia Lim.

Only four ingredients and 25 minutes are required to create an irresistible dessert that may be just too good to share. Check out the recipe, also on Foodal.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:Nut treeMaintenance:Low
Native to:Temperate northern hemisphereWater Needs:Moderate
Hardiness (USDA Zone):4-9Tolerance:Drought (when established)
Season:FallSoil Type:Sandy loam
Exposure:Full sun to part shadeSoil pH:5.5-7.5
Time to Maturity:3-5 yearsSoil Drainage:Well-draining
Spacing:15-20 feetCompanion Planting:Comfrey, coriander, daisy, dill, marigold, white clover
Planting Depth:1 inch (seeds), depth of rootballFamily:Betulaceae
Height:8-20 feetGenus:Corylus
Spread:5-15 feetSpecies:americana, avellana, maxima
Common Pests:Filbert worm and acorn moth, nut weevilCommon Diseases:Armillaria root rot, bacterial canker, Eastern filbert blight, powdery mildew

Go Nuts for Hazelnuts

If you are looking to grow and harvest your own nuts, in my opinion, filberts are the way to go!

Once the shrub is in the ground, you only have to wait a few seasons until you can begin filling your home with the buttery aroma of fresh roasted hazelnuts.

Are you growing hazelnut trees in your yard? Share your tips in the comments below!

And for more information about growing your own nut trees, check out these guides next:

  • How to Grow and Care for Pecan Trees
  • How to Grow and Care for a Macadamia Nut Tree
  • How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Almond Trees

Photos by Felicia Lim and Kelli McGrane © Ask the Experts, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. See our TOS for more details. Product photos via Nature Hills Nursery. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock.

reasons, what to do, how to force

If a walnut does not bear fruit, the reasons may be related to the characteristics of the variety, improper agricultural practices, and pests. The plant can "fatten" and not bear fruit. Having studied the main causes and characteristics of a particular variety, you can understand what to do first.

Contents

  1. Peculiarities of walnut fruiting
  2. What year does a walnut begin to bear fruit
  3. How many years does a walnut bear fruit
  4. The time of maturation of walnut fruits
  5. How much fruits gives a walnut tree
  6. Why does a walnut do not bear fruit
  7. The variety
  8. Violation of the Landing Rules Violation of
  9. Porter Conditions
  10. 9000
  11. How to make a walnut bear fruit
  12. Professional advice
  13. Conclusion

Peculiarities of walnut fruiting

Walnuts are harvested while still green, until the shell cracks. Therefore, it is important to learn how to determine the readiness of ripening by several signs:

  1. The main one is that cracks began to appear on the green shell. This means that you need to act as quickly as possible.
  2. Leaves are starting to turn yellow.
  3. The deadline has come. For most varieties, this is the end of summer or the first half of September.
  4. The nuts have become heavier. The weight of the fruit, depending on the variety, ranges from 10 to 30 g.
It is better to collect fruits before the green shell cracks

In what year does the walnut begin to bear fruit

Normally, the walnut bears fruit for 6–8 years. The specific period depends on the variety, so in some cases the crop is harvested after 4-5 years (sometimes even after 2-3 years), and in others - only after 10-12. Depending on how old the walnut begins to bear fruit, as well as on the size of the fruits themselves, the varieties are classified into three large groups.

0 9000 962 6-7 962 962 6-7

Group

Average Mass Message, g

From what age is fruiting, years

Large

9000 9000

Ordinary

10–12

6–8

2 Early0059

10–15

2–3

How many years does a walnut bear fruit? Nuts continue to appear later - until the end of the life of the plant itself. We can say that fruiting lasts 100-150, and sometimes 200-300 years.

Walnut fruit ripening period

Each walnut variety bears fruit after a certain time - on average, after 3.5–4 months from the moment of abundant flowering of the tree:

  • if the inflorescences appeared in April-May, the fruits can be harvested from the second half of August to mid-September;
  • if flowering began in June, the crop is harvested from mid-September to early October.

It is not necessary to wait until the end of fruiting of the walnut. The fruits can be harvested while still green, before cracking. They are placed in boxes and sent to ripen in a moderately cool place for 10-15 days. After that, the green shell is easy to remove with your hands. Theoretically, the collection can be started after cracking. But in this case, part of the crop will inevitably be lost due to birds and pests.

How many fruits a walnut tree gives

After how many years a walnut begins to bear fruit, and what yield it shows, largely depends on the variety and care features. The most prolific representatives, for example, the Ideal variety, give 100–120 kg from one adult tree (age from 15–20 years). In this case, the yield of nuclei by weight ranges from 50 to 65%.

If we assume that one fruit weighs 10–12 g, then about 9–10 thousand units can be collected from each tree. In terms of 1 ha of plantings, the yield reaches 3–3.5 tons. The indicators are averaged, they depend both on the characteristics of the fruiting variety, and on agricultural technology and weather conditions.

A mature tree produces more than 100 kg of walnuts per season

Why a walnut does not bear fruit

If a walnut does not bear fruit, this may be due to both improper care and climatic reasons. Sometimes gardeners also choose the wrong variety or do not take into account the peculiarities of its cultivation (the need for a pollinator).

Wrong variety selected

Some varieties bear fruit after 3 years, others much later (10-12 years). Therefore, you can expect a harvest only after this time. And normal fruiting occurs only in relatively mature trees that are at least 15 years old.

Violation of the planting rules

If the walnut does not bear fruit even after 10-12 years, this may be due to a violation of the planting rules. Specific rules depend on the characteristics of the variety. A scheme from 10x10 to 14x14 m is considered a classic. If the trees are not too sprawling, other options are also used - in the range from 8x4 to 14x7 m (the first number is the distance between rows, the second is between holes).

Violation of the rules of care

Often, incorrect agricultural practices also lead to a violation of the fruiting of a walnut. Most common mistakes:

  1. Too dense crown - thinning should be carried out regularly. This is usually done in early spring, before the buds begin to swell. During pruning, all old, dried and broken branches are removed.
  2. Over-watering - normally water should be given no more than 2-3 times a month (in case of light rainfall).
  3. Violation of the fertilizing regime: fertilizers are given 1 or 2 times per season. In the spring they are fed with nitrogen, and towards the end of summer - with a mixture of superphosphate and potassium salt.

Climate

Fruiting of the walnut is also disturbed in case of adverse weather conditions:

  1. Weak wind - pollen does not have time to get from male flowers to female ones, as a result of which the ovaries do not produce so many fruits.
  2. Heavy rains, cloudiness provoke the development of white spotting.
  3. Prolonged drought has a negative effect on fruiting.

Therefore, you should pay attention to weather forecasts, regulate watering, and, if necessary, carry out artificial pollination.

No pollinator

Walnut is self-fertile because it produces both male and female flowers (on the same tree). Very often they pollinate each other, so fruiting is normal. But sometimes pollen may not fall, and a significant number of ovaries do not bear fruit.

Often the lack of fruiting is due to poor pollination

If a walnut does not bear fruit for this reason, it is important to understand what to do first:

    with yield problems.
  1. Pollen can simply be collected in a natural cloth bag. At the stage of blooming anthers, earrings are selected and laid out on paper, kept for a day at normal temperature, after which pollen is scattered over the branches.
  2. However, both of these methods are not very convenient, so for a longer-term effect, you can graft a branch from a tree that has begun to bloom and still bears fruit normally.

Pests and diseases

Pests prevent walnuts from fruiting: white American butterfly, nut gall mite, codling moth, sapwood (weevil beetle).

Insects are controlled with pheromone traps and insecticides:

  • Fitoverm;
  • "Decis";
  • "Confidor";
  • "Colorado";
  • Vertimek and others.

Sometimes a tree suffers from various diseases (white spot, bacteriosis). The provoking factors are the violation of the norm of irrigation: both a lack and an excess of water. Therefore, you need to monitor the volumes, especially in rainy or dry summers.

How to make walnuts bear fruit

If the specific cause is known, it can be corrected and the yield will be restored. But in practice, not one, but a whole combination of different factors can be observed. Therefore, you need to take care of normal growing conditions, which will make the walnut bear fruit:

  1. Plant another variety nearby and attract insects for pollination (place as many flowers on the site as possible).
  2. Thin out the crown regularly.
  3. Dig the soil under the tree with a pitchfork and then apply organic fertilizer such as humus or compost (30–40 kg per 1 m2).
  4. Do not allow the soil to dry out - always make sure that the soil is sufficiently watered. In order to prevent excessive moisture, it is better to mulch the plantings with peat, humus and other materials, then the soil will remain moist for a long time even in the heat.
Proper watering, feeding, mulching and loosening the soil can speed up fruiting

Pro tips

Walnut fruiting does not always go as expected. Therefore, experienced gardeners have developed a system of care rules for different cases:

  1. Prepare a section of a branch from a tree that produces pollen in advance (especially if the weather is calm for several days in a row).
  2. If all the norms of watering and top dressing are met, but there is still no fruiting, the flow of moisture and fertilizers should be limited. If this does not help, cut off the tips of large roots within a radius of 50 cm (dig them first).
  3. To prevent disease, always remove fallen leaves, where insects and fungal spores can overwinter.
  4. To prevent the appearance of pests, it is recommended to spray the walnut with a solution of copper sulphate and quicklime (in equal amounts) 2-3 times per season.

Conclusion

If the walnut does not bear fruit, the reasons can be very different. Therefore, the gardener is first of all required to ensure proper care (watering, fertilizing, mulching). You should also pay attention to the weather conditions, especially if the summer is cloudy and windless.

in how many years, for which year

Contents

  • When the nut bears its first fruits
  • Common walnut
  • Peculiarities of early gestation
  • How to achieve early fruiting

A question that cannot but interest a person who first encounters a walnut: how many years after planting does a walnut begin to bear fruit? To answer it, you first need to decide on the variety of culture. After all, it depends on what year it will give the first fruits.

The fruiting of the walnut depends on its variety

Growing a walnut to fruiting is not difficult, but for this it should take from two to five years, if the variety is early, and other species give the first nuts only for 8 years. If you want to get fruits as early as possible, then you need to choose a variety and properly care for it.

When the nut bears its first fruits

Walnut grows for a very long time, it is a long-lived tree. It can easily survive more than one owner. It was recorded that the oldest trees reached the age of 500 years.

Therefore, a 50-year-old tree is called young, because it has recently begun to bear fruit.

Walnut varieties are divided into three types:

  1. Quick-bearing variety: produces the first nut at the age of 2-3 years.
  2. To get a fetus with a medium type, you need to wait until he is 8 years old.
  3. Late-fruiting species: produces the first nut only 10 years after planting.

Therefore, the most fruitful tree is one that belongs to early-fruiting varieties, because the earlier the crops begin to produce nuts, the more the gardener will collect them.

If you decide to plant a walnut, then you should immediately think about how soon you want to get the first fruits. People who plant crops for pleasure don't pay attention to it. And anyone who wants to grow a crop for profit must carefully choose seedlings.

An early variety produces nuts in the second or third year after planting

Common walnut

Common walnut is very popular. When properly grown, this species produces fairly large fruits. They are called the largest compared to other varieties. By the age of six, the tree grows to a height of about six meters, and the diameter of the crown is about twenty meters. This variety is constantly growing, and at the age of 50 years it can be about 12 meters high. The circumference of the trunk is approximately 2 meters. The fruits outwardly do not differ from other specimens and can have a weight of 12 grams. Often this species is used by gardeners who breed a plant for sale.

Large-fruited walnut is another popular variety that has fruits weighing over 12 grams. This plant is very valuable, and does not need special care.

It should be noted that the number of fruits does not depend on the type of tree. This is primarily affected by the age of the plant. The older it gets, the more nuts it gives. A culture at the age of 5 years can give 10 kilograms, but one that is 50 years old gives more than 100 kilograms.

The older the nut, the greater the harvest

Peculiarities of early gestation

The main advantage of early-growing varieties is that they begin to bear fruit earlier than others. An ordinary tree grown at home begins to bear its first fruits at the age of 6 years, but plants of an early type already at 3 years old. The first type of such a walnut was found in the Tashkent region less than a century ago. It begins to bloom actively at the age of three, and exactly one year later it also actively bears fruit.

Such varieties first form clusters, on which flowers form over time. After the flowering period, the first fruits begin to form. The growing type for the first time forms four nuts on one inflorescence, but after a year about a dozen of them appear. This feature is present only in early maturing varieties.

The first fruits are formed immediately after flowering

How to get early fruiting

Walnut is an unusual product that is beneficial for the human body. Growing this nut, though a long process, is profitable: these nuts are expensive. But not everyone knows when a nut begins to bear fruit, and after planting, some do not expect to have to watch a tree without fruit for so long. Gardeners who have learned when a walnut begins to bear fruit are trying to speed up this process.

But it is worth noting that if you have acquired a late-fruiting culture, then the maximum that can be achieved is the acceleration of fruiting by 1-2 years (if a tree usually bears fruit for the first time at 10 years, then the fruits will appear at 8-9).


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