How long do beech trees take to grow


American Beech Tree (Fagus grandifolia): Native Plant Guide

A common specimen in forests of the Eastern U.S., the American beech has a trunk with smooth gray bark, 2 to 3 feet in diameter. The leaves are up to 5 inches across, oval or elliptical in shape, dark green in color with prominent veins that end in toothy edges. Yellowish green flowers appear from April to May, and the female flowers give way to triangular-shaped beechnuts. The foliage turns golden bronze in fall. This is a large tree, often growing to 80 feet or even more. Although sometimes used as a landscape tree, the American beech is not well suited to urban conditions; it does not like even low pollution levels. Left unattended, the shallow roots will readily sucker, gradually forming a thicket of trees.

This is quite a slow-growing tree, generally adding no more than 6 to 9 inches per year, very gradually achieving a mature height. It is normally planted as a bare-root specimen in late winter or early spring.

Though ripe nuts are quite edible, unripe nuts contain small amounts of a mild toxin known as fagin, confined mostly in the skin of the nuts. Large quantities of unripe nuts need to be consumed before ill effects occur, but this does occasionally happen with dogs and grazing animals. The American beech is less toxic than the European beech, but there are instances of poisoning, usually in the fall, when dogs or other animals eat the fallen nuts.

Common Name American beech tree
Botanical Name Fagus grandifolia
Family Fagaceae
Plant Type Deciduous tree
Mature Size 50-80 ft. tall, 40–80 ft. wide
Sun Exposure Full, partial
Soil Type Medium moisture, rich, well-drained
Soil pH Acidic (5. 0–6.5)
Bloom Time April to May
Flower Color Yellowish-green (not showy)
Hardiness Zones 3 to 9 (USDA)
Native Area  Eastern North America
Toxicity Unripe nuts are mildly toxic

American Beech Care

The American beech is a deciduous tree in the Fagus genus, which also includes the European beech (Fagus sylvatia), another popular landscape tree. American beech (F. grandifolia) appeals to native plant enthusiasts, though in many ways is inferior to the much more popular European species.

It can be difficult to find a container-grown American beech tree at your local garden center, because they grow very slowly and a container grown tree would be unreasonably expensive for the nursery. But you can usually buy a bare-root American beech online. Late winter to early spring is a great time to buy and plant a bare root tree (it can also be done in fall). Soak the bare roots overnight before planting. (If you purchased a ball-and-burlap tree, soak the ball thoroughly with a hose as you prepare a planting hole).

Choose a planting spot with deep, well-drained soil and where there is plenty of room. The American beech tree occasionally becomes over 100 feet tall. Even at half that (the more common height for it in the landscape), this is a specimen meant for large properties. Newly planted trees can be susceptible to the wind, so it's a good idea to drive a stake and tie the tree trunk loosely to the stake for the first few months of growth. However, at this point, the stake should be removed, as the tree will develop better long-term strength if the wood is allowed to flex in the wind.

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

Dcrjsr / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 3.0

Light

Like most large shade trees, American beech prefers full sun (six or more hours per day), but it will also do quite well in partial shade.

Soil

Of all the conditions recommended for American beech trees, the most important is a deep, well-drained soil. A soil that drains well will discourage fungi. And furnishing a deep soil may help discourage the shallow rooting so problematic for this tree. Shallow rooting can wreck nearby hardscape features, causing sidewalks and driveways to heave.

Water

This plant has average water needs. Make sure it gets about 1 inch of water per week through rainfall and/or irrigation. Do not allow water to puddle around the tree, as this can cause root rot. Fully mature American beech trees will tolerate short dry spells, but this is not a tree well suited for a long drought.

Fertilizer

American beech is beset fed annually with a balanced fertilizer. In early spring, apply 1 pound of fertilizer per 100 square feet. Spread it over the ground directly under the tree's canopy and water it in.

Types of Beech

There are no named cultivars of the American beech, but there are some excellent versions of the European beech that should be considered:

  • European beech (Fagus sylvatica): This is a very similar tree to the American beech, but with a slightly darker bark and a less dense growth habit. It is also much more tolerant of pollution and urban conditions. Several good named cultivars are available.
  • Copper beech (F. sylvatica 'Purpurea'): This is a notable cultivar of the European beech, with beautiful coppery-purple leaves.
  • Tricolor beech(F. sylvatica 'Purpurea Tricolor'): This is another good cultivar of the European beech. It has very unusual variegated leaves with pink, white, and green colors. It is a smaller tree, growing to a maximum of 30 feet.

Pruning

These trees will readily sucker from the shallow roots. Keep these suckers cut away as they appear. Damaged or diseased limbs can be removed as you notice them. With diseased branches, it is fine to cut them back to a point a foot or so below the diseased area.

American beech tends to develop a low canopy, so if you prefer a more towering tree, cut away low branches. Because large forks tend to be weak, it is best to remove one of the two branches as these forks appear. This will be easiest to do as the tree is young and still developing; mature trees will probably need an arborist to do the trimming.

Late winter or early spring, before the tree has begun active new growth, is the best time to perform major trimming for shape.

Propagating American Beech

The American beech is such a slow-growing tree that DIY propagation is rare. That said, it can be done fairly easily, both by seeds and from stem cuttings. Here's how to propagate a new tree from stem cuttings:

  1. Using sharp pruners, take 6- to 10-inch cuttings from the tip of the branch, from new wood no more than 1 year old. The fall is the best time for this process.
  2. Remove the bottom leaves and soak the cut end in a bucket of water. While the branch soaks, fill a small pot with a mixture of potting soil and wood-based compost (such as pine bark composts).
  3. Dip the cut end of the branch in rooting hormone, then plant it in the prepared potting mix.
  4. Moisten the potting mix and cover the pot with a loose clear plastic bag. Place the pot in a bright location and continue to grow it until roots begin to develop and new leaves begin to sprout,
  5. Once the cutting is rooted, remove the plastic bag and continue to grow it indoors over the winter (or on a patio, if you live in a warm climate). By the following spring, the cutting can be planted in the landscape to grow into a tree.

How to Grow American Beech From Seed

Gather some dried, ripe beechnuts from the tree in the fall, and plant each one in a container filled with potting mix. Cover the seeds with 1/2 inch of potting mix and place them in a sunny indoor location. Keep the potting mix moist but not wet until the seed sprouts, then continue growing in a bright location.

At the end of the first year, transplant the seedling into a larger pot and continue growing it until it reaches a height of 1 to 3 feet, at which time it is ready to plant in the landscape. You'll need patience, as this can take several years.

Overwintering

American beech is a very hardy species that requires no special cold protection. When the tree is young, you may want to protect the trunk of the tree with hardware cloth or a metal guard to shield the bark from rabbits and other gnawing animals. After a few years, this kind of winter protection will no longer be necessary.

Common Pests & Plant Diseases

Like the American elm tree (Ulmus americana) and the American chestnut tree (Castanea dentata), the American beech tree has been under attack from a foreign invader and suffers from a serious disease: beech bark disease. Two things working together cause this disease: a non-native insect (the beech scale) and certain fungi (Nectria species). The beech scale insects pierce the bark (the bark is thin, making their task easier) to remove sap. These piercings give the fungi open access to the insides of the tree. The result is bark cankers. At worst, death can result from beech bark disease. At best, the tree's looks will be marred. Control of the disease is possible, but it is difficult and best left to professionals.

Understanding what causes beech bark disease should dissuade you from engaging in the time-honored practice of carving initials in the bark that will be visible for decades. The thinness of the bark is what has made this tree the preferred target of such carving: A knife easily pierces the bark, leading to scarring that never heals. Just as piercings from an insect can open the way to damaging fungi, human-made injury has the same effect.

How to Get American Beech to Bloom

American beech is a monoecious species, producing both male and female flowers on the same plant. They are not showy, so the only reason to be concerned about flowers is if you want the plant to produce nuts, which are the product of the female flowers. But it's possible that you'll never live to see a tree you plant produce nuts. That's because it can take 40 years or more before a beech tree is sufficiently mature to begin flowering and producing nuts.

If you have a mature tree that is already producing flowers and nuts, be aware that it's common for the yield to vary from year to year. Typically, there's a heavy flower/nut production every two or three years, with a much sparser yield in other years.

To encourage flower and nut production, simply keep the tree as healthy as possible, especially when it comes to providing adequate water. These trees don't like extended drought.

Common Problems With American Beech

Roots Are Disrupting the Lawn

American beech is notorious for developing shallow, exposed roots that can extend quite a distance. While deep soil preparation can encourage the tree to root itself downward rather than out, once a tree begins to exhibit an extensive exposed root system, there's little you can do about it. At this point, the best strategy might be to convert the area below the canopy from lawn grass to a shade-garden bed covered with thick mulch to hide the roots.

Canopy Is Too Low

Beech trees are known for having low limbs that can interfere with pedestrian movement and create such dense shade that lawn grass won't thrive beneath it. A beech tree's canopy can be raised by pruning away the lowest limbs, but this is best done on a young tree over a period of several years. With an older, mature tree, it can be damaging to cut away many large limbs all at once, so if it must be done, spread the pruning over several years.

Tree Suckers Constantly

One of the big drawbacks of the American beech tree is that it spreads by sending up suckering sprouts from its extensive root system. In native habitat, this can allow a single tree to colonize into an entire dense thicket of trees, but in a traditional landscape, this habit can be an annoyance. These suckers should be cut away as they appear to prevent them from diverting energy away from the main tree.

FAQ

  • This massive, long-lived tree with the broad, oval-shaped canopy is normally planted as a shade tree, but it also has ornamental value as a specimen tree for large properties. However, it has a tendency toward shallow broad-reaching roots, so it should be planted well away from hardscape structures.

  • Yes. Creatures such as squirrels, chipmunks, and many birds love to feed on the ripened nuts of this tree. In wilder regions, the nuts may even be popular with bears.

  • The clearest difference is that the American beech has leaves with serrated edges, while the European beech has smooth-edged leaves. On the unripened fruit, the spines on American beech are usually straight, while the spines on the fruit of European beech are often curly. Finally, the leaves on American beech are longer and narrower, while European beech has leaves that are more oval-shaped.

    European beech is a slightly smaller tree, and as a landscape tree, it may be preferable to the American beech, which is somewhat sensitive to urban conditions and has a troublesome suckering habit.

  • Yes, the nuts are edible, though not as desirable for humans as they are for animals. Full ripened nuts can be roasted and eaten whole, or they can be ground into flour and added to corn meal for baking.

  • It's quite common for an American beech in good health to live more than 150 years. There are some existing specimens believed to be more than 300 years old.

  • American beech turns a golden bronze color in fall. It is not especially showy on its own, but can provide a nice contrast with other, more colorful trees.

Article Sources

The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Fagus grandiflora. North Carolina State Extension.

Plant Care & Growing Guide

By

Vanessa Richins Myers

Vanessa Richins Myers

Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, writer, and educator with over 10 years of training and experience as a professional horticulturist and gardener. She has a Bachelor of Science degree in horticulture, with an emphasis in landscape design and urban horticulture. She volunteers as a community garden specialist.

Learn more about The Spruce's Editorial Process

Updated on 07/21/21

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

In This Article

  • Care

  • Varieties

  • Pruning

  • Pests/Diseases

The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is a popular deciduous shade tree (it loses its leaves in the fall) from Europe. It typically grows quite large with an upright oval to rounded shape. The trunk is relatively short with branches starting low on the tree. Smooth, thin, silvery gray bark is a trademark of European beech trees. The leaves are roughly 4 inches long and a dark green color that turns to a striking golden bronze in the fall. In the spring, small yellow-green flowers bloom and give way to seeds, or beechnuts.  

European beech trees are fairly slow growers, gaining roughly 1 to 2 feet per year, so they can take a few decades to reach maturity. But they have very long lifespans, commonly reaching 200 years old and often even older. They can be planted in the late winter or early spring, as well as in the fall.

Botanical Name  Fagus sylvatica
Common Names European beech, common beech
Plant Type Tree
Mature Size 50–60 ft. tall, 35–50 ft. wide
Sun Exposure Full, partial
Soil Type Loamy, moist, well-drained
Soil pH Acidic, neutral
Bloom Time Spring 
Flower Color Yellow-green
Hardiness Zones 4–7 (USDA)
Native Area Europe
Toxicity Toxic to humans and animals 

European Beech Care

European beech trees are excellent to fill in a large space and become a focal point in the landscape. To start them off right and make their care a breeze, it’s important to select a planting site that will have space for the tree’s mature size. Keep young trees well watered, but make sure they’re not sitting in soggy soil, as this can kill them. 

Besides watering whenever the soil starts to dry out, annual fertilization, and a bit of pruning, this tree doesn’t require much continual maintenance. It is ideal to regularly remove any grass and weeds growing over the tree’s root zone. This will prevent competition for soil moisture and nutrients. 

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova

Light

European beech trees can grow in full sun to partial shade. Full sun, meaning at least six hours of direct sunlight on most days, is best for optimal growth. But the trees can tolerate slightly less light if need be.

Soil

The trees thrive in rich, loose, loamy soil that has a slightly acidic to neutral soil pH. They also require sharp soil drainage. They can tolerate various other soil types, including soil with a slightly alkaline pH, as long as there is good drainage. 

Water

European beech trees like evenly moist, but not soggy, soil. And they’re fairly intolerant to drought conditions. So during hot weather and/or a stretch without rainfall, water your tree deeply as soon as the soil begins to dry out. The trees will benefit from a layer of mulch over their root area to help maintain soil moisture.

Temperature and Humiidty

Mild temperatures are ideal for these trees; they don’t like extreme cold or heat. Likewise, they prefer a moderate humidity level. In high humidity, ensure that the trees have good soil drainage and sufficient air circulation among the branches. And in dry conditions, pay extra attention to keeping the soil evenly moist.

Fertilizer

Use a balanced, slow-release fertilizer each spring following label instructions. Be sure to spread it under the tree’s entire canopy and extend about a foot beyond the canopy circumference to target the whole root zone. Compost mixed into the soil at the time of planting also can be beneficial for the tree.

European Beech Varieties

There are several varieties of the European beech tree, including:

  • Fagus sylvatica 'Tricolor': This cultivar features variegated leaves with a mix of pink, white, and green. 
  • Fagus sylvatica 'Purpurea': This tree is known for its beautiful coppery purple foliage that turns to a copper-red in the fall.
  • Fagus sylvatica 'Pendula': This cultivar is slightly smaller than the main species tree and has a weeping growth habit (like a weeping willow), with branches drooping toward the ground.
  • Fagus sylvatica 'Atropunicea': The foliage on this cultivar emerges nearly black and turns to a purple-green throughout the growing season.

Pruning

European beech trees don’t need much pruning, as they naturally grow in an attractive form. However, if branches are growing too close together and rubbing against one another, remove one of the branches to prevent bark damage. Also, remove suckers (the thin stems that sometimes grow from the base of the tree), as they can sap the tree’s energy. The best time to prune is in the late winter or early spring before new leaves emerge. But any dead, damaged, or diseased branches should be removed whenever you spot them.

Common Pests/Diseases

These trees generally don’t have any major issues with pests or diseases. However, occasionally beech scale, aphids, and borers might infest a tree and cause leaf damage. If you notice an infestation, use a horticultural oil or insecticide as soon as possible. The best method to keep a tree healthy is prevention by maintaining its desired growing conditions. 

where it grows, species and varieties, planting and care, photo

Content

  • 1 Beech - what kind of tree is it
    • 1. 1 What does a beech tree look like
    • 1.2 Botanical description of a beech tree
    • 1.3 Where does a beech tree grow in Russia008
  • 2 Beech in landscape design
  • 3 Types and varieties of beech
  • 4 Planting and caring for beech
    • 0008
    • 4.4 Mulching and loosening
    • 4.5 Cabbage
    • 4.6 Preparation for winter
  • 5 Book Reproduction
  • 6 Diseases and Pests
  • 7 Conclusion

Bucche tree is considered a valuable breed around the world. In modern Europe, it is often planted for landscaping the areas of city parks. In the wild, you can meet pure beech forests. Beech grows even in the mountains, the habitat of this tree is limited to a height of 2300 m above sea level.

Beech - what kind of tree is it

Beech is a broad-leaved, tall, deciduous, slow-growing tree belonging to the Beech family. In many languages, the name of the beech tree is similar to the word for "book". This is due to the fact that bark and wooden sticks carved from beech were used in ancient times to write the first runes.

What a beech tree looks like

The height of a beech tree reaches 30 m, the circumference of the trunk is approximately 2 m in diameter. The trunk is covered with a thin layer of smooth gray bark. The beech crown has unusual properties, it is so thick that sunlight simply does not reach the lower branches, as a result of which photosynthesis processes are disrupted, the branches die and fall off. That is why they are located only in the upper part of the crown, almost to the very top of the tree, the trunk remains bare.

The beech tree is a cozy home for birds. It looks stunning at any time of the year. In autumn, the beech forest is full of juicy, bright shades, and in summer and spring it pleases the eye with lush green foliage.

Botanical description of the beech tree

Strong beech branches covered with oval or oval-oblong leaves, 5 to 15 cm long and 4 to 10 cm wide. They may have slight serrations or be entire. In the autumn-winter period, the beech sheds its foliage.

Scaly buds are elongated and sprout to replace leaves in winter. The flowering of the tree begins in the spring months, when the first leaves begin to open. The flowers collected in earrings are unisexual and are pollinated with the help of the wind.

The triangular beech fruits are shaped like an acorn. Their length is 10 - 15 mm. The fruits have a dense, woody peel, collected 2-4 pieces in a shell consisting of 4 blades, which is called a plush. The fruits are considered edible, despite the high content of tannin, which has a bitter aftertaste. In the people they received the name "beech nuts".

Important! Beech fruits may contain a poisonous alkaloid called fagin. It decomposes and becomes toxic when roasted.

Solitary trees begin to bear fruit after 20 - 40 years. Fruiting of beeches growing in groups begins at least 60 years later.

Beech roots are strong and close to the soil surface, there is no pronounced tap root. Often the roots of several adjacent trees are intertwined.

Where the beech tree grows in Russia

Beech is considered one of the most common tree crops in Europe. The territory of mixed and deciduous forests in Europe, North America and Asia is literally strewn with beech trees.

In Russia, you can meet forest and oriental beech, they grow on the territory of the Crimea and the Caucasus. In central Russia, growing this tree will not be easy. Without damage, it can only withstand short-term frosts down to -35 o C even at rest. The plant does not tolerate prolonged frosts. For young shoots, leaves and seedlings, even cold snaps down to -2 9 are detrimental0079 o C.

Beech in landscape design

In landscape design, beech is used for landscaping city parks and alleys. Curly hedges are often formed from it. Trees are planted both singly and in groups, thereby creating an unusually beautiful green landscape of parks and forest parks.

The lush beech crown forms a pleasant partial shade under it, in which you can place a summerhouse or a bench to enjoy a slight coolness on hot summer days.

Due to its dense foliage and dense crown, beech is perfect for planting in industrial areas of the city. The benefit of beech is that the tree cleans the water and air around it, protects the soil from erosion. Its roots are able to release mineral and organic substances into the soil, which make it more fertile.

Important! Spreading beech branches form a strong shadow under them, so planting light-loving plants next to it is not recommended.

Sowing chestnut, oriental and common spruce, weymouth pine, oak, birch, white fir, berry yew, juniper, mountain ash, hornbeam get along well with this plant.

Types and varieties of beech

The most common both in the wild and in horticulture are the following types of beech:

  • Oriental beech (Caucasian). It is found in the vast territories of the Crimea, the Caucasus and the north of Asia Minor. Often grown in protected natural complexes of the European part of Russia. It grows in beech forests or in proximity to other broad-leaved crops. The height of the tree can reach 50 m. It is distinguished from the forest beech by a more rounded and even crown and larger elongated leaves, reaching 20 cm in length. Oriental beech is also more thermophilic;
  • European beech (forest). It is the most common member of this family. It grows wild in Western Ukraine, Belarus and Western Europe. In Russia, it is also present in some reserves in the European part. The height of the forest beech reaches 30 m, its crown is powerful, has an ovoid shape. On the branches are oval leaves up to 10 cm long;
  • Engler. Considered a rare breed, in the wild this type of beech grows only in China. Cultivated specimens are used in park and garden landscape design in other countries. The height of the Engler beech tree reaches 20 m, its trunk is divided into several branches, thereby forming a wide oval crown. The plant is also distinguished from other species by the elongated oval shape of the leaves;
  • Large-leaved beech. Most common in eastern North America and Western Europe. Prefers mixed deciduous forests, gets along well with maples, birches and lindens. The main feature of the species is large, elongated leaf blades and buds, stretching up to 2.5 cm in length.

    Beech planting and care

    It is also possible to grow beech in a summer cottage. This is a very shade-tolerant culture that can withstand even a long stay in the shade. However, the plant feels comfortable in the sun. The beech tree does not tolerate drought and needs abundant watering. It is not demanding on the soil, wet and dry, slightly acidic and alkaline - at least somewhat fertile lands are suitable for it. Planting work usually begins in the spring.

    Seedling and planting preparation

    Despite the fact that beech can grow on almost any soil, it prefers loamy, calcareous soil. Polluted and saline soils have a negative impact on beech. Beech seedlings are best purchased in specialized stores, but you can also germinate them yourself from seeds.

    Important! When choosing a place for growing beech, it must be taken into account that the root system of the tree is quite powerful and voluminous, it needs a lot of space. Trampled areas are also not suitable for beech.

    How to plant a beech

    The main thing when planting a beech is to choose the right time, the seedlings are planted in the spring before the first buds appear. Otherwise, the tree will have a weak immunity to diseases and grow slowly.

    Planting algorithm:

    1. Dig a hole measuring 80 by 80 cm. Large holes will help the roots grow faster.
    2. Drain the beech planting hole with stones.
    3. Add fertilizer to stimulate the active growth of the root system.
    4. Place the beech seedling in the planting hole.
    5. Sprinkle with earth and water thoroughly.
    6. To better preserve the soil, the area around the young beech trunk should be mulched with dry grass.

    Watering and fertilizing

    Young beeches should be watered once a week. Twice a month, they also need spraying, which allows you to wash off all the dust and pests from parts of the plant.

    Top dressing after planting is carried out only while the beech tree is small. Plants are fed twice a year: in autumn and spring.

    Mulching and loosening

    Twice a month, after spraying, the soil around young beech seedlings must also be loosened. After loosening, the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of dry grass, which allows you to keep the soil moist for a long time.

    Pruning

    The beech crown lends itself well to pruning and shaping. That is why the tree is so highly valued and is often used in landscape design to form green hedges and various compositions with other plants.

    Regular pruning also helps to rejuvenate the plant. However, beech branches and leaves grow very slowly, so pruning is infrequent. Usually annual pruning is carried out in the spring.

    In addition to the decorative function, pruning allows you to free the plant from old and unnecessary branches. The need for such procedures disappears only when the tree becomes an adult.

    Winterizing

    Beech trees need a lot of moisture to survive the autumn/winter period. Mature plants are not afraid of short-term cooling down to -35 o C. However, young seedlings are not suitable for such temperatures. For the winter, they need a thick layer of mulch and extra shelter.

    Beech propagation

    The beech tree is propagated with:

    • seeds;
    • cuttings;
    • vaccinations;
    • bends.

    Experienced gardeners recommend propagating beech seeds. Seeds for planting can be harvested independently. To do this, the fruits, as they ripen, must be collected and stored until planting in semi-moist sand. Immediately before planting, they are placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, after which they are planted at home in seedling containers. Only with the advent of warm, sunny days, seedlings can be transplanted into the ground.

    Important! Beech seeds retain their germination capacity throughout the year.

    Other methods of propagation are diversion, grafting and cuttings. However, the rooting of plants in this case is reduced to 12%. For three years after planting, the tree will grow very slowly, subsequently the growth rate will accelerate significantly. A good shoot is obtained from a stump.

    Diseases and pests

    The beech tree can be affected by a number of parasitic fungi that are extremely dangerous to the health and life of the plant. They cause diseases such as trunk cancer, brown spot, and various types of rot.

    Trunk cancer

    Its causative agent is marsupial fungus. The disease can be detected by the presence of cancerous ulcers on the trunk. The mycelium of the fungus contributes to the death and damage to the cells of the tree. Every year, cancerous ulcers increase in size, they can even provoke the death of a tree. Small wounds must be cut and smeared with creosote mixed with oil. Running trees are to be cut down and destroyed.

    Brown leaf spot

    A fungal disease that is detected by the presence of brown spots on the leaves. Usually it threatens only young trees. In case of spotting, the trees are sprayed with special solutions (Bordeaux liquid, Chorus, Barrier)

    White marble rot

    It is caused by the tinder fungus, its mycelium penetrates the wood, destroying it and forming rot. If the tinder fungus is not removed in a timely manner, the tree may die.

    Conclusion

    Beech wood can fit into the landscape design of any suburban area. It will become an indispensable part of garden compositions and will create a light penumbra under it, in which it is so pleasant to be on hot summer days. Despite the fact that the plant can withstand severe temperature drops, it is extremely unstable to prolonged frosts. Beech planting is recommended in regions with warm winter climates.

    Where beech grows. Description of the European tree. Medicinal properties of beech

    Beech is a deciduous, majestic tree belonging to the Beech family. In terms of decorativeness and its features, it occupies an important place among various hardwoods. Beech is a tree, the description of which is a fascinating process, because beech is considered a very interesting representative of the flora. The tree spreads its branches wide, thus forming a huge tent, into which even the hot summer rays of the sun cannot penetrate. Accordingly, under it and in the most intense heat, a pleasant coolness is felt.

    In addition, forest beech is found in Europe, America, Japan and China. It grows mainly in gorges, along the banks of rivers, along the slopes of mountains, sometimes on the plains. Beech forests grow at an altitude of approximately 500 meters above sea level. The maximum age of beech reaches 500 years.

    A hectare of beech timber forest emits about 5 thousand tons of vapors into the atmosphere every year - hence the fog rising above the forest and cloudiness. And since deciduous trees have a higher need for water than the same resinous trees, they significantly increase atmospheric humidity, thereby exerting a deep regulating climate influence. And this means that massive deforestation automatically entails long-term climatic changes, in most cases unfavorable.

    They have alternate leaves, simple and serrate, asymmetrical at the base and completed at the tip. It can reach 40 m in height, with a trunk without branches at the bottom. Beech growth is very slow, but it is a tree that lives for many years. It can be up to 300 years old.

    Such are the leaves of beeches. The bark is gray and smooth. It reaches a height of up to 40 meters. Its leaves are easy to identify. And the leaves of the leaves. The greyish stem is usually straight. This tree is very common in cities. This is a very Christmas tree. Its beautiful red fruits and thorny leaves of intense dark green make it the perfect garnish. Its leaves are easily visible with thorns and shape.

    Used part

    Beech walnut and wood refers to the used part of the tree. The nut kernel contains tannins and nitrogenous substances, fatty oils, sugars, starch, tocopherol, fiber and organic acids, including citric and malic acids. They contain the alkaloid fagin and ash. It should be noted that the alkaloid fagin is a toxic substance. If raw nuts are consumed immoderately, this will lead to gastritis and headache, as well as inflammation of the small intestine. Therefore, you should be careful with these fruits.

    Now you can go to the game to find out what score you will receive. Finally, we leave you a video of the most common trees to help you identify them. If you like, click "How". It is characterized by a thick grayish chest, high branches, a rounded crown and oblong leaves, the sharp tips of which have toothed edges. Beech should be developed in fertile soils, especially where there is a high level of lime. In order to grow healthy and strong, it is necessary to receive abundant rainfall, since the rate of his sweat is very high.


    Reproduction and cultivation

    Forest beech grows very slowly. It is a very shade-tolerant and at the same time heat-loving tree. Beech is demanding on soil moisture and hardly tolerates drought, prefers to grow on calcareous soils.

    As mentioned above, the beech belongs to the Beech family. You can safely call this family "long-livers": Beech for the most part live almost up to five hundred years! However, these trees have a low level of frost resistance. Beech needs a warm sheltered place. For the distribution of beech trees, southern regions are preferred, otherwise they may freeze slightly.

    The beech beam is usually placed horizontally to capture as much light as possible. Thus, it is difficult for other plants in the neighborhood to survive. Some beeches share the landscape with spruce or other deciduous species. Beech is a long-lived tree that grows slowly and propagates through seeds. As soon as it grows, it becomes very tough. Beech trees are used to shade large spaces. Its wood, on the other hand, is very popular in carpentry, turning and cardboard construction.

    Beech flowers are said by gardeners to have medicinal properties and are used in various remedies. These properties were discovered by the Welsh physician Edward Bach, creator of the famous Bach flowers. Another meaning that this term has, with which we are dealing, we find in what is used by the Castilian in Spain. And what in this country used to be used to refer to the donations that students of dance schools gave to their teachers when they celebrated various festivities, as it could be at Christmas.

    The beech tree is propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering. The European beech is used not only to create powerful plant masses in parks, but also in single plantings. Beech forms beautiful hedges. They can be cut, as well as give them a different shape. This tree has long found its place in cultivated places.

    In addition to all of the above, we can also emphasize that in Spain, and more specifically in the Autonomous Community of Cantabria, there is a municipality whose name belongs to The Hague. This is a population of only five people, that is, up to three kilometers from Matadorker and which is located at an altitude of up to a thousand meters above sea level.

    Similarly, in Mexico, in the famous state of Veracruz, we also find a nucleus called Haya. Eastern country, in the city of Jalapa, any visitor will have the opportunity to get acquainted with the beauty of The Hague Ecological Park. Equally important, we emphasize that there is a conjugation of the verb that will be used in various cases. In addition, it is well used to conjugate various verbs in their complex modes, as well as next to infinitives that signify necessity, duty, or convenience.

    Beech successfully combines with other trees - with pine, white fir, Canadian hemlock, Norway spruce, yew berry, juniper, mountain ash, plane tree, birch, oak, hazel and others. Beech is very often planted for decorative purposes because it lends itself well to molding: it can be easily trimmed. These trees are used to create all kinds of geometric shapes. They are great for decorating high hedges, not only in parks, but also in private residential areas.

    In many cases this is confused with halls. However, this conjugation has nothing to do with the verb, but with the verb to find, which is a synonym for searching, discovering, providing something or knowing. The Hague is finally the administrative capital of the Netherlands. This city hosts the International Court of Justice, among other institutions.

    With a significant reduction in the number of pollinating insects, farmers are encouraged to grow flowering plants that can hold these important insects. This is a new movement that could help restore the pollinators needed for global food production.

    Harvesting and harvesting

    To harvest beech wood, you need to carefully cut off a small part of it with a sharp object. This is usually done in September-October. Then the wood is cut into small pieces and put to dry in a well-ventilated place, for example, under a simple canopy.

    In recent years, Richard Runt has allowed researchers to introduce rows of wildflowers among blueberry plants from his farm in West Olive, Michigan. This practice is part of an experiment to see if wildflowers can stimulate these pollinating insects and somehow begin to reverse the global decline in beneficial insects. It's also groundbreaking work in a new movement to convince farmers to grow insects as if they were a crop.

    Bad news, even from an environmental pessimist, is driving this movement. Insects pollinate 75% of the world's crops and produce a crop of 210 billion. However, now bees are not plentiful, according to a study from the University of Reading, which says that Europe is missing 13.6 million colonies to pollinate its crops.

    The wood needs to be turned occasionally. This is necessary so that it does not become damp and moldy. After the raw material is completely dry, it is placed in paper bags, and then they are put away in a ventilated dry room for storage.

    As mentioned above, the beech tree has fruits - nuts. They are harvested at the end of September when they reach maturity. Then they are laid out in a thin layer on a pallet located in a ventilated place. This place should be protected from children. It should not be in the house in which people live, otherwise the whole family may suffer due to poisoning. Beech trees contain a poisonous substance - the alkaloid fagin.

    In addition, farmers do not have natural pollinators as a safe system. In China, a decline in wild bees has forced farmers to turn in brushes to pollinate apple blossoms with brushes. Native plants between crops can attract pollinators like this bee to the Calliopsis flower.

    The large decline in the number of beneficial insects has also affected species that we consider part of our cultural heritage. Last week, researchers announced that the number of monarch butterflies, already at historic lows, has again halved in the annual balance in Mexico, leaving the symbolic migration of monarchs now "In serious danger of extinction."

    Raw materials need to be turned occasionally to ensure good and fast drying. After the nuts have dried, they are packed in bags, which are then placed in a ventilated room.

    Application

    The substance creosote present in this plant is used as an external agent, since it has a disinfecting and cauterizing effect. In addition, it is used for inhalation in chronic respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis.

    Currently, the drive to have farmers increase the population of beneficial insects in the United States to several tens of millions of hectares of pollinator plantations is heavily subsidized by federal and state governments.

    A Michigan farmer discovers that his new wild flower beds are full of bees and other pollinators. The experiment at Richard Runt's blueberry farm - part of a study by Michigan State University entomologist Rufus Isaacs - is an example of what can happen when the effort is successful. The results of the study are not expected to be published until the end of this year, but at least for Rant, it looks like the pollinator planting has worked. He noted that the fields of the wild field were filled not only with bees and other pollinators, but also with wasps, ladybugs, lacewings and predatory beetles, which are known to attack the type of pest insects that damage blueberries.

    Creosote has a specific, very unpleasant odor and taste. This substance is irritating to the stomach and also to the kidneys. It is often replaced with guaiacol and other drugs.

    The Beech family is also famous for the fact that fatty oil is obtained from its fruits. It is used in the food industry. At the same time, flour is made from the seeds of the plant, using it for baking. Also, these seeds are subjected to a slight heat treatment in the form of roasting. In this form, they are used to create a coffee drink with excellent dietary characteristics.

    On his own, he started adding cover crops - buckwheat, soybeans, mustard, alfalfa and clover - in the three meter spaces between the rows of blueberries to get something to bloom during the growth period. And not only did this reduce the factorization of tractor work and fuel, it also cut to over half the number of bee hives that needed to be rented during the trial period—a big savings as rental prices skyrocketed as the bee population collapsed. Runt is now so excited about the idea of ​​raising insects that he wishes something would bloom right under his blueberries so the beneficial insects wouldn't have to travel so far.

    Contraindications

    Beech wood contains the toxic alkaloid fagin. This poisonous substance is also found in raw nuts, which are not recommended for consumption. The alkaloid fagin disappears only when exposed to high temperatures.

    Quite severe poisoning is possible in young children who have eaten nuts raw, as well as in adults with insufficient heat treatment.

    However, other farmers have not yet come up with the idea, and protected or improved area for beneficial insects is still negligible in the context of global expansion and intensification of agriculture. In North America, monarch butterflies have lost 68 million hectares.

    In addition to growing reliance on killer weeds, Orly R. "Chip" Taylor of the University of Kansas estimates that monarch butterflies - a paragon of beneficial insects - have lost 68 million hectares of North American habitat. In many places, the thrush they are supposed to produce for the next generation has simply disappeared.

    It should be noted that in case of poisoning with this product, unpleasant sensations occur in the hypogastric region, general malaise, acute gastroenteritis, nausea, and headache.

    In case of poisoning, cleansing enemas and gastric lavage should be given.

    Conclusion

    The beech tree (European) in the plantations forms a stunning colonnade dominated by silence, peace and twilight. This powerful tree, when solitary, is a rather dense and sprawling tent due to its impenetrable crown and outstretched branches.

    But walking in the shade of these trees, do not forget that beech nuts are very poisonous, even though they look quite appetizing. Take care of yourself and your health!

    Beech is a deciduous tree belonging to the Beech family. The distribution range of the species is outlined by the temperate zone of Europe, Asia and North America. European beech represents huge populations on the territory of modern Europe, often grown for landscaping cities in park areas. The plant can be found high in the mountains, the forest beech develops well at an altitude of up to 2300 m above sea level. The beech tree is not only hardy, it dominates the forests over deciduous representatives of other species.

    A deciduous tree can grow and develop in one place for several centuries.

    On different continents, beech forests of different types of trees are common. Forest beech can be found on the European continent, B. large-leaved is more common in North America. Beech trees are endemic to China and Japan, the Chinese variety of the tree is B. Engler, in Japan there are two species - B. Japanese blue and B. jagged.

    The beech tree often reaches a height of up to 30 m, the girth of the trunk can exceed 2 m. An adult growing beech tree is a giant tree, its trunks, which are gray in color, are covered with smooth bark. Almost to the very top with a powerful crown, beech stems do not have branches. This tree has such a dense crown that the lower branches are never illuminated by the sun, and therefore, the process of photosynthesis is disrupted. That is why the lower branches gradually die off, leaving the beech trunk bare.

    Beech leaves have an oblong oval shape, often decorated with serrations or frequent teeth along the edge. The length of the leaves is from 5 to 15 cm, the width often reaches up to 10 cm. The leaves fall off in winter.

    Beech giants bloom in spring, the color is loose catkins that appear from the buds at the same time as the leaves. Pollination of flowers occurs with the help of wind, while fruiting may occur late. Single strong specimens bear fruit in 20-40 years, in group plantings - by 60 years.

    The beech tree is a long-liver, some individuals reach a respectable age of 400 years and more.

    What does a beech fruit look like?


    Harvest of beech soil ripens in boxes.

    Beech fruits are similar to trihedral acorns up to 15 mm in size. Beech nuts are covered with a hard wooden shell, the seeds ripen 2-4 pieces in a common nest box. Fresh beech fruits are suitable for crop propagation.

    Use

    In Russia, European beech is widely cultivated, which is planted for landscaping urban areas, and is also used to form curly hedges. Culture is often included in group park plantings when forming a green landscape. The dense foliage makes this crop most suitable for planting in industrial areas.

    Where beech grows, soils are protected from erosion, silting and flooding. The branched root system of beeches helps to increase soil fertility, saturating the soil layer with organic matter and inorganic compounds.

    Beech wood is valuable for the furniture industry, it is used to make curved details of Viennese chairs, figured backs of sofas and other products. Beech wood is used to make musical instruments, plywood, parquet boards, and finishing veneers. Processing of beech raw materials is used in the manufacture of alcohol and beer.

    Beech wood develops a unique pink color over time, but may only be used indoors.

    Beech outdoor cultivation

    When planting a beech tree in the garden, it is useful to remember that the plant is able to live in one place for centuries, requiring more and more free area around the trunk every year. Beeches can develop well in partial shade and in the open sun, but for favorable growth, it is necessary to choose places protected from the wind for planting.

    In the southern regions, the culture does not feel well in the summer heat, it is useful to water the beeches often and spray the crown.

    The tree is undemanding to soils, but it is necessary to allocate the wettest area with fertile soil for planting beech seedlings. The culture reacts negatively to soil salinization, prefers fertile loams with the addition of lime.

    Care


    Spring flowering beech tree.

    Beeches are sensitive to temperature changes, the tree feels oppressed when the air temperature drops below -5C. In the northern regions, this crop should not be planted for cultivation in open ground. Given that the tree reaches a considerable height, it is unrealistic to provide shelter for the trunk for the winter, so it is not worth growing in beeches.

    After planting beech seedlings in the open ground, it is necessary to provide young trees with regular watering and spraying. To reduce the growth of weeds and the evaporation of moisture from the near-stem circle, it is worth mulching the soil under the planted trees.

    Fertilizer for deciduous trees is applied to tree trunks in early spring and late autumn.

    Reproduction


    Autumn beech forest.

    Beech can be propagated by root shoots, which are formed in abundance near the stumps of felled trees 2-3 years after felling. The shoots are separated with part of the roots, after which the young tree is planted in a permanent place in a well with good fertile soil. The dimensions of the planting hole should correspond to the size of the roots. After planting, the tree is watered abundantly. In the first years after planting, young beeches grow very hard, reaching their maximum height by the age of 50.

    Beech nuts ripen on mature trees that have already reached the age of 60-80 years. They can be planted in greenhouses in light fertile soil in the spring. Sometimes root growths form on nuts when stored in a humid room. It is very important to plant beech seeds in the ground in time, until the root seedlings have dried up. You can accelerate the germination of beech nuts by soaking them in stimulating solutions (Epin, Gumat, Zircon, aloe juice).

    Young seedlings should be shaded from the burning summer sun, provide plants with uniform abundant watering, when grown in separate pots, strictly monitor the increase in capacity as the roots grow.

    It is difficult to describe the magnificence of an adult beech tree, because such power and beauty of luxurious foliage distinguish a spectacular deciduous plant from other inhabitants of the park area, beeches are especially beautiful in autumn, when the leaves turn into all colors of a fiery yellow palette.

    Beech belongs to the family of monoecious plants called beeches. This family includes more than a thousand species of trees and shrubs. The most famous representatives of this species, in addition to beech, are oak, chestnut.

    Eighty-five million years before our era, beech forests occupied a vast territory that stretched from the Urals to Kamchatka. On the American continent, forests occupied Canada, Alaska, Greenland. And about twenty-three million years BC, they replaced the subtropical vegetation in the south of Eurasia and America. With the onset of the ice age, in the northern part of Europe, it was gradually replaced by coniferous and small-leaved trees. Fossils of trees have been found in Scotland.

    Beech is now the most common tree on all continents and parts of the world. It grows even in the mountains, at an altitude of two thousand meters above sea level. In any forest, whether mixed or just deciduous, beech is the dominant tree.


    Beech description

    Beech trees are tall trees. The height of individual trees reaches thirty-five meters, and the diameter can be more than two meters. It belongs to deciduous trees. It has a dense crown, it has no lower branches. Leaves are present only on top of a smooth, gray trunk.

    Buds appear in winter. Flowering begins with the appearance of leaves. Unisex flowers are earrings, pollination occurs due to the wind.

    The first fruits on beech trees appear no earlier than twenty years after germination. And if the beech forest is very dense, then fruiting can begin even after sixty years. The fruits, the so-called beech nuts, are edible. Their size is from ten to fifteen centimeters.


    Beech is a slow growing tree. Perhaps that is why his life span is more than four hundred years. The beech tree grows well in the shade, on loamy soils, does not tolerate severe frosts.

    Species classification

    The following types of beech exist in nature.

    • City beech (Fagus crenate Blume). The height of this representative of beech reaches 35 meters. The tree has a dense round crown, the leaves reach a length of ten centimeters. It grows mainly in Japan, where it is dominant in forests. Creates thick impenetrable thickets. In Japan, young leaves are eaten, coffee is made from the fruits;
    • Engler Beech (Fagus engleriana Seemen). Grows up to twenty meters. Very branched, oval leaves about eight centimeters long. The trunk with branches, due to the crown, is wide and has the shape of an oval. Belongs to rare breeds of a beech. The tree grows exclusively in China. Cultivated in other countries as an ornamental in parks;
    • Large-leaved beech (Fagus grandifolia). Its height does not exceed twenty-five meters, although sometimes there are specimens forty meters high. The diameter of the trunk ranges from sixty centimeters to one meter. The leaves are in the form of an ellipse, with a pointed end, their size is from six to twelve centimeters. In summer, the color of the leaves is blue-green, and in autumn they turn crimson red. Leaves appear in April and fall off in November. Homeland is the eastern part of North America;


    • Taiwan beech (Fagus hayatae). A tree twenty meters high. It has much in common with Chinese beech. The tree grows exclusively in Taiwan. Currently rare, due to the fact that it is gradually being replaced from deciduous forests by alpine bamboo. Represented by adults, there are practically no young shoots;
    • Japanese beech (Fagus japonica). Its other name is Japanese blue beech. It grows, except for Japan, on the Korean Peninsula. Cultivated in the world since 1905 years. The height of the trees is fifteen meters. Like Chinese, it can be multi-stemmed. The leaves are pubescent, six centimeters long;
    • Long-leaved beech (Fagus longipetiolata Seemen). Another name is South Chinese. It is found in the south, east of China, in Vietnam. Twenty-five meters high. Dominates in subtropical forests;
    • Shiny beech (Fagus lucida). Distributed in the southern, eastern provinces of China. Can grow up to twenty-five meters. The fruits and leaves of this species are edible;
    • Oriental beech (Fāgus orientalis). This beech is also called Caucasian. Its range stretched along the entire Black Sea coast. In the Caucasus, it grows in the mountains and in the lowlands, some specimens were found at an altitude of 2,300 meters. It makes up a quarter of all deciduous Caucasian forests. Quite often found in the Crimea. Trees have been found that are 500 years old. This species is the tallest among other beeches. The maximum height is fifty meters, the length of the leaves is twelve centimeters. If in summer the leaves are pale green, then in autumn they turn yellow-brown. Nuts are edible, but only every fourth year is fruitful;


    • European beech (Fágus sylvática). Also known as the forest beech. It is found almost throughout Europe, England. The height is approximately thirty meters. Single-barreled, diameter reaches one hundred and fifty centimeters. Three-hundred-year-old trees reach a girth of three meters. There are several copies that are nine hundred years old. European beech can grow in the mountains in the form of a shrub. In autumn, the leaf has a brownish-yellow color. Young trees sometimes do not shed their leaves, and after drying, they remain on it all winter. Norway has the northernmost beech forest in the world. Nuts are edible.

    Ecological value

    Very often, beech plantations serve as green hedges. The tree protects the soil from erosion and erosion, plays an important role in the cleanliness of air and water bodies, rivers. Reservoirs on which beech grows are practically not overgrown with silt. Used in landscape design.

    Industrial use

    Beech wood is used in the manufacture of many musical instruments. Parquet, plywood, butts for weapons, billiard cues, and measuring instruments are also made from beech.

    Using steam-treated beech, they make bent furniture, rounded parts for furniture products. Beech wood is processed into paper.


    Chips from beech wood are used in Germany in the production of beer, and in France in the smoking of sausages. Alcohol, vinegar, tar are made from wood. And ash is added, producing high-quality green glass.

    Beech nutritional value

    The young leaves of some beech species are used raw or processed as food. Coffee, butter, flour are prepared from nuts, they are used fried as a delicacy. There is a description of a recipe for Scottish salad, where beech buds are added as a condiment.

    Boiled nuts are used as fodder for poultry, autumn leaves as feed for livestock.


    Medical applications

    In folk medicine, beech tar is used to treat wounds, burns, and skin diseases. Ointments based on beech tar treat gout, rheumatism, and sciatica.

    In traditional medicine, extract from nuts is included in the composition of medicines used in the treatment of tuberculosis, bronchial diseases.

    Beech extract is part of anti-aging products.

    Beech (FAGUS) is a majestic deciduous tree from the Beech family, which occupies an important place among deciduous species due to its characteristics and decorative effect. The beech, growing alone, spreads its branches wide, forming a tent, into which the sun's rays cannot penetrate. The beech forest is a hike to the colonnade, in which silence and dusk reign. Beech grows in the Northern Hemisphere, has 9 species. Grows up to 45 m in height.

    Beech - the most beautiful tree

    The trunk of the tree is powerful, smooth, covered with light gray bark. The branches are densely leafy, the crown is dense, cylindrical, rounded at the top.

    Leaves alternate, arranged in 2 rows. Their shape is elliptical, the veins are pinnate, the edges are solid, slightly wavy. Slightly pubescent below. The beautiful dark green color of the foliage changes to straw yellow or bronze by autumn.

    Flowers gather in inflorescences, appear at the same time as the leaves bloom. Flowers of different sexes: stamens have 8-12 stamens and are collected in capitate inflorescences, pistillate are collected in 2-4 and are surrounded by a cupule, which grows and becomes stiff as the fruits ripen.

    Triangular nuts with sharp ribs. The shell is thin, brown, shiny. Each nut contains 1-2 seeds.

    How to take care of a beech

    Beech has a high shade tolerance and grows both in partial shade and in the sun. The tree is thermophilic, especially its decorative forms, therefore, in areas of harsh climate, protected places should be chosen for planting. Beech loves moist air, does not tolerate drought well, so it needs watering. But it is undemanding to the soil: it grows on wet and dry, somewhat fertile lands, both slightly acidic and alkaline.

    Prefers more loam and the presence of lime, so it is useful, according to the site, to carry out liming. For good growth, the soil is fertilized, you can learn more from. Very sensitive to pollution and salinity.

    Where beech is used

    Beech is a wood that lends itself well to shearing and shaping. Therefore, it is the most valuable plant in the creation of living high hedges, green walls, which look very impressive. Under the beech create recreation areas, thanks to its ability to give a thick shadow. Different varieties of beech with beautiful leaf color are used to create compositions with other deciduous, as well as coniferous trees.

    Beech wood is used in the manufacture of musical instruments, furniture and other products.

    Common species of beech

    Oriental beech (F. orientalis Lipsky) grows in the Crimea, the Caucasus, the east of the Balkan Peninsula, and the north of Asia Minor. It grows on rich soils, can form both pure beech forests and mixed with other deciduous forests. Very shade tolerant and very thermophilic. It grows up to 50 m. At an altitude of 2000 m, it grows in the form of large bushes. It differs from the forest beech in a more rounded crown, as well as large elongated leaves and a slightly different perianth structure.

    Beech is a long-lived plant that can live up to half a century.

    Usually planted in spring with seeds, the fruits of which are stored in semi-moist sand.

    Germination is maintained throughout the year. They are also propagated by shoots, green cuttings, but the rooting rate is much lower - 12%. The first three years it grows slowly, then the pace accelerates. It tolerates anti-aging pruning well, gives a good shoot from the stump.

    The wood is white with a yellowish tint. Not resistant to decay. It is used in the furniture industry, for flooring. Tar, methyl alcohol, acetic acid, charcoal are also produced from it. Young leaves have a mild flavor and are added to salads.

    Forest beech is also called European beech (F. sylvatica L). It grows in Western Ukraine, Belarus, Western Europe. It forms as pure beech forests on the slopes at an altitude of up to one and a half thousand meters above sea level, also mixed with broad-leaved trees. Very shade tolerant.

    This species is characterized by a slender trunk up to 30 m high, a powerful egg-shaped crown.

    The trunk is covered with light gray bark, young branches are reddish-brown. Large leaves are elliptical, leathery, shiny, slightly wavy along the edges. Very effectively painted in autumn in bright colors from yellow to copper. Female and male flowers are located on the branches separately. The fruits - trihedral nuts - are dressed in a plush.

    European beech grows slowly, old trees get sick. It does not tolerate frost well, a protected warm place is required. This breed forms beautiful hedges and walls. It can grow in the sun and in partial shade, combined with various deciduous ornamental trees. Does not like compacted soils, changes in high water levels, waterlogging. Long-lived, age reaches 400 years. It grows quite quickly, the growth per year can be 50 cm. They are usually propagated by seeds, the cuttings do not take root well.

    The fruits are slightly poisonous, as they contain a large amount of oxalic acid. The seeds are edible, have a pleasant sweetish taste, and are consumed boiled and raw. Leaves not coarsened can be added to the salad, have a mild taste. The bark has pharmaceutical properties: antipyretic, antiseptic, expectorant, helps with toothache.

    Large-leaved beech (F. grandifolia Ehrh.) grows in eastern North America at low elevations, usually alongside other conifers and hardwoods.

    Prefers moist, rich soils with a high humus content. It is highly winter-hardy, unlike other species, but young plants need to be covered. Likes wet soils.

    Giant-beech (video)

    The leaves of this species are beautiful: elliptical, pointed, silky. They are bluish-green in summer, dark, saturated shade, light green below. In autumn they become red-brown. Like other types of shade-tolerant, unpretentious. Well suited for creating hedges, walls.

    Beech is a deciduous, majestic tree belonging to the Beech family. In terms of decorativeness and its features, it occupies an important place among various hardwoods. Beech is a tree, the description of which is a fascinating process, because beech is considered a very interesting representative of the flora. The tree spreads its branches wide, thus forming a huge tent, into which even the hot summer rays of the sun cannot penetrate. Accordingly, under it and in the most intense heat, a pleasant coolness is felt.

    The beech forest resembles a colonnade, within which darkness and silence reign. The tree has about 10 species and grows in the Northern Hemisphere. It grows up to 45 m in height.

    Description

    Beech is a species of tree with a smooth, powerful trunk covered with pale gray bark. It has leafy branches, a dense cylindrical crown rounded at the top.

    Alternate leaves arranged in two rows. The leaf is elliptical in shape, with pinnate veins and solid, slightly wavy edges. Slightly pubescent below. The dark green beautiful color of the foliage changes to bronze or straw yellow by autumn.

    The flowers are collected in small clusters and appear with the growth of the leaves. They may be of different sexes. Staminate flowers have an average of 10 stamens. They gather in small capitate inflorescences. Pistillate flowers are collected in 3 pieces and are surrounded by a cupule that grows and becomes woody when the fruit ripens.

    Beech species

    A beech grove may include several types of trees. Consider the most common.


    Locations

    Oriental beech tree is common in the Crimea, where at the level of 1000 meters it forms a belt of forests.

    Forest beech grows in the Kaliningrad region, Crimea, Belarus and Ukraine. Close to eastern beech.

    In addition, forest beech is found in Europe, America, Japan and China. It grows mainly in gorges, along the banks of rivers, along the slopes of mountains, sometimes on the plains. Beech forests grow at an altitude of approximately 500 meters above sea level. The maximum age of beech reaches 500 years.

    A hectare of beech timber forest emits about 5 thousand tons of vapors into the atmosphere every year - hence the fog rising above the forest and cloudiness. And since deciduous trees have a higher need for water than the same resinous trees, they significantly increase atmospheric humidity, thereby exerting a deep regulating climate influence. And this means that massive deforestation automatically entails long-term climatic changes, in most cases unfavorable.

    Used part

    Beech walnut and wood refers to the used part of the tree. The nut kernel contains tannins and nitrogenous substances, fatty oils, sugars, starch, tocopherol, fiber and organic acids, including citric and malic acids. They contain the alkaloid fagin and ash. It should be noted that the alkaloid fagin is a toxic substance. If raw nuts are consumed immoderately, this will lead to gastritis and headache, as well as inflammation of the small intestine. Therefore, you should be careful with these fruits.

    Reproduction and cultivation

    Forest beech grows very slowly. It is a very shade-tolerant and at the same time heat-loving tree. Beech is demanding on soil moisture and hardly tolerates drought, prefers to grow on calcareous soils.

    As mentioned above, the beech belongs to the Beech family. You can safely call this family "long-livers": Beech for the most part live almost up to five hundred years! However, these trees have a low level of frost resistance. Beech needs a warm sheltered place. For the distribution of beech trees, southern regions are preferred, otherwise they may freeze slightly.

    The beech tree is propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering. European beech is used not only to create powerful plant masses in parks, but also in single plantings. Beech forms beautiful hedges. They can be cut, as well as give them a different shape. This tree has long found its place in cultivated places.

    Beech successfully combines with other trees - with pine, white fir, Canadian hemlock, common spruce, yew berry, juniper, mountain ash, plane tree, birch, oak, hazel and others. Beech is very often planted for decorative purposes because it lends itself well to molding: it can be easily trimmed. These trees are used to create all kinds of geometric shapes. They are great for decorating high hedges, not only in parks, but also in private residential areas.

    Harvesting and harvesting

    To harvest beech wood, you need to carefully cut off a small part of it with a sharp object. This is usually done in September-October. Then the wood is cut into small pieces and put to dry in a well-ventilated place, for example, under a simple canopy.

    The wood needs to be turned occasionally. This is necessary so that it does not become damp and moldy. After the raw material is completely dry, it is placed in paper bags, and then they are put away in a ventilated dry room for storage.

    As mentioned above, the beech tree has fruits - nuts. They are harvested at the end of September when they reach maturity. Then they are laid out in a thin layer on a pallet located in a ventilated place. This place should be protected from children. It should not be in the house in which people live, otherwise the whole family may suffer due to poisoning. Beech trees contain a poisonous substance - the alkaloid fagin.

    Raw materials need to be turned occasionally to ensure good and fast drying. After the nuts have dried, they are packed in bags, which are then placed in a ventilated room.

    Application

    The substance creosote present in this plant is used as an external agent, since it has a disinfecting and cauterizing effect. In addition, it is used for inhalation in chronic respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis.

    Creosote has a specific, very unpleasant odor and taste. This substance is irritating to the stomach and also to the kidneys. It is often replaced with guaiacol and other drugs.

    The Beech family is also famous for the fact that fatty oil is obtained from its fruits. It is used in the food industry. At the same time, flour is made from the seeds of the plant, using it for baking. Also, these seeds are subjected to a slight heat treatment in the form of roasting. In this form, they are used to create a coffee drink with excellent dietary characteristics.

    Contraindications

    The beech tree contains the toxic alkaloid fagin. This poisonous substance is also found in raw nuts, which are not recommended for consumption. The alkaloid fagin disappears only when exposed to high temperatures.

    Quite severe poisoning is possible in young children who have eaten nuts raw, as well as in adults with insufficient heat treatment.

    It should be noted that in case of poisoning with this product, unpleasant sensations occur in the hypogastric region, general malaise, acute gastroenteritis, nausea, and headache.

    In case of poisoning, cleansing enemas and gastric lavage should be done.

    Conclusion

    The beech tree (European) in the plantations forms a stunning colonnade dominated by silence, peace and twilight. This powerful tree, when solitary, is a rather dense and sprawling tent due to its impenetrable crown and outstretched branches.

    But walking in the shade of these trees, do not forget that beech nuts are very poisonous, even though they look quite appetizing. Take care of yourself and your health!

    Description

    Tree height up to 30 m, trunk diameter up to 2 m.

    The trunk is smooth, covered with a thin layer of gray bark.

    Falling leaves, simple, entire or with sparse serrations, oval or oval-oblong, 5-15 cm long and 4-10 cm wide.

    In a beech with a dense crown of entire leaves, the upper branches shade the lower ones so much that the latter, not having the access of light necessary for photosynthesis, gradually die off and fall off.

    As a result, a beech tree in the forest almost to the very top is devoid of branches, and its crown is supported, as it were, by bare pillars. This property is typical for all species of the genus Beech, as well as for many other trees growing in close proximity.

    Kidneys are elongated (often more than 2.5 cm), scaly, appear in winter.

    Flowering in spring, simultaneously with leaf unfolding. The flowers are unisexual, collected in catkins, pollinated by the wind.

    In solitary trees, fruiting occurs after 20-40 years, and in groups after 60 years and later.

    Fruits are acorn-shaped, trihedral, 10-15 mm long, with a woody shell, collected in pairs or four pieces in a 4-lobed shell called a cupule.

    The fruits are sometimes called "beechnuts" - they are edible, although they contain a large amount of bitter-tasting tannin and may contain the poisonous alkaloid fagin, which decomposes when toasted.

    Beeches grow slowly but live up to 400 years or more.

    Shade-tolerant, thermophilic, grows best on loamy soil.

    Beeches usually propagate by seed, although the shallow and branched root system sometimes produces side shoots from which a young tree can grow.

    Distribution

    Distributed in the temperate zone of Europe, Asia and North America. This is one of the most common trees in Europe. In the mountains they grow at an altitude of up to 2300 m above sea level. Often dominant in deciduous and mixed forests.

    The most widespread are Forest beech in Eurasia and large-leaved beech in North America. The Engler beech grows wild in China, its height reaches 20 m, and the trunk is divided into several branches, forming a wide oval crown.

    A similar shape of the trunk in two endemics of the Japanese islands: Japanese blue and notched (up to 30 m high) beeches. Mexican beech, as you might guess from the name, comes from Mexico - a tall (up to 40 m) tree with wedge-shaped leaves, used in wood processing.

    Some species of the Southern Hemisphere, formerly belonging to beeches, are now separated into separate family Notophagous and genus Notophagus. These plants are native to Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, New Caledonia and South America.

    On the territory of the Russian Federation, in addition to the forest, also grows Oriental beech - its natural range is in the Caucasus and Crimea.

    Paleobotanical information

    At the beginning of the Tertiary period, forests with beech, constituting the so-called Turgai flora, were distributed from the Urals and the Aral Sea (even Bashkiria) to Sakhalin and Kamchatka. They covered most of Canada, Alaska and southern Greenland.

    The Turgai flora replaced the large-leaved flora of the Early Paleogene due to cooling, as it is more adapted to existence in a moderately warm humid climate.

    At the end of the Oligocene and Miocene, the Turgai flora in Eurasia spread to the south and southwest, gradually displacing the subtropical flora. In the Oligocene, the Turgai flora completely conquered the high latitudes, where, due to further cooling, it was quickly replaced by a more temperate flora.

    It disappeared in most of the Boreal region, replaced by a flora consisting of coniferous and small-leaved tree species and various herbaceous plants, which form the basis of modern vegetation of the Euro-Siberian and Atlantic-North American regions.

    The Turgai flora survived until the end of the Neogene in the south of Central and Eastern Europe, in the northeast of China, the peninsula of Korea, in Japan and the Appalachians.

    In the Eopleistocene, during the climatic optimum phase, in the basins of the middle Volga and the lower Kama, forests dominated by pine were distributed, which included many deciduous species, including beech.

    Beech is present in the Eopleistocene sediments in the territories of the Northern Caspian, Northern Black Sea and Lower Don, Bashkiria and the Middle Volga, the middle Dnieper basin, the upper Neman basin.

    Beech was part of the Pliocene flora in Florida and southern Alabama. Since it was not found in earlier deposits, it can be assumed that it migrated here from the more northern regions of America due to cooling.

    Turgai flora has existed in Scotland and Ireland since the Eocene. The Turgai flora was transformed by evolution into the modern flora of the deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere.

    Fossils show a very wide and even distribution of beech in the Northern Hemisphere during the Miocene. According to other data, the presence of beech in Europe was established no younger than the Middle Pliocene.

    During the Ice Age, beech, along with other heat-loving plants, retreated to the south and survived only in a few refugia. In interglacial periods, when there was warming, beech emerged from their refugia and occupied nearby territories.

    In the warmest interglacial periods, broad-leaved forests with the participation of beech occupied almost all of Central Europe.

    Paleobotanical findings also indicate the presence of beech in the middle part of European Russia in the Mindel-Riss interglacial period, the climate in which was warmer and more humid than today.

    Paleobotanical evidence indicates the origin of beech species from the North Pacific Ocean.

    Most of them remained in East Asia, and only the large-leaved beech, which lives in North America, and the European beech fall out of the Eurasian range.

    Oriental beech, which has an earlier origin in comparison with European beech - the Tertiary period, has been preserved in the near-Black Sea refugium.

    Crimean beech, which serves as a link between these two species, is distributed in places where Eastern and European beech come into contact.

    Application and use

    Some species of beeches (especially cultivated varieties of forest beech) are widely used as green spaces. When constructing artificial landscapes, both single plantings and large arrays in parks and forest parks are used.

    Due to their dense foliage and resistance to shaping, beeches are often used to build hedges.

    Beech forests - buchins - have an important spa and aesthetic value. There are many sanatoriums, rest houses, children's camps in them. Their role is extremely great in maintaining the purity of air and water sources, in protecting soil from erosion.

    Beech forests contribute to the transfer of surface water runoff into subsurface runoff, ensure a uniform flow of precipitation into rivers, and protect natural and artificial water bodies from silting.

    Observations have shown that under the canopy of a beech forest, even on steep slopes, surface runoff, and hence soil erosion, is small. Through the roots, plants release various organic and inorganic substances into the soil, which increase its fertility.

    Wood

    Beech wood is often used for the manufacture of various products: musical instruments, in particular guitars, plywood, parquet, wooden containers, weaving shuttles, gun stocks, measuring instruments, etc.

    Steam treated beech bends easily. This feature allows the use of beech wood in the furniture industry in the manufacture of Viennese chairs and rounded parts.

    Beech chips are used in the brewing of Budweiser beer.

    Beech wood is white with a yellowish-red tint (becomes pinkish-brown over time), dense, heavy, resistant to moisture (but very deformed with changes in humidity), well and easily polished.

    Outdoors is short-lived and therefore only used indoors.

    Acetic acid, tar, creosote oils, methyl alcohol are obtained from beech wood.

    Nutritional and feed value

    High-quality light yellow edible oil is obtained from nuts, not inferior to Provence oil. It is used in the food and confectionery industry. Technical oil is obtained by another processing method.

    The mass remaining after squeezing is used to make a coffee substitute, and in boiled form - to feed farm animals. Willingly eat beech nuts forest dwellers: wild boars, roe deer, squirrels, etc.

    Nuts are very nutritious: they contain up to 50 percent oil, and in addition, proteins, sugars, malic and citric acids, vitamin E.

    Residents of those places where a lot of beech trees grow make flour from peeled and always roasted nuts. Adding a small amount of wheat flour to it, they bake excellent pancakes, pancakes, crumbly cookies.

    In some places (in the Caucasus, in the Carpathians) beech flour is used for baking ordinary bread. From this addition, its taste improves markedly.

    In addition, roasted beech seeds in the Caucasus are used as a folk treat - just like sunflower seeds in Russia.

    Interesting facts

    The word beech became part of the toponym Bukovina and Buchenwald

    In disputes about the location of the ancestral home of the Slavs, a beech argument was put forward, according to which the word beech was borrowed by the Slavs from the German language (the modern German name for beech is Buche), which means that the ancestral home of the Slavs lay in the forest zone outside the beech area, that is, to the east of line Kaliningrad - Odessa.

    However, the ranges of certain plants and animals may change over time, so this argument, as well as the conclusions that follow from it, are not necessarily true or accurate.

    Since at the time of the separation of the Slavs into a separate ethnic group, the range of the beech could be limited to some more western or more southern “line”, the modern border of its range is not necessarily decisive when searching for the ancestral home of the Slavs.

    Classification

    According to the website of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the genus contains 11 species:

    Fagus chienii W.C.Cheng
    Fagus crenata Blume - Scalloped beech
    Fagus engleriana Seemen - Engler beech
    Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. - Large-leaved beech
    Fagus hayatae Palib. - Taiwan beech
    Fagus japonica Maxim. - Japanese beech
    Fagus longipetiolata Seemen - Long-leaved beech, or South Chinese beech
    Fagus lucida Rehder & E.H.Wilson - Shining beech
    Fagus orientalis Lipsky - Oriental beech, or Caucasian beech
    Fagus sylvatica L. typus - Forest beech, or European beech
    Fagus × taurica Popl. - Crimean beech, a hybrid of forest beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oriental beech (Fagus orientalis).

    I consider it necessary to plant several types of Beech trees in the Ecopark — everything will depend on the possibility of purchasing seedlings and their price. Monitoring prices for Beech seedlings discouraged me from buying them.

    I think the most suitable for the Ecopark is the European Beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    Wildly grows in Western Europe, Western Ukraine and Belarus , where it forms pure and mixed forests.

    Tall tree up to 30 m tall, with a slender trunk and a powerful ovoid crown. The bark of young branches is reddish-brown, the trunks are light gray, smooth.

    Leaves are large, up to 10 cm long, elliptical, slightly wavy along the edge, shiny, as if leathery, dark green in summer and very effectively brightened in autumn, from yellow to copper tones. Male and female flowers are located separately on the shoots.

    The fruit is a trihedral nutlet up to 1.5 cm long, dressed with a cupule covered with subulate outgrowths. It grows slowly, is very shade-tolerant, thermophilic (especially decorative forms), demanding on air humidity, does not tolerate drought well, and develops well on calcareous soils. Lives up to 500 years, but old trees are usually sick.

    Propagated by seeds, cuttings, summer cuttings .

    One of the most valuable species for green building. It is used to create powerful groups and arrays in parks and forest parks, in single plantings in glades. Forms beautiful clipped hedges and walls.

    In culture for a very long time. It successfully combines with white fir, hooked pine, common spruce, yew berry, Canadian hemlock, junipers, birch, plane tree, hornbeam, mountain ash, oak, hazel, euonymus, rose rugosa, etc.

    Forest beech can grow both in partial shade and in the sun. Frost resistance low . In the conditions of the Moscow region, it freezes slightly, it needs a warm, protected place.

    There is an opinion that

    Moscow region is on the borderline of Buk's survival in terms of the amount of precipitation.

    Therefore, you need to plant Beech seeds in places where Beech seedlings are guaranteed not to experience a lack of moisture.

    In addition,

    The high adaptability of the Beech is evidenced by the huge total area occupied by its varieties.

    From all that has been said, the following conclusion can be drawn: the absence of beech forests in central Russia today is the fault of natural history, the lack of the ability of this species to quickly spread (lack of flying seeds), as well as human disinterest or ignorance.

    For there are no climatic restrictions for the growth of Beech in the forests near Moscow or are about to be removed.


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