How long does a black walnut tree live
Black Walnut Trees: Facts About the Infamous Black Walnut
The black walnut tree (Juglans nigra) is one of North America’s most valuable and beautiful native trees, but it does have a “dark side.” Here’s what you should know before planting a black walnut in your yard—and how to harvest and eat the tasty walnuts, too!
Facts About the Black Walnut Tree
The easily worked, close-grained wood of the black walnut has long been prized by furniture- and cabinetmakers for its attractive color and exceptional durability. Its logs are in such demand for veneer that “walnut rustlers” have made off with trees in the dead of night and even used helicopters in their operations.
The early settlers discovered black walnuts growing in mixed forests from Canada to northern Florida and west to the Great Plains. They found that its rich-brown heartwood was exceptionally resistant to decay and put it to use as fence posts, poles, shingles, and sills.
When surrounded by other trees in the forest, black walnuts grow straight and tall with few, if any, lower branches.
When planted in the open, the tree will branch out closer to the ground, developing a spreading shape that makes it easier to harvest its sweet, round, two- to three-inch nuts.
Settlers snacked on the nutritious walnuts out of hand, added them to soups and stews, and ground them into meal for baking; the hard shells provided a perfect package for storing the nuts over winter.
The “Dark Side” of Black Walnuts
Although the black walnut has many uses and benefits, the tree does come with a caveat: the black walnut’s roots, which may extend 50 feet or more from the trunk, exude a natural herbicide known as juglone. This substance is also found in the tree’s leaves and fruit husks.
Juglone does serve a purpose, though. It inhibits many plants’ growth under and around the tree, thereby limiting the tree’s competition, leaving more water and nutrients for itself.
Tomatoes, potatoes, apples, pears, berries, and some landscape plants such as rhododendrons, azaleas, and lilacs may be killed or stunted if grown in close proximity to black walnut roots or within the tree’s drip line (i.e., under the tree’s canopy). Plan your landscaping accordingly!
A Great Shade Tree
In spite of this, black walnuts make great shade trees for larger properties. They commonly grow to 50 feet or taller and about as wide, but specimens of more than 100 feet have been recorded.
Black walnut’s large, fernlike foliage provides light, airy shade for those grasses and ground covers not affected by juglone. In autumn, the leaves turn bright yellow, contrasting nicely with the tree’s rugged, dark bark.
Black walnuts require a deep, fertile soil with a near-neutral or slightly acidic pH. They are pretty much disease-free and are threatened by few pests.
Picking Up the Nuts
Thud! Thud! Most walnut tree owners have a love/hate relationship because of the fruit which the tree drops in late summer though October. The size of a baseball and colored lime green, the fruit is quite heavy. It makes quite a mess and can be viewed as a nuisance.
Walnut tree owners will spend hours picking up the fruit some years. If you don’t remove the nuts, you’ll trip over them in the dark for the rest of the year (while they rot and mold on your lawn). Hire the kid down the street to pick up those the dropped walnuts (just be careful not to pay per nut—you’ll go broke)!Photo Credit: John A. Anderson
Harvesting and Eating Black Walnuts
If you’re willing to do the work of cracking the outer shell, the “meat” inside is edible, as the squirrels will attest; squirrels have little problem chewing through the shells. (Note: Black Walnuts are different than the English Walnuts more commonly sold in stores and shown in the photo above.)
The sweet, earthy nutmeat inside is well worth the effort. Your grandparents may have harvested the walnuts which can be eaten raw or added to baking (cookies and bars). They can also be toppings on ice cream and cakes, enjoyed as a sweetened candy nut, or ground into meal for a unique flour.
To harvest, collect the nuts as soon as possible to avoid mold and remove the husks immediately. Wear gloves as the husks stain your hands (and anything they touch). If the nut is too hard, wait a few days and it will brown and soften up.) To remove the husk, you can simply step on them gently with an old pair of shoes. Hose down the nuts in a large bucket to remove any remaining husk.
Dry the walnuts for a couple of weeks on a screen or drying rack or in a hanging mesh bag. You can store them unshelled up to a year. Crack the shell with a hammer to get to the nut meat. (Strike at a 90-degree angle to the seam until the nut cracks). Use pliers to easily clip away the shell to release the nutmeat. Allow the freshly removed nutmeat to dry for a day before storing.
Do you have a black walnut tree? Please share your comments, questions, and advice!
Black Walnut Trees for Sale - Buying & Growing Guide
by Jo Cosgrove | Ecological Gardener, Horticulturist, and Educator – last update on December 2, 2021
Choose where you plant your beautiful new black walnut tree with care. Every part of the tree except for the nutmeat produces a chemical called juglone, which will kill most plants or trees nearby.
Black walnut trees thrive in a wide range of soils but prefer a rich, loam-based soil. The soil can be sandy or silty as long as it is moist and well-draining. Choose a spot that receives good airflow as low lying areas or closed-in spots can lead to frost damage. Black walnut trees bask in full sunlight, but will tolerate some shade.
Before planting your tree, you’ll need to inspect the crown of its root ball to ensure its root collar is not buried. Dig a hole that is wider and deeper than the tree’s root ball and fill it to the point where the root collar is exposed. Burying your tree’s root crown can lead to a host of diseases, pests and even premature death. An auger may be required to reach the proper depth. Once the hole is filled, water deeply.
Planted by itself, a black walnut tree will spread its top out into a stunning canopy of shade. If planted close amongst other trees, it will keep reaching straight up into the sky.
Watering and nutrients
Black walnut trees do not tolerate drought-like conditions. They need heavy watering, especially until their deep taproots establish themselves. These trees may crave moisture, but they can’t stand soggy roots so make sure they don’t stand in water.
Black walnut trees bloom in late spring for about two weeks, aided in pollination by various bees and other insects. Several dozen moths and other insect species also call black walnut trees home.
Pests and animals
Black walnut trees are very low maintenance. They are quite hardy and have very few natural pests or issues. Though there are creatures that will steal and enjoy your walnut harvest. These include chipmunks, foxes, squirrels, and woodpeckers.
Black walnuts ripen in the fall and start dropping to the ground. These nuts get quite heavy and can grow to the size of a baseball, so exercise caution around the tree. Pick up those nuts whose skins have turned from green to yellowish-brown or tan. Once the skins have gone completely black, it means the nutmeat has rotted and shouldn’t be consumed.
Wear gloves when harvesting black walnuts. The skins and shells will stain your hands, your clothes, or anything else they touch. You can also boil the skins to make a natural dye that turns fabric a lovely shade of yellow.
Dry black walnuts for a few weeks on a screen or in hanging mesh bags — just be sure they’re protected from squirrels and other thieving critters. They store well for quite a while this way. Shelling and freezing the nutmeat extends that time to approximately two years. Black walnuts are difficult to shell for anyone but squirrels, but roasting them beforehand makes removing their shells easier. There are many shelling methods out there. Two popular ones require using a hammer on concrete or running the car over the nuts in the driveway.
Where do black walnut trees grow best?
USDA growing zones 4 through 10 have the best conditions for black walnut trees. This hardy native prefers areas that get at least 25 inches of annual rainfall, but doesn’t like heavy frosts. When the trees are thriving, they will add 12 to 35 inches in height every year. They generally start producing at around 10 to 12 years but can produce fruit as early as five years old.
Are there any plants that grow under or around black walnut trees?
There are a large number of plants and shrubs that are not susceptible to the black walnut’s toxic juglone. Bleeding hearts, marigolds, pansies, and morning glories can grow around black walnuts. You can also grow produce such as beans, garlic, melons, and onions around black walnut trees. Dogwoods, hickories, certain maples, and oaks make good neighbors for black walnut trees.
How long do black walnut trees live?
Individual trees have been known to reach over 200 years of age in forests and old settlements. These older giants were quite common in the eastern United States, but the hot market for their wood has caused a steep decline in their numbers. Domestic black walnuts will grow for several decades or more if not centuries when basic needs are met.
Can parts of the black walnut tree be composted?
It is not advisable to put any parts of your black walnut tree in the compost bin. This includes the dirt anywhere under the canopy. Just as the juglone poisons the ground around the tree, it will also poison your compost. Using this tainted compost anywhere else would spread the juglone poison. It would most likely kill the plants there and destroy that soil too. Burn any debris from your tree or properly dispose of it through your local refuse station.
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Black walnut - planting and care, where it grows, fruits, video
Walnuts are the largest trees, but the real giant among them is the black walnut, planting and caring for which is of interest to many. It is not surprising, because culture is distinguished by its universality. Possessing increased frost resistance, black walnut can live up to 100 years. Tall trunks of an unusual chocolate color with a wide crown will delight not only with a harvest of delicious fruits. Walnut foliage, due to the increased amount of phytoncides, serves as an air purifier. Walnut fruits are very useful - they are recommended for use in many diseases.
Planting and caring for black walnuts is somewhat different from growing walnuts, which are more familiar to us. This is due to both the dimensions of the tree and the characteristic features of the species. Before we go for a seedling, let's get to know this crop and find out how to plant it and what it prefers.
Black walnut - description of culture
At home, in North America, adult walnuts grow up to 50 m in height with a trunk diameter of about 2 m. In our conditions, trees have an average height of 18 m, and a maximum of 25 m , with a trunk up to 0.5 m in diameter. Agree that these are quite large values, especially for a private garden. Quite naturally, this leaves an imprint on the choice of a place for a seedling, given its future dimensions.
Black walnut got its name for its specific coloration, which is not characteristic of its brethren. The roots, bark and shell of the fruit have a beautiful black color.
Seeing this tree, you are unlikely to confuse it with a walnut, even at a young age, while it is not yet tall.
You can recognize the largest representative of the species by the way the black walnut looks like:
- wide spreading crown with lowered branches;
- strong trunk covered with black chocolate bark with deep cracks;
- the root system is rod-shaped, and the lateral branches go far to the sides;
- in contrast to the walnut with more rounded leaves in the black species, the pinnate foliage has a narrower, elongated shape and small teeth on the outside;
- young leaves are light green, but darken towards the end of the season;
- fluffy earring flowers are also painted in light green;
- the shell of green pointed fruits has the same color;
- in ripe fruits, the shell darkens, and the surface of the thick and hard shell is also dark.
The birthplace of culture is the northern part of America, but it came to us relatively recently - at the end of the 18th century. Natural growing conditions have left their mark on where black walnut grows in Russia. Although it is not yet very popular, most plantings are found in the southern regions. In nature, these are the banks of reservoirs, deciduous forests and wet-soil mountains. As a cultivated black walnut tree, it most often grows in botanical gardens.
Remarkably, black walnut wood is also dark in color, but closer to a rich brown. Despite its strength and density, it lends itself well to processing and polishing.
How to grow a black walnut: planting methods and choosing a place for a tree
On a private plot, this unusual nut appears as a seedling or ripened fruit. Most gardeners prefer not to bother with seedlings, but to purchase young trees in the nursery. If you think so, give preference to seedlings under the age of 3 years. Older nuts are more difficult to adapt and tolerate transplanting worse.
In nurseries you can find seedlings with the name "black walnut". Do not hesitate and buy - it is one and the same culture. The American nut is called for its historical homeland.
If you don't have the seedling you need, and if you want, you can grow it yourself. All you need is to buy a dozen ripe nuts and show a little patience.
Details of growing walnut seedlings from fruits
First of all, please note that black walnut fruits have a thick and durable skin. Planting them dry, you will wait a long time for sprouts. A simple soaking procedure will help speed up germination. Put the fruits in a jar of water and soak them for 3 days. Don't forget to change the water every day. On the fourth day, plant the nuts in pots, one in each. A higher percentage of germination is noted if wet sand is used instead of soil.
Do not make the hole too deep - 10 cm is enough. Lay the nut itself on the barrel.
By the way, the best time to germinate nuts is in autumn, right after picking, while the fruits are still fresh. True, seedlings will move into open ground only next spring, after wintering in the basement. If there is no such room for wintering, wait until April.
So that the fruits are preserved and not lost, cover them with sand and leave in the pantry until spring. In this case, start germinating black walnuts in late March - early April. Seedlings can be transplanted into the garden as soon as frosts pass and stable heat is established. But it is desirable that the first year of its life, the young nut overwinter not on the street. If you do not cover it well, the seedling will die.
Where and how to plant black walnut
Frankly speaking, black walnut is not a tree for small plots. Its roots that go far to the sides and the deciduous crown overflowing with phytoncides will leave no chance for close-growing neighbors. The minimum distance between two nuts should be at least 15 m, so it is unlikely that a grove will be planted. Walnut foliage cleans the air well and has antibacterial properties, but it is dangerous for most garden and garden crops. The fragrant leaves release a toxin called juglone, which will quickly kill nightshade crops and potatoes. Do not plant pear, plum and apple trees near the black walnut - it will oppress them.
When choosing a place in the garden for a seedling, be guided by the requirements of black walnut, namely:
- It needs a neutral, not acidic soil, otherwise the tree will not have time to retire and prepare for wintering.
- Black walnut is able to grow on heavy soils, but prefers loams with moderate moisture. Enrich soil that is too poor by adding phosphorus-potassium preparations, humus and ash when planting in the hole.
- To make the crown lush and the tree strong and healthy, find a light area for the nut.
Plant the tree with the darker part of the trunk facing south.
Lately mycorrhization is becoming more and more popular among walnut growers - the colonization of fungal mycelium in the root system. For all nut crops, the black truffle is a symbiont fungus. So, walnut mycorrhiza allows you to accelerate the rooting of both seedlings and cuttings. Trees that develop together with mycorrhiza winter better, do not get sick and give higher yields.
This technology can also be applied to the cultivation of black walnut. Useful spores contains the drug Mikovital. Soak the roots of the seedling in it before planting or add to the water when watering. And your black walnut will quickly start to grow.
Black walnut care instructions
The largest representative of walnut trees is characterized by increased moisture requirements. It can even survive flooding as a result of a flood for a period of 1-2 months without damage to the roots. Moisture is especially important for young seedlings under the age of 2 years. Water them often and plentifully, but only until the beginning of August. From this point on, the nut begins to prepare for winter, and excessive moisture will only reduce its winter hardiness.
Compared to walnut, black has better resistance to low temperatures. He will survive the winter with 40 degrees of frost well. But young, still immature trees are not ready for such extreme temperatures. Keep this in mind when growing black walnut in the Moscow region and the northern regions and be sure to cover it for the winter.
Curiously, the tree does not need formative pruning as such. Black walnut shapes itself quite well. With age, its lower branches dry out, the trunk lengthens, and a lush crown remains at the top. You will only have to cut out frozen, damaged and improperly growing shoots in early spring.
If you don't want the nut to grow tall, cut the top growing point off young trees.
Regarding the application of fertilizers, under natural conditions, nuts live without additional feeding. Rather, they feed themselves, since fallen and rotted black walnut leaves are the main source of nutrients. He does not need mineral fertilizers, and he does not tolerate them well. The maximum that you can add is the spring application of organic matter in the form of humus, ash or manure.
Summing up, it can be seen that planting and caring for black walnuts is almost the same as growing walnuts. But the American guest winters well in our area and pampers with useful fruits. So try and you will succeed!
How to grow a black walnut - video
description of a tree, planting and care, diseases and pests
Description of a shrub
Hazel is a perennial plant that belongs to the Birch family and the Hazel genus. He lives an average of 80 years. The plant owes its name to the shape of the leaves, which outwardly resemble the body of a bream fish.
The genus Corylus combines shrubs up to 10 m high and trees up to 20 m high. Dense crown in the shape of a ball or egg has a pyramidal top.
Broad oval hazel leaves with serrated edges and distinctly prominent veins make the plant easy to recognize. For thin long branches, leaf plates are attached with strong hairy petioles.
Hazel begins to bloom in spring. Flowers are divided into staminate (male) and pistillate (female). The stamens are in the earrings. From one bud on a hazel, up to five catkins 0.1 m long can bloom. Female flowers are buds with underdeveloped perianths and pistils. A reddish fluff of stigmas hatches from them, which indicates the number of hidden flowers. They are pollinated by wind and insects.
Hazelnut pleases with a harvest in the eighth year of life. The fruit is a spherical yellow-brown nut, hidden in a helmet-shaped wrapper. The brown color of the nutshell and the dry, silvery-brown cover indicate full maturation. It usually comes in August.
The trunk of the plant is long, almost straight and flexible. The bark of the hazel is smooth to the touch and gray-brown in color. The root system is powerful, but at the same time, the main part of the roots is located in the upper layers of the earth, which does not allow the hazel to receive moisture from the depths.
Where the hazelnut grows
The plant is not too demanding on soil. However, it shows the highest yield on fertile, neutral in acidity and light in composition soil. Dense soil negatively affects fruiting.
Warm climate is considered the most acceptable for hazel. Hazel grows in southern Europe, in Russia, in Georgian, Belarusian forests and steppes.
Hazelnut is not exactly hazel
Interesting notes about walnuts
First of all, it is customary to talk about the benefits of walnut kernels and parts of the plant. They contain a large number of biologically active substances. The bark, leaf plates, pericarp and membranes are also saturated with vitamins and active substances. From these parts, infusions, decoctions and other medicinal potions are prepared. For medical purposes, walnut oil is also actively used.
Even without knowing all the substances with which parts of the walnut are filled, healers have long noted the positive effect of preparations based on them on the human body. Fully ripened walnuts are very high in calories. If we compare bread made from the highest grade of flour from wheat grains, then the number of calories in walnuts is 2 times higher than it. It is recommended to eat nuts as a preventive measure against atherosclerosis or if the body lacks cobalt salts, vitamins and iron. If the patient suffers from constipation, then the fiber and oil, which are full of walnut kernels, will eliminate the problem.
A decoction of the leaves can be used to lubricate wounds so that they heal faster. Such a remedy is recommended for scrofula or rickets. You can rinse your mouth to eliminate inflammation and bleeding from the gums. Also, funds obtained on the basis of walnut parts have a tonic effect, astringent, antihelminthic and laxative effect, help relieve inflammation of the epithelium, and reduce blood sugar levels.
The recommended dose of walnut kernels that can be taken per day for a healthy person is only 100 g. Exceeding this value in some people can provoke severe headache, swelling of the throat and inflammation in the tonsils.
Contraindications for the use of walnuts are:
- skin diseases, as the condition may worsen;
- bowel diseases;
- pancreas problems;
- high blood clotting.
However, the walnut is not only famous for its medicinal properties, its oil is used in cooking and for the preparation of varnishes, carcasses used in painting. The wood of this plant is also highly valued, which is used to make furniture and other items.
Where does it grow in the world and where is its origin?
During cultivation, it is no longer possible to determine the exact country where this nut comes from, from where it was first brought to other places. In a warm climate, the walnut spreads very quickly with the help of birds and animals - and up to the latitude of Voronezh, it is already gradually becoming a “weed tree” that germinates naturally. However, in the natural environment, walnuts usually grow in the Caucasus, Transcaucasia and to the south. Wild groves are found in Greece (whence, in fact, the name), in Iran and Central Asia.
The first mentions of plants of this species are found in Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia, in the current political geography - the territory of Iraq and Kuwait), but the walnut earned special fame in Greece (including the Greek colonies in Asia Minor and the current Middle East). It is thanks to the Greeks and Byzantines, with whom our ancestors contacted, traded and fought, that the walnut has been growing in Russia since those ancient times.
In Europe (especially in the Mediterranean countries), the walnut became known due to contacts both with the Greeks and Byzantines, and directly with the Persians (apparently, in present-day Iran, for the first time, it was possible to increase the size of the fruit several times with the help of selection: the wild nut of this species usually bears fruit about the size of an oak acorn).
In Russia, the fruits of the plant of this species were called "royal", "Voloshsky", "Greek nuts".
The name "royal" is clear: walnuts are much tastier and larger than ordinary hazel, which grew along the banks of rivers and lakes. As for the “Voloshsky”, here this adjective originates from the word “voloh” - this is how the current Romanians and Moldovans were called, and a little later - the Spaniards and Italians with their Romance languages.
It was in the Romance-speaking southern Mediterranean and Southern Europe that the walnut took root and spread. Now this plant is distributed throughout southern and southeastern Europe. Although the main habitat and production area remains the Mediterranean and the Caucasus, in the wild, thanks to global warming, the walnut has already reached the latitude of Voronezh and is going to move north even without the help of breeders.
Back in the 70-80s of the 20th century, this plant was not found north of Donetsk - and now it is not surprising to find wild walnuts near Tambov.
Hazel is propagated in various ways:
- Seeds. Most often, this way of reproduction occurs in the wild. Ripe fruits fall to the surface of the earth, hibernate, and germinate in spring. In the garden plot, sow hazel in this way should be by the beginning of winter. However, amateur gardeners do not grow from seeds. They know how long a generatively bred hazel grows. In addition, there is a very small probability that at least one seedling out of a thousand will have varietal characteristics.
- Shoots. Shoots are separated from the hazel and planted on a new site.
- Cuttings. A young cutting is cut from a mature branch and planted in a small greenhouse. In order for it to take root well, the soil must be loose in composition.
- Layering. The branches are bent to the ground and the bark is removed from them at the points of contact with the soil. Then they are pinned to the ground. Places where roots should appear in the future are watered and covered with earth.
- Seedlings, which are freely sold in gardening shops.
If someone has a wild hazel growing nearby, you can dig up a few seedlings and try to graft a hazelnut cultivar onto them.
Walnut shells, peel, leaves, bark, kernels and wood are widely used in a wide variety of industries - traditional and folk medicine, food and woodworking industries, cosmetology.
So, dark brown paint is made from bark, shells and leaves, and walnut oil is used in the art and printing industry.
Walnut kernels are used both as an independent snack and in the manufacture of pastries, sweets, desserts, sauces, salads. Oil is made from the kernels, which is used to prepare various dishes, and is also added to many skin and hair care products. And the shell is widely used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages.
The wood of the tree has a high strength, which allows it to be used in the manufacture of furniture, parquet, doors, weapons, veneer and other wood products. The woodworking industry also uses the underground parts of the plant - tuberous thickenings that have numerous beautiful patterns.
In the cosmetic industry, walnut oil is more often used, which has softening, toning, moisturizing, nourishing properties. This product also helps to eliminate skin rashes, activate regenerative processes, and fight wrinkles. Crushed shells are added to face and body scrubs.
Kernels contain a huge amount of healthy substances that have the following properties:
- Improve brain function.
- Normalize the activity of the central nervous system.
- Prevent the development of ophthalmic diseases.
- Restore male sexual function.
- Accelerate the healing of wounds, burns and ulcers.
- Reduce the risk of developing heart disease.
- Increase immunity.
- Normalize intestinal microflora.
- Improve the condition of veins with varicose veins.
- Eliminate anemia.
Green peel has anthelmintic properties, cleanses the blood and blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, treats dental diseases and baldness. Shells are used in the treatment of rheumatism, varicose veins, diseases of the pancreas and liver.
The leaves have a tonic, anti-inflammatory, antihelminthic and astringent effect. They are used in the treatment of skin tuberculosis, low blood clotting, high sugar levels, mastitis, gum disease.
How to grow a walnut from seed, you can learn from the following video:
Walnut tree - description
The Latin name of the walnut is Juglans regia. It belongs to the Walnut family of the genus Nut and is the most popular among other varieties. Other names of the plant popular among the people are walnut, royal acorn, Greek walnut. In the wild, you can see how a walnut tree grows in Transcaucasia, China, India, Iran, Greece, and Asia Minor. Relic forests have been preserved in Kyrgyzstan. The culture is actively cultivated in the south of Russia, in Ukraine and Belarus.
The fruits of the tree have a high nutritional and taste value. They are consumed raw and used for the production of confectionery. The nut is popular in the Caucasus as an ingredient not only for desserts, but also for second courses. Walnut oil is also made from the fruit, and the remains in the form of cake are used as animal feed.
What does a walnut tree look like?
It is not difficult to recognize the walnut tree and its fruits even from afar:
- The height of an adult tree at the age of 50-70 years is about 25-30 m.
- Trunk more than 1.5 in diameter is covered with thick dark gray bark with characteristic cracks.
- Powerful root system penetrates 3-3.5 m deep into the ground.
- Spherical crown in diameter can reach 20-25 m.
- The complex pinnate leaves consist of two or five pairs of ovate leaflets. The length of each ranges from 4-15 cm.
- Small flowers collected in the form of earrings.
- The walnut or Volosh nut tree produces fruits called false drupes. Outside, they are covered with thick green leathery flesh, behind which is a dense shell. The nuclei are made up of 4 lobes in a sinuous shape, similar to the human brain.
How does the walnut tree flower?
You can see the color of the walnut tree in late April-early May, along with the blooming of the leaves. Flowers small, unisexual. Staminate inflorescences with six-lobed perianths resemble pale green hanging catkins. Pistillate inflorescences have a rounded shape with a fused perianth, located on the tops of the shoots or in the leaf axils. Wind pollination is often cross-pollinated between neighboring plants, since flowering can be uneven on the same crown.
When does the walnut tree ripen?
Depending on the type of walnut tree, a particular specimen begins to bear fruit at the age of 7-12 years, while the plant reaches full maturity only by the age of 30. Fruiting continues until 200 years of age. Harvested annually in September-October. By this time, the green peel darkens and bursts on its own, and the nuts may fall off the tree.
The fruit is round in shape with a hard treelike shell and weighs from 5 to 17 g. The inner core accounts for about 40-60% of the total mass. The mature pulp of the fruit of the walnut tree contains:
- Fatty oil, consisting of a large number of useful acids: linoleic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and others.
- Vegetable proteins not less than 21%.
- Provitamin A and vitamins K and P.
- Amino acids: glutamine, asparagine, valine and others.
How long does a walnut tree live?
Botanists say that the life span of a walnut tree is calculated in centuries. The above-ground part of the plant lives about 400-1000 years. Centenarians are mainly wild-growing specimens. Garden plants have a less modest age. The walnut tree gives the richest harvests at a mature age of about 150 years. At this time, depending on many factors, from 1 to 300 kg of nuts can be collected from one plant.
A hazel is a tree or a shrub
Not everyone knows what a hazel is, is it a tree or a shrub? Most often, the plant is represented by a shrub. This species has several dozen species, among which there are trees. A magnificent specimen of the tree is the bear nut.
Hazel grows wild in many regions
This plant is tall and has a beautiful crown shape. But in most cases, hazel still grows in the form of a shrub. In nature, it forms a dense undergrowth, mainly in broad-leaved groves.
Please note! A well-known representative of its genus is the hazel, a very showy nut shrub.
Optimal conditions for planting
How a beautiful tree grows depends on the presence of optimal development conditions. Under natural conditions, nature tries to create the following climatic conditions for him:
- Providing warmth. Walnut is a heat-loving plant species. Severe frosts in winter (with temperatures above -25, unexpected spring frosts contribute to the appearance of negative damage on the bark, crown, roots of the tree. The growth of annual growths is disrupted (young branches turn black), harmful frost holes are formed on the trunks, a large number of ovaries die. This follows from the many comments on the care of the plant.When the restoration of young branches comes, the number of fruit buds becomes insignificant.The yield of ripe nuts from one type of tree drops sharply.
- Providing increased needs for the sun. Can't stand the shade, the absence of the sun. A light-loving plant, grown not in dense thickets, but in many places in an open area. This is necessary so that the nut grows into a strong tree, blooms, and has the conditions for the formation of strong flowers. When creating industrial plantings from plantings, plants take into account the characteristics of growth. They consist in the need to adhere to the recommendations for maintaining distances between two trees. All requirements are described by specialists in numerous scientific developments on this issue. With a lack of sun, more male inflorescences form on the trees, which do not form fruits. Young plants with a close location, in dense natural thickets stop developing, die.
- The best soil conditions are sandy, loamy, soddy soils that can retain water well in the soil layers adjacent to the root system. A valuable quality of a botanical species is the characteristic of powerful roots that can independently find aquifers, growing on any type of soil. At the same time, the level of groundwater is important. In acidic, swampy soils, it looks and develops poorly.
- There are wild species that grow directly in the water. This is due to the general feature of love for water. When growing a walnut in the gardens of Russia, it is necessary to provide it with high-quality watering, especially at a young age. There are certain rules for caring for a plant that are of great importance and are advised to be followed.
Proper adherence to the planting system
This directly affects how much the walnut tree yields in the next harvest. Planting hazel as a future garden is carried out by means of a pit, a hole digger or manually, depending on the allocated area. Each well should be 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.5 and prepared a month or two in advance. Already at the time of planting seedlings, all holes should be enriched with a reserve of nutrients by filling with fertilizers. If clearly diseased or damaged roots are visible, they should be cut with pruners. After that, the root system must be dipped in a clay-humus solution so that the earth sticks better.
Walnut tree (lat. Juglans regia) is a tree species belonging to the genus Walnut (lat. Juglans) of the Walnut family (lat. Juglandaceae). It also has other names: walnut, royal, Greek, Wallachian. The homeland of the plant is considered to be Central Asia.
A sapling planted 50-70 years ago can reach up to 30 m, while the trunk has a diameter of up to 1. 5 m. The bark is dark gray, quite thick with deep cracks. The tap root goes to a depth of 3-3.5 m, but in trees older than 10 years, numerous horizontal root appendages are formed, giving life to the side shoots.
The dense crown has a tent-like shape, forming a very dense shadow under it. The thick curved branches are covered with long odd-pinnate petiolate leaves of complex shape, painted in dark green. Each leaf has 7-11 oval pointed lobes 8-12 cm long each.
In the last ten days of April, the buds burst on the tree and unisexual flowers appear along with the foliage. The staminate inflorescences look like pale green, free-hanging catkins. Pistillate inflorescences are formed close to the ends of the shoots and in the axils of leaf petioles, they are sessile and have fused perianths. Pollination is cross-pollinated, mainly by wind. The walnut does not require fallow to successfully bear fruit, but with the presence of pollinators in the vicinity, an increase in yield is noted.
Walnut (false drupe) ripens in the first half of autumn. In a green fruit, the shell is enclosed in a juicy green fibrous pericarp, which bursts when ripe, throwing the ripe nut out. The edible core of two halves is enclosed in a very hard shell, which has thin partitions inside. The weight of a walnut, including shells, ranges from 6-15 g, the kernel accounts for 40-68%. Walnut size - up to 5-6 cm across
For the first time, a tree grown from a nut tree blooms after 7-9years from planting, but will give fruit only at 10-12 years, and reaches final maturity at 20 years. Usually the fruiting period is 150-200 years. On average, a wild walnut lives up to 400-500 years. The oldest known tree is 2000 years old. The yield depends on the variety. The most productive variety of walnut among the widely cultivated - "Bukovinsky - 2", giving up to 50 kg from 1 tree.
What hazel looks like
Most hazel species are deciduous shrubs. The plant is covered with large round leaves and bright green color. Hazel grows well on fertile soils with good moisture. Oak, maple and elm are considered good neighbors.
Note! In the undergrowth, hazel is a shrub that forms a dense wall and surrounds the edge of the forest. In the form of a branched shrub, the nut grows in the wild
Bushes form many shoots that grow straight from the rhizome. The appearance of the hazel is difficult to confuse with other shrubs:
- the height of the hazel reaches 5 m;
- hazelnuts propagate well vegetatively or by seeds from their nuts;
- hazel is difficult to confuse with other plants, especially in summer. The oval-shaped leaves have a pointed tip and serrated edges;
- An additional feature of the plant is the rough texture of the bush.
Almost all types of hazelnuts end up as tall shrubs. The height can reach 5-6 m in wild plantings, the bark of the stems is smooth. Young shoots are painted in a gray-green tint, additionally you can see yellow specks.
Hazel can be confused with elm bushes. The bark and leaves of plants are similar in shade and texture
For the difference, you should pay attention only to the trunk. Elm has only one main shoot, but hazel has several
The buds also vary in appearance, being green and round in hazelnuts and sharp and reddish in elms.
Red-leaved and green-leaved hazel
Red-leaved hazel or hazel is a shrub that looks quite attractive in decorative terms. Against the background of other plants, it is distinguished, of course, by the color of the foliage. This multi-stemmed shrub reaches a height of 4 m. Large leaves of a purple hue are located on the branches. During the growing season, nuts are formed, which are decorated with a red wrapper. The kernels of these nuts are colored light pink.
Redleaf hazel is commonly used as an ornamental plant. Shrubs are grown in the south, as they cannot endure the harsh Russian winters of mid-latitudes. Even if you cover the plant for the winter, such activities will not help. The shrub nut will not die at all, however, later it will not be possible to wait for flowering and fruits. In this case, the bush will become only a decorative decoration of the site.
Important! It is necessary to plant mutually pollinated varieties nearby. With red-leaved hazel, Tambov Early and Firstborn should be placed nearby.
These varieties are representatives of the green-leaved hazel and are considered good pollinators of the red-leaved variety. These varieties are representatives of the green leaf hazel and are considered good pollinators of the red leaf variety.
Green-leaved hazel trees tolerate frost better, so they are often planted in Central Russia.
Basic tips for growing nuts
Voloshsky nut is a valuable tree that gives many extremely useful and tasty fruits. The most difficult task is to wait for these very fruits and keep the tree healthy. Before you grow a walnut, you need to consider several important aspects:
- choice of planting site;
- selection and preparation of planting material.
It is necessary to immediately study the rules for caring for seedlings, the features of their growth and development. You can plant a walnut at home in separate tubs with prepared soil or in a greenhouse. When the plants reach a certain age, they are planted in open ground.
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Calopanax: white walnut
Calopanax seven-lobed - this is the official name of the Far Eastern handsome man, who lives in the natural environment on mountain slopes in river valleys. Deciduous hazel has a small number of so-called skeletal branches. But this does not prevent him from looking attractive and bright at their summer cottage. Especially with the arrival of the autumn season, when the white walnut is covered with a bright yellow cape of foliage.
Spring is the best time to plant white walnut. This beautiful tree can be propagated either by seeds or by using young shoots. If you bet on the first option, remember that in the natural environment, calopanax really propagates by seeds, but most of the sprouts that appear from the seeds freeze up to the basal neck. In order for the seeds to ripen properly, they need certain climatic conditions. Therefore, if you decide to sow on your own, follow a few important rules.
- Seeds that you intend to use as seed must first be de-pulped.
- White walnut seeds require stratification before germination. Stratify seed twice. First cold, then warm. One and a half months takes the first "session" of stratification and exactly the same amount of the second.
- If you do not have time to stratify in warm conditions, use sulfuric acid. Take a concentrated substance and treat hazel seeds with it for half an hour. This procedure will be a worthy replacement for warm stratification.
- If you are planting seeds in a greenhouse, it must be cold. If you decide to throw the seeds directly into the ground, the seedlings will need shelter for the cold season. Otherwise, frost will kill them.
White walnut simply loves moisture, so far from its natural regions of growth, hazel should be watered abundantly and often. The ground in which he sits must be constantly moist
In addition, for this ornamental plant, it is extremely important that the air is humid. If there is a real summer heat in the yard, be sure to organize crown sprinkling for a white walnut
But choose the right time for this: either early in the morning, when the sun has not yet risen, or in the evening, after it has set.
Growing forest hazel in the garden
Although hazel grows in the forest without anyone's help, certain agrotechnical rules must be observed when growing it in the garden
For example, it is important to follow the landing pattern. There must be at least 3 m of free space between trees
Otherwise, the plants will simply interfere with each other.
Important! Autumn is a favorable period for planting hazelnuts. If the planting hole is prepared on poor soil, a few tablespoons of fertilizer should be added to it in advance
After planting the seedling, the area should be compacted and well watered. Optionally, a layer of mulch can be placed to keep moisture in.
If the planting hole is prepared on poor soil, a few tablespoons of fertilizer should be added to it beforehand. After planting the seedling, this place should be compacted and well watered. Additionally, you can lay a layer of mulch to retain moisture.
Hazelnut care is a set of standard activities - loosening the soil, watering, pruning, top dressing
Especially during dry periods, it is extremely important to irrigate. It will be good if you can water the soil before it has time to dry out.
If it rains periodically, the nut does not need to be moistened, but if the weather is hot and there has been no precipitation for a week, you will have to water it abundantly.
Walnut is a shrub that needs at least 3 top dressings per year. In the spring, you can use nitroammophoska. In June, wood ash, superphosphate and potassium salt are used. In July, you can apply superphosphate in the amount of 1 tbsp.