How long does it take for a walnut tree to grow


How Long a Grafted Walnut Tree Takes to Bear Fruit | Home Guides

By Jolene Hansen

Waiting for a walnut tree (Juglans spp.) to bear its first crop requires patience, but rewards justify the wait. A healthy walnut is a large shade tree with abundant, nutritious nut fruits. Growing a grafted tree speeds up the process, delivering nuts in the shortest time frame. Choose a grafted variety suited to your location's climate and conditions. Before you know it, you'll enjoy walnuts from your own yard.

Grafted Advantages

  1. Walnut trees grow from seed, but many growers graft walnut seedlings onto seedling rootstocks of other walnut trees. Different rootstocks offer better resistance to prevailing regional diseases and insect pests. Grafting provides advantages in certain climates and soils, and it can shorten the time it takes the trees to mature. The majority of U.S. commercial walnuts are grown on the West Coast using English walnuts (Juglans regia) grafted on various rootstocks. Growers focus on the right balance between vigor and disease resistance to ensure walnut varieties overcome vulnerabilities and bear plentiful fruit.

Years to Crop

  1. By the time a grafted walnut makes it to a plant nursery, it's usually already 2 years old. The tree and rootstock both grow from seed the first year then are grafted together and grown for a second season. Once you plant a 2-year-old grafted walnut, expect to wait another four to five years for its first crop of nuts. A non-grafted, seedling-grown walnut often takes up to two years longer to bear its first nuts. A walnut develops a deep taproot as it matures, and so a young tree establishes most quickly after being transplanted. An older, larger tree has a more difficult time getting settled in its new location.

Walnut Culture

  1. Walnuts prefer full-sun locations with deep, well-drained soil. A location with at least 5 to 6 feet of soil depth provides a suitable home for the roots of a young, grafted walnut. A mature walnut withstands drought once established, but a young tree needs irrigation. Depending on weather, a young walnut in a Mediterranean climate needs 4 to 12 gallons of water per day. Always irrigate your walnut at the drip line -- below the tips of its outermost branches -- instead of at the trunk. Don't plant your walnut in the lawn; frequent shallow irrigation given to a lawn leads to root disease in the tree. In order to protect your young, grafted walnut from sunscald in a very hot climate, paint its trunk with a mixture that is one-half water and one-half white, interior, latex paint. It provides protection against insects, too.

Cultivar Selection

  1. Choose a grafted walnut variety with hardiness, flowering and harvest times suited to your climate. English walnut is hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9, but rootstocks vary. Northern California black walnut (Juglans hindsii), a popular rootstock, is hardy in only USDA zones 7 through 9. The cultivar affects pollination. Each walnut tree has separate male and female flowers, but the male flowers' release of pollen doesn't always coincide with female flowers' receptivity. For an abundant fall harvest, choose a cultivar in which the pollen release and receptivity overlap.

References

  • University of California-Davis, Fruit and Nut Research and Information: Walnuts in California
  • University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources: Walnuts -- Calendar of Operations for Home Gardeners
  • Royal Horticultural Society: Walnuts
  • California Polytechnic State University, Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute: English Walnut -- Juglans Regia
  • California Polytechnic State University, Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute: Northern California Black Walnut -- Juglans Hindsii
  • Stark Bros: How Many Years Until Your Tree Bears Fruit?

Writer Bio

Jolene Hansen is a lifelong gardening enthusiast and former horticulture professional. She is passionate about reshaping the way people experience gardens and gardening. Hansen's work appears regularly in consumer and trade publications, as well as numerous internet gardening and lifestyle channels.

How Many Walnuts Grow On A Tree? Full Walnut Timeline

Walnut trees, most commonly English and black walnuts in the United States, are used most often for their nut production and sometimes timber. But how many walnuts grow on a tree each year?

On average, a mature walnut tree produces 50 to 80 pounds of unshelled nuts every year. Many species of walnut tree will begin producing at 7 to 8 years old but take until the 15-year mark to mature fully. Some walnut trees produce more heavily every other year as well.

We’ll be discussing how to plant and properly care for a walnut tree. This includes pointers to help your walnut tree grow! Alongside this, we will cover the full timeline of a walnut tree’s life.

Just to add – when you shop using links from Tree Journey, we may earn affiliate commissions if you make a purchase. As an Amazon Associate, we earn from qualifying purchases.

Walnut Growing Season And Conditions

Walnuts have a growing season ranging from 140 to 150 days, beginning in late April or early May.

Most walnut trees require the temperature to stay above 27 to 29 ℉ while in the early stages of ripening. Walnut harvesting season is from mid-September through November.

You can tell they are ready for harvest when the hulls turn green, split, and start to fall naturally from the tree. 

Despite this, there are some hardier species like the Carpathian English Walnut. These are better suited for harsh winter climates. The Common English walnut, butternut, heartnut, and black walnuts are more acceptable in milder and warmer climates. Be sure to choose the right species for your local climate! 

How Long Does It Take To Grow A Walnut Tree? A Full Timeline 

Say you find walnuts nearby. What’s next? How much time and care will go into growing it? How soon can you expect to harvest walnuts of your own? 

While walnut trees are not the most complex to care for, they do require more attention than some others, like oak trees. However, walnut trees give back many times over in nut production what they require in care. 

Starting from the top, or more appropriately the nut, let’s go through the full timeline of growing a walnut tree! 

If you’d like to learn more about walnuts, read our post: 8 Differences Between Black Walnut Trees and Walnut Trees.

Day 1: Finding Viable Walnuts To Plant

The first step to planting your own walnut tree is finding viable walnuts. Identify a local species of walnut tree and wait for the perfect moment.

Collect your walnuts in the fall during their harvest season! Some walnuts, like black walnuts, need to be hulled and washed directly after collection. When doing so, wear protective gloves. Some walnut trees have toxic oils on their leaves and in their sap. 

You might find something like the Large Nut Wizard useful for gathering numerous walnuts. You’ll need quite a few to get started, so collect as many as you see fit, within reason of course. It will also come in handy once your tree bears nuts for you to harvest in the future!

While you are washing your walnuts, discard any that may float. If walnuts float, they are underdeveloped or poorly filled. Poorly filled walnuts will not germinate properly, so keep an eye out for the ones that sink! They’ll be perfect to move on to the next step. 

From the walnuts that sunk during washing, cut open a small sample. If they are full of solid, white meat, then they are viable. Non-viable walnuts will be beige and give off an unpleasant smell. Use this information to generate a percentage of viable nuts out of what has been collected. 

If a large percentage of the harvested walnuts are viable, you will need fewer nuts per plot or container. Now we’re ready to move to the next stage of preparation, stratifying.

Day 1-120: Stratifying Your Walnuts

Stratification is an important, but not completely necessary, step to your walnut tree journey. It can be done in one of two ways. 

Place your walnuts in a container filled with a mixture of damp sterile sand and peat moss. This aids in germination and will help ensure it is uniform later on. Place the walnuts in your mixture at 2-3inch layers and keep refrigerated for 90 to 120 days.

An example of moss would be Hoffman Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss. It increases the amount of moisture your mixture will hold, as well as the time it will stay moist. When you’re keeping your walnuts moist for up to 4 months, dampening them less often definitely comes in handy!

While stratifying, you can use containers like coffee cans, plastic storage bags, buckets, and similar closed spaces. As long as they fit in your refrigerator, you can use them. 

During this time, the sand and peat moss mixture must remain moist and cool.

The optimal temperature range for stratifying walnuts is 33 to 40 ℉. In terms of moisture, the sand and peat should be damp to the touch, but not soaked. Too much moisture may lead to molding. 

This process can be done naturally as well, though it is less controlled. By planting in a similar mixture in the fall and leaving them throughout the winter, the walnuts will experience the same dormancy.

With this method, you risk a large freeze halting germination completely.  

After stratification is complete, you can finally move on to planting your walnuts! 

Day 1-120: Planting Walnuts In The Spring

According to the University of Missouri, there are multiple ways to plant your walnuts. These include planting in plots, creating a nursery, and planting in containers. 

If you are going to plant in a plot, also known as in place, there is a bit of extra preparation. A seedbed for planting is the first step. It should be in an area that gets full sun.

You should also weed the area and keep it weed-free throughout the time it takes your walnuts to sprout.  

After tilling and preparing the soil, dig 2 inch deep planting plots and place three to five stratified nuts per plot. Depending on the species, plots should be 20 to 80 feet apart.

The soil should be moist and kept moist for sprouting. Space out the walnuts in each plot as well as you will only keep the strongest ones in the future. 

A nursery is another viable method for planting multiple walnut trees. Unlike planting in a plot, these will require transplanting later on. A seedbed is the first step in this method as well, though it will look slightly different. 

Like before, till the soil and dig 2 inch deep holes for your walnuts. With this method, they should be 2 feet apart in rows that are a minimum of 4 feet apart.

Keep your nursery weeded and well-watered throughout sprouting and while growing your seedlings. You will transplant the seedlings the following year, which we will cover further down.

The last method, growing trees in containers, allows for the close monitoring of the nursery, with earlier and simpler transplanting later on.

Choose open bottom containers, the preferred type, or planters with sufficient drainage. The open bottom containers allow for air pruning, which helps prevent taproot circling. If you are using open bottom containers, place them on a wire bench to allow this air pruning to occur. 

The potting soil you choose needs to allow free movement of water throughout the entire container. Mix in a slow-release fertilizer that will allow your walnut tree to get the proper nutrients for approximately seven to nine months. 

Plant only one stratified nut per container and water daily. Container-grown trees require very careful attention and monitoring.

However, container-grown seedlings can be transplanted in the fall instead of the following spring. They can be held in containers over the winter, but be sure to keep the roots protected from freezing temperatures and insulated.

After the trees go dormant, cover them with an insulating cover or hay mulch.  

Day 1- Year 1: Fertilization And Transplanting Of Your Seedlings 

Keep an eye out for germination in four to five weeks. Your walnuts will begin sprouting and will require more attention. 

Around mid-June in all cases aside from container planting, fertilize your seedlings with a slow-release fertilizer. Each plot should be fertilized in the first method, and fertilization occurs per row in the nursery method. 

After fertilization, seedlings from the plot and nursery methods require watering once conditions become dry. Continue to water your container trees daily until transplanting. Any seedling area will need to be kept weed-free during this time as well. 

For your container planted trees, the transplanting season starts three weeks to a month before the first killing frost and can continue into mid-November. If you keep them warm and covered as we discussed before, they can be held until the spring. 

Weed and prepare the new planting location and start digging your walnut seedling a new home! The hole needs to be twice as wide as the root ball, and 16 to 18 inches deep, and spaced properly.

You should attempt to preserve as many roots as possible during this process. Space the holes according to the walnut species, though 30 to 50 feet is usually safe for planting at home. 

Throughout this first year, monitor all of your nursery and plot seedlings to decide which ones you will keep.

The strongest growing tree at each plot, as well as your strongest nursery contenders, needs to be selected out of the bunch. Any other seedlings can be cut off below the root collar and disposed of. 

You will transfer your nursery seedlings at the end of this section of the timeline. Once your seedlings are a year old, around March, the seedlings you choose to transplant need prepped.

To transplant, you will need to dig 16 to 18 inches deep around each seedling, preserving as many fibrous roots as you can.

The transplant process from here is the same as with the container-grown seedlings. Walnut seedlings will benefit from a layer of mulch 2 to 3 inches thick, kept away from the bark to prevent rotting.

Years 1-5: Growing Walnut Saplings

Once you have transplanted your saplings, the work gets lighter but does not end. Keeping the area weeded and properly watered is most important at this stage. 

For the first 2 years, your saplings will need your help to get water regularly. You should water your seedlings as soon as the ground has dried completely around them. Deep watering, or watering down into the soil, will also be necessary periodically. 

Deep watering can be done less frequently, around one to three times a month at the hottest point of the year, after the 2 to 3-year mark. The irrigation should occur about 2 feet deep around your tree. Walnut trees are not considered drought-hardy and benefit from this irrigation. 

Pruning will also help your sapling stay healthy and grow through the early stages. This should be done sometime between the late summer and late fall. If walnut trees are pruned during the late winter or spring, it may cause bleeding or excessive sap flow.  

When pruning, remove any damaged branches to prevent further spread. Thinning out crowded areas allows for more sunlight and air to reach the tree as well. 

Years 5-15: From Seedling To Fruit Bearing Walnut Tree

Year 5 is the earliest your tree will begin producing nuts, though most start year 7 or 8. By the time you reach year 15, your tree should be in full production, providing the 50 to 80 pounds of nuts mentioned earlier. 

When it comes to harvesting the fruits of your labor, you will know it’s time when the nuts begin to fall themselves. After you notice this, you can encourage the ripe nuts by gently shaking the limbs by hand or with something long and sturdy. 

At this point, the nut collector you used to collect your initial walnut will come in handy again! After shaking, roll the cage along the ground, gathering the nuts. The quality of walnuts depreciates quite quickly, so be sure to collect them often.

Nuts lose quality faster inside their husks. If the husks remain after harvest, remove them manually. Easier to remove husks can be hand-peeled or rolled against a hard surface until they come free. For those that are harder to remove, dampen and store in an airtight container for 1 to 3 days. 

All nuts need to be washed after their husks are removed to get rid of any remaining material. Walnut husks can stain your skin, so wear gloves!

Walnuts can then be dried in one of three ways between 95 and 105 ℉: 

  • Place on baking sheets outdoors: Make sure your trays somewhere they will receive plenty of sunlight (a southern wall preferably) and wait for 3 to 4 days.
  • Dry on baking sheets indoors: They can be dried similarly indoors with low humidity. 
  • Place in an onion sack: Hang indoors, but be sure to shake the bag daily to rotate the nuts. 

You can tell your walnuts are properly dried when the kernels and the packing material are brittle and break easily.  

Once dry, you can store walnuts for 3 months to 2 plus years depending on the storage method. Always keep them stored in a cool, dry place.

At room temperature, walnuts will keep for 3 to 6 months. 

To keep your walnuts good for even longer, store them at even lower temperatures. Below 32 ℉, they last up to a year. If you store them below 0℉, walnuts may stay good for 2 or more years. 

Years 15-50: Maturing Walnut Trees For Timber

Other than just nuts, walnut trees are often used for their timber. Walnut wood is very hard and sought after for projects such as furniture building. 

Your tree can fit the criteria for timber sale anywhere from 30 to 80 years after planting. The longer it is allowed to grow taller, the more it will be worth. Also, the straighter your walnut tree is, it is more likely to meet the proper standards for sale. 

According to the Missouri Department of Conservation, there are two types of walnut wood quality. Veneer or lumber grade are the categories your tree might fall into.

The specifications for both are quite different, but veneer trees are much rarer, raising demand for them. 

Consult a forester to assist you in identifying the value of your trees.

Your Results Walnut Disappoint! 

Terrible puns aside, that’s all the information we have for now! Hopefully, you have a decent concept of what and how long growing a walnut tree takes.

With time and a bit of dedication, you’ll have walnuts to spare in the future!

You may decide to keep your walnut tree for many generations to enjoy. You might also decide to continue to plant and teach them how to sell their own trees in the future. Either way, your beautiful trees will provide for you and yours for many years to come.

References:

Balandier, P., Lacointe, A., Le Roux, X., Sinoquet, H., Cruiziat, P., & Le Dizès, S. (2000). SIMWAL: a structural-functional model simulating single walnut tree growth in response to climate and pruning.  Annals of Forest Science57(5), 571-585.

University, U. S. (n.d.). Walnuts in the Home Orchard. Extension.usu.edu. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://extension.usu.edu/yardandgarden/research/walnuts-in-the-home-orchard

Pecan and Black Walnut in Agroforestry Practices. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2021, fromhttps://extension.missouri.edu/media/wysiwyg/Extensiondata/Pub/pdf/agguides/agroforestry/af1003.pdf

Le Dizès, S., Cruiziat, P., Lacointe, A., Sinoquet, H., Le Roux, X., Balandier, P., & Jacquet, P. (1997). A model for simulating structure-function relationships in walnut tree growth processes.

Selling Walnut Timber. (n.d.). Missouri Department of Conservation. https://mdc.mo.gov/magazines/conservationist/2013-02/selling-walnut-timber

How a walnut grows, what a tree looks like when it needs to be harvested

Content

  • 1 Where does a walnut grow
    • 1.1 Where does a walnut grow in the world
    • 1. 2 Where does a walnut grow in Russia
    • Does a walnut grow in 1.3 Moscow region
  • 2 How does a walnut grow and ripen
    • 2.1 What does a walnut tree look like
    • 2.2 How many years does a walnut grow
    • 2.3 How long does a walnut grow before fruiting
    • 2.4 How quickly a walnut
    • 9000 2.5 grows how many nuts give walnut
  • 3 When to harvest walnuts
    • 3.1 when the walnuts are harvested in the middle lane
    • 3.2 walnuts ripen in Crimea
  • 4 How to understand that a walnut is ripe
  • 5 How walnuts are harvested
  • 6 Conclusion

The birthplace of the walnut is Central Asia. On the territory of Russia, the tree appeared thanks to Greek traders, hence the corresponding name - walnut. Walnut grows almost all over the world. It is successfully cultivated in Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus. Hazel gained popularity due to the beneficial properties of fruits, green mass and bark.

Where the walnut grows

Walnut grows almost everywhere: some varieties are well suited for planting in the northern regions. Some species can tolerate long frosts, are practically immune to pests. The preferred place of growth is in well-lit, spacious, not wetlands. Hazel grows rapidly on hills, in loamy soils.

Where the walnut grows in the world

The tree grows in places with a temperate climate, however, prefers the southern regions. Wild landings can be seen on the territory of Transcaucasia and in the Talysh mountains. Often, wild hazel grows in the humid gorges of the Himalayas. Nuts are specially grown in China, India, Austria, Greece. They practice planting in the gardens of Germany and Italy.

Walnut plantations can be seen in the Tien Shan mountains, on the territory of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. These forests are considered the largest in the world.

Where the walnut grows in Russia

Trees are common in the middle lane, they are also regularly planted in the southern regions of Russia. They practice landing in the Moscow and Leningrad regions. In the northern regions, cultivation is worse. The tree does not tolerate prolonged low temperatures, the maximum limit is 30 degrees below zero.

Important! Long frosts are detrimental to walnuts, low temperatures affect the quantity and quality of the crop.

Breeders develop varieties that can grow for a long time at very low temperatures. But in most cases, such seedlings practically do not bear fruit.

Do walnuts grow in the Moscow region

Walnuts are successfully grown in the Moscow region. The tree grows in gardens and park areas. In the state register of selection achievements there are more than 25 varieties that take root well in this area. Trees tolerate frost well, and in summer they are able to withstand a long absence of watering.

It should be remembered that the planting of each seedling has its own agricultural practices and characteristics. Proper care will help grow a strong tree with high yields.

In the Moscow region, it is recommended to plant seedlings away from drafts. In the first years of life, the main trunk is fragile, so it can break off in strong winds. The best option for landing would be a well-lit area near buildings and buildings. When planting in a summer cottage, attention should be paid to the fact that in the process of growth the tree obscures a large area, so vegetables must be planted away from the nut.

Important! Walnut during the growth process releases phytoncides, which can harm other vegetation.

How does a walnut grow and ripen? Therefore, at the age of 25–45 years, the seedling is considered young and is in the juvenile period. A feature of the walnut is that the quantity and quality of the crop increases with age.

Walnut grows well and develops under optimal climatic conditions. Tolerates dry weather and mild frosts. However, returning frosts are dangerous for the seedling. Spring sharp change in temperature is detrimental to vegetation. The main shoots and leaves are damaged, which later affects the yield. Over time, new branches are formed, but this takes a lot of time.

The fruit ripening period on the tree is August-September, rarely October. The exact harvesting period depends on the region of growth and the variety planted.

There are several types:

  • early;
  • medium early;
  • late.

Each species has differences in the period of flowering and final fruiting. For each region, the appropriate variety should be selected.

What a walnut tree looks like

During the period of active development and growth, a walnut tree forms a wide trunk, reaching 30 m in height, 2 m in diameter. The color of the bark is grayish-white, the crown is dense and wide with a large number of branches. The root is powerful, it goes deeper into the ground by more than 7 m. The lateral root system is quite long - more than 10 m.

The alternate leaves are compound, pinnate. The length of the plate is 5–7 cm. The green mass with a peculiar aroma looks very attractive during flowering. The flowers are small, green, collected in neat earrings. Flowering period: end of April - beginning of May, duration - 2 weeks. In late-ripening varieties, buds may re-bloom - in the middle of summer. Pollination occurs with the help of wind or pollen from nearby plants.

Walnuts grow on sprawling trees with a crown diameter of about 20 m. Fruits are hard, brown in color, have a four-lobed seed, covered with a thin film. The peel is green, dense in structure, slightly wrinkled and bumpy.

How many years does a walnut grow? When planted in optimal climatic conditions, it can grow and bear fruit well up to 600 years. Wild trees in forest areas can live for more than 1200 years.

How long does a walnut grow before fruiting

The period of full growth and development of the plant depends on the variety. On early ripening species, the first fruits appear 3–6 years after planting. Mid-season and late-ripening before the first fruiting grow and develop for at least 10 years. From 10–12 years old, a tree can produce from 1 to 5 kg of crop per season. Mature trees that have reached the age of 50-60 bear fruit abundantly.

Attention! The older the tree, the higher the yield.

How fast the walnut grows

Mid-season and late varieties grow for quite a long time, often they can survive more than one owner. Early maturing trees grow much faster, but these species require some care.

How many nuts does a walnut produce? This indicator may vary depending on the age of the tree, the region of growth and the quality of care. A seedling that is about 10 years old bears little fruit - a maximum of 5 kg of fruit per year.

When to harvest walnuts

Regular walnuts ripen in early autumn. A more accurate harvest time depends on the region in which it is grown. During the ripening of the crop, the foliage on the branches acquires a dull color, and the fruits fall to the ground on their own.

It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with some signs by which you can determine the exact timing of harvesting:

  • cracking of the green pericarp;
  • Most leaves yellow;
  • Harvest dates can be determined by knowing the varietal characteristics of the plant.

When walnuts are harvested in the middle lane

Growing a plant in the middle lane is a laborious process. In this region, hazel trees bear fruit irregularly. When creating favorable conditions for growth, you can harvest a good harvest. The fruits begin to fall from the tree by August, but most of them do not separate the pericarp well. The harvested crop is first placed in a dark, cool place, after full ripening, it is well dried in the sun.

When walnuts ripen in the Krasnodar Territory

In the Krasnodar Territory, the harvest takes place a little later. Full ripening of walnuts in this region occurs in mid-September. The trees growing in Krasnodar are significantly different from those grown in other regions: their fruiting is plentiful, the main part of the harvest is impressive in size.

When walnuts ripen in Crimea

Crimea belongs to the region where walnuts are actively grown. Due to favorable climatic conditions, the tree grows throughout the Crimea. Fruit picking is carried out closer to August. However, in order to avoid spoilage by rodents and other pests, some gardeners prefer to harvest much earlier. Unripe fruits with a green pericarp are knocked down with a stick and left to dry under the sun. After a couple of days, the peel is easily separated, then drying is performed.

How to tell if a walnut is ripe

When it's time to harvest, the fruit begins to fall off the tree. It should be remembered that the tree matures and grows unevenly, so harvesting is not carried out in 1-2 days, sometimes this process drags on for weeks. After the ripened fruits have fallen to the ground, it is recommended to collect within a day, otherwise there is a high probability of damage by rodents and insects.

Another indicator of maturation is the cracking of the pericarp. This process can occur right on the tree. Therefore, the harvesting procedure can be carried out earlier, I used a roll to churn fruits.

Attention! In order to avoid damage to walnuts, experienced gardeners recommend using special harvesting tools: the process is comfortable for the gardener, the fruits are not damaged.

How walnuts are harvested

Timely harvesting of a ripe crop is a very important task. Having correctly determined the exact timing of ripening, you can begin to harvest the fruits.

Due to the fact that the tree is tall, manual harvesting is a rather laborious process. Often, ripe walnuts are knocked down with a stick or removed with a special roll for collection. The collected fruits are shaken well, cleaned of green peel. If the pericarp does not separate well, the crop is dried in the sun.

Harvesting rules for walnuts:

  1. Fruits that have fallen to the ground must be harvested within 24 hours, otherwise there is a high risk of damage to the crop by mold. Earth moisture destroys the amniotic membrane, spoilage of the product begins.
  2. If the harvest is done with a stick, ripe nuts and unripe nuts in the pericarp may fall to the ground. Such a crop should be harvested in separate containers. Fruits with pericarp should be kept for several days in the basement or cellar.
  3. If unripe fruits are harvested, place the crop in a dark, cool place, wait for full ripeness. This procedure must be performed with nuts that do not separate the pericarp. When the shell begins to move away well from the shell, the crop is fully ripe.
  4. Walnuts can be harvested when the protective skin of the fruit begins to crack. To do this, shake the branches of the tree. However, as practice shows, it is quite difficult to knock down most of the nuts with this method, so gardeners resort to using long objects.
  5. Well-ripened fruits may be damaged if they fall on hard ground. In this case, it is recommended to use special harvesting tools.

Conclusion

Walnut grows in almost every region. By creating optimal conditions for growing a tree, you can get a plentiful and high-quality harvest. It should be noted that at least 10 years pass from the moment of planting to the first fruiting. In the process of active growth, the tree needs some care. To obtain an early harvest, it is recommended to choose early-ripening varieties adapted to the climatic conditions of the region.

cultivation and care, how many years to grow

Content

  • Walnut features
  • Characterization of walnut fruit
  • Basic guidelines for growing nuts
  • Planting material
  • Walnut planting site
  • Walnut care
    • Watering walnut
    • Fertilization
    • Walnut trimming
  • Walnut diseases
  • Rules for the collection and storage of fruit

Walnut or walnut grows in almost every garden. This is a tall tree with a wide crown, which produces extremely useful fruits with an unusual taste. Planting a nut and caring for a young plant is easy. You need to know how a walnut grows and what it needs for normal development.

Walnut bears fruit annually

Walnut brings rich harvests every year. The fruits have almost the same high nutritional value as hazelnuts and are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, micro and macro elements.

Features walnut

Every person at least once in his life saw walnuts and tasted their fruits. In the middle lane and southern regions, this tree can be found not only in the summer cottage, but also in the park or by the road. Voloshsky nut is very unpretentious to habitat conditions, tolerates frost and heat. Appearance of the walnut tree:

  1. The tree reaches a height of 25 m.
  2. The trunk can reach from three to seven meters in diameter, it is covered with gray bark.
  3. Wide crown, up to 20 m in diameter.
  4. The leaf is compound, consists of 2–5 pairs of large ovoid leaflets.
  5. There are male flowers (catkins) and sessile female (pistillate) flowers.
  6. Unripe fruit covered with green leathery skin. After ripening, the peel bursts, releasing a globular fruit. The edible core is enclosed in a hard woody shell.

Leaves and flowers bloom at the same time - in May. The walnut re-blooms sometimes in early June. The flowers are pollinated by the wind.

Wild walnut grows in Transcaucasia, in the north of China and India, in Iran, in the Balkans. The plant is distributed throughout Ukraine. In the northern regions of Russia, walnuts grow, but do not develop into large trees. Plants withstand low temperatures down to -20 °C. With prolonged severe frosts, the nut freezes.

Moderately moist, humus-rich soils are ideal for walnut. It is important that the soil is well breathable. The root system of the tree descends to a depth of 4 m and extends along the sides for 20 m.

Walnut lives for centuries, the average age of a large tree is 200-250 years. Throughout its life, the plant retains the ability to bear fruit.

The walnut tree can grow to enormous size

Characteristics of walnut fruit

How many years must pass from the moment of planting the seeds of a nut to the first fruiting? Usually the first nuts appear on the 10-12th year of the tree's life. The plant begins to give rich harvests for 25–30 years. The fruits ripen in mid-September - early October.

The fruit of the walnut is enclosed in a green leathery shell (pericarp). The walnut ripens in it. When the process is completed, the skin dries and cracks. Inside is a bone with an edible core. The peel does not open on its own, it is very strong, tree-like. Inside the shell has a cavity divided into partitions. Partitions break the nucleus into equal parts.

Walnut kernels are shaped like a brain. Outside, they are covered with a thin light brown skin. The taste of the fruit is unusual, sweetish, the skin is a little tart, sometimes bitter or sour. The average weight of one walnut (including the shell) is 5–17 g.

Nuclei contain a large number of useful substances. These are unsaturated fats, proteins, vitamin B1, provitamin A. The fruits are widely used in cooking, traditional medicine, and the food industry.

Walnuts are very nutritious

Basic tips for growing nuts

Voloshsky nut is a valuable tree that gives many extremely useful and tasty fruits. The most difficult task is to wait for these very fruits and keep the tree healthy. Before growing a walnut, you need to consider several important aspects:

  • selection of landing site;
  • selection and preparation of planting material.

It is necessary to immediately study the rules for caring for seedlings, the features of their growth and development. You can plant a walnut at home in separate tubs with prepared soil or in a greenhouse. When the plants reach a certain age, they are planted in open ground.

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Planting material

In order for the nut to grow well, it is important to choose the right and high-quality planting material. There are two ways to plant a nut:

  • seeds;
  • seedlings.

Seedlings have a developed root system, so they grow and bear fruit faster. After planting the seeds in the ground, it should take about a year for the main root to form.

Seeds can be bought or prepared by yourself. Harvesting is carried out during the period of fruit ripening, when the green shell dries up and begins to crack. Collect several large and smooth fruits. They are dried at home. Then the seeds need to be kept for about 100 days at a low temperature (0–10 ° C). If the shell is thin, you need to keep them for 50 days at 18 ° C. This is done to prepare the seeds for real environmental conditions.

Seedlings are grown from seeds in a film greenhouse. To get a direct shoot, the nut must be lowered sideways into the hole. A hole is dug to a depth of 7 cm for small seeds, for large seeds - 11 cm. Seedlings grow from seeds in 2 years.

Seedlings ready for planting can be purchased immediately. It is important to pay attention that there is no plaque on the trunk and branches, so that all the leaves are fresh and not dry.

Walnut seedlings will allow you to harvest faster

Walnut planting site

Before planting a walnut, it is very important to choose the right place on the plot. To do this, you need to take into account several factors:

  1. A dense, wide crown and large green leaves require intense sunlight.
  2. The walnut has a spreading root system that needs a lot of free space. If you plan to plant several plants, the distance between them should be at least half a meter.
  3. Walnut does not like excessive moisture. Waterlogged soils are not suitable for the plant. The close occurrence of groundwater will also not be beneficial.

The ideal place for planting a walnut is a hill. The plant needs soil that is high in carbonate and moderately moist. Loamy soils are well suited.

The soil for planting walnut must be prepared and cultivated in advance. The earth is dug up to a depth of 80 cm-100 cm. Manure mixed with a small amount of ash and the addition of superphosphate is brought to the entire depth. As the walnut tree grows, the topsoil is replaced and enriched each year. The processing area is equal to the size of the crown.

When stable warm weather is established (mid-April - early May), you can plant seedlings in open ground.

Walnut loves space and good lighting

Walnut Care

It is very important to ensure that young trees are properly cared for so that their root system develops normally. Basic factors for proper walnut tree care:

  1. Watering. Young trees like moderately moist soil. Watering walnuts is carried out during the period of active growth - in spring and autumn.
  2. Top dressing. There are several important features of fertilization that will help you get more fruit.
  3. Cutting. Be sure to remove dry and damaged side shoots.

Mature trees do not require special care. If the planting site and soil have been chosen correctly, the tree will grow well and bear fruit every year. Trees need to be watered during a drought, periodically fertilize, renew the soil.

Watering walnut

Young trees need regular watering. For the active growth of roots, trunk, branches and leaves, you need a lot of water. Watering the trees begins in mid-April and ends at the end of September. Basic watering rules:

  • one tree needs 3 buckets of water;
  • watering is carried out twice a month.

When the tree reaches a height of 4-5 meters, the frequency of watering is reduced to 1 time per month. During periods of drought, plants need to be watered more intensively. It is necessary to water the soil under the root and around the tree so that the earth is evenly moist.

A young nut needs three buckets of water twice a month

Fertilization

Walnuts are fed in spring and autumn. The plant needs nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers. There are several rules for applying top dressing:

  • nitrogen fertilizers are applied in spring;
  • Phosphates and potash fertilizers are applied in autumn before digging the ground.

Plants that are 20–50 years old are fed with ammonium nitrate (7 kg), potassium salt (2–2.5 kg), superphosphate (10 kg).

Young plants during the first years of fruiting (2–3 years) should not be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. This is necessary so that in the future the nut gives more fruit.

Walnut trimming

Pruning of young trees is carried out to form a crown. Usually the plant copes with this task on its own. Cut dry, damaged, unnecessary side shoots.

Pruning should not be carried out in the spring, as this may affect the healthy growth of the plant, it will lose a lot of moisture. Branches can be pruned in early summer. The escape is removed twice. In the first year, most of the branch is removed, leaving a small knot (7–10 cm). In the second year, the already dried up remnant of the twig is cut off. This is done in the spring. The cut is treated with garden pitch.

Walnut pruning: first year, second year, third year and fourth year

Walnut diseases

Diseases and pests can significantly affect the growth and development of the walnut tree. Most common walnut diseases:

  1. White spotting. A fungal disease that affects the leaves, light green spots appear on them. The structure of the leaf in the spot area becomes sluggish and corrugated. Treatment and prevention of the spread of the disease to neighboring trees - spraying with copper preparations.
  2. Brown spot. The most common and dangerous walnut disease. Parasites infect immature fruits, leaves and branches. Brown and black spots, ulcers appear on them. The kernels of the fetus rot. The plant during the disease is severely depleted, cannot tolerate winter frosts, fruit buds are not laid in full. Affected shoots are pruned and destroyed away from walnut trees. Plants are treated with special fungicides. In autumn, the leaves from under the nuts must be removed.
  3. Philostiktosis (leaf spot). On the entire surface of the leaves, first white, then brown spots of various sizes appear. The crown is gradually thinning. The disease can lead to rotting of the roots and trunk.

Nuts are also affected by a variety of insects - codling moth, white butterfly caterpillars, wart mites, nut moths. Insecticides will help to cope with them.

If tinder fungi grow on the nut, they must be cut off. To prevent fungal diseases in some regions, tree trunks are covered with lime with the addition of copper.


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