How long mango tree bear fruit
Full Mango Tree Lifespan (And How To Grow Them)
As you probably know, mangoes are a sweet fruit that comes from a tree and is used in many dishes and desserts. But do you know anything beyond that, like how or where mango trees grow?
Mango trees typically live well past 100 years and can produce fruit until the late stages of their life cycle. Mango trees planted from seeds will take roughly 8 years to produce fruit, while mango trees planted from saplings will take up to 5 years to produce mangoes.
Before we dive any deeper into those intricate details about mango trees, let’s take a moment to get back to the basics, shall we? To talk about how a mango tree grows, we should first give a mention to the mangoes themselves, the reason why these trees are so loved. Let’s get into it!
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What Is A Mango?
A mango is, of course, a sweet fruit that comes from a tree…but it is also so much more!
Native to South Asia, this fruit is one of the most highly cultivated tropical fruits.
The flesh of the mango (the part you eat) is typically yellow or orange, but the skin can be quite the range of colors! You can see red, yellow, orange, green, or perhaps a mixture of them all in the skin of a mango. It just depends on the stage in the ripening process and some other chemical processes that impact the outward appearance of the mango.
The type of fruit is called a ‘stone fruit’ which is exactly what it sounds like.
Why Is A Mango A Stone Fruit?
Stone fruit is a type of fruit that contains, you guessed it, a stone (or a pit.)
Did you know, though, that the pit itself is not the seed of these sorts of fruit?
The seed is found inside of the stone, which can be cut open to retrieve the seed. This is an important nuisance to be aware of if you are looking to grow a mango tree directly from a mango seed.
Popular stone fruits are peaches, mangoes, apricots, cherries, nectarines, plums, and dates.
What Type Of Tree Is A Mango Tree?
Mango trees are evergreen and their leaves last for many years at a time.
As one of the most widely cultivated tropical fruits in the world, mangoes’ variability in color and size is not the only part of this plant that is adaptable.
These trees can live for quite some time and can produce fruit quite late into their lifespan.
Speaking of which, let’s finally dive into the lifespan of a mango tree.
What Is The Lifespan Of A Mango Tree?
Alright, alright- we are finally getting to the part that you are here for!
A mango tree lives for well over 100 years, producing fruit well into the late stages of its life.
Let’s dive into the different stages of a mango tree’s life, from planting to maturity to the end of it all. Here are some of the things you can expect as you work to grow and maintain a mango tree:
Early Mango Tree Lifespan And Planting
To plant a mango tree from the seed, you have to start with the pit and the rest will follow.
Follow these easy steps to procure a mango seed and plant yourself a tree!
- Cut open your mango to reach the pit (aka the stone.)
- Clean the pit until you can see the husk without much extra mango on it.
- Grab a pair of heavy-duty scissors and cut the pit open.
- Squeeze the mango seed out of the husk of the pit.
- If the seed has any extra coating around it, clean this off.
- Wrap your seed into a wet paper towel and place it inside a bag until it sprouts. Check often to be sure that you don’t leave your seed for too long.
- Plant the seed in potting soil.
- Watch your tree begin to grow!
- You’ll need to re-pot the mango tree as it grows, eventually placing the tree directly in the ground.
You will want to start by covering the roots of your not-quite-mature mango tree, especially any newly planted trees or shrubs, with a few inches of shredded mulch. 3-4 inches of this layer should do the trick to create some insulation around the base of the tree. Creating a mulch donut of sorts, pulling the mulch to about 6 inches around the trunk on every side, will ensure that any stray roots will not be subject to the freezing temperatures.
If there are any cracks in the soil around your tree as you are completing this first step, you’ll want to make sure that they are filled in with new soil before you move on.
If you wish to grow a mango tree without having to purchase the actual fruit itself, you can look into products like these prepared Dichondra Fresh Mango Seeds.
Growing Mango Trees To Maturity
If you are planting a mango tree from the seed, you should expect to wait 5-8 years before getting any fruit.
However, planting seeds is not the only way to go. Planting saplings will help you lower your wait time as you patiently let the tree mature long enough to bear fruit.
A mango tree sapling will bear fruit about 4 years after it is planted, significantly less than a mango tree planted from seed.
This is no surprise, as saplings are often already a few years old by the time of purchase, but can be an important factor to remember if getting fruit sooner is your ultimate goal.
End Of Life For Mango Trees
Information from the University of Wisconsin- La Crosse tells us that the oldest living mango tree is 300 years old and still produces fruit! This tree can be found in East Khandesh, in India.
So, that mango trees can live over 100 years feels almost like an understatement. These trees have quite a long lifespan and the ability to produce fruit until the end of the tree’s life says a lot about the vicarious nature of this tree.
How Long Can A Mango Tree Produce Fruit?
After flowering, a mango tree takes three to five months for the fruit to ripen.
These trees can begin producing fruit as young as 5 years after being planted from the seed and can bear fruit until the very end of their lifespan as seen by the 300-year-old mango tree in India that continues to bear fruit.
This means that mango trees produce fruit from early mature life until the very end.
Theoretically, if every tree lived as long as the oldest tree, each plant could bear 295 years’ worth of fruit.
How To Grow A Mango Tree
As a reminder, you can plant a mango tree from the seed in a few simple steps.
- Cut open your mango.
- Clean the pit.
- Cut the pit open.
- Squeeze the mango seed out.
- If the seed has any extra coating, clean it.
- Wrap your seed into a wet paper towel and place it inside a bag until it sprouts. Check often.
- Plant the seed in potting soil.
- Watch your tree begin to grow!
- You’ll need to re-pot the mango tree as it grows.
These few steps are important factors to plant a tree, but there is more that goes into growing the tree itself.
If you want to start your mango seedlings off on the right foot, try out some good seedling mixes such as this Sun Gro 8-Quart Mix!
The basis of a healthy tree starts at its origin, so making sure to take external factors into your planting plans can make a big difference.
Then, as your tree grows you’ll be able to make informed decisions about how you maintain it to keep a healthy mango tree with great fruit.
Best Time Of Year For Growing And Harvesting Mangos
Mango is harvested in the warmer months of late spring and summer, but when should you plant a mango tree for best results?
Late winter to early spring is the best time to plant a mango tree.
This is because the plant does not actively grow during this point of the year and will be better able to get situated in the soil before active growth continues in the warmer months of the year.
Best Location For Growing Mangos
Where do mangoes grow best, exactly?
Mango trees are best suited for a tropical climate, really anywhere in the USDA hardiness zone 9 and above.
This means, essentially, that you should be planting a mango tree in an area where the temperature does not dip below 20 degrees Fahrenheit.
Areas that do not tend to have a frost are the prime candidates for these trees, like warm regions of Hawaii,California, Florida, and other areas along the Gulf of Mexico.
No matter where you plan to plant your mango tree, it is important to be aware of hardiness zones and their implications.
Fertilize Your Mangos To Maximize Their Lifespan
If you have been reading our pieces for a while now, you know that fertilizer is the name of the game.
While this does not plant food, as it is often (and incorrectly) referred to, it does act as a way to help trees and other plants absorb more of those oh-so-important nutrients that they need.
You can fertilize your mango tree 3 times a year, during each season that is not winter, starting at a lower amount when the tree is young and increasing slightly to adjust to the larger size of the tree as it matures.
Though mango, by definition, is not a citrus, the tree does require many of the same nutrients to grow at a healthy, stable rate.
Balanced fertilizers, but a little high in nitrogen content, will be best for these types of trees.
When looking for certain specific nutrients, you’ll want to keep an eye out for phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen (the big 3 of fertilizers), manganese, zinc, and iron.
The big three will show up pretty clearly in the N/P/K ratio (standing for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) while the other types of nutrients may need to be sought after a little more.
Speaking of the big three and ratios, if you see fertilizer with the numbers 5-5-5, 6-6-6, or 8-3-9-2 (the 2 is an add-on and refers to magnesium), you can safely bet that you’re purchasing the right type of fertilizer.
If you are having troubles with your tree even after fertilizing, it could be a pest issue. Check out this article on 9 Different Animals And Insects That Live In Trees.
This Dr. Earth Natural Wonder Organic Fruit Tree Fertilizer is a great option, with an NPK of 5-5-2, it is a well-balanced fertilizer with extra emphasis on stimulating healthy root development.
Ways To Use Mangos From Your Mango Tree
So, now that you know how to plant, grow, and sustain a mango tree, what can you do with the fruit? There are so many dishes to make with mango that you won’t even know where to start!
Mango Sticky Rice
This Thai classic is a favorite among locations, served as a slightly sweet dessert for those who prefer the flavors of this fruit more than a dish completely lost to the sugar content.
If you’re looking to get kids to eat more fruit, this could be a fun start– add in some blueberries along with the sticky rice and condensed milk for a fun yet healthier dessert dish.
This warm and filling dish can be eaten at any time of year, warm or cold!
On a similar note, if you’re looking to reap some benefits of mango without all the processing that you’ll find in store-bought popsicles, buy some mangoes and create your own!
Be sure to have a bit of lime juice, some honey for sweetness, and fresh water on hand to blend with your mango chunks. You’ll have a refreshing summer treat in the time it takes to freeze (though popsicles also pair well with a relaxing day at home, staying out of the winter cold- no judgment here!)
Looking for a fresh way to use all that produce you bought for the holiday gatherings? Whip up a quick and easy mango salsa using some peppers, onions, mangoes, tomatoes, lime juice, and whatever else you have sitting around the kitchen.
Use as a dip with some chips or chop the veggies into larger chunks and eat it as a salad. You’ll love this dish and all of the crisp, fresh flavors that are mixed in.
Salmon With Mango Sauce
Bake some salmon and use mango salsa, or any sort of version you concoct, to top it off. You can balance the crispy edges of the fish with the softer, lighter pieces of mango to create a meal that feels as delightful to eat as it does healthy to prepare.
Shrimp Tacos With Mango Salsa
On the note of using a sauce or salsa, why stop at chips and salmon? Let’s talk tacos!
Make some shrimp tacos ( white fish tacos pair well, too) and add some purple cabbage, a spicy sauce, and mango salsa on top. This combination of textures and flavors combines to make the perfect lunch that feels balanced yet yummy.
The University of Southern California notes that a mango lassi recipe can provide 39% of the daily calcium recommendation in just a little drink.
This creamy yogurt drink originates in India, home to the oldest mango tree currently producing fruit as well as one of the biggest consumers of mango in the world.
Combine mango pulp, yogurt, and a dash of carbonated water with a few other ingredients to easily re-create this healthy yet tasty treat.
Mango Fruit Salad
Why go for a regular, boring fruit salad when you can add mango and elevate any version of a fruit salad immediately?
Combine some apples, grapes, mango, raspberry, strawberries, and blueberries to make a semi-tropical fusion fruit salad that takes ‘regular’ and spins it on its head.
The taste is great but the antioxidants and vitamins that these salad packs are more than enough reason to give this dish a try.
Another Indian dish, chutney is a gluten-free savory condiment that can be used with a whole spread of different foods.
Mango chutney in particular is rich in vitamins A, B, and C, along with other antioxidants and heart-healthy factors.
This is also, like most other mango dishes, a great way to get some extra iron in your diet when needed.
Finally, one more sweet dessert dish that is easy to make, has a great taste and will leave you feeling like your final course didn’t go to waste.
This light relative of ice cream is great after a heavier meal when you want something else, without feeling much fuller.
Well, that’s all we’ve got for now.
If the bad pun didn’t scare you away, feel free to check out some more pieces on more trees here anytime!
Remember these important facts about mangoes as a fruit, the lifespan of the trees, how to grow them, and more!
If you ever forget, just pop back over to this piece for a refresher. We like to do all the deep-diving for information so that you don’t have to you’re welcome!
If you are ever are interested in mango trees and how their roots work, you can check out this article on the 6 Best Fruit Trees That Have Shallow Roots.
Also, keep some of these recipe ideas in mind- they might come in handy in a few years when your tree is producing plenty of mangoes and you’re trying to keep some new dishes in the rotation.
Thank you for taking the time to read, I hope you learned lots of new information about mangoes and their trees. We invite you to stop back sometime and check out a little more.
Remember, we are always here to help you along your tree journey.
Boudon, F., Persello, S., Grechi, I., Marquier, A., Soria, C., Fournier, C., … & Normand, F. (2018, August). Assessing the role of aging and light availability in leaf mortality in the mango tree. In XXX International Horticultural Congress IHC2018: International Symposium on Cultivars, Rootstocks and Management Systems of 1281 (pp. 601-608).
Wall‐Medrano, A., Olivas‐Aguirre, F. J., Ayala‐Zavala, J. F., Domínguez‐Avila, J. A., Gonzalez‐Aguilar, G. A., Herrera‐Cazares, L. A., & Gaytan‐Martinez, M. (2020). Health Benefits of Mango By‐products. Food Wastes and By‐products: Nutraceutical and Health Potential, 159-191.
Boudon, F., Persello, S., Grechi, I., Marquier, A., Soria, C., Fournier, C., … & Normand, F. (2018, August). Assessing the role of ageing and light availability in leaf mortality in the mango tree. In XXX International Horticultural Congress IHC2018: International Symposium on Cultivars, Rootstocks and Management Systems of 1281 (pp. 601-608).
How to Grow Mango Trees
Although it can be tricky to grow, a mango tree (Mangifera indica) can make for an interesting specimen when grown in the ground or a large pot. This tree forms a dense canopy of long oblong green leaves in the right conditions, rewarding you with white flowers from December through March. After flowering, mango trees bear fruit three to five months later.
Mango trees grow best in tropical and warmer subtropical climates where there is no danger of frost. In the United States, mango trees grow in California, Florida, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. They should be planted in the spring and are generally fast-growing. You don't need two trees to produce fruit; a single tree has flowers with male and female parts.
Mango trees planted in the garden are more likely to bear fruit than potted trees. It is challenging to keep an indoor mango tree alive long enough to reach maturity and bear fruit. Small varieties suitable for containers, such as the dwarf spotted mango tree, are capable of fruiting if they receive enough sunlight. Its fruit are usually ripe for picking in summer or autumn but it varies per region. Also, note that the sap, bark, or fruit skin can be toxic to people.
|Botanical Name||Mangifera indica|
|Plant Type||Fruit, tree|
|Size||Up to 100 ft. tall, 35 ft. wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun|
|Soil Type||Loamy, moist, well-drained|
|Soil pH||Acidic, neutral, alkaline|
|Hardiness Zones||9–11 (USDA)|
|Toxicity||Toxic to people|
How to Plant a Mango Tree
When to Plant
The best time to plant a mango tree is in the spring when the weather is still mild. However, be sure it will not be exposed to any frost.
Selecting a Planting Site
Mango trees prefer a sunny spot with loose, well-draining soil. Consider the tree's mature size when selecting a planting site, and note the site's proximity to other plants and structures. Container growth is an option for the smaller mango tree varieties.
Spacing, Depth, and Support
Spacing depends on the mango variety you're growing. Check the mature canopy width, along with the height, to make sure you'll have enough room to grow your tree. Saplings should be planted in their nursery container at the same depth they were growing. You should plant seeds about 1/2 inch deep. Saplings might need staking for support as they grow, especially in an area with strong winds.
Mango Tree Care
Mango trees require full sun, meaning at least eight hours of direct sunlight on most days. Their flower and fruit production will suffer if they don't get enough light. A south-facing window indoors can work, but it's best to move the pot outside as much as possible for full sunlight exposure.
These trees can tolerate a variety of soil types. But a sandy loam that's light and well-draining is best. The soil pH can range from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (5.5 to 7.5).
Mango trees have some drought tolerance, though drought can negatively impact fruit production. It's best to water whenever the top couple inches of soil dries out, but do not let the tree sit in soggy soil.
Temperature and Humidity
Mango trees prefer humidity above 50 percent; mist an indoor tree daily if the air is dry. Also, keep your tree as warm as possible, ideally above 70 degrees. Mango trees can't tolerate freezing, and even temperatures in the 40s can cause flowers and fruit to drop.
These trees don’t need a lot of fertilizer, and if you already have rich soil, you likely won’t have to provide supplemental feeding. A slow-release balanced fertilizer can be applied in poor soil conditions, following label instructions.
Mango trees are pollinated by bees, ants, flies, and other pollinators, along with wind.The Spruce / K. Dave The Spruce / K. Dave The Spruce / K. Dave The Spruce / K. Dave
Types of Mango Trees
If you're growing a mango tree from seed, don't expect the fruit to be true to the parent plant. It is also possible that the propagated tree will be sterile and won't bear fruit, so it is generally best to buy a grafted mango variety if you want fruit. Some good choices include:
- 'Pickering' develops into a bushy tree. You can expect it to flower in late winter and bear fruit in the summer.
- 'Ice Cream' makes a good plant for the patio, as it grows to 6 feet tall. When ripe, the fruit is yellow-green rather than red.
- 'Cogshall' is an excellent choice for growing in a container and produces fruit consistently.
Mangoes vs. Peaches
Mangoes and peaches are often substituted for one another in recipes. Their fruit color and texture is similar. However, mangoes can taste a little tangier than peaches. And peaches can be more watery.
A mango tree from seed requires at least five to eight years to bear fruit; a nursery sapling should produce fruit in about four years.
The mango fruit takes three to five months to ripen after the tree has flowered. The color of the ripe fruit depends on the variety. The fruit is typically harvested by hand and must be handled gently to avoid breaking the skin.
One way to test for readiness is to pick fruit and sniff it to see if it has a sweet scent. If you pick unripe fruit, you can place it in a paper bag at room temperature to ripen further over several days. Mango can be eaten raw or cooked. Immature fruit is often used to make pickled mango. Store fully ripe fruit in the refrigerator, and aim to use it within a week. It also can be frozen.
How to Grow Mango Trees in Pots
Most dwarf mango trees typically reach 4 to 8 feet tall, making them ideal for growing in pots. With container growth, you can keep your tree in an easily accessible spot for harvesting, and you don't have to dedicate a lot of garden space to it.
The best time to plant mango trees in containers is in the spring. Choose a container at least 20 inches tall and wide with ample drainage holes. An unglazed clay container is best because it will allow excess soil moisture to escape through its walls. Place it on a plant caddie with rolling casters for easy mobility.
Pruning typically should occur every year or two after the tree bears fruit to keep its size manageable. The trees can tolerate heavy pruning, though fruit production can take a season to bounce back. Thin some canopy branches to improve air flow and allow sunlight to reach the remaining branches. Remove any dead, damaged, or diseased branches as they arise.
Propagating Mango Trees
Mango trees are typically grown from seed or grafted nursery trees. It's also possible to grow them from cuttings. Though cuttings don't always result in a strong root system, it is an inexpensive and easy way to create new trees. The best time to do so is in the summer. Here's how:
- Cut a 6- to 8-inch portion of a young, thin branch from a healthy mango tree, and remove the leaves on the lower half. Also, remove any flowers or fruit.
- Dip the cut end in rooting hormone.
- Plant the cutting in a small container with moistened soilless potting mix. The container should have drainage holes.
- Put the container in a warm, humid spot with bright, indirect light. And keep the growing medium moist but not soggy. Adding a heat mat under the container to keep the soil between 75 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit can help to promote root growth. It can take several weeks to have substantial root growth.
How to Grow Mango Trees From Seed
To germinate mango seeds, carefully remove the outer hairy husk to reveal the inner seed. Polyembryonic plants, such as the mango tree, have seeds with several smaller seeds inside, while other plants have just one seed.
You can suspend a seed over water like an avocado seed to develop roots. Or you can plant it with the bulging side up about 1/2 inch deep in a container of a seed-starting mix. It should sprout within two weeks. Keep the seed in temperatures above 70 degrees Fahrenheit, and keep the growing medium moist but not soggy. Wait to plant the sprouted seed in a larger container until its second growing season begins.
Potting and Repotting Mango Trees
A well-draining potting mix for citrus plants or palms is suitable for potting mangoes. Mango trees will grow into small trees fairly quickly (in about four or five years) and require repotting when they become root-bound or too top-heavy for the pot. The timing of this can vary depending on your pot size and variety of tree.
To repot, gently remove the tree from its old container, place it at the same depth it was previously growing in a larger container, and fill around it with fresh potting mix. Then, water it deeply, ensuring the excess water drains out of the container.
Potted mango trees should be brought indoors for the winter before the temperature dips below 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Place them by a bright, south-facing window, and use grow lights if necessary. The trees should be kept warm and protected from drafts.
Common Pests and Plant Diseases
Mango may suffer from some common insect pests, including mealybugs, aphids, and mites. Signs of infestation include tiny webs on plants, clumps of white powdery residue, and visible insects. Treat infestations as soon as possible to prevent them from spreading to the rest of your collection. Start with the least toxic treatment option, progressing to more serious chemicals only if your initial efforts fail.
Mango plants also are susceptible to anthracnose, a fungal disease causing black lesions that gradually spread. Seriously infected trees stop producing fruit. The best preventive measure is to plant a resistant variety in full sun, where moisture will quickly evaporate.
Extreme humidity fosters anthracnose and other fungal diseases. Copper-based fungicides can sometimes be effective against anthracnose on mango trees, but you should not use fungicides within 14 days of a planned fruit harvest.
The Spruce uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
Mango (Mangifera Indica). Children’s Health Queensland
Mango: a tree-long-liver and "Stakhanovite"-producer
Mango belongs to the extensive family of Anacardiaceae or Sumakh, Pistachio (Anacardiaceae) , the genus Mango (Mangifera) , including 69 plant species. The most popular representative of the genus is Indian Mango (Magnifera indica) - a tree that has been cultivated for over 8 thousand years. During this time, it has become the most important agricultural crop in the tropical zone of our planet.
The border zone of India and Myanmar is considered to be the birthplace of mango. In the 7th century BC. mango first left its homeland with the Chinese traveler Hwen Sang and began to develop other territories, three centuries later, Buddhist monks brought mango to Malaysia and East Asia. It was brought to the Middle East and East Africa by Persian merchants in the 10th century. In 1742, with Spanish sailors, the mango crossed to about. Barbados and on to Brazil. In 1833 mango appears in the USA, Mexico, South Africa, Australia and the Middle East. Throughout the 19th century, Americans adapted the tree to the conditions of the Yucatan and Florida, until in 1900, the persistence of agronomists was not rewarded: the first fruits grown in North America went on sale.
Europe learned about the mango thanks to the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, whose associates described outlandish fruits. However, their delivery to regions remote from their places of growth remained problematic until the advent of steamboats.
Mango fruits appeared in Russia only in the middle of the 20th century. Until recently, this extremely beautiful and useful plant remained aloof from the attentive eyes of exotic lovers. At present, a technique for growing small mango trees at home has been developed and described.
Growing only in warm tropical climates, mangoes never shed their leaves. The tree reaches 10-45 m in height and 10 m in crown diameter. Varieties with small trees are considered more practical for cultivation on plantations. Note that juicy sweet fruits were obtained as a result of crossing two species - Mangifera indica and Mangifera sylvanica , the fruits of wild species are fibrous, small, dryish, with a pronounced smell of turpentine.
Young mango leaves are reddish in color, ranging in color from yellowish pink to brownish red. Growing up, they become glossy and dark green, with a lighter underside. The leaves are simple, with a pronounced central vein, hanging on petioles thickened at the base, 3-12 cm long. The shape of the leaf varies from oval to elongated-lanceolate, the length of the leaf is 15-45 cm with a width of up to 10 cm. The foliage smells of turpentine.
The plant loves light and develops quickly. The tap root goes into the ground to a depth of 6 m. Since it is difficult to hold a huge crown with a single tap root, a wide root system with additional deep roots is formed in the tree. Thus, the root system of a young 18-year-old tree reaches a depth of 1-2 m with a radius of up to 7.5 m.
Mango can grow and bear fruit up to 300 years. In India, there is an old-timer tree with a trunk diameter of 3.5 m and branches with a diameter of 75 cm - this tree covers an area of \u200b\u200bmore than 2250 square meters. m and produces about 16,000 fruits annually.
The bark of the tree is dark grey, brown or black, smooth, fissured with age. The branches are smooth, shiny, dark green.
During the year, the plant has several periods of active growth. Having reached the age of 6 years, the tree enters the time of maturity, begins to bloom and bear fruit. At home, in India, mango blooms from December in the south of the country to April in the north. When flowering, it produces many panicles of a conical shape, each of which contains from several hundred to several thousand small yellowish or pink flowers with a sweet smell, similar to the aroma of lilies. The size of each flower is 5-7 mm in diameter. Among the thousands of flowers, most are male (their number can reach up to 90%), the rest are bisexual. Such an abundance attracts all lovers of pollen and nectar: bats and a wide variety of insects, both flying and crawling, because mango is the best honey plant in the tropics. Despite all the efforts of pollinators, only 1-2 fruits are tied from each panicle, and unpollinated flowers fall off. People do not remain indifferent to such a floral abundance: Otto essential oil is obtained from mango flowers.
In nature, mangoes produce only one crop per year, but in cultivated gardens, agronomists achieve two crops. Here it is worth paying attention to one feature of the mango: each individual branch bears fruit in nature in a year, alternating with neighboring ones, so that agronomists force the whole tree to bear fruit, doing it in two passes.
After the unpollinated flowers fly around, 1-2 ovaries with a smooth dense green skin, which ripen for 3-6 months, remain hanging on long petioles in place of the panicles, as if on ribbons.
The size of ripe fruits, depending on the variety, varies from 6 to 25 cm and can reach a weight of 2 kg. A normal fruit weighs about 200-400 g. The shape of the fruit is one of the characteristics of the variety, it can be round, oval, ovoid, but almost always asymmetrical when viewed from the side.
The most valuable thing in a mango is the sweet pulp. It can be whitish to intense yellow and orange, slightly fibrous or homogeneous. Unripe mango fruits contain pectin and a large amount of acids - citric, oxalic, malic and succinic and are used to make sour seasonings. The color and smell of ripe fruits are also characteristics of the variety. They are extremely diverse: green, yellow, pink fruits, or with all the listed colors at once; reminiscent of apricot, melon, lemon, even a rose, or have their own unique pleasant taste and aroma. The stalk of a ripe fruit, when broken, releases juice, which smells sharply of turpentine and thickens with a darkening drop. Some varieties have a peculiar coniferous flavor and a slight smell of turpentine.
All mango fruits have one obligatory feature in their structure - a beak. Not the same, of course, as in parrots, but in the form of a small protrusion above the edge of the bone. Given the asymmetry of the fetus, the beak is located diametrically opposite to the stalk. The prominence of the beak is different in different varieties, from a small outgrowth to a point on the skin.
Inside the fruit is hidden a flat, elongated, ribbed, hard, white-yellow bone, similar to the shell of a familiar freshwater mollusk - barley, often found in the rivers of the middle zone.
The shell and stone are even similar in size - about 10 cm, only the stone is flatter. It is usually densely fibrous and has a characteristic "beard" along the rib to which the flesh attaches.
In some varieties, it is smooth and easily detaches from the pulp. Inside the stone is a dicotyledonous flat seed, which can be mono- or polyembryonic, giving, respectively, one or more seedlings. The size of the seeds is from 5 to 10 cm. Inside the seed, the seed is partially covered with a dense brown membrane similar to parchment paper.
The part of the seed that is not covered by the membrane is white. If we make a thin longitudinal section of the part under the membrane, we will find an oval gray-brown spot with dark veins.
The ripeness of the fruit is determined by the ease of removal of the stalk and the specific fruity smell of its break. In order to avoid birds pecking at ripe fruits, the crop is usually harvested slightly unripe and left to ripen in a dark place. The removed fruits must be washed, removing traces of juice from the stalk or damaged peel, because. the juice, drying up, leaves blackening traces and damages the peel, after which the fruit rots in the places of blackening. It should be remembered that fresh juice from the incised peel of the fruit has an irritating effect on human skin. Contact with a fresh incision may result in a chemical burn. People who are prone to allergies should be especially careful.
Seeds of ripe fruits are suitable for propagation, but in the conditions of cultivation of varietal crops, mangoes are usually propagated by grafting, which allows you to keep all the characteristics of the variety. Trees grown from seeds are used as rootstock. Grafted trees begin to bear fruit in the 1st-2nd year, while in nature the first fruits appear in the 6th year, and the tree reaches its full yield only after 15 years. The average mango yield is 40-70 centners per hectare.
Choose a planting site with good drainage, vital for mangoes. Fat soil for a tree is not needed, because. it stimulates continuous vegetative growth at the expense of flowering and yield. Mango adapts perfectly to various soils: sandy (as in Thailand, Egypt and Pakistan), rocky (as in India, Spain and Mexico) and even saline limestone, as in Israel.
An unpretentious attitude to the composition of the soil allowed the plant to expand its distribution area, which eventually occupied the entire tropical zone of the Earth. Now mangoes are grown even in Australia, but India is still the main supplier of mangoes to the world market. The basis of mango production in India was laid in the second half of the 16th century by the ruler of the Mughal dynasty, Jalal ad-din Akbar (1556-1605). He planted a Lag Bah garden of 100,000 mango trees on the Ganges plain. Now mango occupies 70% of the area of all orchards in India and its annual harvest is more than 2 million tons.
For 8000 years of cultivation, the breadwinner tree has acquired legends and has become sacred to people who practice Buddhism and Hinduism. In Hinduism, mango is considered one of the incarnations of the god Prajayati - the Creator of All That Is. Buddhist legend says that Buddha, having received a mango fruit as a gift from the god Amradarika, ordered his disciple to plant a stone and watered it, washing his hands over it. At this place, the sacred mango tree grew and began to bear fruit, generously endowing others with its fruits.
In Hinduism and Buddhism, a ripe mango is a symbol of achievement, love and prosperity. Often the mango fruit is depicted in the hands of the god Ganesh, and the goddess Ambika is sitting under a mango tree. It is believed that Shiva grew and gave the mango to his beloved wife Parvati, so the mango fruit, as a guarantee of prosperity and protection of the gods, is usually nailed to the foundation of a newly built house.
Mangoes are also grown as an agricultural crop in Brazil, Mexico, Florida and Hawaii, China, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, Egypt and Pakistan. Thailand is next in terms of mango exports after India, followed by Brazil, Pakistan and other countries.
What is the difference between a mango and a fruit of the middle lane? Mango pulp consists of 76-80% water, contains 11-20% sugars, 0.2-0.5% acids, 0.5% protein. Nutritionists note the usefulness of the fruit as a dietary product: 100 g contains only 70 kcal, but the fruit is unusually rich in carotene, which is 5 times more in mangoes than in oranges. In addition, mango contains a whole complex of vitamins - C, B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , B 6, B 9 , D, E - and trace elements - K, Ca, Mg, P .
Over many years of use, people have learned to extract the maximum benefit from any part of the plant and mango fruit.
The leaves and bark contain mangiferin, a substance known as "Indian yellow" used in the pharmaceutical and paint industries. When eating a small amount of mango leaves, the urine of sacred cows becomes bright yellow, it is used to dye fabrics. But it is impossible to use mango leaves as feed. This leads to the death of the animal.
Recently, another product that can be obtained from seeds has been discovered - mango butter, which is similar in consistency to cocoa butter and shea butter. It is used in the confectionery industry as a substitute for cocoa butter. The only difficulty at present is its small amount and high cost, due to manual collection and pitting. While this promising direction of use is in its infancy.
Mango laminated wood may be gray to greenish brown. Despite moisture resistance and ease of processing, furniture is not made from it, since it contains substances that irritate the respiratory tract. For the same reason, wood is never used for firewood, because. smoke is also irritating. The culprit behind all these limitations is the essential oil containing mangiferol and mangiferin. From mango wood, parts of the supporting structures of the roofs of wooden houses, boats, plywood and containers for transporting tin cans with canned food are made.
In India, they have learned to use mangoes at any stage of their development. Unripe go to salads and stews, beginners use it as vegetables and a side dish for fish and meat, somewhat unripe - for pickles, marinades and sauces, and ripe ones - as fruits and for making jams, marmalade and drinks.
There is another important use: mango powder is an ingredient in well-known spices such as chutney, curry and amchur. Dried mango slice powder is widely used in Indian cuisine. It is added to dishes for a peculiarly sour taste. When using mango powder, you need to remember that it is highly flammable, and do not scatter it near open flames.
Mango Recipes: Fruit Skewers with Honey Sauce, Amba Mango Sauce, Mango Ice Tea, Original Mango Cucumber Salad, Mango Sauce, Brazilian Mango Pumpkin Ginger Shrimp Soup, Fruit Soup with mint, Mango and cardamom lassi with yogurt, Festive carrot and mango salad, Mango and avocado salad, Green mango salad, Picanta mango sauce, Mango with tomatoes in orange sauce, Exotic salad with tequila.
Lacking modern medicines, for centuries people have thoroughly studied all the beneficial properties of mango and learned how to use it as a medicinal plant
A decoction of the leaves is used to treat diabetes and increase blood clotting.
Juice and pulp of the fruit help increase resistance to viral infections, reduce the rate of skin keratinization and cure "night blindness", when a person cannot see at dusk, due to the high content of carotenoids. The complex of vitamins with carotene helps prevent the development of cancer of the digestive system and improves immunity.
Freshly squeezed juice treats dermatitis, bronchitis and cleanses the liver. The peel of the fruit has an astringent and tonic effect on the stomach.
Mango as a medicinal plant can serve as a panacea for many diseases, if you know how and what parts of the plant should be used to obtain antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anti-asthmatic, antiviral and anthelmintic effects.
Now there are about 600 varieties of mango adapted to different conditions, of which only about 35 are widely grown. Each variety is characterized by the shape and size of the tree, the length and time of ripening, the shape, color, size and taste of the fruit. The most famous varieties in India are Alphons (Alphons) and Bombay with large, sweet, fragrant fruits without a specific aftertaste. In South India, the harvest is from January to May. From here we get varieties: Pairi (Pairi), nilam (Neelam), Totapuri (Totapuri), Bangapally (Banganpalli), etc. Later - from June to August - mangoes bear fruit in the northern states of India.
Let us give an example of the characteristics of several varieties.
- Baileys Marvel: A fast growing cold tolerant tree with a round, dense crown. The fruit is bright yellow with a peach side, large, ripens in July-September. The flesh of the fruit is firm, sweet, practically devoid of fibers.
- Julie: Popular in Jamaica, introduced to Florida from Thailand. Dwarf tree suitable for growing in a container. The fruit is yellow-green with a pink barrel, medium, flattened laterally, ripens in July-August. The pulp is tender, creamy.
- Malika: One of the finest Indian varieties. Fast growing compact tree suitable for container growing. The fruit is bright yellow, medium, ripens in July-August. The pulp of the fruit is orange, firm, juicy, with a pronounced aroma.
Since 1987, the annual International Mango Festival has been held in the capital of India at the end of summer. At the festival, more than 50 mango producers exhibit their products in search of new contracts with processors and exporters from 80 countries. The festival presents more than 550 different varieties of mangoes from all over the world. Songs and poems about mangoes are heard here, they are treated to delicious mango dishes and fresh fruits, they entertain the audience with competitions and shows with the indispensable use of mangoes.
Mango is a fruit tree known to man for 8000 years. For such a long time, people have learned to use not only the edible pulp of the fruit, but also the bark, wood, flowers and leaves of a generous tree. Despite such a long history, Europeans and Americans got acquainted with mango fruits only about a century ago, but over this short period of time, mango has gained sincere recognition as an excellent dietary fruit that always opens up a new shade of taste. Ahead of Europeans are new discoveries in the use of mango as a vegetable, fragrant seasoning and medicinal plant.
Read How to grow a mango from a seed.
Photo: Tatyana Chechevatova, Rita Brilliantova
Heading: Other fruit
Mango is a very sweet exotic fruit that tastes like a peach. There is an opinion that it grows only in hot countries and the tropics. But every housewife, cutting a juicy fruit in the kitchen, thinks about how good it would be to grow it at home. And it's real. Growing a mango tree from a stone is absolutely easy if you properly care for it. Another issue is fruition. There may be problems associated with the vegetative characteristics of this plant.
- Preparing for planting
- Planting and growing
- Caring for a mango tree
- Is it possible to get fruit?
Planting and growing mangoes at home is easy. But first the seed must be sown. To do this, you will need the following items:
- ripe fruit;
- dull knife;
- paper towel;
- ziplock plastic bag;
- plastic container with lid.
- The first step is to select a ripe fruit with the correct shape. It should be free of damage and wormholes. Ideally, fruit brought from a tropical country, and not bought in a store.
- Next, you need to cut off all the pulp and rinse the stone with water.
- Place a clean bone in a sunny place where it will dry for 1-2 days. Turn it over when one side is dry.
- With a blunt knife, cut open the bone from the sharp tip. This should be done as carefully as possible, trying not to touch the seed, and break the rest with your hands.
- Detach the seed from the shell, it is not necessary to remove the skin. The seed is shaped like a bean or bean.
- Wrap it in a piece of paper towel, moisten slightly. There should not be much moisture, from an overabundance it will simply rot.
- Put the seed wrapped in a towel into a plastic bag, then into a container and close the lid. It will serve as a mini-greenhouse in which the grain will germinate.
- Store container in a dark place.
- Check it periodically so that the seed does not dry out and always remains moist.
Mango trees are very vulnerable in the early stages of growth, so it is recommended to immediately plant the seed in a permanent place and avoid multiple transplants.
Planting and growing
After the mango seed has germinated, it must be planted in a pot. This is done in the following way.
- high-quality, light and loose soil;
- large flower pot;
Planting and growing step by step:
|1||Pour drainage into the bottom of the pot. It is necessary, since the mango does not tolerate stagnant water, and excess moisture will harm the roots.|
|2||Fill the pot 2/3 full with soil, dampen it and let the water drain. Drainage will help remove excess moisture.|
|3||Place the germinated seed in the container with the smooth side down, cover with soil and lightly press down, being careful not to damage the stone.|
|4||Cover the pot with a plastic bag and place it in a sunny place.|
|5||Ventilate regularly, if necessary, moisten the soil, preventing drying out. If the surface is dry, it's time to water.|
|6||The first leaves begin to appear within 2-4 weeks. Their color ranges from light green to purple. You should not be afraid, this is due to the peculiarity of the culture of this plant.|
|7||After 2 months after germination, you can gradually accustom the plant to the environment by slightly opening the plastic bag and leave it in the sun.|
Mango tree care
Planting and growing a mango tree is easy. But in order for it to grow healthy and beautiful, full care is needed. You need to plant it in a bright place, under direct sunlight, and in summer you can take it out to the balcony or to the street. But in unstable weather conditions, it is better not to do this. A sharp cold snap or long-term rains will harm the plant. In winter, it is desirable to highlight it with a fluorescent lamp.
The following conditions are required to maintain the tree:
- The optimum temperature is +21-26 degrees. Any sudden changes can cause damage to the tree, stop the process of its growth.
- Dry soil is absolutely unacceptable for a whimsical tree, so it needs to be watered frequently.
- Dry air is also harmful. It is necessary to regularly spray it from a spray bottle or install a humidifier nearby.
- It is necessary to regularly feed the plant with natural organic fertilizers. Trees grow well if you add humus to the pot. To do this, you can make a small depression around the tree, place fertilizer there and sprinkle it with soil on top.
- In wildlife, mangoes grow to a height of 22-25 meters. A home tree will not yield to him in this, so it is necessary to properly form the crown and cut it in time. You need to start in the spring, when the plant reaches a height of 1.5 meters, leaving the 5 strongest branches. The pruning site is treated with garden pitch.
Is it possible to get fruits?
Is it possible to get home grown mangoes? Some gardeners argue that the germination of this prolific tree is unrealistic. Others think it's entirely possible.
Treating yourself to homemade mangoes is not easy. After all, the mango tree has special vegetative properties and it is quite difficult to create conditions for its pollination at home. Therefore, a plant grown from a seed will not bear fruit. In order for this to happen, you need to purchase a mango seedling from a nursery and graft it onto your home tree.