How many baubles for a 6 ft tree
Decorate your Christmas tree like a pro with this bauble to tree ratio chart
- Christmas Decorating, Tips & Traditions
The key to an artfully arranged tree is the correct amount of baubles. - by Laura Barry
We’ve all admired a professionally decorated Christmas tree once or twice. However, nailing the seemingly effortless selection of baubles that manages to walk the line between festive and sophisticated isn’t quite as easy as it looks.
WATCH: Tara’s best Christmas style tips
Christmas trees are only pulled out of storage for a few weeks every year, and choosing a colour theme and method of decoration is a big deal in many houses – after all, you only get one shot at getting your Christmas decorations right.
However, it appears it may be easier than we thought to nail that ‘artfully effortless’ Christmas tree look you see in so many department stores, thanks to a handy bauble to tree ratio chart that has surfaced online.
Eagle-eyed shoppers in the UK have spotted a department store guide to getting your baubles and fairy lights right – and shared it in the Facebook Group Mrs Hinch Made Me Do it.
The chart details how many bulbs and how many baubles you need per tree, depending on its size.Check out the guide below
- 3ft tree – 50 bulbs and 20 baubles
- 5ft tree – 120 bulbs and 40 baubles
- 6ft tree – 240 bulbs and 50 baubles
- 5ft tree – 240 bulbs and 560 baubles
- 7ft tree – 400 bulbs and 75 baubles
- 7ft or taller– 400 to 1000 bulbs and 90 baubles
- Better Life
- Christmas Decorating, Tips & Traditions
Laura Barry Laura Barry is a writer, bookworm and interior design enthusiast with a love for reporting on all things homes, travel and lifestyle. When not tapping away at her keyboard, Laura can be found making endless cups of tea or perusing the shelves of Sydney’s many bookstores.
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Crafty Christmas guide shows exactly how many baubles and lights to hang on your tree to keep things classy – The US Sun
CHRISTMAS tree decorations are a staple of the holidays and every family has their own traditions and even DIY baubles.
Tinsel, fairy lights and hanging decorations can be found on most trees, along with a star and some creations by the kids.
3Whatever size your tree is, take noteCredit: Facebook
But if you were worried your tree was too cluttered – or bare – a handy guide has been published just in time for the festive season.
It was shared to Facebook group Mrs Hinch Made Me Do It, where it sets out the perfect ratio of lights and baubles depending on how tall your tree is.
It starts with a modest three foot tree, which needs 50 bulbs and 20 baubles.
A five footer needs 120 lights and 40 decorations, but if you’re lucky enough to have room for a tree taller than seven foot, you’ll need between 400-1000 bulbs and 90 baubles.
3How does your family decorate their Christmas tree?Credit: Getty - Contributor
Some of us may look at our tiny trees and estimate there is almost a hundred decorations on them already, thanks to years of accumulation and DIY projects from the kids.
But debate has also raged about what decorations should be included on a tree –regardless of its size.
Mums shared what they thought was ‘tacky’ online, after one parent revealed she was having a ‘non-tacky’ Christmas tree this year.
Her son was having his own, so her adult version was featuring tinsel, lametta, angel's hair, white static lights, white flashing lights, baubles, ribbon, beads and bows.
But her decoration list has caused outrage among other mums, who claimed her tree was far from classy.
Mum's 'non-tacky' Christmas tree decorations
- Angel's hair
- White static lights
- White flashing lights
One woman said: “Bin the tinsel and the flashing lights immediately!”
Another wrote: “Keep just the lights + perhaps the baubles.”
A third said: “Ditch the angel hair too!”
This person thought: “No to ribbon, bows, lametta and angel hair (odd stuff is angel hair, makes me think of Halloween rather than Christmas). ”
While someone else added: “The lights, tinsel and baubles can stay as long as they are tasteful.
“The beads instead of tinsel if you would prefer but the rest has to go.”
While this mum wrote: “Sadly, if I want a non-tacky (read, real) Christmas tree, I'll have to get rid of the 18 month old.”
Regardless of how you decorate your tree, Tatler has laid down the ‘rules’ around presents.
3People had varying ideas over what made a tacky tree
The posh magazine revealed exactly when you should open your gifts on Christmas Day - and it requires some willpower.
They said: “Are you one of those families who open their presents before breakfast on Christmas Day?
“Oh dear. That's considered a bit vulgar and unbridled.”
They said it’s “more acceptable” to wait until the “lull between the morning church service and lunch” to start tearing wrapping paper.
They added: “If you're very grand, you may even wait until after lunch and a bracing walk, but this also requires you to have children with the self-control of an ancient yogi. ”
But it’s not all doom and gloom, as the mag added that stockings were fair game to be ripped open at any point on Christmas day.
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Meanwhile Argos is selling half Christmas trees and they’re perfect for people with pets.
Plus rainbow trees are the bold new trend set to liven up your living room.
And Halloween trees were back this year – take a look through our spooky gallery.
Argos Home are selling a rainbow Christmas tree for £35
Up to what height trees grow in the mountains. Coniferous trees in the urban environment.Eternal tree: sequoia
When a person climbs a high mountain, he feels that the temperature drops and the climate becomes more humid. About the same climate change he would feel, driving from the tropics to the pole. This climate change is also reflected in the mountain vegetation. In any country of the globe, the plants on the mountain slopes are more similar to the flora of the countries closer to the poles than to the vegetation of the plains surrounding these mountains.
Of course, the same things grow at the foot of the mountain as around it: in the tropics - impenetrable, dark jungles, in the subtropics - evergreen laurel forests, in the temperate zone - deciduous forests of beech and oak or birch and aspen, and in more northern places - coniferous forests. As they ascend, the types of vegetation of higher and higher latitudes gradually pass before the gaze of travelers.
For example, the Himalayas lie close to the tropics; at an altitude of 1000 m, the tropical jungle gives way to subtropical laurel forests there; from 1500 to 2000 m there are walnut, oak and beech forests; at an altitude of about 2500 m they are replaced by coniferous forests - fir, spruce, pine; the upper edge of the coniferous forest lies at a height of 2900 to 4300 m.
The farther the mountains are from the equator, the lower the corresponding types of vegetation are located on them. In the Caucasus and on the Central Asian ridges, coniferous forests grow at an altitude of 1500 to 2300 m, and in Altai these forests cover the foot of the ridges.
The mountain forest is very similar to the vegetation of the plains of a certain latitude. The beautiful oak forests of the Caucasus resemble Central Russian oak forests, and in the dark forests of Caucasian fir it is easy to imagine that you are in the West Siberian taiga.
Tien Shan spruce forests, interrupted by green meadow glades, are similar to spruce forests in the middle zone of the European part of the USSR.
However, there are significant differences between mountain and lowland forests. The closer to the equator, the higher the sun rises above the horizon in summer.
In summer, the air temperature in the zones of mountain slopes is the same as in the plains of the corresponding latitudinal zone, but the winter on the southern mountains is shorter than on the northern ones.
The share of coniferous forests in the north of the Soviet Union accounts for only 3-4 summer months a year, while in the mountains of the Caucasus and Central Asia for fir and spruce forests, summer lasts 5-6 months. Therefore, mountain vegetation cannot be identified with the vegetation zones of higher latitudes.
Above the strip of coniferous forests, where there is no longer enough heat or food for trees, the mountain slopes are covered with characteristic vegetation, which is not found on the plains. True, it resembles the meadows and tundras of the North, but it has so much of its own, characteristic that it is difficult to confuse it with anything else. This alpine vegetation was first studied in detail in the Alps and was called alpine meadows. The more lush part of the alpine meadows, located just behind the coniferous forest, is often called subalpine meadows to distinguish them from the typical alpine ones lying even higher.
The high mountain climate is quite severe. But the transparent mountain air lets in much more sunlight than on the plains. During the day, alpine plants are well lit and strongly warmed by the sun's rays. After sunset, the overlying snow begins to blow cold, the air temperature drops and the earth cools quickly. In the mountains, night colds and severe frosts are common even in the middle of summer. Summer in the zone of alpine meadows is relatively short: the snow melts only under the direct rays of the summer sun. Closer to autumn, the sun can no longer heat the mountainside that has cooled overnight. Fog hangs over the mountain meadows, and then snow falls.
In the Caucasus, the Alps, the Carpathians, alpine plants can grow for only half a year, in the Tien Shan for 4-5 months, and in Altai for 2-3 months. In the tropics, alpine meadows do not know winter rest, since the temperature drops here only at night, and does not fall below -10 °. However, on the ridges remote from the equator, the temperature in the winter months drops from -20 to -50 °. This climate is somewhat reminiscent of the tundra. But in mountain soils there is no permafrost, so there is neither accumulation of soil moisture nor waterlogging, which is characteristic of the tundra. In addition, in the summer in the mountains of temperate and tropical latitudes there is no polar non-setting sun, and the day here is relatively shorter than in northern latitudes. Rainfall is higher in the mountains than in the tundra, and sunlight is more intense.
The subalpine belt is a lush, tall grass meadows or thickets of mountain shrubs. The subalpine zone in the Caucasus is especially good. Here the mountain tall grass is very majestic.
Tall grass meadows stretch in a wide strip along the coniferous forest zone in the Caucasian Reserve (to the north of Sochi), in South Ossetia and Colchis. The grass here grows up to 2.5 m and covers even the rider on a horse. Most grasses are perennials: they use little heat better than others and develop faster in spring. Violet geraniums, blue bells, yellow elecampane and digitalis, blue aconites and larkspurs grow here. Huge white umbrellas of hogweed and yellow flowers of lilies rise among them. Only in some places tall grasses are mixed in: a huge hedgehog, timothy, fescue. Particularly interesting is Kupriyanov's perennial rye, a close relative of cultivated rye. It occupies vast glades in the Caucasian Reserve and produces good grain, which is sometimes used by local residents.
The climate is drier on the ridges of Central Asia. Here in the subalpine meadows there are more cereals, and they are undersized: wheatgrass, bluegrass, fescue, wild oats, fires, foxtails. Against the background of cereal thickets, broad-leaved bushes of mountain goat grass with large plumes of purple flowers and mountain meadow geraniums with pinkish-lilac flowers stand out. Bluebells, pink scabioses, blue gentians, orange-yellow, like fire, bathing suits grow here, pinkish-white large spikes of buckwheat-throat flowers sway. In the Altai subalpine meadows, large-flowered buttercups, larkspurs, aconites, saplings, geraniums, cuffs, and sorrel predominate. Of the cereals, hedgehogs and perennial oats are common.
Shrubs interspersed in the meadow subalpine flora. Thickets of rhododendron and azaleas with an admixture of crowberry and blueberry are especially characteristic of the Caucasus. In spring, these thickets bloom and the air is filled with aroma. Creeping forms of willow and pine are also common here.
Short-grass alpine meadows begin above the subalpine meadows. It's getting cold here for the plants. The height of alpine grasses is from 10 to 30 cm, but their roots are strongly developed, forming a dense turf. Almost all of these plants are perennials. An annual plant would not have time to develop properly before autumn, and a perennial plant immediately, as soon as it becomes warm, begins its full life: it blooms and bears fruit.
Many alpine herbs reproduce vegetatively: by rhizomes, offspring, root shoots. Shrubs in alpine meadows are also undersized, they branch profusely. Numerous and short branches make the surface of their crown even, and the shrub looks like a round pillow lying on the ground. This structure protects it from excessive evaporation of moisture and sudden temperature fluctuations.
Low-growing alpine meadows are extraordinarily beautiful. Groups of large flowers of various shades are scattered across emerald glades, and eternal snows of mountain peaks sparkle above the glades. The main background of alpine meadows is sedges growing in dense bushes, and grasses (shakers, bluegrass, fescue, white-bearded, cobresia). Blooming bushes of alpine clovers are scattered against this background. Mountain anemones, poppies, violets, gentians, buttercups, alpine asters bloom. All of them are squat and large. Bright coloring helps to attract insects that pollinate alpine flowers, which are very rare in the mountains.
Scientists tried to sow early crops in the mountains. The color of the stems, leaves and flowers of these plants was unusually intensified. Peas, flax, poppies bloomed much brighter in the mountains than on the plains. Even the roots of radishes and tubers of pink potatoes grown in the meadows near the snowy peaks of Fisht and Oshtein in the Caucasus Reserve looked much brighter than usual.
The high mountain climate makes the alpine plants bloom luxuriantly and for a long time. Frost and snow stop flowering, but do not harm flowers and buds. The heat is on and the bloom continues. So all summer blooms, for example, alpine perennial poppy, alpine strawberries bear fruit all summer. Low-growing grasses of alpine meadows are extremely nutritious. Livestock, even exhausted by heavy wintering, is growing rapidly here, increasing their weight. In Switzerland, Austria, and here in the Tien Shan, the Caucasus, and Altai, herds of sheep, cows, and goats graze from early spring to late autumn in mountain meadows above the line of coniferous forests.
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and they constantly form new cells, which in a year form the so-called annual rings or growth rings. These annual rings show the amount of wood that has grown during one growing season. And according to the latest environmental studies, the overall growth rate of most tree species only increases with age. However, with regard to the rate of growth in height, a slightly different principle applies. It should be noted that tree growth rate can be increased with proper care, information about this can be found in the article.
Normally, living beings, including us, have a period of active growth in youth, but as we age, growth body slows down or stops altogether. The growth rate of trees in height has the same character. After a period of active growth in height, the growth rate of the tree decreases, and it begins to gain mass due to the trunk and side shoots. The figure shows the general nature of the dependence of the height of the majority of a tree on its age. The schedule is divided into three phases. 1 - this is the initial phase of slow growth, followed by a phase of rapid growth - 2. When the tree approaches a certain height, growth rates fall - 3 phase. Of course, the values of time and height will be different for each individual tree, depending on the characteristics of the species and environmental conditions.
General nature of the dependence of the height of most trees on age
Different types of trees grow at different rates. Depending on the growth rate, trees are usually divided into groups. In tables 1 and 2, the trees are divided into groups depending on the rate of tree growth per year. Trees gain such growth rates during the active phase (at the age of 10 to 30 years).
Table 1: Fast growing and moderate growing trees
Very fast growing
increment >= 2 m
increment 0. 5-0.6 m
Table 2: Slow growing trees
Very slow growing
increment 0. 25-0.2 m
increment 0.15 cm
Forest apple tree
Siberian apple tree
Siberian cedar pine
Dwarf forms of deciduous (Dwarf willows)
Dwarf conifers (Obtuse cypress)
It used to be thought that large trees were less efficient at capturing carbon dioxide. However, recently, on January 15, 2014, research data was published in the journal Nature, indicating the opposite. The study was conducted by a team of international scientists led by Nate L. Stephenson of the American Environmental Research Center (Western Ecological Research Center).
The scientists reviewed records from studies across six continents collected over the past 80+ years, based on repeated measurements of 673,046 individual trees.
“Large, old trees act not only as aging reservoirs of carbon, but also actively sequester a large amount of carbon compared to small trees ... In some situations, one large tree can add as much carbon to the forest mass in a year as is contained in everything medium sized tree.
The main problem is the perception of scale. Stevenson says it's difficult to see the growth of a large tree because it's already huge. With age in thickness the tree adds less, but the larger the diameter, the more surface area grows. A tree can grow in height over many years, but at a certain point it reaches its peak and then begins to increase in trunk diameter, increases the number of branches and leaves.
"Most likely, the rapid growth of giant trees is the global norm and can exceed 600 kg per year in the largest specimens."
Stevenson also says that if people grew at this rate, they could weigh half a ton in middle age, and well over a ton by retirement.
The figure shows the general nature of the dependence of the tree mass growth rate on the decimal logarithm of the tree mass given in the article.
As a result of human activity and for other reasons, vast areas of ancient forests are being destroyed. . Trees play a very important role in existing ecosystems, so it is vital for us to protect forests from destruction.
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Records are set not only by people, but also by trees. Among the trees there are champions in terms of size, danger, and so on. Each tree has its own function or purpose, and there are those that perform their function to the maximum. They must be very fond of life...
From the tallest to the oldest, from the fastest growing to the most dangerous... All these trees are champions! And since our life literally depends on trees, all trees, large and small, are worthy of attention. But there is such a book in which all the very best trees are collected - this is the Guinness Book of World Records. Started by the Managing Director of the Guinness Brewery at 1954 the book of the most interesting facts and figures, today this book is known all over the world. Below we have collected some super-trees that set world records in their category. shance: Top seven trees
1. Fastest growing tree: imperial tree
The fastest growing tree in the world is Paulownia tomentosa, also known as the emperor tree or foxglove. This tree can grow 20 feet (6 meters) the first year and then grow up to 1 foot (30 centimeters) every three weeks. This tree is native to western China, now spread across the United States. Remarkably, these trees also produce three to four times more oxygen during photosynthesis than any other known tree species. Respect!
2. Eternal tree: sequoia
The oldest and tallest tree in the world, the sequoia stood at 379. 1 feet (115.54 meters) when discovered by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor. This tree grows in California's Redwood National Park and was discovered in 2006. Redwoods used to grow everywhere in coastal forests in the United States - these forests covered an area of 2 million acres on the Pacific coast. But during the gold rush, almost all the forests were cut down: only 5 percent of the original forest volume remained. It's very sad, but fortunately there are tree savers who clone old growth forests and replant them in safe places.
3. A tree growing at height: polylepsis tarapacana
Polylepis tarapacana (now officially named Polylepis tomentella) can live for over 700 years in the Altiplano semi-arid ecosystem of the central Andes. Living at an altitude of 13,000 to 17,000 feet (4,000 and 5,200 meters) above sea level, they claim to be the highest forest in the world. This family includes 28 species of small to medium sized evergreen trees growing at altitude in the tropical and subtropical Andes of South America from Venezuela to northern Argentina.
4. The oldest tree ever documented: Prometheus
A specimen of spiny pine, one of the oldest trees on Earth. But there was an even older tree, named Prometheus, which grew on Mount Wheeler in Nevada. Prometheus was sawn apart by a tree geologist in 1963. Imagine that you are the person who killed the oldest living tree? 4,867 rings were counted, but given the tree's harsh environment, its actual age is believed to have been closer to 5200.
5. Largest tree by volume: General Sherman
This huge sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), known as General Sherman, holds the crown of the largest living tree by volume. Located in California's Sequoia Park, the 2,100-year-old beauty has grown to 271 feet (82.6 meters) tall. Notably, the tree had a volume of 52,508 feet (1,407 m³) in 1980, when it was last officially measured, but by 2004, the volume had increased to nearly 54,000 feet (1,530 m³). The Guinness book notes that the tree is estimated to contain the equivalent of 630 096 feet of wood, “is enough to make over 5 billion matches, and its red-brown bark can be up to 61 cm thick. The weight of the tree, including the root system, is estimated at 1814 tons.
6. Most Dangerous Tree: Manchineel
The world's most dangerous tree, the manchineel (Hippomane mancinella), grows on the Caribbean coast. The sap of the tree is so poisonous and acidic that simple contact with human skin causes blisters, and contact with the eyes can lead to blindness. The fruits of the tree are poisonous and even the smoke from a fire in which the wood of this tree burns can cause blindness and lead to suffocation.
7. Oldest tree planted by man: fig tree from Sri Lanka
The oldest tree known to have been planted by man is the fig tree or ficus tree (Ficus religiosa), which is known as Sri Maha Bodhiya and grows in Sri Lanka. This tree is the famous Bodhi tree under which Siddhartha Gautama - the Buddha - sat when he attained enlightenment.
In recent years, coniferous plants have been increasingly used in garden decoration. This is not surprising, since they are not picky, after planting they practically do not require any care, they are durable, beautiful all year round. And besides, conifers visually change the landscape, and therefore, with their proper placement in the garden, you can make a dull flat area visually uneven. So, coniferous trees of a pyramidal or conical shape visually raise this part of the garden, coniferous shrubs, on the contrary, lower it, creeping forms of coniferous plants leave the surface at the same level for the eye. For those gardeners who are very busy or just don’t really like working on the site, I recommend organizing its gardening with the help of conifers.
Conifers make up about 50% of all forests. It is known that there are more than 600 species. These are the long-livers of nature, the age of 100 years is quite “youthful” for them, since there are specimens in the world that are 1000 years old or more and reach a hundred meters in height (for example, a sequoia growing in North America, whose growth is 100 m, and the life span of many well-known copies exceeded two thousand years!). The huge coniferous trees - the inhabitants of our forests - are naturally not suitable for small plots, but there are various ways to limit their growth, in addition, many undersized dwarfs - nana have been created in the world, so that suitable plants can be found for the smallest garden.
Conifers came down to us from the mountains. In the valleys at the foot of the mountains and at a relatively low altitude in the mountains, predominantly coniferous species grow in the form of trees, the higher the mountains, the smaller the inhabitants - these are mainly shrub forms, and at the very height the place is chosen by creeping coniferous plants. So there is a wide variety of coniferous forms.
Have you ever thought about such a simple question: why are conifers evergreens? The fact is that historically they are residents of the northern mountainous regions, they had to adapt to the harsh climatic conditions of life. The short summer made it impossible to develop a full-fledged leaf apparatus, and in order to survive, they adapted to keep it in the winter. Their leaf blade gradually reborn, taking the form of a needle. For them, the main task is to preserve moisture in the winter, and therefore, by winter, a waxy or resinous coating appears on the needles. A coniferous tree generally evaporates less water than a deciduous tree, from which all the leaves have fallen.
In fact, the needles of conifers also fall off, but not annually (except for larch), but once every 2–10 years, depending on the type and growing conditions (pine, for example, changes its needles every three years, fir in six years). But the change of needles does not occur simultaneously, but gradually, which is why the plants remain evergreen. Coniferous litter under these plants testifies to the change of needles.
Since conifers are mountain dwellers, their root system did not have the opportunity to grow deep, and it began to grow in breadth, so that most of these plants have a superficial root system. Many conifers love the sun (with the exception of some, black pine, for example), but, nevertheless, they survive well in partial shade (and some even in the shade, ordinary spruce, for example). Coniferous plants are undemanding to soils and can grow on almost any type of soil: sandy (and even sandy), loamy (and even clay), peat (and even swampy). But on fertile soil, of course, they feel great and grow very quickly.
Without exception, all coniferous plants love moist air and moist soil with an acidic reaction. But they willingly grow on a slightly acidic one, survive on a neutral one (although they don’t like it). For them, soil acidity pH 4.5–5.5 is suitable.
But on alkaline and even alkalized soils, conifers will gradually begin to die, so under no circumstances do you add ash under them, wanting to feed them, and if you did such a stupid thing, then immediately pour a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate on the planting site ( potassium permanganate). Conifers die slowly and gradually, over several years. You think that everything is in order with them, but their entire root system is almost already affected. The fact is that almost all plants, and especially conifers, live in symbiosis with various soil fungi, which the plants feed, giving them from their diet up to 30% of the carbohydrates supplied by the aerial part. And in return, microfungi (mycorrhiza) living on their roots protect with their secretions not only the roots, but also the trunks of their breadwinners from diseases and pests.
And here they are, these invisible inhabitants of the soil, just very poorly tolerate the excess of organic matter containing a lot of nitrogen, as well as increased doses of mineral fertilizers in the soil. Therefore, do not apply fertilizers for coniferous plants, and even more so manure, conifers are able to live on a meager diet from their own fallen needles, and therefore never take it away from under them.
At first, conifers grow slowly, but over the years they begin to grow faster and higher, so pay attention to this when planting and plant immediately so that they do not have to be cut down and uprooted later, since an adult coniferous plant is almost impossible to transplant.
Therefore, the first commandment when planting conifers in summer cottages is not to plant too many of them. The second is to immediately plant in place, figuring out what they will be like in 5 years, in 10 years, in 20 years and what can be planted between them temporarily for these 5-10 years. And so that, without prejudice to everyone, to transplant roommates to another place when the conifers grow significantly. Third - when choosing neighbors, pay attention to what kind of requirements they have for living conditions? They should match those that conifers prefer (for example, hosts, astilbes, aruncus, rogersia). You can pick up long-lived coniferous neighbors that will grow next to them for many, many years without a transplant (for example, rhododendrons, hydrangeas).
Plants with a columnar or pyramidal crown look good along the paths and in the background of flower beds or in single plantings, being the dominant in the garden space. Creeping or bush forms are designed for planting on rocky hills or individual plants, but not on lawns and clearings, because they will interfere with mowing them. They are also suitable for mixborders, creating an excellent background for a bright variety of perennials planted in front of them, they are also suitable for creating green hedges. Weeping crown forms are in perfect harmony with water bodies. Some types of conifers allow a haircut, and therefore they are used not only to create an ordinary hedge, but also cut green cubes, pyramids, balls or animal figures from them. You can create a composition of coniferous plants with different crown shapes and needle colors by planting them in a group in some part of the garden. But when planting in a group, harmony can be achieved only if you have good taste or take design courses, or study the literature on coniferous crops in order to avoid costly and difficult to correct mistakes. Conifers are not annuals for you, which can be planted and transplanted differently each time. Conifers are planted seriously and for a long time.
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4.2.6. Bowling club
C technical point of view modern bowling club is quite complex system, parts which are independent of each other other items of equipment. Usually, bowling club, in addition to the necessary bowling arrangements, combines under its roof a recreation area with a bar and slot machines. Moreover, some club owners are trying to create on the base of the bowling club is a real center recreation, entertainment and leisure; such bowler clubs can visit the restaurant, billiards, a beauty salon and even a sauna. *
First, what is planned during construction bowling alleys are lanes. (Figure 53) Their the base is made of wood, which not only “breathes”, but also sensitively reacts to the slightest changes in humidity temperature, operating conditions and environmental conditions. Track should be 18.228 m long and 1.668 m wide. Curvature of the track in cross section must not exceed 1 mm, and with the same accuracy must be met by all parameters for each track. Standard track must be composed of 40 separate boards, each of which for convenience is assigned a conditional number. The material of these boards is regulated, rules set even the maximum surface friction coefficient tracks, but in the list you can find like natural wood (maple and some pine species), and synthetic materials, in particular, hard linoleum.
Each the path is bordered on both sides by gutters, extending from the foul line to the back panels. According to the rules, the gutter must be made of wood or approved synthetic material, gutter width should be between 9-9. 5 inches, and the width of the track together with them should not exceed 60 - 60.25 inches.
* Turskova T.A. Bowling. –M.: Veche, 2002. -384 With.
B within 15 inches in front of the first pin the bottoms of the gutters must have a square form. This section of the gutter is located downhill and at the entrance to the mine located at 3.1 /12 – 3.75 inches below the surface of the tracks. The bottoms of the gutters on the rest of them lengths must be concave shape and be located at 1.875 inches (height measured at the center point).
"Zone pinspotter", or area pins located at the very end of the path. Her length is determined by the size of the table under pins - 40 inches, or 1 m. Immediately behind her at the end of the path is mine, where after hitting the skittles, the balls roll down. Distance from the floor of the shaft to the top track points must be at least 10 inches from shaft cover to top track points at least - 9. 5 in. Width mine is usually up to 30 inches or even more (from the back of the track, including rear panel, up to shock absorber) less than - 9.5 inches.
For game tracks are covered with oil, specially designed for bowling. From the number and distribution of layers oils on the track largely depend features of the movement of balls along it various types. Oil can be applied to cover the track both in one and in multiple layers. The application of it begins from the foul line itself. Oil strip length in training is determined by desire player, and in competitions - established rules on them, but between the track zone, covered with oil, and installation area there should be enough skittles left a noticeable gap - the so-called. dry zone. The criteria for applying oil are ply length from foul line and number layers; according to these data is determined the nature of the smear. So, for example, the phrase "spread 40-25-double" means that on track applied three layers of oil: the first 40 feet long and two 25 feet long
Coating tracks should be even and uniform throughout its length. According with the requirements and technique of playing the track divided into several zones , for each of which has its own terms. In fact, the play area starts from approach zone , or takeoff run, 1.54 feet long, or 4.68 m. this zone also has its own mandatory marking - two dotted lines lines that make it easier for players to approach throw. From the first (closest to the forthcoming player) marking lines up to foul lines, which is forbidden to stand up for rules set a distance of 15 feet, or 4.5 m, to the second line - 11.5 feet, or 3.5 m.
Regarding foul lines also have their own requirements. So, its width should not exceed 1 inch, but must be at least ¾ inch.
Per foul line starts proper track. At a distance of 7.2 feet, or 2.18 m, from this line a row is applied to the track round marks - the so-called. aim marks. This is the first of several marks that should make it easier for the player to determine throw direction; according to standards most competitions, these marks should not be more than 10, and the width of each labels are not
must exceed 0. 75 inches in diameter. On the distance, almost twice the pain
Picture 53. Bowling lanes
shem (5 feet, or 4.57 m), marked on the track so-called main aiming arrows. (Fig.54). The number of these arrows is limited number 7; they should all be located at the same distance from each other and in one line, common surface arrows must not exceed 1.25 inches in wide and 6 inches long. Arrow shape should also be the same: in appearance they must be one or more dowels, darts, triangles or rectangles.
Drawing 54. Aiming arrows are applied to track
Marking should be the same in shape and sizes on all tracks. To the surface floors in the approach area itself can also be applied guides (number not more than 10) at the following points: 2-6 feet, 9-10 feet, 11-12 feet and 14-15 feet from line foul, with each block of guides should be parallel to this line. Each guide of each block must be round, its diameter limited to 0.75 inches. This markup must be made from wood, fiber or plastic and not should protrude above the surface track approach. When markup method printing it is applied to bare wood and only after that it is varnished or other transparent material.
Platform for pins must be made hardwood or other material approved by standard rules. During the competition additional fastening allowed to the edge of the platform adjacent to the gutters track, vertical fibrous strip extending from the line of the first skittles to the mine. This strip must be not more than 0.25 inches thick and not more than 0.25 inches wide less than 1.5 inches. Edges of the platform for pins must be rounded with a radius not over 5 /32 inch, and the entire platform is not must have a slope greater than 0.187 inches within a surface of 42 inches. To back of the track, behind the platform for skittles, the so-called. back panel not more than 2 inches wide. Distance from back panel to last line pins, including the thickness of the panel itself, should not be more than 5 inches.
Practice shows that the best track arrangement is paired. Much of the industry's output bowling equipment is being designed so that each device - pinspotters, return systems, etc. - served two lanes at the same time. Most clubs build six a pair of tracks; managing the work of all their mechanisms are carried out with the help of branched computer system. This central computer monitor local network. so-called server, you can see at the counter an employee receiving game session fee. To this person responsible for monitoring the state of all tracks and for all actions and events that take place in the play area, and coordination of work technical support elements bowling club. Each track is has an independent control management, located in the so-called. zone pinspotter and available only to mechanics. This remote control is only needed for cases when in the work of one or another track maintenance mechanism problems occur.
Pinspotter is called automatic setting pins on lanes. Standard pinspotter models set skittles to the platform in an average of 8.8 s. Usually in a loading cassette machine fits 20 pins, ready for setting on the track; in modern pinspotters have several loading cassettes, and in some modifications, there is a mechanism effective skittles, allowing you to immediately lift knocked down skittles to free ones slots in the loading cassette.
If the ball, not reaching the pins, rolls into gutter if it knocks down only the extreme skittles (e.g. 7 or 10), pinspotter automatically shortens the cycle. In this case, the passage of the "rake", collecting skittles is not required. If a surveillance system fixes the spade, pinspotter automatically registers foul and change pins. In this program machines have the ability to put to their original place pins displaced after the first hit of the ball. If temporary gaps between frames are large, then pinspotter automatically switches to energy saving mode.
For counting pins in pinspotters using digital video cameras electronic control system and infrared sensors. manager the system is constantly exchanging data from the pinspotter chassis, optimizing operation of the whole mechanism. Camera pin control can function and as a separate mechanism: in general, it does not require adjustment by labels, easy mounted and conforms to the accepted in today's world the Pluq & Plau" - "Plug and play." Associated with the same manager system, self-diagnosis system simplifies the work of the mechanic by transferring to the display is not just a digital code malfunction, but its detailed description, which allows you to quickly localize and solve the problem.
Large pendant monitors mounted in pairs or in triplets directly above lanes, a little further than the foul line (Fig. 55). Hanging monitors perform several functions. First of all, they display information about the course of the game and current results for each track. In those cases where the club uses duplicate personal monitors, all information is also displayed on them, but for now, as a rule, suspended monitors serve as the only device for to display the track control menu. Sometimes on hanging monitors can be seen stickers fixing the absolute record tracks and record of the month with the name of the authors.
Figure 55 Large hanging monitors are mounted above paths
Exists ball return system. Her players used in all without exception clubs. Therefore, as the management of the clubs, as well as manufacturers of equipment for bowling places pay special attention the smooth functioning of this systems.
Terminal balls, common to several neighboring tracks. Caught behind the line skittles, the ball rolls onto the guides conveyor and under the action of force gravity moves to the beginning of the track. Having reached the approach zone, from the tape conveyor ball moves to lifting mechanism, which
is already delivering it to the terminal (Figure 56).
System return of balls functions constantly and continuously, regardless of activity of the players on the track at the current moment, even if the track equipment is on standby, abandoned the ball should return to the terminal.
Figure 56 System return balls
B software composition bowling club computer system necessarily includes the so-called. counting module points , whose operation is based on using photocells.
Detector spade is one of the most common additional elements of software and hardware track complex. As in the case with individual control panels, tracks are equipped with footprint detectors not all clubs. However, systems automatic fixation of the spade are gaining more and more popularity because when a player crosses the foul line the throw does not count, and when fixing spade only instructors controversy inevitable. This system works on the basis of a simple photocell.
Bumper or folding limiter. Oni are two easy-to-install thin profile in the entire length of the track, rising to working position from a special gap between the track and gutter. Folded bumpers does not interfere with the normal game at all and track maintenance. This fixture is a border with a height of about 20 cm, which if necessary installed along the edges of the track. At raised limiters any throw ends with some result: a ball sent by an inexperienced player will tangentially bounce off bumpers, but in any case it will come down to the skittles and, much to the delight of the player, break their order.
Raise bumper can be mechanically (using special "poker"), and by pressing a button on the console or center a rack that gives a command to the pneumatics.
Ball - the most important and perhaps the most difficult subject in bowling despite into a simple form that is considered ideal.
Ball bowling consists of at least of two main parts - the core and the coating. The most complex, specialized balls, the core is a composite a weight block surrounded by a fill (Fig. 57).
B depending on the purpose of the ball (for strikes and throws) weight block of the ball may consist of 2-15 parts of various shapes and sizes; fill material and respectively, its density, elasticity, mass can also vary. Professional bowling ball according to international standards, contain only non-metallic materials that do not have internal voids and linear dimensions, weight and balance comply with accepted standards categories. So, the circumference of the sphere must not exceed 68.58 cm, while being the same time not less than 67.82 cm, while the diameter ball must be constant across all axes (Fig. 58). The largest allowable the weight of the ball is 16 pounds, or 7.264 kg; lower limit in this category does not exist - the ball can be anything easy. Outer surface of the ball should be even and smooth, without any or indentations.
Picture 57. Sectional bowling ball
Picture 58. Bowling ball diameter
B depending on the coating material balls subdivided into rubber, plastic, urethane, reactive and proactive.
For capturing the ball in it are drilled special holes. By modern standards such holes one ball can have no more than five, and their depth and diameter not very strictly regulated theoretically should depend only from the convenience of the position of the hand at throw. By majority rule competitions, hole diameter for fingers should not exceed 0.25 inches, while the diameter of the so-called. balancing holes should not exceed 1.25 inches.
Weight ball according to the standard is calculated in pounds, but to recalculate the standard measure in kilograms, you can use the formula 1 pound = 0. 454 kg. It is believed that
weight ideal ball should be 1 /10 player's body weight.
Specification pins are even more strictly defined, than the parameters of the balls. In each set pins should be the same in appearance, structure, material, marking, degree wear. Skittles made (in perfect case) must be of good quality maple wood. Each pin at single layer technology should consist from one whole; while using the same multi-layer construction is allowed and a large number of parts, but in In this case, the layers of wood should be parallel to the vertical axle pins. The material should not contain more than 6-12% moisture; in multilayer same skittles moisture content in each component in the gluing process should not exceed 2%.
Coating pins must be white or transparent, other colors are allowed and even required only when applied to the “neck” of the pins branding - logo manufacturer or club (pins with logo and the name of the bowling center most often made to order and used as prizes and souvenirs). According to standard, the thickness of the film covering the surface of the pin should be 0.004 in. The top of the pin should have the shape of a regular arc with a radius 1.273 inches, with a deviation from this parameter allowed minimum – 0.031 in. The edges of the base of the pins should be rounded, with a radius of 0.156 inches, also accurate to 0.031 inches. Pin height should be strictly 15 inches, with up to 2 /64 inches, and the circumference of the pins in the most its wide part should be 4.7 inches. Based on each pin should be present plastic or fibrous pad or insert with outside diameter of at least 2 inches. The balance of the pin, or the height of its center gravity, should be counted from the base of the skittles and is strictly not below 5.40 /64 inch and up 5.60 /64 inches from the reference point. Skittles weight can also vary only in strictly established limits: each pin, with or without plastic coating, must weigh at least 3 pounds and 6 ounces (approximately 1531 g) and no more than 3 pounds and 10 ounces (approximately 1645 g).