How many different species of oak trees are there


How Many Varieties of Oak Trees Are There?

There are about 600 different types of oak trees around the world. This includes hybrid oaks. In the United States, there are about 90 native oak varieties.

Oaks (genus Quercus) come in many shapes, sizes, and colors, and you’ll even find a few evergreens in the mix. Most oak trees are categorized into either red or white oaks. The photo above, the 400-year-old Angel Oak on Johns Island in South Carolina, is one of the most popular oak trees in the country.  The Angel Oak draws thousands of visitors from all over the world eager to see the 65-foot-tall tree in all its fairy-tale glory.

We can also find oak trees in Europe, Asia and North Africa, growing in environments from Mediterranean beaches to cool mountains, and to Asian forests. China has over 100 different varieties of oaks. Overall, there are around 600 different types of oak trees all over the planet Earth.

You will find below a list of Oak Trees, Quercus Genus – Selected species, taxa types, organized by scientific Latin botanical name first and common names second. Evergreen Oaks (Live Oaks) are identified by the % symbol.

List of Oak Tree Names

Botanical Tree Name Common Tree Name Native Location
Quercus acerifolia Maple-leaved Oak, Mapleleaf Oak South Central North America
Quercus acuta Japanese Evergreen Oak % Japan, Korea
Quercus acutissima Sawtooth Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus agrifolia Coast Live Oak % California, Northern Baja California
Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia California Live Oak % W. California to Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus agrifolia var. oxyadenia Coastal Live Oak % W. California to Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus ajoensis Ajo Mountain Scrub Oak Arizona, Mexico (N. and C. Baja California)
Quercus alba White Oak Eastern North America
Quercus albicaulis ¡ ? % China
Quercus aliena Oriental White Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus alnifolia Golden Oak % Cyprus
Quercus argentata ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus argyrotricha ¡ ? % Guizhou (China)
Quercus arizonica Arizona White Oak % Southwestern U.S., NW. Mexico
Quercus arkansana Arkansas Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus augustinii ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus austrina Bluff Oak, Bastard White Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus austrocochinchinensis ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Thailand
Quercus austroglauca ¡ ? % China
Quercus bella ¡ ? % China
Quercus berberidifolia California Scrub Oak % California
Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak Eastern and Midwestern North America
Quercus blakei ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Laos
Quercus boyntonii Boynton Sand Post Oak South central North America
Quercus brantii Persian Oak, Brant’s Oak South west Asia
Quercus buckleyi Texas Red Oak, Buckley Oak Southwestern North America
Quercus calliprinos Palestine Oak % Southwestern Asia
Quercus camusiae ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus canariensis Mirbeck’s Oak, Algerian Oak % North Africa and Spain
Quercus canbyi Canby Oak, Mexican Red Oak % Mexico
Quercus carmenensis Carmen Oak, Mexican Oak Coahuila and Texas
Quercus castanea ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus castaneifolia Chestnut-leaved Oak Caucasus, Iran (Persia)
Quercus cedrosensis Cedros Island Oak % Baja California
Quercus cerris Turkey Oak Southern Europe, Southwestern Asia
Quercus championii ¡ ? % China, Taiwan
Quercus chapensis ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus chapmanii Chapman Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus chenii Xiao ye li SE. China
Quercus chevalieri ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus chihuahuensis Chihuahua Oak Northern Mexico and Texas
Quercus chingsiensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus chrysolepis Canyon Live Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus chrysolepis var. chrysolepis Canyon Live Oak % W. Oregon to New Mexico and Mexico (Baja California Norte, NW. Chihuahua)
Quercus chrysolepis var. nana Canyon Live Oak % W. Oregon to New Mexico and Mexico (Baja California Norte, NW. Chihuahua)
Quercus chungii ¡ ? % China
Quercus coccifera Kermes Oak % Southern Europe, Mediterranean
Quercus cocciferoides ¡ ? China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
Quercus cocciferoides var. cocciferoides ¡ ? China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
Quercus cocciferoides var.  taliensis ¡ ? China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
Quercus coccinea Scarlet Oak NC. and Eastern North America
Quercus coccinea var. coccinea Scarlet Oak NC. and Eastern North America
Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata Scarlet Oak NC. and Eastern North America
Quercus copeyensis ¡ ? % Costa Rica, Panama
Quercus cornelius-mulleri Muller Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus costaricensis ¡ ? % Costa Rica, Panama
Quercus cualensis ¡ ? % Mexico (Sierra Madre del Sur)
Quercus cubana ¡ ? Western Cuba
Quercus daimingshanensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus dalechampii ¡ ? South Eastern Europe
Quercus delavayi ¡ ? % China
Quercus delicatula ¡ ? % China
Quercus dentata Daimyo Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus depressa ¡ ? Mexico
Quercus depressipes Davis Mountain Oak % Texas
Quercus deserticola ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus dilatata Moru Oak % Himalayas
Quercus dinghuensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus disciformis ¡ ? % China
Quercus douglasii Blue Oak California
Quercus dumosa Coastal Sage Scrub Oak % Southern California
Quercus dumosa var. dumosa Coastal sage Scrub Oak California to Mexico (Baja California del Norte)
Quercus dumosa var. elegantula Coastal sage Scrub Oak California to Mexico (Baja California del Norte)
Quercus durata Leather Oak % California
Quercus durata var. durata Leather Oak California
Quercus durata var. gabrielensis Leather Oak SW. California
Quercus edithiae ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus eduardii ¡ ? Mexico
Quercus elevaticostata ¡ ? % Fujian (China)
Quercus ellipsoidalis Northern Pin Oak Eastern North America
Quercus emoryi Emory Oak % Southwestern U.S., Northern Mexico
Quercus engelmannii Engelmann Oak % Southwestern California
Quercus faginea Portuguese Oak % Southwestern Europe
Quercus falcata Southern Red Oak, Spanish Oak South Eastern North America
Quercus fleuryi ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Laos
Quercus frainetto Italian Oak, Hungarian Oak Southeastern Europe
Quercus furuhjelmi ¡ ? † (Extinct) Lived in Paleogene times
Quercus fusiformis Texas Live Oak, Plateau Live Oak % South central North America
Quercus gambelii Gambel Oak, Scrub Oak, Oak brush, White Oak Southwestern North America
Quercus gambelii var. bonina Gambel Oak, Scrub Oak WC. and SC. U.S.A. to N. Mexico
Quercus gambelii var. gambelii Gambel Oak, Scrub Oak WC. and SC. U.S.A. to N. Mexico
Quercus gambleana ¡ ? % China, India
Quercus garryana Oregon White Oak, Garry Oak Western North America
Quercus garryana  var. fruticosa Oregon white Oak S. Oregon, NW. California
Quercus garryana  var. garryana Garry Oak W. U.S.A., SW. Canada
Quercus garryana  var. semota Oregon white Oak S. Oregon, California
Quercus gemelliflora ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus geminata Sand Live Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus georgiana Georgia Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus gilva ¡ ? % Japan, Taiwan, China
Quercus glauca Ring-cupped Oak % From Afghanistan to Japan and Vietnam
Quercus glaucoides ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus graciliformis Chisos Oak % Extreme SW North America
Quercus gravesii Chisos Red Oak, Graves Oak Mexico, Southwestern North America (Texas)
Quercus grisea Gray Oak % South central North America
Quercus havardii Havard Oak, Shinnery Oak, Shin Oak South central North America
Quercus havardii var. havardii Havard Oak NW. Texas, W. Oklahoma, SE. New Mexico
Quercus havardii var. tuckeri Havard Oak NW. Texas, W. Oklahoma, SE. New Mexico
Quercus helferiana ¡ ? % China, India, Burma / Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus hemisphaerica Darlington Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus hemisphaerica var. hemisphaerica Darlington Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus hemisphaerica var. maritima Darlington Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus hinckleyi Hinckley Oak % Texas, Northwestern Mexico
Quercus hintoniorum ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus hirtifolia ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus hondae ¡ ? % Kyūshū (Japan)
Quercus hondurensis Honduras Oak % Honduras
Quercus hui ¡ ? % China
Quercus humboldtii Andean Oak % Northern South America (Colombia)
Quercus hypoleucoides Silverleaf Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus hypophaea ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus hypoxantha ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus ilex Holly Oak, Holm Oak % Southern Europe, Northwestern Africa
Quercus ilicifolia Bear Oak Eastern North America
Quercus iltisii ¡ ? % Southern Mexico
Quercus imbricaria Shingle Oak Eastern North America
Quercus incana Bluejack Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus infectoria Aleppo Oak, Cyprus Oak Southern Europe, Southwestern Asia
Quercus inopina Sandhill Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus insignis ¡ ? Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama
Quercus intricata Dwarf Oak, Coahuila Scrub Oak % Two isolated localities in West Texas, Northern Mexico
Quercus jenseniana ¡ ? % China
Quercus jinpinensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus john-tuckeri Tucker’s Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus kelloggii California Black Oak California, SW. Oregon
Quercus kerrii Kerr’s Oak. % Vietnam, Thailand, possibly China
Quercus kiukiangensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus kouangsiensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus laceyi Lacey Oak Edwards Plateau of Texas, Northern Mexico
Quercus laevis Turkey Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus lamellosa ¡ ? % Himalayas
Quercus lanata Woolly-leaved Oak % Himalayas
Quercus laurifolia Laurel Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus laurina ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus leucotrichophora Banj Oak % Himalayas
Quercus libani Lebanon Oak Southwestern Asia
Quercus lineata ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus litoralis ¡ ? % China
Quercus litseoides ¡ ? % China
Quercus lobata Valley Oak, California White Oak California
Quercus lobbii ¡ ? % China, India
Quercus longinux ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus lowii ¡ ? % Borneo
Quercus lungmaiensis ¡ ? % Yunnan (China)
Quercus lusitanica Gall Oak, Lusitanian Oak Iberia, North Africa
Quercus lyrata Overcup Oak Eastern North America
Quercus macranthera Caucasian Oak, Persian Oak Western Asia
Quercus macranthera ssp.  macranthera ¡ ? Turkey, N. Iran, Transcaucasus
Quercus macranthera ssp. syspirensis ¡ ? C. and NC. Turkey, Lebanon
Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak Eastern and central North America
Quercus macrocarpa var. depressa Bur Oak Minnesota, North Dakota
Quercus macrocarpa var. macrocarpa Bur Oak C. and SE. Canada to Alabama
Quercus macrolepis Vallonea Oak % Southwestern Asia
Quercus margarettae Runner Oak EC. and SE. U.S.A.
Quercus marilandica Blackjack Oak Eastern North America
Quercus marilandica var. ashei Blackjack Oak Central and East U.S.A.
Quercus marilandica var. marilandica Blackjack Oak Central and East U.S.A.
Quercus merrillii ¡ ? % Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia), Palawan (Philippines)
Quercus michauxii Swamp Chestnut Oak Eastern North America
Quercus minima Dwarf Live Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus mohriana Mohr Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus mongolica Mongolian Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus morii ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus motuoensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus muehlenbergii Chinkapin Oak Eastern, central, and Southwestern US (West Texas and New Mexico), Northern Mexico
Quercus multinervis ¡ ? % China
Quercus myrsinifolia Bamboo-leaf Oak. % China, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Quercus myrtifolia Myrtle Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus neglecta ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus nigra Water Oak % Eastern North America
Quercus ningangensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus oblongifolia Mexican Blue Oak % Southwestern U.S., NW. Mexico
Quercus obovatifolia ¡ ? % China
Quercus oglethorpensis Oglethorpe Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus oleoides ¡ ? % from Costa Rica into Mexico
Quercus oxyodon ¡ ? % Assam, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, Nepal
Quercus pachyloma ¡ ? % China, Taiwan
Quercus pacifica Channel Island Scrub Oak California (Santa Cruz I. , Santa Catalina I., Santa Rosa I.)
Quercus pagoda Cherrybark Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus palmeri Palmer Oak % SW. Oregon, California, Western Arizona
Quercus palustris Pin Oak Eastern North America
Quercus parvula Coast Oak, Santa Cruz Island Scrub Oak % Santa Cruz Island California
Quercus parvula var. parvula Santa Cruz Island Oak Santa Cruz Island California
Quercus parvula var. shrevei Shreve Oak California
Quercus parvula var. tamalpaisensis Tamalpais Oak California (Mt. Tamalpais Reg.)
Quercus patelliformis ¡ ? % China
Quercus peduncularis ¡ ? % Central America
Quercus pentacycla ¡ ? % China
Quercus petraea Durmast Oak, Sessile Oak Europe, Anatolia
Quercus phanera ¡ ? % China
Quercus phellos Willow Oak Eastern North America
Quercus poilanei ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Thailand
Quercus polymorpha Netleaf white Oak, Monterrey Oak, Mexican White Oak % Mexico and extreme South Texas
Quercus pontica Armenian Oak Western Asia
Quercus prinoides Dwarf Chinkapin Oak Eastern North America
Quercus prinus Chestnut Oak Eastern North America (= Quercus Montana)
Quercus pubescens Downy Oak Europe, Anatolia
Quercus pumila Runner Oak, Running Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus pungens Pungent Oak, Sandpaper Oak % South central North America
Quercus pyrenaica Pyrenean Oak Southwestern Europe
Quercus rapurahuensis Talamanca Oak % Costa Rica, Panama
Quercus rex ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, India, Laos, Myanmar
Quercus rhysophylla Loquat-leaf Oak % Mexico
Quercus robur English Oak, Pedunculate Oak Europe, West Asia
Quercus robur ssp. brutia ¡ ? Southern Italy, Western Balkan Peninsular
Quercus robur ssp. imeretina ¡ ? West Caucasus
Quercus robur ssp. pedunculiflora ¡ ? NW. Iran, E. and SE. Turkey, Transcaucasus, Krym, Balkan Peninsular
Quercus robur ssp. robur ¡ ? Europe to Transcaucasus
Quercus robusta Robust Oak Texas (Brewster Co.; Chisos Mts.)
Quercus rubra Northern Red Oak SE. Canada to NC. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus rubra var. ambigua Northern red Oak SE. Canada to NC. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus rubra var. rubra Northern red Oak SE. Canada to NC. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus rugosa Netleaf Oak % Southwestern U.S., NW. Mexico
Quercus sadleriana Deer Oak % SW. Oregon, Northern California
Quercus salicifolia ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus salicina ¡ ? % Japan, South Korea
Quercus sapotifolia ¡ ? % Southern Mexico, Central America
Quercus saravanensis ¡ ? % China, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus schottkyana ¡ ? % China
Quercus semecarpifolia Brown Oak, Kharshu Oak % Himalayas
Quercus semiserrata ¡ ? % China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand
Quercus serrata Bao li Eastern Himalaya, China, Taiwan, Korea (incl. Chenju Do), Japan
Quercus serrata ssp. mongolicoides ¡ ? Northern Japan
Quercus serrata ssp. serrata ¡ ? Eastern Himalaya, China, Taiwan, Korea (incl. Chenju Do), Japan
Quercus sessilifolia ¡ ? % Japan, Taiwan, China
Quercus shumardii Shumard’s Oak S. Ontario to C. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus shumardii var. schneckii Schneck Oak Indiana, Illinois, E. Kansas, E. Oklahoma
Quercus shumardii var. shumardii Shumard’s Oak S. Ontario to C. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus shumardii var. stenocarpa Shumard’s Oak Missouri, Illinois U.S.A
Quercus sichourensis ¡ ? % Yunnan (China).
Quercus similis Bottomland post Oak E. Texas, SE. U.S.A.
Quercus sinuata Bastard Oak Central and SE. U.S.A. to NE. Mexico
Quercus sinuata var. breviloba Bastard Oak Southern Oklahoma to NE. Mexico
Quercus sinuata var. sinuata Bastard Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus stellata Post Oak Eastern North America
Quercus stenophylloides ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus stewardiana ¡ ? % China
Quercus suber Cork Oak % Southwestern Europe, Northwestern Africa
Quercus subhinoidea ¡ ? % China
Quercus subsericea ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus sumatrana ¡ ? % Indonesia
Quercus tardifolia Lateleaf Oak % Two small groves in Chisos Mountains of Texas
Quercus texana Nuttall’s Oak, Texas red Oak South central North America (Lower Mississippi River Valley)
Quercus thorelii ¡ ? % China, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus tomentella Island Live Oak % California offshore islands
Quercus tomentosinervis ¡ ? % China
Quercus toumeyi Toumey Oak % Southwest New Mexico, Southeastern Arizona, Northern Mexico
Quercus treubiana ¡ ? % Sumatra, Borneo
Quercus trojana Macedonian Oak % Southeastern Europe
Quercus turbinella Shrub Live Oak, Sonoran Scrub Oak, Scrub Live Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus vacciniifolia Huckleberry Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus variabilis Chinese Cork Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus vaseyana Vasey Oak, Sandpaper Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus velutina Black Oak, Eastern Black Oak, Dyer’s Oak Eastern North America
Quercus viminea Sonoran Oak S. Arizona to N. and W. Mexico
Quercus virginiana Southern Live Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus vulcanica Kasnak Oak Southwestern Asia
Quercus wislizeni Interior Live Oak % California, Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus wislizeni var. frutescens Interior Live Oak % S. California, Mexico (N. Baja California)
Quercus wislizeni var. wislizeni Interior Live Oak % California, Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus xalapensis ¡ ? Mexico
Quercus xanthotricha ¡ ? % China, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus yingjiangensis ¡ ? % China

List of Oak Tree Hybrid Names

Botanical Tree Name Common Tree Name
Quercus ×acutidens ¡ ?
Quercus ×alvordiana Alvord Oak
Quercus ×ashei ¡ ?
Quercus ×atlantica ¡ ?
Quercus ×beadlei ¡ ?
Quercus ×beaumontiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×bebbiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×beckyae ¡ ?
Quercus ×benderi ¡ ?
Quercus ×bernardiensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×bimundorum ¡ ?
Quercus ×blufftonensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×brittonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×burnetensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×bushii ¡ ?
Quercus ×byarsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×caduca ¡ ?
Quercus ×caesariensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×capesii ¡ ?
Quercus ×cocksii ¡ ?
Quercus ×columnaris ¡ ?
Quercus ×comptoniae ¡ ?
Quercus ×cravenensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×deamii ¡ ?
Quercus ×demareei ¡ ?
Quercus ×discreta ¡ ?
Quercus ×diversiloba ¡ ?
Quercus ×egglestonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×eplingii ¡ ?
Quercus ×exacta ¡ ?
Quercus ×faxonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×fernaldii ¡ ?
Quercus ×fernowii ¡ ?
Quercus ×filialis ¡ ?
Quercus ×fontana ¡ ?
Quercus ×ganderi ¡ ?
Quercus ×garlandensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×giffordii ¡ ?
Quercus ×grandidentata ¡ ?
Quercus ×guadalupensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×harbisonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×hastingsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×hawkinsiae ¡ ?
Quercus ×heterophylla ¡ ?
Quercus ×howellii ¡ ?
Quercus ×humidicola ¡ ?
Quercus ×iana ¡ ?
Quercus ×incomita ¡ ?
Quercus ×inconstans ¡ ?
Quercus ×introgressa ¡ ?
Quercus ×jackiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×jolonensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×joorii ¡ ?
Quercus ×leana ¡ ?
Quercus ×ludoviciana ¡ ?
Quercus ×macdonaldii Macdonald Oak
Quercus ×macnabiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×megaleia ¡ ?
Quercus ×mellichampii ¡ ?
Quercus ×moreha Oracle Oak
Quercus ×moultonensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×munzii ¡ ?
Quercus ×mutabilis ¡ ?
Quercus ×neoi ¡ ?
Quercus ×neotharpii ¡ ?
Quercus ×nessiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×organensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×oviedoensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×palaeolithicola ¡ ?
Quercus ×pauciloba ¡ ?
Quercus ×podophylla ¡ ?
Quercus ×pseudomargaretta False sand post Oak
Quercus ×rehderi ¡ ?
Quercus ×riparia ¡ ?
Quercus ×robbinsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×rolfsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×rudkinii ¡ ?
Quercus ×runcinata ¡ ?
Quercus ×sargentii ¡ ?
Quercus ×saulii ¡ ?
Quercus ×schochiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×schuettei ¡ ?
Quercus ×smallii ¡ ?
Quercus ×stelloides ¡ ?
Quercus ×sterilis ¡ ?
Quercus ×sterretii ¡ ?
Quercus ×subconvexa ¡ ?
Quercus ×subfalcata ¡ ?
Quercus ×subintegra ¡ ?
Quercus ×substellata ¡ ?
Quercus ×tharpii ¡ ?
Quercus ×tottenii ¡ ?
Quercus ×townei ¡ ?
Quercus ×tridentata ¡ ?
Quercus ×vaga ¡ ?
Quercus ×venulosa ¡ ?
Quercus ×wagneri ¡ ?
Quercus ×walteriana ¡ ?
Quercus ×willdenowiana ¡ ?

19 Different Types Of Oak Trees With Photos For Identification

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Oaks are a group of large shade trees with an exceptionally noble character. But the true value of oak trees goes far beyond their majestic strength. Oak trees can drastically improve the quality of our outdoor lives. As an added benefit, they are also an important species in forest ecosystems.

If you have a sunny property, the summer heat can be difficult to bear. As you try to enjoy your outdoor living spaces, that heat can make for an unpleasant experience. Beyond the discomfort, excessive heat takes a toll on your wallet as well. 

A house in full sun requires more energy to run air conditioning systems in the hotter months.

If this is a problem for you, an oak tree is what you need. By combining broad leaves with wide-spreading branches, oak trees offer ample shade beneath their canopies. In the heat of summer, that cool relief is much needed.

Planting an oak tree is far from a selfish option. Since these plants are so supportive of native wildlife, planting one contributes to the health of your regional environment.

Provided you have a large yard, oak trees are an option for you. But there are several dozen oak varieties that grow in North America. Each one belongs to a specific region within the continent.

If you learn the basics of oak tree varieties and how to identify different types of oak trees, you will soon be able to spot them in the wild. You will also know which oak will grow in your landscape while gaining an appreciation for the beauty these shade trees have to offer.

What Is Special About An Oak Tree?

Planting an oak tree is a long-term investment. Most oak species are both large and slow-growing. This means it will take many years for oak trees to give shade to a broad area.

But these trees are worth the wait. Proof of this lies in the large number of oaks that grow in parks, campuses, and rural estates. Those who planted those trees long ago were wise about the value oaks would add to the landscape decades later.

Oak trees usually have large rounded canopies. These hold broad leaves that can be either deciduous or evergreen. The length and width of these leave lets them block copious amount of sunlight. This creates a cooler microclimate beneath their branches.

Consider a house that sits in full sunlight. During a heatwave, the owners will struggle to keep their rooms at a comfortable temperature. The use of air conditioners and fans will quickly increase the electric bill.

A large oak on the south side of the house will make a big difference. At maturity, that tree will cast shade on the house creating a natural cooling effect. As a result, the need for electricity-based cooling systems diminishes.

Support for Forest Species

As helpful as oaks are to homeowners, they are also important for native woodland species. Numerous species rely on support from oak trees.

This support, at times, is quite literal. For example, oaks are often the tree of choice for nesting animals. Squirrels, birds, and other animals make homes in oak tree branches.

Along with this physical support, oaks are a reliable food source as well. These trees can produce copious amounts of acorns.

Mammals use these acorns as an immediate food source. They also store acorns underground to save them for seasons when other food supplies are scarce.

At times, these animals will forget where they buried their acorns. That will reduce their food supply.

But in the long run, that forgetfulness leads to more oak trees. When in the right conditions, those forgotten buried acorns will soon sprout and begin their long journey to becoming a mighty oak tree.

Oak Genera

True oaks belong to the Quercus genus. That genus is part of the beech family know as Fagaceae. These plants originate in the Northern Hemisphere.

Quercus represents a broad category containing around 600 oak species. In the United States, oaks are a dominant tree species throughout many forests. Because they’ve grown in such high quantities throughout the centuries, oaks are some of the most recognizable trees there are.

While all of the species in the Quercus genus have it as a part of their common name, the word “oak” is not exclusive to this group.

Plants with “oak” in their common name appear in other genera as well. As an example, stone oak is part of the Lithocarpus genus, which, like Quercus, is within the Fagaceae family.

Another exception is silver oak. The botanical name for this tree is Grevillea robusta. But unlike previously mentioned oaks, silver oak is part of the Proteaceae family rather than the beech family.

Similarly, Allocasuarina fraseriana, also known as sheoak, comes from a separate family as well. This oak belongs to the Casuarinaceae family that is common in Australia.

This is an example of the inaccuracy of common names. Despite bearing the “oak” name, silver oak, stone oak, and sheoak are not true oaks because they are not in the Quercus genus.

Common Oak Tree Varieties

Before describing oak tree species, let’s look at the two main categories of oak trees.

All oaks are a part of the white oak group or the red oak group. The two groups consist of many oak species.

Don’t confuse these groupings for the individual varieties that share their name. There are species bearing the common names, white oak, and red oak. But these species are each within the broad categories of white oaks and red oaks.

To add some clarity to this, here are some prominent species in each of the two categories.

Examples of Oak Species in the White Oak Category

  • White Oak
  • Swamp White Oak
  • Bur Oak

Examples of Oak Species in the Red Oak Category

  • Red Oak
  • Black Oak
  • Scarlet Oak

As these are general categories. There is an equally general way for knowing which group an oak tree belongs to.

Often, oak species in the white oak category will have leaves with rounded lobes.

In contrast, oak species in the red oak category will have sharply pointed lobes on their leaves.

It can be helpful to know about these two oak groups. What is more important is understanding the characteristics of individual oak varieties.

How Do I Identify An Oak Tree?

Perhaps you already have an oak tree on your property. In that case, you are likely wondering how you can identify exactly what kind of oak it is.

The best way to identify oaks is by the following three parts of the plant.

  • Acorns
  • Leaf Shapes
  • Flowers

The fruit of an oak tree is an acorn. Acorns are able to sprout new oak trees after they fall to the ground. Acorns are nuts that typically have a cap. The cap is the part that attaches to the oak tree branch. Different oak species have acorns with different sizes, shapes, and textures. This is often one of the most reliable ways to differentiate between some oak species.

A quintessential oak leaf is deciduous with multiple lobes. Variation in lobe number and shape is another clue as to what oak you are looking at.

While far from noticeable, oaks do have flowers. The male flowers are more noticeable. These take the form of dangling catkin that appear in spring.

Female flowers are even more conspicuous. These flowers are smaller and grow later in the season. They are often nestled close to the buds of the current year’s growth.

19 Types of Oak Trees For Your Landscape

Now that you know some general facts about oaks, read more to learn what makes each species different. Individual oak species also have different levels of popularity.

This is based on the preferences people have for different growth habits, leaf shapes, and overall appearances among oak trees.

Before choosing the right oak for you, you must be able to distinguish one oak from another. After that, you can accurately select the one that is best for you and for your landscape. Here are 19 of the best types of oak trees you can choose from.

1: Quercus Alba (White Oak)

Although it grows slowly, the mature form of white oak is nothing short of majestic. As it reaches extreme heights, its spread rose to match that height. The wide-reaching branches provide ample shade below.

Along these branches are the white oak leaves grow with their signature rounded lobes. These lobes appear in sets of seven on each leaf.

In fall, the leaves turn to a deep crimson color. Many oaks are not known for fall color. But this tree is definitely an exception.

White oak acorns are about one inch long. They grow individually or in pairs. The caps cover about ¼ of the total acorn.

White oak needs full sun and moist acidic soil. Even in the best conditions, this tree is a slow grower. But white oak is well worth the wait as its massive mature rounded form supplies unmatched beauty.

  • Hardiness Zone: 3-9
  • Mature Height: 50-80’
  • Mature Spread: 50-80’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture

 

Quercus Rubra (Red Oak)

In many regions of the United States, red oak is a main feature of the forest. It grows in abundance throughout the woodlands of the eastern half of the country.

The leaves of red oak exemplify the contrast between white and red oaks. These leaves have seven to 11 loved which are pointed.

The bark of red oak shows typically shows both brown and grey coloration. At maturity, this bark consists of wide ridges that are flat-topped and grey. They are separated by shallow groves.

Red oak has a relatively fast growth rate. This is not a common trait among oaks. But, red oak is one of a few exceptions.

Plant this tree in soil with medium moisture in areas of full sun.  Lower ph soils are best for red oaks.

As a native tree, red oak makes massive contributions to its ecosystem. Without this large deciduous tree, the forests of the united states would have an entirely different character.

  • Hardiness Zone: 4-8
  • Mature Height: 50-75’
  • Mature Spread: 50-75’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture

 

Quercus Velutina (Black Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 3-9
  • Mature Height: 50-60’
  • Mature Spread: 50-60’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Dry to Medium Moisture

Black oaks share an extremely similar appearance with red oaks. But there are a few subtle differences that will help you with identification.

First, black oak is slightly smaller and can tolerate dryer soils. While similarly lobed, black oak leaves tend to be darker and glossier.

Still, it remains difficult to recognize these differences right away. The bark and acorns may be a bit more helpful when trying to distinguish black oak from red oak.

Red oak and black oak acorns are both around ¾” in length. But, the caps are quite different.

Red oak acorn caps cover about ¼ of the acorn. Black oak acorns can cover more than half of the acorn.

Black oak bark is also a key identifying feature. This back is nearly black at maturity and features deep fissures and ridges. The ridges are separated by frequent horizontal cracks.

While challenging to identify, black oak is a lovely native deciduous shade tree.

 

Quercus Palustris (Pin Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 3-9
  • Mature Height: 50-70’
  • Mature Spread: 40-60’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture to High Moisture

Pin oak is another generous shade-giving oak tree. However, this tree is far more likely to grow in urban settings rather than living exclusively in woodlands.

Because of its tolerance for pollution and poor soils, pin oak is popular as a street tree. It also commonly grows in parks, golf courses, and college campuses.

Pin oak has an interesting branching habit. The mid-tier branches grow straight out at a 90-degree angle from the trunk. The upper branches grow in an upward direction. The lower branches often droop downward.

Interestingly, the leaves have a tendency to adhere to this pattern. These leaves are a bit thinner than other oak leaves. The pointed middle lobes often grow out at a right angle much like the mid-level branches.

It is common for pin oak to experience chlorosis. This results from alkaline soils and causes the leaves to turn yellow.

Despite this common problem, pin oak is one of the most popular oak trees. Plant in full sun with ample soil moisture. Then sit back and enjoy the shade and unique growth habit of pin oak for years to come.

Quercus Bicolor (Swamp White Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 3-8
  • Mature Height: 50-60’
  • Mature Spread: 50-60’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture to High Moisture

Swamp white oak is an intriguing variation on the typical white oak. This tree thrives in moist soils which gives it its common name.

Regarding physical characteristics, there are a few that set swamp white oak apart from its relatives.

The first relates to its overall form. Swamp white oaks are just as large and spreading as white oaks. However, their branches offer a different effect.

These far-reaching branches often sprout a higher number of secondary branches. At times, the lower branches form a large arch that curves back towards the ground.

The leaves feature rounded lobes. But the separation between lobes is quite shallow.

Swamp white oak grows best in acidic soils in full sun. It is deciduous and usually lives in low-lying areas where water gathers.

Quercus Robur (English Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 5-8
  • Mature Height: 40-70’
  • Mature Spread: 40-70’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic to Alkaline
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture

English oak is native to Europe and western parts of Asia. In England, it is one of the primary sources of timber.

This oak tree looks a lot like white oak. Its leaves have a similar shape and a similar number of rounded lobes.

The acorns are an important identification trait for this tree. These acorns are elongated compared to other oak trees. The cap covers about 1/3 of these oblong fruits.

This tree typically as branches that grow from the lower portion of the trunk even at maturity. This gives the trunk a short appearance.

The bark on that trunk is dark grey or even black at the time. It has many ridges and fissures.

Overall, the form is broad and rounded. In addition, English oak can grow to be very large. Some specimens even grow taller than 130 feet.

In general, this tree is low maintenance. However, it can have some problems with powdery mildew.

 

Quercus Coccinea (Scarlet Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 4-9
  • Mature Height: 50-70’
  • Mature Spread: 40-50’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Dry to Medium Moisture

As you might expect, scarlet oak offers deep red fall color. In some cases, this coloration can be inconsistent. But, this red is often so vibrant it rivals some more popular autumn trees like red maple.

But this no reason to ignore this tree. In fact, the leaf color is appealing even in the summer months. At that time, the tops of the leaves are a rich glossy green color.

The form of the leaves is thin like the pink oak and also has pointed lobes. Each leaf has seven to nine lobes and each lobe has a bristly tip.

A mature scarlet oak has a form that is rounded and open. It often reaches 50-70 feet tall with a slightly smaller spread.

Scarlet oak grows best in acidic soil that is also somewhat dry. Plant this oak if you are interested in a large shade tree with striking fall colors.

 

Quercus Virginiana (Live Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 8-10
  • Mature Height: 40-80’
  • Mature Spread: 60-100’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture to High Moisture

Live oak grows in warmer regions of the United States. In the south, it is a main component of large estates and former plantations.

If you ever see a live oak, it quickly becomes apparent why people plant this tree so often. It is a large shade tree with a spread that can exceed, and even double the height.

Another unique aspect of this oak is that it is evergreen while many other oaks are deciduous. The leaves also have a shape that differs from what most people think of when they imagine oak leaves.

Live oak leaves are simple elongated ovals. They are about one to three inches long. To add to their differences from other oaks, they are also evergreen.

While planting this tree in a small area is ill-advised, this tree is a great option for large areas zones eight to ten.

Live oak will grow best in full sun with moist soils. In its most attractive form, you will find mature live oaks with spreading branches covered in Spanish moss.

 

Quercus Laurifolia (Laurel Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 7-9
  • Mature Height: 40-60’
  • Mature Spread: 40-60’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture to High Moisture

Laurel oak is an interesting tree because it has both evergreen and deciduous characteristics. While the leaves do eventually fall, this does not occur until late in February. This gives laurel oak the appearance of an evergreen for much of the winter.

This species is native to the southeastern part of the United States. It is another large shade tree with a height and spread that match each other.

The leaves of laurel oak are reminiscent of laurel shrubs. They have an elongated elliptic shape with mostly smooth margins. Their color is often dark green

Laurel oak thrives in acidic soils. In its native range, it inhabits warm coastal areas. The further north this tree grows, the more deciduous it becomes.

Plant this tree if you are in a warmer region and you want an oak that stands out from the rest.

 

Quercus Montana (Chestnut Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 4-8
  • Mature Height: 50-70’
  • Mature Spread: 50-70’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic to Neutral
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Dry to Medium Moisture

In the wild, chestnut oak inhabits rocky areas at higher elevations. It is native to the eastern United States.

This tree is deciduous. It has a broad rounded form. Because of its adaptability to dry soils, it sometimes carries the name rock oak.

The name chestnut oak comes from the fact that it shares some visual characteristics with chestnut trees. The most notable of these is the bark which is brown with a corklike texture.

The leaves of chestnut oak are different than most oaks. These leaves are obovate with coarse serration. They look similar in shape to some beech trees.

Despite adapting to poor soils, this tree can have numerous diseases. Among these are root rot, cankers, powdery mildew, and even chestnut blight.

But if you can avoid these problems, chestnut oak is a good shade tree option for well-drained soils.

 

Quercus Prinoides (Dwarf Chestnut Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 4-8
  • Mature Height: 10-15’
  • Mature Spread: 10-15’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Part Shade
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic to Neutral
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture

Dwarf chestnut oak grows as a large shrub or as a small tree. It averages about 15’ feet in height and spread at maturity.

Many oaks have a bitter taste to their acorns. This bitterness is far less present in the acorns of dwarf chestnut oak. This results in a flavor that is far more favorable to wildlife.

Dwarf chestnut oak leaves are remarkably similar to chestnut oak leaves. This native shrub also has a deep taproot. This characteristic makes transplanting a significant challenge.

Dwarf chestnut oak can adapt to some dry soils although this is not its preference. It is also tolerant of limited amounts of shade.

 

Quercus Gambelii (Gambel Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 4-7
  • Mature Height: 10-30’
  • Mature Spread: 10-30’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Part Shade
  • Soil PH Preference: Slightly Acidic to Alkaline
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Moist to Dry

Gambel oak another variety of oak that is on the smaller side. While not a true shrub, this small tree only grows to an average mature height of 30 feet at most.

The plant has a rounded form throughout its long life span which can reach 150 years. In older age, it takes on a weeping form that requires plenty of space.

Gambel oak is valuable for its ability to adapt to both moist and dry soils. Its leaves are deciduous with rounded lobes.

Another notable feature of this plant is its high production of acorns in the fall. These serve as a food source for animals in winter.

 

Quercus Nigra (Water Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 6-9
  • Mature Height: 50-80’
  • Mature Spread: 40-60’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture to High Moisture

Water oak is a species native to the southeast United States. It grows naturally near streams as the name implies.

This tree is semi-evergreen. Old leaves fall in the winter. However, in some cases, they will persist through the winter.

The shape of the leaves is unlike any other oak. They have a narrow oval shape. That shape is consistent from the petiole to the midpoint of the leaf.

The beyond that mid-point, three subtle rounded lobes give a wavy shape to the outer half of the leaf. The leave color is green with some hints of blue.

Like many oaks, water oak has a broad rounded canopy. The trunk can be exceptionally thick. At times it will be around five feet in diameter.

Even though this tree has a sturdy appearance, it is actually weak wooded. Be careful about planting this tree near your house. The branches are prone to breaking especially when carrying any sort of extra weight.

 

Quercus Macrocarpa (Bur Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 3-8
  • Mature Height: 60-80’
  • Mature Spread: 60-80’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Neutral to Alkaline
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture to High Moisture

As you may have noticed, bur oak is one of the few trees on this list with a preference for alkaline soils. This preference is s slight but explains why bur oak so often grows where limestone is nearby.

But oak is a prominent native plant in prairie regions of the central United States. In youth, it has an oval or pyramidal for. As it grows it becomes more open and rounded.

The leaves have an odd shape as well. They are far wider at the ends compared to the base with is narrow. Both halves of the leaf have rounded lobes.

The acorns have a strange appearance too. These acorns are nearly entirely covered by the cap. The cap itself is heavily fringed giving a fuzzy appearance.

Bur oak is vulnerable to many different diseases. But as long as it does not contract one of these numerous diseases, it is low maintenance and a great addition to large lawn spaces.

 

Quercus Falcata (Spanish Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 6-9
  • Mature Height: 60-80’
  • Mature Spread: 40-50’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Dry to Medium Moisture

Spanish oak is a deciduous oak variety that also goes by the name southern red oak. But don’t expect to see much red on this tree.

Rather than turning a pleasing shade of red in fall, instead, the leaves simply turn brown. While this fall color is disappointing, there is plenty of aesthetic value in this tree.

A sturdy strait trunk supports an open crown. The canopy consists of leaves with an intriguing shape.

That shape includes a rounded base and three trident-like lobes at the outer end of the leaf. The middle lobe is often the longest but the leaf shape overall shows variation.

Spanish oak is most likely to grow in upland regions in the American south. At the time, it ventures down into valleys as well.

If you plant this tree, provide full sun and acidic soil. While well-drained soil is best, this tree can survive some temporary flooding. However, the root system is known to be quite sensitive to damage. Plant near any construction area is a significant risk.

 

Quercus Stellata (Post Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 5-9
  • Mature Height: 35-50’
  • Mature Spread: 35-50’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Moist

Compared to many other oak species, post oak is generally smaller. But remember that this is all relative.

Post oak is still suitable as a shade tree as it can reach 50feet in height and spread.

This tree has a preference for moist acidic soils. But don’t think that they are limited to areas with those characteristics. Instead, post oak is very adaptable when it comes to soil types.

For example, post oak can survive in exceptionally dry soil in many cases. Because of this, post oak often grows on mountain slopes where the soil is rocky and drains quickly.

In keeping with the oak stereotype, post oak has useful hard wood. The fact that this tree is often used to create fence posts is the inspiration for the common name.

 Quercus Phellos (Willow Oak)@fairfaxcounty
  • Hardiness Zone: 5-9
  • Mature Height: 40-75’
  • Mature Spread: 25-50’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: Medium Moisture

When you see the leaves of willow oak, it is no surprise that it carries that name. While part of the oak family, the foliage of willow oak bears little to no resemblance to other oaks. Instead, it is nearly identical to the foliage f common willow trees.

To add further contrast to common oak species, willow oak Is a fast-growing tree. When growing in the wet low-lying areas it calls home, this tree races towards its mature size.

At maturity, this oak is narrower than others. Rather than having a perfectly-rounded canopy, willow oak is just a little more than half as wide as it is tall.

Willow oak leaves often turn gold or brown in the fall. They also carry acorns that are an important food source for animals in the American southeast.

Beware that this oak can have numerous diseases including oak wilt, oak skeletonizer, and much more. Despite this, willow oak is usually long-lived and a great option for planting along with ponds and other natural water features.

 

Quercus Ilex (Holm Oak)
  • Hardiness Zone: 7-10
  • Mature Height: 40-70’
  • Mature Spread: 40-70’
  • Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Part Shade
  • Soil PH Preference: Acidic
  • Soil Moisture Preference: High Moisture

Holm oak is one of the rarer broadleaf evergreen oaks. The leaves on this tree are dark green with sharp edges like a holly shrub. In size, they are about one inch wide and three inches long.

Holm oak is native to the Mediterranean region. As such, it survives only in warmer regions. These include zones 7-10.

Overall, the form of holm oak is large and rounded. Its foliage is dense and grows on branches that are generally upright in their growth habit.

A textured cup covers about half of the acorn. These acorns tend to ripen in the early fall.

If you are in a warmer region, holm oak is a great evergreen tree option for you.

Conclusion

Oaks trees deserve the popularity they’ve achieved. The genus plays a vital role in forest ecosystems throughout North America. Oaks are also attractive. You can’t help but admire the scale of these trees at maturity.

From afar, wide oak canopies add rounded forms to the landscape. Beneath those dignified branches, you will find the relief of cool shade on hot summer days.

John Haryasz

John Haryasz is a writer with a background in landscape architecture. His education includes a Bachelor of Science in landscape architecture from UMass, Amherst with a minor in psychology. Following graduation, John worked in a small landscape architecture office. In this role, he led many successful projects in Berkshire County, MA. After a few years, John began offering freelance design services. He has since produced designs for projects across the country. As a writer, John aims to share knowledge while promoting engagement with the outdoor world.

Varieties and species of oak: description and photo

Contents:

  • Oak looks like in autumn
    • Spring awakening
    • Re-growth of greenery
  • Useful properties
  • [Spread edit code]
    • Famous trees
  • Useful properties of leaves
  • Common oak. Description
  • Propagation
  • Photo of leaves
  • How to plant red oak
    • Selecting planting material
    • Selecting the site and the requirements for soil
    • Landing process
      • Technology and the planting scheme of the seedling
    • We use fallen leaves as fertilizers
    • PROBLEMION
      • Growing red oak from acorns
    • 000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000
    • 000 harvest leaves
    • Recipes using oak leaves
    • Oak.
      • Oak use.
    • Description and characteristics of wood oak
      • How to determine the age of an oak
      • Distribution area and history
    • Planting rules
    • Where does the common oak grow?

    Oak looks like in autumn

    The majestic oak with its powerful spreading branches can reach 40 meters in height and live for about 800 years. A huge number of birds and insects find shelter and food in its crown.

    Common or European oak (Quercus robw) grows in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. This mighty deciduous tree is found throughout Europe, from Spain in the west and south to Ukraine in the east and Scotland in the north. Oak is a forest long-liver, living for about 800 years and reaching 40 meters in height. From the upper crown to the tips of the roots, the length of which is often commensurate with the height of the tree itself, all tiers of this giant are densely populated throughout the year.

    Spring awakening

    The end of hibernation and the beginning of a new life cycle marks the appearance of young leaves on the oak. At the same time, insects wake up, the presence of which, in turn, attracts various insectivorous birds and animals. Of the leaf-eating insects in May, leafworm caterpillars are more common on the tree than others. Attached with silky threads to the branches, they begin to destroy the young foliage. The cobwebs woven by them are an ideal place for growing colonies of caterpillars and larvae of other insects.

    Larger stem pests include more than 100 species, whose names can usually be used to judge their habitat: oak borers, oak sapwood, oak motley barbel, etc. In most cases, the protective coloration of caterpillars saves them from numerous birds that show increased activity in this time. Grasshopper warbler, common and blue tits, chaffinch, forest songbirds circle over the top of the crown, and in the middle, as a rule, bullfinches and kinglets fly. Nuthatch, woodpecker and common pika look for insects in the bark of a massive trunk.

    A robin and a blackbird have settled down below, ready to pick up anything that falls to them from the upper branches. At night, bats, hedgehogs, woodcock males and deer gather around the oak to feast on caterpillars and insects. The common owl does not sleep either, hunting birds, rodents and small mammals.

    Camel larvae hide under the lichen that has grown on the trunk. In the dry bark of a tree, bark beetles, stag beetles and other beetles make internal passages and lay their eggs. Unless a woodpecker finds the larva, it will eventually turn into an adult insect. This is the kind of invasion that the oak has to endure with the advent of spring.

    Re-growth of greenery

    Young leaves destroyed by larvae are replaced by new bronze-colored foliage. which gradually turns green. The warm rays of the spring sun, freely penetrating between the oak branches, awaken the first flowers to life: primroses, anemones and violets. In May, a carpet of bluebells blooms in the clearing.

    However, the real oak appears in all its glory in the summer months, despite the fact. that drought is an ordeal for such a giant. Like most plants, the growth and maintenance of this tree is provided by the process of photosynthesis, due to which energy is generated in green leaves under the influence of sunlight. A powerful root system supplies the tree with moisture and nutrients in abundance: for example, in one hot day, an oak tree can absorb more than 450 liters of water.

    Useful properties

    Variety of Phalaenopsis orchid varieties. catalog with names and photos

    Not only oak bark has useful properties. For example, acorns are used to treat intestinal disorders, hernias and skin diseases.

    Oak leaves smell good and prevent rot from developing. Fragrant bath brooms are made from the branches of the tree. Leaves lay tubs intended for pickles. The preparations do not turn sour and become especially tasty.


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    Children's crafts can also be made from acorns. Acorns look very beautiful: they have a rounded shape and a nice glossy sheen.

    Autumn oak is an amazing sight. A mighty crown of yellow foliage pleases the eye of a person

    When the leaves of Buzzards dry up, they remain on the branches, attracting attention with a quiet and mysterious winter rustle.

    Oak - a mighty and spreading tree with heavy, thick branches. It grows in the northern hemisphere. It can be found in any European country, including Ukraine and Scotland. There are legends about the longevity of oak to this day. This tree lives from 500 years and longer, and its height reaches up to 40 m. In summer it is decorated with a crown of light green carved leaves, and in autumn it looks completely different.

    Distribution [edit | edit code]

    Overview of Acacia species

    Widely distributed in Western Europe and European Russia, found in northern Africa and western Asia. The northern border of the range runs through southern Finland and the north of the Leningrad region, while on the western coast of Norway, due to the influence of the Gulf Stream, it reaches the 65th parallel. As you move east, the range boundary shifts sharply to the south, and in Siberia it is currently not found in natural conditions. The eastern limits of the pedunculate oak range are the watershed of the Volga and Ural rivers (the Common Syrt upland), as well as the valleys of the Yuryuzan and Sylva rivers. Widely used in field-protective afforestation.

    Common oak - one of the main forest-forming species of broad-leaved forests of Europe, as well as communities of the European forest-steppe; grows next to hornbeam, ash, linden, maple, elm, beech, birch, spruce, fir, pine and some other trees. It does not form large massifs in the middle forest zone.

    In the taiga zone grows along river valleys, further south on watersheds in mixed forests with spruce; in the zone of broad-leaved forests and forest-steppe forms oak forests or oak forests with an admixture of linden, maple, elm; in the steppe zone - along ravines, beams, in floodplains of rivers. Quite a heat-loving breed, therefore it does not go far to the north and high into the mountains. It suffers from late spring frosts, does not tolerate shading from above, but lateral shading stimulates the growth of undergrowth. Demanding on soil fertility, the best stands are on powerful gray forest loamy soils and degraded chernozems. The stock of timber in them is 250-600 m³/ha.

    Pedunculate oak is the official flower emblem of the Swedish province of Blekinge.

    Famous trees

    The life span of English oak is 400-500 years, but trees are known that are up to 1000 and even 1500 years old. In terms of life expectancy, the oak is one of the first places in the plant world.

    Among the oaks there are many famous trees. The most famous are: Kaiser's Oak, Zaporozhye Oak, Tsar Oak, Stelmuzh Oak, Taurida Bogatyr Oak, Chapel Oak, Tamme-Lauri Oak, Major Oak (Sherwood Forest). The age of such trees is several centuries - for example, Grunwald oak, growing in the city of Ladushkin, Kaliningrad region, lives more than 800 years, and Granite oak - the sights of Bulgaria - is already more than 1700 years old.

    Useful properties of leaves

    20 most common types of acacia

    The main advantage of the oak leaf is tannins, quercetin and pentosans. Leaves are used both externally and internally:

    • Helps heal cuts, wounds and even scar ulcers - in this oak leaf is second only to plantain.
    • Promote better functioning of the stomach, help to cope with ulcers, gastritis, colitis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Useful in gynecological diseases.
    • Contribute to the reduction of blood pressure in hypertension.
    • Improve the condition of blood vessels, reduce the formation of cholesterol plaques.

    It is important to remember that leaves, like any drug, have contraindications. They must be used in the right proportions, since tannins, when they are in excess, cause vomiting, bloating, colic and other problems with the gastrointestinal tract.

    Common oak. Description

    In the botanical gardens there are very ancient specimens, sometimes several thousand years old. For example, the Zaporozhian oak in Ukraine is 700 years old, and the Stelmuzh oak in Lithuania is about 1700 or 2000 years old. Although the average age is about 400 years. Giants evolve long:

    • reach maturity at 40 years and later, and only then begin to bear fruit;
    • grow up to 100, some up to 200 years;
    • oaks gain width all their lives, the oldest trees reach 13 m in circumference.

    Oak leaves have a remarkable wavy appearance, growing on small petioles. They grow from 4 to 12 cm in length, and reach up to 7 cm in width. They are leathery, dense, glossy to the touch. In summer, their color is rich green with small yellowish streaks. Common oak blooms in early May, when young foliage is already green. At this time, the crown is decorated with earrings up to 3 cm long, on which up to 10 flowers. They are of different sexes, usually females are higher than males. After pollination, 1 small acorn is born from each ovary. On young shoots, acorns grow in pairs, sometimes in threes or fours.

    Spreading branches are strong and thick, while young shoots are soft and downy. Young trees have an irregular appearance due to cranked trunks. Only with age the trunk becomes smoother and thicker. The usual diameter of an adult tree is up to 2 meters. Young and old trees differ in color and type of bark. Up to 25-30 years old, it is smooth and gray. Then it darkens, turns black and becomes covered with deep cracks. What does a common oak tree look like? A photo, description or a simple walk in the oak forest will create the right impression. You can recognize a separately growing oak by its crown, which has the shape of a tent.

    Reproduction

    Swamp oak has a beautiful trunk, dense crown, colorful bright leaves - it is very tempting to plant such a tree in a summer cottage. Mature oaks often give root shoots that easily take root in a new place, separated with roots from the mother plant. It is easy to find out what an oak tree looks like in winter - root suckers grow with a thick brush near the tree trunk. Even without leaves, the tree is easily recognizable.

    Root suckers are easiest to transplant in early spring, over the summer the trees will get stronger and take root well in a new place, which will make it easier for them to endure the winter.

    The second way to propagate an ornamental tree is by planting acorns. This method will require patience and skill.

    In autumn, mature acorns should be collected and planted in a short time. It is best to harvest ripe acorns in late September or October, such fruits have the maximum supply of nutrients necessary for the successful germination of seedlings.

    Harvested acorns should be planted in the garden no later than 10-15 days, otherwise the germination rate will be greatly reduced. Separate acorns are buried in the ground by 5-8 cm, maintaining a certain distance between them. Plantings are watered, for the winter they organize shelter from birds and rodents that dig acorns out of the ground, disturbing the plantings. In the spring, acorns will sprout, they need to be especially carefully cared for. Trees will reach their real power in 6-8 years.

    Photo of leaves

    They cannot be confused with others - they have a characteristic oblong shape and a lobed or carved edge. You can find many summer photos, but many more autumn shots, since many varieties of leaves turn beautifully yellow. And in the holly oak they turn red.

    This variety is more common in North America, but can sometimes be found in a city park in Russia. So in good weather, you should take a camera or at least a smartphone with you and go in search of a suitable tree.

    If possible, even the texture can be removed, then the pinnate venation described above. To do this, it is best to photograph the foliage in the light. There is not always enough light in the park to get such a picture. In this case, the specimen can be brought home and photographed on glass, placing a light source under it. It is clear that professional cameras and macro lenses in such cases help to achieve the best result.

    How to plant a red oak

    Planting and caring for a young red oak requires no special skills or experience. It is enough to carefully study all the recommendations and strictly follow them.

    Selection of planting material

    Planting material is recommended to be purchased from trusted nurseries

    When choosing seedlings, pay attention to their age. Plants aged 1-2 years are considered the most acclimatized.

    Site selection and soil requirements

    When choosing a place for planting, it is important to take into account its size in adulthood, so the site must be large-scale and roomy for the full development of the plant. It is better to plant a red oak in a well-lit area, it also feels comfortable in shady areas.

    Due to the stability and strength of the root system, the tree is not afraid of strong winds and hurricanes. But, in the early stages, it does not hurt to plant several shrubs around the seedling.

    Planting process

    Red oak is planted in several stages:

    1. Dig a small hole: 30 cm deep, 50 cm wide.
    2. At the bottom of the hole, pour a layer of small pebbles or expanded clay 2-3 cm thick, which will protect the plant from stagnant water.
    3. Place the seedling in a recess and cover it with a soil mixture consisting of soddy and leafy soil, sand and peat in a ratio of 2:1:2:1.
    4. In order for the plant to adapt to environmental conditions and take root faster, it should be watered regularly for a week.
    Technology and scheme of planting seedlings

    Planting oak seedlings is very simple, and even an amateur gardener can handle it. It is best to plant a tree in early spring, before the leaves appear. It will be useful to plant several shrubs around the seedling, which will protect it from the wind in the early stages of the tree's life, and this also helps to accelerate growth.

    The health of a tree must be strengthened with fertilizers from an early age. This is done with the help of mineral compounds and organic components in the autumn. In the spring, it is recommended to use complex fertilizers. Regular application of healthy ingredients will prevent a common problem: red oak stops growing 2-3 years after planting, and its leaves turn yellow. This happens from a lack of nutrition or in case of improper feeding. For example, the introduction of fresh manure is completely excluded due to the high nitrogen content. With such fertilizer, loose tissues can form in all parts of the tree, unable to protect themselves from frost, pests and diseases.

    We use fallen leaves as fertilizer

    With each autumn leaf fall, the problem of what to do with crumbling leaves becomes acute.

    Some simply throw away the litter, or burn it, which is absolutely wrong.

    The leaf shed by trees contains a large amount of fiber and microelements important for the growth and development of cultivated plants, such as iron, potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and sulfur.

    Properly cultivated foliage can be useful not only to improve soil structure, but also to increase the level of soil fertility. Fallen leaves contribute to loosening the earth, enriching it with such useful elements as moisture and oxygen. In addition to this, earthworms often live in rotted leaves, which also contribute to loosening the substrate.

    The leaves of almost any tree that grows in every region can be turned into fertilizer. Humus from walnut leaves is especially good for soils, but they can only be found in some areas.

    Do not throw away the litter, it is a unique source of a large number of useful substances that will help to significantly improve the quality of the soil in the garden.

    Reproduction

    Marsh oak has a beautiful trunk, dense crown, multi-colored bright leaves - it is very tempting to plant such a tree in a summer cottage. Mature oaks often give root shoots that easily take root in a new place, separated with roots from the mother plant. It is easy to find out what an oak tree looks like in winter - root suckers grow with a thick brush near the tree trunk. Even without leaves, the tree is easily recognizable.

    Root suckers are easiest to transplant in early spring, over the summer the trees will get stronger and take root well in a new place, which will make it easier for them to endure the winter.

    The second way to propagate an ornamental tree is by planting acorns. This method will require patience and skill.

    In autumn, mature acorns should be collected and planted in a short time. It is best to harvest ripe acorns in late September or October, such fruits have the maximum supply of nutrients necessary for the successful germination of seedlings.

    Harvested acorns should be planted in the garden no later than 10-15 days, otherwise the germination rate will be greatly reduced. Separate acorns are buried in the ground by 5-8 cm, maintaining a certain distance between them. Plantings are watered, for the winter they organize shelter from birds and rodents that dig acorns out of the ground, disturbing the plantings. In the spring, acorns will sprout, they need to be especially carefully cared for. Trees will reach their real power in 6-8 years.

    Growing red oak from acorns

    How to grow decorative oak from acorns? To do this, prepare:

    A small container with many drain holes. They will help remove excess moisture from the pot, and prevent the rotting process from occurring.

    Earth substrate. It is prepared according to the same principle as the filler for planting seedlings.

    Place several elements of expanded clay on the bottom of the pot. It will act as a drain.

    We put a little earth on one container and place a Canadian oak acorn. We tamp the earth mass together with planting material.

    After that, pour settled water over the container. We remove the workpiece on the south window. As the earthen coma dries up, it is necessary to carry out spraying and watering.

    How to harvest leaves

    Oak leaves are usually harvested in June-July. It is believed that when the leaves only got stronger after spring, they contain the largest amount of active substances: pectins, vitamins, tannins and other useful micro and macro elements.

    Young trees 2–5 meters tall are selected for harvesting. These trees have flexible branches and strong leaves. Bark is also collected from young trees in the spring - it is cut into pieces and dried.

    Oak leaves are easiest to harvest and store with branches. Young branches are cut, tied into brooms and hung in a dark, dry place. Thus, you can store them for about a year until the new season or even longer.

    It is good if the place where the leaves are hanging is ventilated. But the leaves do not need sunlight. If the leaves are overcooked in the sun, they will become less useful components.

    Dried oak leaves retain their healing properties well. The brittleness and stiffness of dry leaves can be softened by steaming.

    Recipes using oak leaves

    Substances that contain leaves have the ability to reduce blood pressure, reduce bad cholesterol in blood vessels and increase good cholesterol. This helps to prevent the development of coronary disease, improve the condition of blood vessels and reduce the formation of plaques.

    Oak brooms, which are used in the steam room, reduce muscle pain, skin inflammation, heal microcracks. Brooms for this purpose are harvested from the second half of June to August. To soften hard leaves, they are brewed in a container with boiling water for 20 minutes.

    The leaves of this tree have an antiviral effect. Therefore, they can be brewed as part of medicinal herbal tea in the treatment of acute respiratory infections and influenza.

    Oak.

    • Begins to bear fruit at the age of 15-60, in open places earlier than in plantations.
    • Pedunculate oak is the most common in Russia; it is a tree up to 40-50 m high and 1-1.5 m in diameter
    • Blooms at the same time as the leaves open from 40-60 years old
    • Coppice trees produce seeds from 20-30 years old, but seed trees only from 60-100 years old
    • Acorns ripen in October
    • Fruits abundantly every 4-8 years.
    • Lives up to 400-1000 years.
    • Ordinary ink nuts, clubs or clubs are formed
    • Crown diameter 25 m.
    • In the first 2-3 years it grows very slowly, then growth accelerates. The active growth phase is observed in the first 20 years, when the annual growth is 30 cm in height and 20 cm in width.

    This list shows that oak as a productive tree on the site will work for future generations. The person who planted it may not even see the first acorn from his tree.

    However, to give an interesting example, one of the oldest oaks on earth, which grows near Zaporozhye in the village of Verkhnyaya Khortitsa, brings almost 10 thousand kilograms of acorns in a fruitful autumn.

    This is some kind of unique situation. And about the average results (a tree not standing alone, but growing in a forest, among other trees), other figures speak: One tree in good years produces from 40 to 100 kg of acorns, and 1 hectare of a middle-aged oak forest produces from 700 to 2,000 kg of acorns.

    It is impossible to hope for a regular harvest from oak, and in fact the acorns produced by it are an essential supplement to the diet of animals, but not the main food.

    Oak use.

    Not only are oak brooms in the bathhouse valued above all others, but without oak and cognac it is impossible to get, remember that cognac is a spirit infused in oak barrels, and stars mark how many years it has been aged in a barrel. Oak leaves and bark are used in leather tanning and in herbal medicine. The most expensive mushroom in the world, the truffle, can grow only under an oak tree, as it creates mycorrhiza with oak roots and is a symbiont

    Almost every large mushroom is auctioned off. In 2004, a mushroom weighing 850 grams was bought for 28 thousand pounds. It is said that the truffle contains androsterone, a hormone that awakens female sexuality.

    Wonderful crafts can be made from acorns.

    Description and characteristics of the tree oak

    It grows up to 20-25 meters in height.

    • The oak crown has a beautiful tent-like shape. Oak has always been distinguished by its grandeur and beauty.
    • The name comes from its specific leaf shape. The leaf itself is thin, shiny, with five pointed edges on each side of the leaf.
    • When the leaf is first open, it has a red-purple color, and then turns green. And when autumn comes, young trees turn red, and adults become bright burgundy and begin to bear fruit after 15 years of life.
    • Fruit set in late spring. Acorns are spherical in shape, their length can be 2-3 cm. One end of the acorn is as if dressed in a “hat”. They do not have time to germinate until spring and squirrels drag them into their "pantries".
    • Flowering is a beautiful phenomenon. The tree is decorated with many "earrings" from yellow-green to reddish.
    • The trunk of an oak is quite thin, one and a half meters in diameter.

    How to determine the age of an oak

    Up to 200 years, an oak grows in height, and then grows in breadth.

    1. By the width of the trunk, you can determine how old it is by measuring the diameter in centimeters. You can calculate the age using a special formula.
    2. The age of the oak is also determined by the cut. The more rings, the older the tree. Every year adds a few rings.

    Interesting. The oldest oak tree in Europe stands in Lithuania. Stalman oak is more than 2000 years old.

    In young trees, the bark has a beautiful gray tint. It turns brown with age. Oak roots are very strong. They grow deep into the soil and can go up to 20 meters deep.

    This creates a secure support and good nutrition for the tree. The active phase of growth often occurs before the age of 25, then growth slows down.

    Distribution area and history

    Red oak from Canada.

    Oak is very common in Europe, USA, Russia.

    Grows well in places where there is no stagnant water, there is good drainage of the root system.

    Oak has been known in Russia since the 19th century. The oldest trees can be seen in the Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg.

    These oaks bear fruit well, resulting in self-seeding of the area. They plant greenery in parks, gardens, alleys, avenues. Oaks absorb noise well. They coexist well with birch, maple, ash, pine. But more often you can see isolated trees.

    Planting rules

    Planting is carried out in March, when the leaves of the plants have not yet begun to bloom. A hole should be made in the soil with a depth of about 25 cm. The first fertilizers are introduced into it, among which there should be ash. In red oak seedlings, the roots are straight and taproot without branches. It is lowered into the pit in such a way that the acorns sink to a depth of up to 3 cm from the surface of the earth. Oak does not tolerate stagnant water, so drainage should be organized at the landing site. Since the drainage will settle over time, and the root neck will be able to sink into the recess, it is necessary to initially prepare a small mound in the planting hole. You should also take into account the requirements for external conditions in which red oak will develop. Planting should be carried out in a ventilated and bright place, since the tree is photophilous and prone to powdery mildew, a disease that is often observed in wet, calm conditions.

    Where does the common oak grow?

    This species of deciduous trees is quite common in Russia and Europe. In the form of small oak forests, it is found in Asia and northern Africa. It was artificially introduced to North American territory. Unfortunately, oaks no longer grow in Siberian forests. In European broad-leaved forests, oaks coexist with maples and elms, lindens and hornbeams. In mixed forests grow next to firs, pines and spruces. Trees are undemanding to natural conditions, tolerate dense shade. Therefore, young representatives can develop on a slope or in a dense forest. The older the oak gets, the higher it is, the more light it needs.

    popular representatives of the genus with descriptions and photos

    Oak is a member of the Beech family. It occurs as shrubs and trees. These huge luxurious giants are known to absolutely every person. Even in ancient times, the oak was a symbol of longevity and strength among many peoples. This plant is found in most regions of the northern hemisphere, and some species also grow in the southern hemisphere. In this article we will talk in detail about some types of this beautiful and powerful plant.


    Show

    • General characteristics of the genus
    • Mediterranean oaks, Canada, southern Europe
      • Carbon
      • Rock
      • 9000 9,0005
      • Swamps coarse Willifolous
      • Crescent
      • Lyre
      • Velvety
    • Oak species of Russia, East Asia, Caucasus, Siberia and Crimea
      • Mongolian
      • Large-fry
      • Brownary
      • Cherefty
      • Fluffy
      • Tozeri
      • Pontian
    • How to determine the type of oak by its foliage

    The total characteristics its impressive lifespan.

    On average, representatives of the genus continue their life cycle for about 5 centuries, however, some representatives of specimens on our planet have been since the time of the baptism of Russia, that is, for more than a thousand years.

    Read about the lifespan of different trees.

    The size of this plant impresses many: the height can vary from 20 to 45 meters or more, the trunk diameter at the foot is from 1 to 2 meters. Representatives of the genus are deciduous plants . Some of them can be classified as evergreen (leaves fall every 2-4 years), the inhabitants of the temperate zone in most cases shed their leaves annually during the onset of winter cold. Their trunk is covered with thick, wrinkled, slightly sinuous bark.

    The structure of the leaves depends on the type of oak tree : not toothed, lobed, pinnatipartite, etc. Oak branches have a curved structure. This is due to the fact that the oak is a very sun-loving plant, the branches of which always reach for the sun, and when the seasons change, the shoots change direction in growth.

    The root system of these mighty plants is well developed and goes deep into the ground . The crown of a tree usually has a spherical shape, but much depends on the place of growth. Oaks that grow in the forest have a narrow, vertically elongated crown.

    If such a plant is found alone in the middle of a wasteland, then with a high degree of probability its crown will be very wide and spherical (the diameter will be measured in tens of meters).

    Sometimes the crown may have a completely irregular shape. This happens when the plant grows in extreme conditions: with a constant lack of humidity, frequent strong winds, etc. Oak blooms in late spring . Flowers are female and male, but they are all small and green in color. Male flowers are always collected in small inflorescences resembling earrings, female flowers are similar to small grains. It is from female flowers that fruits are formed in the future - acorns .

    We recommend reading how to grow oak fruits near the house, and also learn how acorns are used to make coffee.

    Oak species of the Mediterranean, Canada, Southern Europe

    This genus unites about 600 species of plants. Some of them grow in the temperate and subtropical zone of southern Europe and the Mediterranean.

    Stone

    This species of oak plant has a large number of decorative forms that differ in the structure and color of the leaves. The plant is unpretentious to weather conditions and soil type.

    Withstands temperature fluctuations, too wet or dry soil, environmental conditions of large cities without any problems. The holm oak is evergreen and reaches a height of 25-35 meters in the wild. It has a smooth gray bark and a dense crown. The length of the leaves varies from 25 to 75 mm. They have a glossy finish on top.

    The most common are three types of leaves :

    • oval;
    • elliptical;
    • broad lanceolate.

    The tree grows very quickly and reaches its maximum height already in 60-70 years. Often used for decorative purposes for landscaping parks, estates, hedges and alleys.

    Various types of hawthorns, barberries and yellow acacia (caragana) are perfect for a high hedge, but if you want to create a low green border, plant Kuril tea (cinquefoil), Thunberg barberry or low types of spirea (Japanese, Bumalda).

    Red

    This type of oak is also called northern oak, since it is most often found in Canada, the northernmost country in the Americas .

    This representative of the genus prefers to grow in deciduous forests or along the banks of rivers and lakes (but only on moderately dry soils).

    The plant can reach 25 meters in height, while the width of the crown varies from 5 to 15 meters.

    Leaf characteristics:

    • thin and shiny;
    • have a characteristic red-maroon color (in autumn) and dark green in summer;
    • leaves are about 15-20 cm long and 8-12 cm wide.

    Red oak has a high level of frost and drought resistance. Practically not damaged by diseases and pests, it is immune to powdery mildew.

    Not picky about the composition of the soil, so it can be planted in almost any place (for decorative purposes - for gardening garden plots, parks, alleys, street sidewalks).

    Ornamental subspecies has beautiful golden-sunny foliage, which is increasingly attracting owners of private parks and gardens.

    Read more about growing red oak.

    Cork

    Found wild in the western Mediterranean. Distributed in the forests of France, Spain and Portugal. It tolerates hot climates and dry soil well, rarely found near the coast of rivers on wet types of soils.

    Cork oak has a well branched root system, reaches a height of 25-30 meters, has a moderately dense spherical crown. It is practically not used for decorative purposes in the northern part of Europe and America, as it freezes completely at a temperature of -22 ° C.

    Its leaves are oval in shape, covered with whitish pubescence below. Painted grey-green. The plant has a thick bark that protects the trunk from the scorching sun of the Mediterranean countries. Cork oak bark has found wide application for technical purposes. It is used to make parquet, bottle caps, shoe soles, etc.

    Rocky

    This member of the Beech family is distributed almost throughout Europe . However, it is most often found in mountainous and rocky areas of such countries:

    • France;
    • Italy;
    • Spain;
    • Portugal;
    • Andorra.

    Unlike cork oak, craggy oak is able to withstand the severe winter frosts of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, so it is also regularly found in these countries. This plant has become most popular in Wales, where it is one of the national symbols (there it is also called the Welsh oak).

    Rock Oak has a tent-shaped crown, the height from the foot reaches 30-40 meters. Botanical data says that this plant practically does not take root in mountainous and rocky areas (from 0.1 m to 3 m). However, on well-drained forest soil, taproots can go as deep as 30-35 meters. The leaves have a bright green color and an irregular lobed structure, reach a length of 12 cm. The leaves have a wedge-shaped or rounded base, 5-7 entire unequal lobes on the sides. This plant has a decorative value due to its beautiful leathery leaves.

    Oaks of North America

    More than 250 species of plants of this genus grow in the wild nature of North America. This continent has the greatest variety of oak trees, most of which, oddly enough, grow in Mexico.

    White

    Native to the eastern US and Mexico. White oak adorns the parks and alleys of many European countries, including Ukraine, Russia and Moldova. It has poor frost resistance (in St. Petersburg in winter, without proper shelter, it freezes a lot). Likes soil rich in minerals and organic matter. Relatively favorably tolerates summer heat with a minimum amount of precipitation.

    The plant has a powerful, dense, thick trunk, which is covered with light gray bark. At the age of 40-50 years, it reaches a height of 30 m, grows quite quickly (when compared with other representatives of the genus).

    Leaves are dark green in summer and purple or burgundy red in autumn. The leaves have an oblong-oval structure. They are 12-20 cm long and 7-10 cm wide.

    Large-fruited

    Distributed in many regions of North America. The plant does not tolerate severe frosts, but prefers moist, moderately rich soils. It is actively used in decorative and landscape design in the form of tapeworms and group plantings. Large-fruited oak grows quickly and reaches a height of 30-35 meters. It has a spreading moderately dense crown. The leaves are green in summer, turning reddish in autumn. They have an obovate structure, reach a length of 25 cm.

    Swamp

    Widely distributed in the eastern part of the USA, where it grows along the banks of rivers, on the outskirts of roads (likes moist soils). The tree is slender, grows up to 25 m in height. The crown has a pyramidal structure, the projection diameter of which varies from 10 to 15 m. The bark remains smooth for a long time, colored greenish-gray.

    The leaves are relatively small (up to 12 cm), have 5-7 notches almost to the very middle. Below covered with whitish pubescence. In autumn, they acquire a bright purple hue. Swamp oak has sessile acorns, which do not exceed 15 mm in diameter.

    Willowleaf

    The eastern states of the USA are considered to be the homeland. The tree has a beautiful decorative appearance, is distinguished by a slender trunk and a small height (up to 20 m on average). The crown has a wide-round structure, but in youth it remains narrow-pyramidal.

    Willow oak is covered with beautiful foliage which has the following characteristics :

    • about 12 cm long and not more than 3 cm wide;
    • leaves are very similar to willow, which gave rise to the name of this plant;
    • dull, with fine whitish pubescence below.

    Willow oak loves an increased amount of sunlight, prefers moderately moist soils, the composition of which is not particularly demanding. Withstands frosts down to -23 °C. It has been used in popular culture and decorative design since 1680.

    We advise you to read about 12 beautifully flowering and deciduous trees.

    Crescent Oak

    Crescent Oak grows in the humid forests of the USA. It has good frost resistance, loves an increased amount of sunlight. The flowering period falls on May. In decorative culture, it is extremely rare.

    Tree grows 20-25 m high. It has an ovoid or rounded crown, brownish shoots, dark red bark.

    It got its name from the structure of the leaves, which are sickle-shaped at the edges. The leaves reach a length of up to 20 cm, a width of up to 12 cm, wedge-shaped at the base and with a sharp apex.

    Acorns collected in groups, with sharp tips.

    Lyre

    Widely distributed in the southern and central regions of the USA. It withstands frosts down to -30 ° C, which is why it is actively grown in northern countries to decorate parks and alleys. It grows up to 30 m in height, has a dense spherical crown.

    Old branches grey, young shoots greenish-gray with fine whitish pubescence. The size of the leaves is the same as that of the crescent oak. They have an obovate structure, lyre-shaped, lobed at the edges.

    Important! When growing lyre-shaped oak for decorative purposes, winterization is not required. In addition, the composition of the soil also does not matter much.

    The flowering period of the lyre-shaped oak coincides with the moment of leaf blossoming (April - May). The fruits fully ripen only in September. The plant prefers moist soils and well-lit areas.

    Velvety

    In the northern regions of the USA and Canada, the velvety oak does not reach a height of more than 25 m, but in the southern regions the plant looks more powerful and reaches an average height of 42 m. The bark is bark, yellow inside, dark brown or black outside.

    The leaves have an obovate structure, not more than 18 cm long. The crown is broadly pyramidal, moderately dense. Acorns are not more than once every 2 years.

    Indigenous peoples of North America have long used the bark of the velvety oak to treat the following ailments:

    • dysentery;
    • fever;
    • ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity;
    • pathologies of the digestive system.

    In addition, the bark of this plant species has an increased amount of tannins, which is why it is actively used as a tool for tanning leather.

    Read also how oak bark is used in traditional medicine recipes.

    Oak species of Russia, East Asia, the Caucasus, Siberia and Crimea

    Most often in Russia, Ukraine, the Caucasus and East Asia you can find English oak. It has recently been introduced to North America as well. But in addition to the pedunculate oak, Eastern Europe and the Caucasus are rich in other varieties of plants from this genus.

    Mongolian

    This beautiful plant got its name from the country in which it was first described. Today, this type of oak is practically not found in Mongolia. However, it is widely distributed in China, Japan, Korea, and eastern Russia. It grows mainly in mountainous rocky forests, where it quickly forms soil under itself. In the wild, under favorable conditions, it reaches a height of 30 m. The Mongolian oak grows very slowly, which is largely due to the climate in its habitat. It tolerates severe frosts and gusty winds well, but seeks to receive a large amount of sunlight.

    This plant is sometimes shrub-shaped with dark brown shoots. Its leaves are dense, obovate, with 7-12 lobes.

    Large anthered

    This type of deciduous tree reaches a height of no more than 20 meters. Distributed in the Caucasus, Turkey, Iran, Syria and some other Asian countries. Forms forests on the southern slopes of the mountains at an altitude of 800 meters or more. Differs in the increased drought resistance.

    Large anthered oak has a thick cracking bark, dense grayish-yellow pubescence is visible on the shoots. The leaves are dense, obovate structure, up to 18 cm long. At the base they are wedge-shaped, on the sides they have large-toothed lobes.

    Chestnut-leaved

    Widely distributed in Ukraine, North Caucasus and southern Central Asia. One of the few types of oak that prefers shady places, but at the same time remains drought-resistant. In the wild, it grows in deciduous forests of mountainous regions.

    General characteristics of chestnut leaf oak :

    • good frost resistance;
    • average life expectancy is 350 years;
    • undemanding to soil composition;
    • not susceptible to powdery mildew.

    The height of this tree reaches 45 meters, while the diameter of the trunk at the foot, on average, is 1.6 meters. It has a tent-shaped crown and grayish thick bark. The leaves are very similar to the leaves of the sowing chestnut. They have an oblong-elliptical structure with triangular sharp teeth along the edges. The length of the foliage varies from 10 to 18 cm, the width is from 7 to 11 cm. The color in summer is dark green, in autumn it is brownish red.

    Pedunculate

    One of the best known species of this genus. It occurs almost throughout Europe, as well as in Western Asia and North Africa (Algeria, Tunisia). Demanding on the composition of the soil (prefers chernozem and forest loam).

    The plant is quite heat-loving, does not tolerate late spring frosts in the northern regions of Europe, which sometimes freezes slightly (small trees can freeze completely). It grows in deciduous and coniferous forests, along ravines, gullies, river banks. It occurs in the mountain deciduous forests of the Carpathians.

    Pedunculate oak is a very powerful and strong tree that grows up to 40 m in height. Its life expectancy depends on climatic and soil conditions (some representatives live up to 600 years or more).

    Read more about the cultivation of pedunculate oak.

    Growth in height continues until about 200 years of age, the width of the trunk grows throughout life. The root system consists of one powerful long rod and 6-8 main lateral roots. The crown is tent-like, asymmetric, spreading. The leaves are oblong, heart-shaped, pinnately lobed, up to 15 cm long and 7-9cm wide.

    Fluffy

    Most widely distributed in the Crimea and Asia Minor. It grows on rocks containing lime, in deciduous forests and on the southern slopes of mountains.

    The plant is light-loving, but it tolerates long-term drought and severe frosts well.

    Relatively low tree compared to other members of the genus (up to 18 m). The crown is wide, moderately dense.

    The shoots have dense, fine pubescence. Fluffy oak is often found as a shrub, especially in the mountainous regions of the Crimea.

    The leaves are very variable in shape and reach a length of no more than 10 cm.

    Toothed

    Found in the southern regions of Russia, China and Korea. It is included in the Red Book of the Sakhalin Region and Primorsky Territory. Protected due to the threat of extinction since 1978.

    The plant has a high decorative value and is found in 14 different botanical gardens in Russia.

    Scalloped oak, stunted (from 5 to 8 meters in height), while the diameter of its trunk does not exceed 30 cm.

    Important! Due to massive deforestation and frequent fires, the scalloped oak was on the verge of extinction, which is why it was included in the Red Book of Russia. Special rules have been introduced to protect the species and increase the number of plants in certain regions.

    Fast growing tree with ribbed shoots with dense yellow hairs. The leaves are dense, narrowed at the base, 8-13 lobes on the sides.

    The flowering period begins in May-June, while the fruits ripen in September-October.

    Pontic

    In its natural habitat it occurs in the Caucasus and northeastern Turkey. In most cases, it forms a shrub with a very wide crown.

    In the form of a tree, it does not reach a height of more than 6 meters. At the same time, it has large obovate leaves up to 25 cm long and 13 cm wide.

    Shoots do not contain pubescence and are distinguished by a reddish-brown color.

    The Pontian Oak, due to its small height, is a very valuable specimen in the decorative arts.

    It is often planted for landscaping parks, alleys, private gardens. In general, the Pontic oak is quite frost-resistant (withstands frosts down to -29 ° C), however, young shoots can freeze slightly even in the southern regions of the middle zone.

    How to identify the type of oak by its foliage

    Since there are more than two hundred different types of oak in nature, sometimes the process of identifying a particular variety can confuse you. To reliably identify the species, you should use our step-by-step instructions:

    1. According to one of the classifications, all representatives of the genus are divided into two categories: white and red oaks . Defining a category will immediately reduce the number of possible options by at least one and a half times. White oak has rounded leaf tips, red oak has sharp ones.
    2. D Next, you should select all possible options, relying on your geographic location . For example, you are unlikely to find a lyre-shaped oak in central Russia, since it is often found only in North America. To select all possible options, you should use the directory.
    3. Collect some leaves and count the average number of shares .
    4. Examine the shape and length of the depressions between the leaf lobes.
    5. See how the color of the leaves changes in autumn . Some varieties of oak change color to golden, some to red, and evergreens do not change color at all for 2-3 years.
    6. Measure the average length of the leaves, taking a sample of at least 10 specimens . For different species of the genus, the average leaf length will be different.

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