How many eucalyptus trees can be planted in an acre
How many eucalyptus trees can you plant per acre
If you are a patient investor who is willing to risk it all and wait for returns in 5 years or so, then Eucalyptus farming might just be the right business idea for you. Not only is this an opportunity to create some income but an avenue to help the country achieve a 10% tree cover by 2030 as well.
But is there market for these trees or is it just hype as usual? Well, don’t take our word for it. Statistics show Zambians are now importing millions worth of timber from countries like Tanzania and Zimbabwe every year. Local forests can barely sustain the nation’s demand hence the need for farmers to step in to fill up this gap.
Eucalyptus trees in particular have a wide variety of uses including as; electricity transmission poles, props for construction industry, production of essential menthol oil, timber for furniture and fuel wood for industrial and domestic use.
Demand for mature Eucalyptus trees is very high in most parts of the country and this trend is expected to hold for at least the next 20 years – and herein lies a good investment opportunity for you.
Eucalyptus Tree Farming Business Idea in Zambia
Step 1: Get a Piece of Land
Eucalyptus trees can grow in almost every part of the country (from to Central Highlands and Coastal Lowlands). Ideally, you should purchase or lease a minimum of 1 acre piece of land. If leasing, let the lease period be at least 10 years so you have enough time to utilize the land.
Step 2: Prepare It
You don’t need to till the land but you will need to dig holes in which to plant the trees. Spacing of 1 meter in between holes and rows is recommended (but you can always talk to a forestry expert for more concise advice on this).
Step 3: Obtain Seedlings
Only get seedlings from reliable outlets. For starters, you can check with your nearest Forestry office, they have branches. Alternatively you can consult the Forest Service or approved tree nursery in your area.
An acre piece of land can accommodate up to 3,800 seedlings. But you can always start with as few as 3,000 seedlings.
Note: Different types of Eucalyptus Species Include Grandis, Saligna, Globulus and Regnans. A forestry expert will be able to advice you on which species best suits your region.
Step 4: Plant & Wait
Plant the trees at around the long-rains season and cover with enough soil. Keep animals off the young trees and if possible keep checking every few weeks to see how the farm is faring. The trees are not susceptible to frequent infections; but if you spot any signs of improper growth you will need to either destroy the weak trees or consult an expert.
Step 5: Market
Market is readily available with mature unprocessed poles.
1. Grandis Eucalyptus trees take less than 4 years to reach market maturity.
2. A few trees may die or fail to grow properly along the way. 90% success rate would be a good estimation to start with.
3. Sometimes you can harvest the trees at only 18 months of age if you have ready market for props and posts (mostly this market comes from real estate constructions).
4. Always get certified seedlings. Don’t take shortcuts as you might compromise the quality of your final product.
How Much to Invest
You will require about USD 1,500 to set up the farm with around 3,000 trees. You can set aside another long-term budget of 500 USD to cater for other charges that may arise in running the farm. So total investment USD 2,000.
How Much to Expect
If you manage to harvest 3,000 trees at full maturity (which is 4 to 5 years) and sell each unprocessed piece to a processing plant at 30 USD then you will expect USD 90,361.44 in sales revenue. This is largely passive income because you don’t need to spend every day managing the farm once the trees are planted.
In this world you have to make two choices. The first choice is to work hard for your money and the second choice is to let your money do the hard work for you. If you choose the former then your options are quite limited. But if you go for the latter, and think about eucalyptus farming seriously, you will realize there’s a lot in store for you in the future. What’s your choice?
Eucalyptus Cultivation Project Report, Cost, and Profits
Introduction To Eucalyptus Cultivation Project Report
Today, let us discuss Eucalyptus Cultivation Project Report, and Eucalyptus Economics, EucalyptusCost, and Profits.
Eucalyptus is a rapidly growing tree. Its size varies from medium to tall reaching 20 to 50 meters in height and up to 2 meters in diameter approximately. The trees are periodically cut at the ground level to stimulate growth (coppicing) and containing a wide range of soil and climatic flexibility. Because of their predictable growth and adaptability to climate and usefulness, Eucalyptus trees are increasing and have been regarded as important trees for man’s development. Annual rainfall of 800 mm is preferred. The species grow under a broad range of climatic and soil conditions from temperate to hot, sub-humid to damp, and from good to degraded soils. The genus Eucalyptus was first described and named by the French botanist L.Hertitie. Several species occur naturally in the landmass of Papua, Eucalyptus plantations occupy more than four million hectares in 58 countries.
Scientific And Botanical Name Of Eucalyptus:
Eucalyptus globulus Botanical Name: Eucalyptus globulus Common Name:
Morphological Characters of Eucalyptus: Leathery texture leaves hang obliquely or vertically, and are studded with glands containing a fragrant volatile oil. The flowers are covered with a cup-like membrane (where the name of the genus is derived from the Greek Eucalyptus), which is thrown off like a lid when the flower expands. The fruit is surrounded by a woody cup-shaped receptacle and contains numerous minute seeds. The trees grow quickly and many species reach a greater height. E amygdalin (Labille) is the tallest tree, reaches as much as 480 feet, exceeding the height of the Californian Big Tree (Sequoia gigantea). Most of the species give valuable timber. Many species of Eucalyptus trees yielding essential oils and the foliage of some being more odorous than that of others. The oils from the various species differ from each other.
Present Situation Of Eucalyptus Plantations:
Varieties around 170 species of Eucalyptus were tried in India. E. Hybrid, a form of E. tereticornis called Mysore gum was the most outstanding and favored species. It is fast-growing, capable of over-topping weeds and coppices well. It has the ability to adapt to a wide range of edapho climatic conditions. E. Grandis, E. citriodora, E. globulus, and E. camaldulensis are the other species that are grown on a plantation scale.
State Forest Departments and Forest Development Corporation planted Eucalyptus over 1,000,000 hectares. In addition to this, around 6,000 million seedlings have been planted in private lands.
Read this: Tulsi Farming Project Report.
Growing Conditions Of Eucalyptus Plants:
Growing Season and Type:
- In general, the “forest trees” are single-stemmed and a minor proportion forms the crown out of the height of the whole tree. Even though the woodland tree has a branch at a short distance above the ground level, “Woodland trees” are single-stemmed.
- High temperature is required for Eucalyptus trees, however, some species like E. Neglecta and E. Crenulata, will tolerate semi-shaded areas. They become accustomed well to a wide range of soils, from hot and dry sites to slightly wet as long as the area is well-drained.
- Plant Eucalyptus fall in mid to late spring or fall, depending on the location and climate. Should water the tree both before and after planting.
- While planting, there’s no need to spread out the roots, as it could damage roots whil4 planting, as it should damage their sensitive root system. Backfill the area and lightly fill the soil to remove air pockets if any.
Climate Required for Eucalyptus Farming: Eucalyptus can be grown in a large variety of climatic conditions. However, it grows best in tropical to temperate climatic areas. In India, the Eucalyptus trees can be grown in regions with temperatures ranging from 0°C to 47°C.
Another set of clones was accumulated in a shade house where temperatures ranging between 10 and 250C and with a mean temperature of 150C approximately. Plants with less photosynthetic rates were grown at 25/30 0 C have lower net when measured at 10 and 20 0 C.
3. Water quality and production:
With increasing rainfall of 100 mm per year, Ground Net Primary Production (ANPP) increased by 2.3 Mg ha−1 per year. Eucalyptus is most likely inhibited by water supply, and that water supply affects the efficiency of resource use as well as biomass allocation to roots, stems, and leaves substantially. On a regional scale, according to our results, higher productivity could produce the wood in a 6-year rotation.
Eucalyptus Cultivation Practices:
Eucalyptus is a rapid growing, medium-sized to tall tree attaining 20- 50m in height and up to 2m in diameter. It is a strongly coppicing tree possessing a wide range of soil and climatic adaptability. Eucalyptus is well known for its drought hardiness, even though annual rainfall of 800 mm is preferred. It grows under a wide range of climatic or soil conditions from warm to hot, sub-humid to humid, and from good to degraded soils.
Plantations Raised In Some Of the Important States:
In India, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Karnataka cultivates this in 1,32,000 hectares of land.
Economic Aspects Of Eucalyptus Plantations:
Growing Stock Assessment:
The growing stock and yield in the Eucalyptus plantation vary considerably depending on the site, the edapho-climatic conditions, and the inputs. The potential productivity is around 5 tons of biomass on average, but the average production is some 2.5 tons per hectare per year. The average yield for the private plantations is much higher.
Eucalyptus species are not consistent in their growth and the variation is considerably depending upon the conditions under which they are grown may vary depending upon the site, selection of species, and their provinces, and yields have varied considerably.
In fact, in India, almost 85% of the wood produced ends up as firewood. In the majority of cases, people are not in a position to pay for it. In Karnataka, the Eucalyptus wood which is marketed is used either as firewood or as pulpwood by the paper and rayon industries.
The pulpwood has a maximum value of Eucalyptus wood. The Farm Forestry Sector annually extracts and sells 150,000 tons of pulpwood to the industries. Farmers sell the wood to secondary industries (brick and tile manufacturing units), after reserving the quantity required for domestic usage. The timber of Eucalyptus is also used as poles for scaffolding, transmission lines, and construction. Finally, plantations of Eucalyptus gave IRR of 49 to 62.5 % at 8 years, and for bunk planting the B.C. The ratio was 1:1.55 and 1:2.27 in eight years of age.
Social Aspects Of Eucalyptus Plantations:
Tremendous pressure has been exerted on natural forests in India as the population increases. These are the main reasons for ecological degradation. Today there is enough food for people, but there is no sufficient wood to cook.
In Gujarat, U.P, Punjab, Haryana, and Karnataka, the annual area planted for Eucalyptus has considerably reduced over the years. This is due to the disenchantment of the farmers, but not because of any ecological reasons, as they were not able to get their expected price. Wherever the spacing has been spread and the rotation is approximately 9 years to produce larger material and the plantations are economical. Coming to Karnataka and West Bengal, the prices are remunerative due to demand from pulpwood industries. Group farming has helped the growers in West Bengal, to obtain reasonable prices. The Cooperatives are formed not only to raise plantations collectively with proper inputs but also to ensure a remunerative market for the produce.
Read this: Frequently Asked Questions About Irrigation.
Ecological Effects Of Eucalyptus:
The three principal sites Devabal and Puradal (Shimoga) and Hosakote (Bangalore) were selected (Calder, 1991). The summary of the findings is:
- At the Puradal site, the water use by young eucalyptus plantation was not more than that of the indigenous Dry Deciduous forest.
- At both Puradal and Devabal sites, annual rainfall is equal to the Eucalyptus and indigenous forests (within the experimental measurement uncertainty of about 10%).
Nutrient use aspect:
Studies conducted in Eucalyptus hybrid plantations show that substantial amounts of nutrients are inputs to the soil through litterfall and stem flow.
Eucalyptus plantations are economically grown in monoculture. Eucalyptus plantations raised in the high rainfall zone in the past, indigenous species are allowed to come up after harvesting. The Eucalyptus was mixed with teak in Karnataka where eucalypt was mixed with teak after clear-felling moist deciduous forests, teak is allowed to grow along with the miscellaneous species which have come up from the rootstock. The Eucalyptus plantations are taken up in the barren areas of the dry zone at present.
There is an impression that Eucalyptus and wildlife do not go together. But it is true that the natural forest is a better habitat for wildlife. Eucalyptus plantation also supports wildlife. Birds are adaptable to still Eucalyptus plantations.
Utilization Of Eucalyptus:
Fuel: Eucalyptus was not considered a good firewood and timber species. This is being disproved. Due to the shortage of miscellaneous species, people have found that Eucalyptus is a very good substitute for firewood because of its calorific value and moderate burning qualities.
Charcoal: Eucalyptus gives good charcoal. Eucalyptus wood is used for charcoal manufacturing to meet the semi-urban and urban demand wherever farm forestry has flourished.
Poles: Eucalyptus poles used in construction and dwelling houses, good for transmission purposes and are also used in work sheds and in mines.
Timber: Eucalyptus wood was not considered a good timber earlier. The quality of the timber depends upon the species and to-climatic factors. Considering the cost of Eucalyptus timber, it is found to be quite economical to use in low-cost houses. It is also used in making furniture.
Rural small-scale industries: Rural small-scale industries are developing at a fast rate. Examples are brick making, jaggery making, pottery, tile manufacturing, lime production, dyeing, smithy, etc. All these industries require firewood or charcoal provided by Eucalyptus plantations.
Honey and Oil: Many species of Eucalyptus species are rich in pollen and nectar. The beekeeping business is profitable in India hence this activity is improving. Leaves of Eucalyptus globulus and E.citriodora are used for the extraction of oil.
Paper and pulp: It is the most important use of Eucalyptus wood so far in the pulp and paper industry. The demand for paper and pulp is increasing day by day.
Eucalyptus Cultivation Project Report, Economics, Cost And Profit Analysis:Eucalyptus Cultivation Project Report.
The Eucalyptus farming model shown below is estimated for 1 acre of land. The charge of the land is not included because it depends on the land, whether it is rented or owned. Transport, post-harvest management charges may vary depending on the location of the farm and the local transport structure. It is to be noted that there could be other hidden costs of the entire process. 500 trees can be accommodated in one acre.
Biomass plantation of Eucalyptus requires the same high-density planting pattern as the Eucalyptus timber plantation. Approximately 500 plants in one acre.
The cost of one plant is 30 Rs. By planting Eucalyptus Clones, we will get wood from nearly 300 to 400 kgs/tree.
Cost of 1 kg of manure (urea+ Phosphate): Rs. 30.00
Labor cost per day: Rs 250 – 300
Cost of arranging the drip irrigation system for 1 acre of land: Rs 45,000- 60,000
Cost of 1 unit of power consumption on slab rate: Rs 2.50/unit < 30 units; Rs 3.70/unit for 31 – 100 units; Rs 4.85/unit for 101 – 200 units and beyond this it is Rs 5.85/unit
The average cost of other insecticides and the pesticide mixture with spray per kg: Rs 900.00
For water supply the cost of centrifugal pump settings depends on the manufacturer company and the capacity of the pump: Rs 5500.00.
|Eucalyptus Cultivation Material And Labour Charges per 1-acre land||Investment (In Rs)|
|Plants cost per 1 acre (clone plants)||10,000. 00|
|Planting material cost||4000.00|
|Manure and fertilizer cost||6000.00|
|Insecticide and pesticide cost||3000.00|
|Labor cost @ 30 days for 3 persons||18,000.00|
|Power requirement @ 4 units per day||5,000.00|
|Tube well pump cost for one acre||30,000.00|
|Drip irrigation arrangement||50,000.00|
Yield And Returns Of Eucalyptus Cultivation:
60% of the growth of Eucalyptus established in the first 10 years. Most of these are growing at a rapid rate and attains a height of about 30 to 180 feet or more depending on the varieties.
Eucalyptus is a moderately large tree in general and attains a height of 40-60 feet and a diameter of 40-45 inches.
The trunk of the tree is generally straight and constitutes half of the total height. One tree costs, a minimum of Rs.1800-2000 after 5 yrs.
For 500 plants in one acre, we can get approximately Rs. 8,00,000 to 10,00,000. The profit is 8,39,000.00 (10,00,000-1,61,000).
Eucalyptus Plantation Loans And Subsidies In India:
All the Agricultural Developments Banks in Punjab advances a loan amount of Rs. 1,16,000, in eight equal yearly installments for 500 Eucalyptus planting in one acre.
NABARD provides post-harvesting loans at concessional rate of interest to small farmers up to Rs 3,00,000/-
In case if you are interested in this: Hydroponic Nutrient Chart.
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When Susan Cook-Patton did a postdoctoral fellowship on reforestation at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Maryland seven years ago, she says she helped plant 20,000 trees in the Chesapeake Bay. It was a very valuable lesson. “The trees that we didn’t plant did the best, mostly,” she recalls. “They naturally sprouted on the land that we prepared for planting. Many trees appeared here and there. It was a good reminder that nature knows what it's doing."
What works in the Chesapeake Bay probably works elsewhere, says Cook-Patton, now with The Nature Conservancy, an environmental charity. Sometimes we just need to give nature a place to grow naturally again. Her conclusion comes from a new global study that suggests that the potential for natural forest growth to absorb carbon from the atmosphere and contribute to climate change has been seriously underestimated.
Now planting forests is at the height of fashion. In Davos, at this year's World Economic Forum, a call was made to plant a trillion trees. One of the US government's responses to the climate challenge was a pledge last month to plant nearly a billion (855 million) trees on 1.1 million hectares with the help of commercial and non-profit organizations such as American Forests.
The European Union this year promised to plant 3 billion trees as part of the Green Deal initiative. Under the 2011 Bonn Agreement and the 2015 Paris Agreement, there are already targets to restore more than 344 million hectares of forests, mostly through planting. This is slightly larger than the area of India, and about a quarter of a trillion trees can grow on such an area.
Tree planting is widely seen as the "natural solution" to climate change, the way to manage it over the next three decades as the world works to achieve a carbon neutral economy. However, some people object to this.
Nobody is against trees. However, some critics argue that the aggressive pursuit of landing goals will only be a front. Hundreds of millions of hectares of land will be taken over by fast-growing and often uncharacteristic commercial monoculture plantings: acacias, eucalyptus and pines. Others ask why plant trees at all. If you can just leave the land for nearby forests to sow it and re-occupy it? Nature herself knows what needs to grow, and she does it best.
A new study from Cook-Patton and her co-authors from 17 scientific and environmental organizations, published in the journal Nature, says that estimates of the rate of carbon accumulation by natural forest re-growth, confirmed last year by the UN interstate committee on climate change, on average 32% lower than needed. In the case of tropical forests, this figure goes up to 53%.
This study is the most detailed of any attempt to map out where forests could grow naturally and assess their potential for carbon storage. “We looked at nearly 11,000 measurements of carbon sequestration by regrowing forests from 250 studies around the world,” Cook-Patton said.
New plants sprout among burnt Amazon trees in the Brazilian state of Pará
She found that the rate of carbon accumulation can vary up to a hundred times in different cases, depending on climate, soil, elevation and terrain. This is a much larger spread than previously thought possible. “Even within the same country, the difference could be huge. ” But on average, natural regeneration has proven to be not only more diverse, but also able to sequester more carbon, at a faster rate and in a safer manner than plantations.
Cook-Patton agrees that climate change will pick up pace in the coming decades and the rate of carbon accumulation will change. But if some forests grow more slowly or even die out, others are likely to grow faster due to the effect of fertilizing the soil or increasing the carbon content in the air - this effect is sometimes called global greening.
The study estimated 670 billion hectares that can be left for tree regrowth. This does not include land for plowing or construction, and existing valuable ecosystems such as grasslands and northern areas, where the warming effects of the forest canopy outweigh the cooling effect of carbon absorption from the air.
Combining map data and carbon stock figures, Cook-Patton estimates that natural forest growth by 2050 could sequester 73 billion tonnes of carbon in its biomass and soil. That's the equivalent of seven years of current industrial emissions - "the most powerful natural solution to the climate problem," she says.
Cook-Patton said the study's local estimates of carbon stock fill an important data gap. Many countries looking to grow forests for carbon storage have collected data on what can be achieved by planting trees, but have not calculated equivalent data for natural forest regeneration. “I get letters all the time asking how much carbon can be sequestered through natural growth projects,” she says. - I had to answer that it depends on a lot of things. But now we have data that will allow people to evaluate what happens if you just put up a fence and let the forest grow back on its own.”
Rate of carbon storage, in tons per hectare per year, in naturally regenerating forests and savannahs
New local estimates also allow comparison of natural recovery and planting potentials. “I think that plantings can also take place – for example, where the soil has suffered and the trees do not grow,” she said. “But I think the natural regeneration of the forest is seriously underestimated.”
What's great about natural forest growth is that it often doesn't require any human action at all. Nature constantly restores forests in parts - sometimes along the edges of fields, or on abandoned pastures, in bushes, in places of former logging, or where the forest is in decline.
But since this does not require any political initiatives, investment or monitoring, there is a severe lack of data on this issue. A satellite such as Landsat, for example, does a good job of finding places where forests are being destroyed, because it happens suddenly and is clearly visible. However, their subsequent recovery is slower, harder to spot, and rarely studied. The statistics on the loss of the world's forest cover that make headlines usually ignore these processes.
In a study of a rare type, Philip Curtsey of the University of Arkansas recently tried to get around this problem by developing a model that predicts, from satellite imagery, the causes of loss of forest cover - and therefore the potential for reforestation. He found that only a quarter of the area of lost forests is permanently occupied by human activities, such as the construction of buildings, infrastructure or farming. The remaining three quarters are forest fires, shifting farming, temporary pastures or logging. At least they have the potential for natural recovery.
Another study published this year shows that such recovery is occurring on a large scale and quickly, even in areas as deforested as the Amazon. When Yunxia Wang of the University of Leeds in England analyzed Brazil's recently released data on the Amazon, she found that 72% of the forest that farmers burn to create new pastures is not virgin forest, as previously thought, but recently regenerated. The territory was cleared of the forest, turned into a pasture for livestock, and then left. The forest returned there so quickly that it had to be cleared again after only six years. This rapid recovery has caused confusion, due to which this area is often referred to as a place where the old forest is dying out.
Wang noted that if Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro had wanted to keep the promise made by her predecessor, Dilma Rousseff, at the 2015 Paris Climate Summit to restore 12 million hectares of forests by 2030, Wang would not need to plant forests at all. He could just let them recover without clearing the forest from new territories.
Another gigantic forest, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, is already on its way, slowly recovering from a century of clearing land for coffee plantations and cattle grazing. The government has adopted the Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact, which pays subsidies to farmers to plant new forests. Often, trees intended for paper production are used for this. But Camila Rezende of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro says that much of the forest is being regenerated not by planting but by a natural, "spontaneous" method. The remains of the forest are colonized by abandoned farms. She estimates that from 19In 1996, about 2.7 million hectares of the Atlantic forest were restored in this way - this is about a tenth of the entire array.
Something similar is happening in Europe, where the forest area has recovered by 43%, which is often due to the natural occupation of areas by forest. For example, in Italy, the area of forest cover has increased by one million hectares. In the former countries of the socialist camp in the Carpathians, 16% of farm land was abandoned in the 1990s. Most of them are again occupied by the famous beech forests. In Russia, former arable land twice the size of Spain has been reclaimed by forests. Kurganova Irina Nikolaevna, a leading researcher at the Russian Academy of Sciences, calls this retreat of the plow "the most widespread and dramatic change in land use methods in the 20th century in the Northern Hemisphere."
The United States is also seeing reforestation due to the fact that almost a fifth of the arable land has been abandoned in the past 30 years. “The entire eastern United States was cleared of forests 200 years ago,” says Karen Hall of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "Much of the forest has returned without active tree planting." Over the past three decades, regenerating forests have tied up about 11% of the country's greenhouse gas emissions, according to the US Forest Service.
A worker planting young Sitka spruces as part of a reforestation project in Dodington, England in 2018
The main concern is that the land intended for planting trees will be taken away from the forest that could grow on them naturally. As a result, such a forest will have fewer wild animals, it will not be as convenient for humans, and it may not sequester as much carbon.
Ecologists have often dismissed the environmental benefits of natural reforestation - the so-called. "secondary forest". It is believed that such restoration is incomplete, wild animals rarely settle in it, and it is subject to repeated cleaning. Because of this, many prefer manual tree planting that mimics a natural forest.
Thomas Crowfer, co-author of last year's highly publicized study calling for "global restoration" of millions of trees to absorb carbon dioxide, stresses that while nature can cope in some places, "people need to help it by spreading seeds and seedlings. " .
However, these views are now being revised. J. Leighton Reid, director of the Restoration Ecology Laboratory at Virginia Tech, has recently raised concerns about bias in studies comparing natural forest regeneration to plantings. However, he said: "Natural growth is an excellent recovery strategy for many landscapes, but vigorous planting of native plants will still be the best option in areas where the soil has suffered the most or where weeds predominate."
Others argue that in most cases natural regeneration of secondary forest works better than planting. In her book Secondary Growth, Robin Chasdon, a forest ecologist formerly of the University of Connecticut, says that secondary forests “are still misunderstood, understudied and underestimated. But these are young self-organizing forest ecosystems in the process of development.”
She agrees that these systems are not forest ready. But they usually recover "surprisingly quickly." A recent study shows that self-regenerating rainforests replenish 80% of biodiversity in 20 years, and often 100% in 50 years. The result seems to be better than people trying to plant tropical ecosystems get.
A review of more than 100 rainforest restoration projects by Renato Cruzeile of the International Institute for Sustainable Development of Rio de Janeiro, with Chazdon as co-author, found that secondary forests that were allowed to regenerate naturally were more successful than "active restoration" projects. » with manual landings. In other words, hand planting can sometimes even worsen the situation in all respects - from the number of birds, insects and plants, to the percentage of canopy coverage, tree density and forest structure. Nature knows best.
And now Cook-Patton has extended this rethinking of natural reforestation and carbon storage potential. Perhaps such forests do it better.
Hall says this scientific review requires a policy review. "Business leaders and politicians have seized on the popular idea of tree planting, and a host of non-profit organizations and governments around the world have launched initiatives to plant billions and trillions of trees for a variety of social, environmental and aesthetic reasons.