How many oak trees are there

Identifying the oaks of Michigan

This Smart Gardening guide will help you distinguish between the 10 most common species of oaks in Michigan.

There are 600 species of oaks worldwide, 10 of which are native to Michigan. All oaks belong to the genus Quercus, produce acorns and fall into two groups: red oaks and white oaks. Red oaks have leaves with bristle-tipped lobes and acorns that take two years to mature. Northern red oak, black oak, northern pin oak, pin oak and scarlet oak all belong to the red oak group. White oaks have rounded lobes or large regular teeth and acorns that mature in one year. White oak, bur oak, swamp white oak, chinkapin oak and chestnut oak all belong to the white oak group.

Oaks readily hybridize with other oaks in their groups, producing oaks with characteristics from both species. While this can make identification more complicated, the following guide will help distinguish between the 10 most common species of oaks in Michigan. Familiarize yourself with the terms used to describe leaves with the diagram below.

Identification features of an oak leaf. Bruce Kirchoff, Greensboro, NC, CC BY 2.0.

Red oak group

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) is the most prevalent oak species in Michigan. It can be identified by the 5- to 8-inch-long leaf with seven to 11 bristle-tipped lobes. The leaf is typically dull green above and lighter green below with a smooth, reddish petiole measuring about 1-2 inches long. The sinuses reach less than half-way to the midrib. The acorn is nearly round with a flat, thick cap reminiscent of a beret that covers one-fourth of the nut. The bark is smooth, dark gray when young, becoming furrowed with flat-topped ridges forming stripes when older.

Black oak (Quercus velutina) is the second most prevalent red oak in Michigan. Leaves are 4-10 inches long with mostly five, sometimes seven bristle-tipped lobes. They are shinier than the northern red oak and dark green above with a lighter underside. Leaves have hairs on the underside that are shed later in the season. The acorn nuts are half-covered by caps with loose scales. The caps have rounded interiors, unlike the acorns of the northern red oak, which are flattened. The bark is gray and smooth when young, becoming very dark with deep ridges that have horizontal breaks when older.

Northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis) has leaves that are 3-6 inches long, shiny green and widest in the middle, with deeply cut rounded sinuses and a flattish base (Photo 5). They typically have five to seven lobes, though occasionally have nine bristle-tipped lobes. The acorns have caps with loose, fuzzy scales that enclose one-third to one-half of the nut. The bark is shallowly furrowed with narrow vertical plates. Note that northern pin oaks prefer drier locations than pin oaks and fully shed their leaves in the fall, whereas pin oaks retain leaves into winter. Both northern pin oak and pin oak (see below) tend to hang onto their lower branches when those limbs die. This gives the tree a messy, unkempt appearance.

Pin oak (Quercus palustris) has leaves that are 3-6 inches long with five to seven bristle-tipped lobes. The sinuses are typically more deeply cut than in northern pin oak and extend almost to the midrib. The leaf is bright green and can have either a flat or a wedge-shaped base. The acorn is round though flattened at the cap end and often striated. The cap is saucer-shaped, covered with tight scales and encloses one-fourth of the nut. The thin, gray-brown bark remains quite smooth until later in life when it develops ridges and furrows. Pin oaks are less tolerant of higher pH soils than northern pin oaks.

Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) is the least common red oak species in Michigan. Its leaves are 3-6 inches long and 3-5 inches wide with seven to nine bristle-tipped lobes. The deep sinuses are rounded so that they form more than half a circle. The leaves are glossy light green and turn scarlet in autumn. The acorn cap has tight fighting scales and encloses one-third to one-half of the nut. The tip of the acorn often has concentric circles or fine cracks. The bark develops broad ridges and narrow furrows; the inner bark is red to orange.

White oak group

White oak (Quercus alba) is the second most numerous oak species in Michigan. They have 4- to 8-inch-long leaves with seven to nine rounded, finger-like lobes. The leaf is widest above the middle and has sinuses that vary from deeply cut to shallower, and is a deep, blue green above and pale green beneath. The apex is rounded and the base is wedge-shaped. The acorns have warty, light gray caps enclosing one-fourth of the oblong nut. They grow singly or in groups on a short stalk. The ashy gray bark has shallow furrows that form scaly plates. The characteristic ashy gray bark color helps to distinguish white oak from other oak species.

Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) is the most common native white oak in North America, and the second most frequently found white oak in Michigan. Its leaves are 3-6 inches long with five to seven rounded lobes that are widest at the center and are dark green above and grayish green and fuzzy beneath. The center sinuses nearly reach the midrib of the leaf. The apex is broad and round, and the base is wedge-shaped. The acorns of this oak are very distinctive, having a deep cup with grayish scales and a fringed bottom edge that encloses more than half of the nut. Due to the acorn’s unique characteristics, this oak is also known as mossycup oak. The bark is rough and deeply furrowed with ridges broken into irregular thick scales.

Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor) leaves are 3-7 inches long, are widest above the middle and have a rounded apex and a wedge-shaped base. There are four to six veins on either side of the midrib, each ending in a shallow lobe or tooth. The upper surface of the leaf is shiny dark green, the lower surface is paler and velvety. The acorns are borne on a longish stalk either singly or in pairs. The bowl-shaped, spiny cap covers about one-third of the nut. The bark is gray and scaly with irregular fissures and ridges.

Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is native to southern lower Michigan. Its leaves are 2-6 inches long, narrow, tapered at both ends and glossy green on top and grayish green and downy beneath. The leaf has numerous (10-15) parallel side veins, each ending in a tooth or shallow lobe. The acorns are borne singly or in pairs on a stalk. The bowl-shaped cap is covered in small, hairy scales and encloses about one-third of the nut with an uneven edge. They are dark brown when mature. The bark is gray, thin and scaly.

Chestnut oak (Quercus montana) is relatively uncommon in Michigan. These trees are very slow-growing and can live to be 400 years old. Its leaves are similar to chinkapin leaves, but the teeth are more rounded. The petiole is yellow and the leaves are shiny green above and paler below. The acorns are large and ovoid, and the cup is warty with an even edge. The bark is dark with deep V-shaped furrows producing broad ridges.

Smart Gardening to prevent oak wilt

For information on oak wilt, a lethal disease infecting many of our Michigan oak trees, please refer to the tip sheet: Smart Gardening to Prevent Oak Wilt.

For more information on a wide variety of Smart Gardening topics, visit or call MSU’s Lawn and Garden hotline at 1-888-678-3464.

This publication is supported in part by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Program 2017-70006-27175 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture.

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How Many Varieties of Oak Trees Are There?

There are about 600 different types of oak trees around the world. This includes hybrid oaks. In the United States, there are about 90 native oak varieties.

Oaks (genus Quercus) come in many shapes, sizes, and colors, and you’ll even find a few evergreens in the mix. Most oak trees are categorized into either red or white oaks. The photo above, the 400-year-old Angel Oak on Johns Island in South Carolina, is one of the most popular oak trees in the country.  The Angel Oak draws thousands of visitors from all over the world eager to see the 65-foot-tall tree in all its fairy-tale glory.

We can also find oak trees in Europe, Asia and North Africa, growing in environments from Mediterranean beaches to cool mountains, and to Asian forests. China has over 100 different varieties of oaks. Overall, there are around 600 different types of oak trees all over the planet Earth.

You will find below a list of Oak Trees, Quercus Genus – Selected species, taxa types, organized by scientific Latin botanical name first and common names second. Evergreen Oaks (Live Oaks) are identified by the % symbol.

List of Oak Tree Names

Botanical Tree Name Common Tree Name Native Location
Quercus acerifolia Maple-leaved Oak, Mapleleaf Oak South Central North America
Quercus acuta Japanese Evergreen Oak % Japan, Korea
Quercus acutissima Sawtooth Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus agrifolia Coast Live Oak % California, Northern Baja California
Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia California Live Oak % W. California to Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus agrifolia var. oxyadenia Coastal Live Oak % W. California to Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus ajoensis Ajo Mountain Scrub Oak Arizona, Mexico (N. and C. Baja California)
Quercus alba White Oak Eastern North America
Quercus albicaulis ¡ ? % China
Quercus aliena Oriental White Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus alnifolia Golden Oak % Cyprus
Quercus argentata ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus argyrotricha ¡ ? % Guizhou (China)
Quercus arizonica Arizona White Oak % Southwestern U.S., NW. Mexico
Quercus arkansana Arkansas Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus augustinii ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus austrina Bluff Oak, Bastard White Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus austrocochinchinensis ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Thailand
Quercus austroglauca ¡ ? % China
Quercus bella ¡ ? % China
Quercus berberidifolia California Scrub Oak % California
Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak Eastern and Midwestern North America
Quercus blakei ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Laos
Quercus boyntonii Boynton Sand Post Oak South central North America
Quercus brantii Persian Oak, Brant’s Oak South west Asia
Quercus buckleyi Texas Red Oak, Buckley Oak Southwestern North America
Quercus calliprinos Palestine Oak % Southwestern Asia
Quercus camusiae ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus canariensis Mirbeck’s Oak, Algerian Oak % North Africa and Spain
Quercus canbyi Canby Oak, Mexican Red Oak % Mexico
Quercus carmenensis Carmen Oak, Mexican Oak Coahuila and Texas
Quercus castanea ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus castaneifolia Chestnut-leaved Oak Caucasus, Iran (Persia)
Quercus cedrosensis Cedros Island Oak % Baja California
Quercus cerris Turkey Oak Southern Europe, Southwestern Asia
Quercus championii ¡ ? % China, Taiwan
Quercus chapensis ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus chapmanii Chapman Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus chenii Xiao ye li SE. China
Quercus chevalieri ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus chihuahuensis Chihuahua Oak Northern Mexico and Texas
Quercus chingsiensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus chrysolepis Canyon Live Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus chrysolepis var. chrysolepis Canyon Live Oak % W. Oregon to New Mexico and Mexico (Baja California Norte, NW. Chihuahua)
Quercus chrysolepis var. nana Canyon Live Oak % W. Oregon to New Mexico and Mexico (Baja California Norte, NW. Chihuahua)
Quercus chungii ¡ ? % China
Quercus coccifera Kermes Oak % Southern Europe, Mediterranean
Quercus cocciferoides ¡ ? China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
Quercus cocciferoides var. cocciferoides ¡ ? China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
Quercus cocciferoides var.  taliensis ¡ ? China (Yunnan, Sichuan)
Quercus coccinea Scarlet Oak NC. and Eastern North America
Quercus coccinea var. coccinea Scarlet Oak NC. and Eastern North America
Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata Scarlet Oak NC. and Eastern North America
Quercus copeyensis ¡ ? % Costa Rica, Panama
Quercus cornelius-mulleri Muller Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus costaricensis ¡ ? % Costa Rica, Panama
Quercus cualensis ¡ ? % Mexico (Sierra Madre del Sur)
Quercus cubana ¡ ? Western Cuba
Quercus daimingshanensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus dalechampii ¡ ? South Eastern Europe
Quercus delavayi ¡ ? % China
Quercus delicatula ¡ ? % China
Quercus dentata Daimyo Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus depressa ¡ ? Mexico
Quercus depressipes Davis Mountain Oak % Texas
Quercus deserticola ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus dilatata Moru Oak % Himalayas
Quercus dinghuensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus disciformis ¡ ? % China
Quercus douglasii Blue Oak California
Quercus dumosa Coastal Sage Scrub Oak % Southern California
Quercus dumosa var. dumosa Coastal sage Scrub Oak California to Mexico (Baja California del Norte)
Quercus dumosa var. elegantula Coastal sage Scrub Oak California to Mexico (Baja California del Norte)
Quercus durata Leather Oak % California
Quercus durata var. durata Leather Oak California
Quercus durata var. gabrielensis Leather Oak SW. California
Quercus edithiae ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus eduardii ¡ ? Mexico
Quercus elevaticostata ¡ ? % Fujian (China)
Quercus ellipsoidalis Northern Pin Oak Eastern North America
Quercus emoryi Emory Oak % Southwestern U.S., Northern Mexico
Quercus engelmannii Engelmann Oak % Southwestern California
Quercus faginea Portuguese Oak % Southwestern Europe
Quercus falcata Southern Red Oak, Spanish Oak South Eastern North America
Quercus fleuryi ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Laos
Quercus frainetto Italian Oak, Hungarian Oak Southeastern Europe
Quercus furuhjelmi ¡ ? † (Extinct) Lived in Paleogene times
Quercus fusiformis Texas Live Oak, Plateau Live Oak % South central North America
Quercus gambelii Gambel Oak, Scrub Oak, Oak brush, White Oak Southwestern North America
Quercus gambelii var. bonina Gambel Oak, Scrub Oak WC. and SC. U.S.A. to N. Mexico
Quercus gambelii var. gambelii Gambel Oak, Scrub Oak WC. and SC. U.S.A. to N. Mexico
Quercus gambleana ¡ ? % China, India
Quercus garryana Oregon White Oak, Garry Oak Western North America
Quercus garryana  var. fruticosa Oregon white Oak S. Oregon, NW. California
Quercus garryana  var. garryana Garry Oak W. U.S.A., SW. Canada
Quercus garryana  var. semota Oregon white Oak S. Oregon, California
Quercus gemelliflora ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus geminata Sand Live Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus georgiana Georgia Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus gilva ¡ ? % Japan, Taiwan, China
Quercus glauca Ring-cupped Oak % From Afghanistan to Japan and Vietnam
Quercus glaucoides ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus graciliformis Chisos Oak % Extreme SW North America
Quercus gravesii Chisos Red Oak, Graves Oak Mexico, Southwestern North America (Texas)
Quercus grisea Gray Oak % South central North America
Quercus havardii Havard Oak, Shinnery Oak, Shin Oak South central North America
Quercus havardii var. havardii Havard Oak NW. Texas, W. Oklahoma, SE. New Mexico
Quercus havardii var. tuckeri Havard Oak NW. Texas, W. Oklahoma, SE. New Mexico
Quercus helferiana ¡ ? % China, India, Burma / Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus hemisphaerica Darlington Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus hemisphaerica var. hemisphaerica Darlington Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus hemisphaerica var. maritima Darlington Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus hinckleyi Hinckley Oak % Texas, Northwestern Mexico
Quercus hintoniorum ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus hirtifolia ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus hondae ¡ ? % Kyūshū (Japan)
Quercus hondurensis Honduras Oak % Honduras
Quercus hui ¡ ? % China
Quercus humboldtii Andean Oak % Northern South America (Colombia)
Quercus hypoleucoides Silverleaf Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus hypophaea ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus hypoxantha ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus ilex Holly Oak, Holm Oak % Southern Europe, Northwestern Africa
Quercus ilicifolia Bear Oak Eastern North America
Quercus iltisii ¡ ? % Southern Mexico
Quercus imbricaria Shingle Oak Eastern North America
Quercus incana Bluejack Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus infectoria Aleppo Oak, Cyprus Oak Southern Europe, Southwestern Asia
Quercus inopina Sandhill Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus insignis ¡ ? Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama
Quercus intricata Dwarf Oak, Coahuila Scrub Oak % Two isolated localities in West Texas, Northern Mexico
Quercus jenseniana ¡ ? % China
Quercus jinpinensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus john-tuckeri Tucker’s Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus kelloggii California Black Oak California, SW. Oregon
Quercus kerrii Kerr’s Oak. % Vietnam, Thailand, possibly China
Quercus kiukiangensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus kouangsiensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus laceyi Lacey Oak Edwards Plateau of Texas, Northern Mexico
Quercus laevis Turkey Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus lamellosa ¡ ? % Himalayas
Quercus lanata Woolly-leaved Oak % Himalayas
Quercus laurifolia Laurel Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus laurina ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus leucotrichophora Banj Oak % Himalayas
Quercus libani Lebanon Oak Southwestern Asia
Quercus lineata ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus litoralis ¡ ? % China
Quercus litseoides ¡ ? % China
Quercus lobata Valley Oak, California White Oak California
Quercus lobbii ¡ ? % China, India
Quercus longinux ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus lowii ¡ ? % Borneo
Quercus lungmaiensis ¡ ? % Yunnan (China)
Quercus lusitanica Gall Oak, Lusitanian Oak Iberia, North Africa
Quercus lyrata Overcup Oak Eastern North America
Quercus macranthera Caucasian Oak, Persian Oak Western Asia
Quercus macranthera ssp.  macranthera ¡ ? Turkey, N. Iran, Transcaucasus
Quercus macranthera ssp. syspirensis ¡ ? C. and NC. Turkey, Lebanon
Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak Eastern and central North America
Quercus macrocarpa var. depressa Bur Oak Minnesota, North Dakota
Quercus macrocarpa var. macrocarpa Bur Oak C. and SE. Canada to Alabama
Quercus macrolepis Vallonea Oak % Southwestern Asia
Quercus margarettae Runner Oak EC. and SE. U.S.A.
Quercus marilandica Blackjack Oak Eastern North America
Quercus marilandica var. ashei Blackjack Oak Central and East U.S.A.
Quercus marilandica var. marilandica Blackjack Oak Central and East U.S.A.
Quercus merrillii ¡ ? % Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia), Palawan (Philippines)
Quercus michauxii Swamp Chestnut Oak Eastern North America
Quercus minima Dwarf Live Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus mohriana Mohr Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus mongolica Mongolian Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus morii ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus motuoensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus muehlenbergii Chinkapin Oak Eastern, central, and Southwestern US (West Texas and New Mexico), Northern Mexico
Quercus multinervis ¡ ? % China
Quercus myrsinifolia Bamboo-leaf Oak. % China, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Quercus myrtifolia Myrtle Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus neglecta ¡ ? % China, Vietnam
Quercus nigra Water Oak % Eastern North America
Quercus ningangensis ¡ ? % China
Quercus oblongifolia Mexican Blue Oak % Southwestern U.S., NW. Mexico
Quercus obovatifolia ¡ ? % China
Quercus oglethorpensis Oglethorpe Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus oleoides ¡ ? % from Costa Rica into Mexico
Quercus oxyodon ¡ ? % Assam, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, Nepal
Quercus pachyloma ¡ ? % China, Taiwan
Quercus pacifica Channel Island Scrub Oak California (Santa Cruz I. , Santa Catalina I., Santa Rosa I.)
Quercus pagoda Cherrybark Oak Southeastern North America
Quercus palmeri Palmer Oak % SW. Oregon, California, Western Arizona
Quercus palustris Pin Oak Eastern North America
Quercus parvula Coast Oak, Santa Cruz Island Scrub Oak % Santa Cruz Island California
Quercus parvula var. parvula Santa Cruz Island Oak Santa Cruz Island California
Quercus parvula var. shrevei Shreve Oak California
Quercus parvula var. tamalpaisensis Tamalpais Oak California (Mt. Tamalpais Reg.)
Quercus patelliformis ¡ ? % China
Quercus peduncularis ¡ ? % Central America
Quercus pentacycla ¡ ? % China
Quercus petraea Durmast Oak, Sessile Oak Europe, Anatolia
Quercus phanera ¡ ? % China
Quercus phellos Willow Oak Eastern North America
Quercus poilanei ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, Thailand
Quercus polymorpha Netleaf white Oak, Monterrey Oak, Mexican White Oak % Mexico and extreme South Texas
Quercus pontica Armenian Oak Western Asia
Quercus prinoides Dwarf Chinkapin Oak Eastern North America
Quercus prinus Chestnut Oak Eastern North America (= Quercus Montana)
Quercus pubescens Downy Oak Europe, Anatolia
Quercus pumila Runner Oak, Running Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus pungens Pungent Oak, Sandpaper Oak % South central North America
Quercus pyrenaica Pyrenean Oak Southwestern Europe
Quercus rapurahuensis Talamanca Oak % Costa Rica, Panama
Quercus rex ¡ ? % China, Vietnam, India, Laos, Myanmar
Quercus rhysophylla Loquat-leaf Oak % Mexico
Quercus robur English Oak, Pedunculate Oak Europe, West Asia
Quercus robur ssp. brutia ¡ ? Southern Italy, Western Balkan Peninsular
Quercus robur ssp. imeretina ¡ ? West Caucasus
Quercus robur ssp. pedunculiflora ¡ ? NW. Iran, E. and SE. Turkey, Transcaucasus, Krym, Balkan Peninsular
Quercus robur ssp. robur ¡ ? Europe to Transcaucasus
Quercus robusta Robust Oak Texas (Brewster Co.; Chisos Mts.)
Quercus rubra Northern Red Oak SE. Canada to NC. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus rubra var. ambigua Northern red Oak SE. Canada to NC. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus rubra var. rubra Northern red Oak SE. Canada to NC. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus rugosa Netleaf Oak % Southwestern U.S., NW. Mexico
Quercus sadleriana Deer Oak % SW. Oregon, Northern California
Quercus salicifolia ¡ ? % Mexico
Quercus salicina ¡ ? % Japan, South Korea
Quercus sapotifolia ¡ ? % Southern Mexico, Central America
Quercus saravanensis ¡ ? % China, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus schottkyana ¡ ? % China
Quercus semecarpifolia Brown Oak, Kharshu Oak % Himalayas
Quercus semiserrata ¡ ? % China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand
Quercus serrata Bao li Eastern Himalaya, China, Taiwan, Korea (incl. Chenju Do), Japan
Quercus serrata ssp. mongolicoides ¡ ? Northern Japan
Quercus serrata ssp. serrata ¡ ? Eastern Himalaya, China, Taiwan, Korea (incl. Chenju Do), Japan
Quercus sessilifolia ¡ ? % Japan, Taiwan, China
Quercus shumardii Shumard’s Oak S. Ontario to C. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus shumardii var. schneckii Schneck Oak Indiana, Illinois, E. Kansas, E. Oklahoma
Quercus shumardii var. shumardii Shumard’s Oak S. Ontario to C. and E. U.S.A.
Quercus shumardii var. stenocarpa Shumard’s Oak Missouri, Illinois U.S.A
Quercus sichourensis ¡ ? % Yunnan (China).
Quercus similis Bottomland post Oak E. Texas, SE. U.S.A.
Quercus sinuata Bastard Oak Central and SE. U.S.A. to NE. Mexico
Quercus sinuata var. breviloba Bastard Oak Southern Oklahoma to NE. Mexico
Quercus sinuata var. sinuata Bastard Oak SE. U.S.A. to Texas
Quercus stellata Post Oak Eastern North America
Quercus stenophylloides ¡ ? % Taiwan
Quercus stewardiana ¡ ? % China
Quercus suber Cork Oak % Southwestern Europe, Northwestern Africa
Quercus subhinoidea ¡ ? % China
Quercus subsericea ¡ ? % Malaysia, Indonesia
Quercus sumatrana ¡ ? % Indonesia
Quercus tardifolia Lateleaf Oak % Two small groves in Chisos Mountains of Texas
Quercus texana Nuttall’s Oak, Texas red Oak South central North America (Lower Mississippi River Valley)
Quercus thorelii ¡ ? % China, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus tomentella Island Live Oak % California offshore islands
Quercus tomentosinervis ¡ ? % China
Quercus toumeyi Toumey Oak % Southwest New Mexico, Southeastern Arizona, Northern Mexico
Quercus treubiana ¡ ? % Sumatra, Borneo
Quercus trojana Macedonian Oak % Southeastern Europe
Quercus turbinella Shrub Live Oak, Sonoran Scrub Oak, Scrub Live Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus vacciniifolia Huckleberry Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus variabilis Chinese Cork Oak Eastern Asia
Quercus vaseyana Vasey Oak, Sandpaper Oak % Southwestern North America
Quercus velutina Black Oak, Eastern Black Oak, Dyer’s Oak Eastern North America
Quercus viminea Sonoran Oak S. Arizona to N. and W. Mexico
Quercus virginiana Southern Live Oak % Southeastern North America
Quercus vulcanica Kasnak Oak Southwestern Asia
Quercus wislizeni Interior Live Oak % California, Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus wislizeni var. frutescens Interior Live Oak % S. California, Mexico (N. Baja California)
Quercus wislizeni var. wislizeni Interior Live Oak % California, Mexico (N. Baja California del Norte)
Quercus xalapensis ¡ ? Mexico
Quercus xanthotricha ¡ ? % China, Laos, Vietnam
Quercus yingjiangensis ¡ ? % China

List of Oak Tree Hybrid Names

Botanical Tree Name Common Tree Name
Quercus ×acutidens ¡ ?
Quercus ×alvordiana Alvord Oak
Quercus ×ashei ¡ ?
Quercus ×atlantica ¡ ?
Quercus ×beadlei ¡ ?
Quercus ×beaumontiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×bebbiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×beckyae ¡ ?
Quercus ×benderi ¡ ?
Quercus ×bernardiensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×bimundorum ¡ ?
Quercus ×blufftonensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×brittonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×burnetensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×bushii ¡ ?
Quercus ×byarsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×caduca ¡ ?
Quercus ×caesariensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×capesii ¡ ?
Quercus ×cocksii ¡ ?
Quercus ×columnaris ¡ ?
Quercus ×comptoniae ¡ ?
Quercus ×cravenensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×deamii ¡ ?
Quercus ×demareei ¡ ?
Quercus ×discreta ¡ ?
Quercus ×diversiloba ¡ ?
Quercus ×egglestonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×eplingii ¡ ?
Quercus ×exacta ¡ ?
Quercus ×faxonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×fernaldii ¡ ?
Quercus ×fernowii ¡ ?
Quercus ×filialis ¡ ?
Quercus ×fontana ¡ ?
Quercus ×ganderi ¡ ?
Quercus ×garlandensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×giffordii ¡ ?
Quercus ×grandidentata ¡ ?
Quercus ×guadalupensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×harbisonii ¡ ?
Quercus ×hastingsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×hawkinsiae ¡ ?
Quercus ×heterophylla ¡ ?
Quercus ×howellii ¡ ?
Quercus ×humidicola ¡ ?
Quercus ×iana ¡ ?
Quercus ×incomita ¡ ?
Quercus ×inconstans ¡ ?
Quercus ×introgressa ¡ ?
Quercus ×jackiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×jolonensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×joorii ¡ ?
Quercus ×leana ¡ ?
Quercus ×ludoviciana ¡ ?
Quercus ×macdonaldii Macdonald Oak
Quercus ×macnabiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×megaleia ¡ ?
Quercus ×mellichampii ¡ ?
Quercus ×moreha Oracle Oak
Quercus ×moultonensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×munzii ¡ ?
Quercus ×mutabilis ¡ ?
Quercus ×neoi ¡ ?
Quercus ×neotharpii ¡ ?
Quercus ×nessiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×organensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×oviedoensis ¡ ?
Quercus ×palaeolithicola ¡ ?
Quercus ×pauciloba ¡ ?
Quercus ×podophylla ¡ ?
Quercus ×pseudomargaretta False sand post Oak
Quercus ×rehderi ¡ ?
Quercus ×riparia ¡ ?
Quercus ×robbinsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×rolfsii ¡ ?
Quercus ×rudkinii ¡ ?
Quercus ×runcinata ¡ ?
Quercus ×sargentii ¡ ?
Quercus ×saulii ¡ ?
Quercus ×schochiana ¡ ?
Quercus ×schuettei ¡ ?
Quercus ×smallii ¡ ?
Quercus ×stelloides ¡ ?
Quercus ×sterilis ¡ ?
Quercus ×sterretii ¡ ?
Quercus ×subconvexa ¡ ?
Quercus ×subfalcata ¡ ?
Quercus ×subintegra ¡ ?
Quercus ×substellata ¡ ?
Quercus ×tharpii ¡ ?
Quercus ×tottenii ¡ ?
Quercus ×townei ¡ ?
Quercus ×tridentata ¡ ?
Quercus ×vaga ¡ ?
Quercus ×venulosa ¡ ?
Quercus ×wagneri ¡ ?
Quercus ×walteriana ¡ ?
Quercus ×willdenowiana ¡ ?

Oaks - trees for posterity

Among the old and respected trees of Ukraine there are many oaks over 300 years old (only 1000 years old, there are 8). Legends tell about them, they are witnesses of significant historical events, they are associated with reliability and sustainability. Scientists have about 260 species of this plant. The KPI park can also boast of hundred-year-old beauties. In particular, the common oak of various forms grows here, red and marsh. The latter is not a frequent guest in landscaping, as it has superficial roots and loves moist soils, and in our park there are as many as two of them, moreover, of respectable age.

Red and swamp oaks are undeniably decorative. In the spring, they are attracted by young reddish-brown hanging shoots. Beautiful carved leaves are especially spectacular in autumn: red, yellow-ocher - they stay on the branches for a long time, reminiscent of an autumn riot of flowers. The branched graphics of the crown are better seen in winter: sometimes the branching seems sharp and awkward due to a change in the direction of growth of shoots that develop only on an illuminated plane. Interestingly, the tree grows up to 150-200 years in height, and in width throughout its life. Its leaves reach 12 cm, with 5-7 deeply cut lobes, bright green above, lighter below. The fruits are almost spherical, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, one-third covered with a "cap", ripen in August. Acorns are dispersed by wind, animals and water. Jays, pigeons, pheasants, squirrels, field mice, and other rodents “transport” fruits over considerable distances, losing along the way and forgetting about supplies, which then germinate. In mountainous regions, the “carrier” is rivers and streams.

Swamp oak - Quercus palustris, English. Pin oak tree. English "pin" means peg, got its name for the sharp fragments that remain on the smooth trunk after the death of the lower branches. The natural range of the plant is the temperate and tropical zones of the northern hemisphere. There are no oaks at all in Australia, they are practically absent in South America and Africa (except for the northern regions). "Deprived" Siberia and Central Asia - there are no native species.

Oak is the most valuable wood, which is used for strong, solid, resilient structures resistant to adverse external factors - in shipbuilding, the aviation industry, transport, construction, furniture industry and the like. In addition, oak firewood is an excellent fuel, the calorific value of which increases in proportion to the strength of the wood. In some Mediterranean breeds, acorns are not only edible, but also palatable. In Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Algeria, you can enjoy acorn dishes. In China, silkworm larvae are fed with leaves and used as fertilizer.

Americans love their history. And they are proud of the oldest warship that is still afloat - the 44-gun frigate "Constitution" ("Constitution"), launched in 1797. Its cost at that time is commensurate with the cost of current aircraft carriers. The sailboat successfully protected merchant ships from pirates in the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. He received his most memorable victory on August 9, 1812 off the coast of Canada over the English 38-gun sailing ship Guerrier. To the surprise of the British, the cannonballs bounced off the American ship. The British did not know that its half-meter-thick sides had a three-layer structure: white oak on top and inside, and swamp inside. Due to its special structure (it grew in the floodplains), it did not shatter into pieces, from which, basically, the sailors died, but, by bending, extinguished the impact force and stopped the nuclei. After the battle, the name Old Iron Side was assigned to the frigate. In the 19th century the sailboat served as a training ship, and from 1934 is in Boston in eternal parking. On especially solemn occasions, "Constitution" in all its glory goes to the raid. So, in the summer of 2000, the frigate welcomed the participants of the transatlantic sailing regatta "Millennium". And all thanks to the swamp oak.

KPI Park

Useful and interesting information


Kyiv Polytechnic

Oak - a symbol of power and longevity. Cultivation, reproduction. Diseases and pests. Oak bark application, decoction. Kinds. Photo - Botanichka

There are several interesting facts about oak: At the Paris exhibition in 1900, an oak ridge sawn from a 485-year-old oak 31 m high and 169 cm in diameter was demonstrated. the territory of the modern Shumerlinsky forestry enterprise of the Chuvash Republic.

And in 1861, in the Yadrinsky district of the Kazan province, an oak "50 feet long" (that is, 15 meters in height) and "48 inches in the upper cut" (213 cm in diameter) was cut down. This tree was counted 500 years old, at that time it was completely fresh, healthy and still increasing in volume ...

Oak was a sacred tree of many peoples, including the ancient Slavs and Celts, it was worshiped as a deity. Even today it remains a symbol of courage and resilience, and not just, so to speak, “impenetrability” ... By the way, to see an oak strewn with acorns in a dream - to well-being and career growth.

Pedunculate oak (summer, English, common) (Quercus robur). © Leafland

Botanical description

Oak ( Quercus ) is a genus of deciduous or evergreen trees of the beech family. The leaves are alternate, simple, pinnatipartite, lobed, serrated, sometimes entire. Oak flowers are small, inconspicuous, same-sex, monoecious; staminate - in long hanging catkins, pistillate - single or several, sessile or on a pedicel. The fruit is a single-seeded acorn, partially enclosed in a cup-shaped woody cupule.

Oak grows slowly, at first (up to 80 years) - stronger in height, later - in thickness. Usually forms a deep tap root system. Gives abundant shoots from the stump. Photophilous. Some types of oak are drought-resistant, quite winter-hardy and not very demanding on soils. It begins to bear fruit at the age of 15-60, in open places earlier than in plantations. It reproduces mainly by acorns. For sowing, acorns collected in the same year are used, because. they quickly lose their viability. There are about 450 species of oak in the temperate, subtropical and tropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia - 20 (according to other sources, 11) wild species in the European part, the Far East and the Caucasus; 43 species of oaks are grown in culture.

Most important in forestry is English oak , or summer ( Quercus robur ), - a tree up to 40-50 m high and 1-1.5 m in diameter. The leaves are elongated obovate, with 5-7 pairs of short lobes , on petioles up to 1 cm long. Acorns 1-3 on the stalk. Blossoms simultaneously with the blooming of leaves from 40-60 years. Fruits abundantly every 4-8 years. Grows fairly quickly in side shade, but requires good light from above. Lives up to 400-1000 years. Distributed in the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus and almost throughout Western Europe. In the northern part of the range it grows along river valleys, to the south it goes to watersheds and forms mixed forests with spruce, and in the south of the range - pure oak forests; in the steppe zone it occurs along ravines and gullies. One of the main forest-forming species of broad-leaved forests in Russia.

Close to English Oak Rock Oak , or winter ( Q. petraea ), with almost sessile (2-3 each) acorns, found in the west of the European part of Russia, in the Crimea and the North Caucasus. Georgian Oak ( Q. iberica ) grows in the eastern part of the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia with leathery leaves and sessile (1-2) acorns; Large anthered oak ( Quercus macranthera ) grows in the alpine zone of these regions with densely pubescent shoots and sessile acorns or on a short stem. The main species of the valley forests of Eastern Transcaucasia - Long-legged oak ( Q. longipes ). Important forest-forming species of the Far East - Mongolian Oak ( Q. mongolica ) - frost-resistant and drought-resistant tree.

Oak wood has high strength, hardness, durability and a beautiful texture (cut pattern). It is used in shipbuilding, for underwater structures, because. does not rot; used in car building, in furniture, carpentry, cooperage, house building, etc. Some types of bark ( Cork oak - Q. suber) gives a cork. The bark and wood contain tannins (tannins) used for tanning hides. The dried bark of young branches and thin trunks of English oak is used as an astringent in the form of an aqueous decoction for rinsing in case of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, pharynx, pharynx, as well as for lotions in the treatment of burns. Acorns are used as a substitute for coffee and as food for pigs and some other agricultural products. animals. Many species, such as Chestnut oak (Q. castaneifolia), are cultivated in gardens and parks as ornamental plants.

Growing oak

Oak acorns, unlike the seeds of the vast majority of our other trees, do not remain viable when dried and stored for a long time at room temperature. Therefore, it is necessary either to sow them in the fall before the snow falls and the soil freezes, or to provide them with special storage conditions. Autumn sowing is the easiest, but there is a serious risk of damage to some of the acorns by rodents.

For spring sowing oak acorns must be properly preserved. The best storage conditions are at low (about 0° or slightly above) temperature, high humidity and moderate ventilation. Acorns can be stored in the basement, where potatoes are well preserved in winter; you can also dig them into the soil in the fall to a depth of at least 20 cm, covering the top with a sheet of waterproof material, leaving a layer of air between this sheet and acorns and providing protection from mice. In any case, healthy acorns without external damage should be stored for winter storage, preferably collected in dry weather and dried at room temperature for a week. Any special preparation of seeds that have survived the winter is not required before sowing.

Before sowing, evaluate the quality of the acorns by opening a few of them. Live oak acorns have yellow cotyledons, and at the place of their connection with each other there is a live (yellow or red-yellow) embryo. Dead acorns are black or grey. By external signs, it is not always possible to distinguish living acorns from dead ones. Soaking acorns in a container of water gives good results - dead acorns mostly float, live ones mostly sink (if there are a lot of acorns, then this method of separating the dead from the living is quite recommended, but a small part of the live acorns will be lost).

If you have not been able to stock up on acorns since autumn, then in some years (after a large harvest of acorns and under the condition of a “harvest failure” of mice, and if the winter was not very frosty), you can collect live and germinating acorns in the spring in the nearest forest or park. It is necessary to collect germinating acorns in early spring, almost immediately after the snow melts, otherwise you will find damaged roots in many acorns. Collected oak acorns must either be sown immediately or stored until sowing in such a way that the roots do not dry out (for example, mixed with wet leaves in a plastic box put in a refrigerator or a cold basement). Even with short-term storage, it is necessary to ensure that germinating acorns do not become moldy (throw away damaged ones immediately), and ensure their ventilation. The faster you can sow the acorns collected in the spring, the more of them will be able to develop into seedlings.

Oak acorns. © TwidOak sprouted acorn. © Beentree

Sowing acorns

When sowing acorns, mark out parallel furrows 15–25 cm apart in the bed. Arrange the acorns in the furrows at the rate of 15-50 pieces. per 1 m of the length of the furrow, depending on the quality and size (if the acorns are large and almost all live, then they should be laid out less often, if small and with a large proportion of dead and doubtful - thicker). If you plan to plant annual oak seedlings in a permanent place, then acorns should be sown even less often - at a distance of 7-10 cm from each other (this will ensure the maximum growth of each tree). Press the acorns into the bottom of the furrow so that they are at a depth of 2–3 cm from the soil surface in spring planting and 3–6 cm in autumn. After that, level the furrow by covering the acorns with earth.

Acorns germinate for a very long time. First, they develop a powerful root, reaching a length of several tens of centimeters, and only after that the stem begins to grow. Therefore, oak sprouts can appear on the soil surface only a month and a half after the start of germination. Do not rush to conclude that your oak trees have died and dig up a bed with crops (as the experience of novice amateur foresters shows, this happens). If in doubt, try digging up some acorns. If their roots have grown, then the acorns are alive.

Care of oak seedlings

Oak seedlings suffer much less from weeds and drying out of the soil than coniferous trees (due to the supply of nutrients in the acorn, large roots and leaves immediately develop). However, try to always keep crops free of weeds and ensure watering during severe drought, especially if you want to get large seedlings in one year. Stop any additional watering about a month and a half before the time when mass leaf fall begins in your area - this will allow oak seedlings to better prepare for wintering (too late growths in oak often freeze out in winter).

In summer, oak seedlings are often affected by powdery mildew, a fungal disease. Powdery mildew is not able to kill oak seedlings, but can significantly reduce their growth. With a strong development of powdery mildew (if white bloom covers more than half of the area of ​​​​all leaves), seedlings can be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or a 1% suspension of sulfur. Oak seedlings can be grown for two years in one place without a transplant, or they can be transplanted in the second year into a "school". The second method is preferable, because it allows you to form a more compact and branched root system, which suffers less when transplanted to a permanent place (for two-year-old seedlings grown without transplantation, the length of the main root can be more than a meter, and it is almost impossible to transplant them without damaging the root).

Oak seedlings should be transplanted into the “school” in spring, preferably as early as possible, so that the root system damaged during transplantation has time to partially recover even before the leaves bloom (it is also important that the soil is still moist during transplantation). When transplanting, cut off the main root of each oak seedling at a distance of 15-20 cm from where the acorn was located (in most seedlings, the remains of an acorn in the second year are still visible). This will form a more compact root system. It is possible not to cut the main root, but in this case it will be very difficult to dig up two-year-old seedlings without serious damage to their root system.

Oak seedlings. © Elektryczne jabłko

Place rows of seedlings at a distance of 25–30 cm from each other in the “school”, and seedlings in a row at a distance of 12–15 cm. When planting under each oak seedling, make holes 20–25 cm deep with a stake or spade handle ( the depth of the hole should be such that when the seedling is planted, the place of attachment of the acorn is 2-3 cm below the soil surface). Insert the seedlings into the holes (the main root of oak seedlings, unlike the root of conifers, is hard and straight and inserted into the holes without problems). Then fill the holes with earth and compact it with your hands so that the earth fits snugly against the roots of the seedlings.

Transplanted oak seedlings in the first weeks after transplantation suffer greatly from root damage - leafing is rather slow, and shoot growth is relatively small. Nevertheless, by mid-summer, the normal development of seedlings is restored, and by autumn, as a rule, large seedlings (30–50 cm high) are quite suitable for planting in a permanent place. If the size of the seedlings by autumn leaves much to be desired, then only the largest ones can be selected for transplantation, and the rest left in the "school" for another year.

If you are transplanting annual oak seedlings to a permanent place (this is quite possible if planting is done in areas with low grass cover or plowed soil), then do not cut the main roots of the seedlings - try to keep as much of their length as possible. The root system of an annual oak seedling is represented mainly by a long and straight taproot with weak and short lateral roots, therefore, for transplanting, it is enough to make a narrow hole of the appropriate depth using a stake or a shovel handle.

Types of oak

Common oak (summer, English, or common) - Quercus robur

Occurs naturally in the European part of Russia, Central and Western Europe. A very powerful tree up to 50 m tall, in closed plantations with a slender trunk, highly debranched, in single plantings in open places - with a short trunk and a wide, spreading, low-set crown. Lives 500-900 years.

English oak (Quercus robur). © 2micha

The bark on trunks up to 40 years old is smooth, olive-brown, later grayish-brown, almost black. The leaves are alternate, at the top of the shoots close together in bunches, leathery, oblong, obovate, up to 15 cm long, with an elongated top and 3-7 pairs of obtuse, lateral lobes of unequal length. Lobes entire or with 1-3 teeth, often with auricles at the base of the leaf blade. The leaves are shiny, bare, dark green above, lighter below, sometimes with sparse hairs. In spring, the oak blossoms late, one of the last among our trees. Oak blossoms in April-May, when it still has very small leaves. The flowers are unisexual, monoecious, very small and inconspicuous. Male or staminate flowers are collected in peculiar inflorescences - long and thin, yellowish-greenish drooping catkins, reminiscent of hazel catkins. Acorns up to 3.5 cm, 1/5 covered with a cupule, ripen in early autumn.

Grows slowly, the greatest energy of growth in 5-20 years. Moderately photophilous, wind-resistant due to powerful root system. Excessive waterlogging of the soil does not tolerate, but withstands temporary flooding for up to 20 days. It prefers deep, fertile, fresh soils, but is able to develop on any, including dry and saline ones, which makes it indispensable in green building in many regions of Russia. It has high drought and heat resistance. One of the most durable breeds, some sources indicate a life expectancy of up to 1500 years.

Possesses powerful energy. Oak in Russia was considered a sacred tree. In the springs located in the oak forests, the water has an excellent taste and is particularly clean.

Propagated by sowing acorns, decorative forms - by grafting and green cuttings. It is well renewed by shoots from a stump. Acorns do not tolerate desiccation, as soon as they lose even a small part of the water, they die. In heat, they easily rot, they are very sensitive to cold and frost. This circumstance presents a certain difficulty for preserving acorns for seeds. In nature, there is no such problem: acorns that have fallen in late autumn in the forest overwinter in a wet bed of leaves under a thick layer of snow that protects them both from drying out and from frost. The germination of an acorn resembles the germination of a pea: its cotyledons do not rise above the soil surface, as in many plants, but remain in the ground. A thin green stem rises up. At first it is leafless, and only after some time small leaves appear on its top.

Red oak (Quercus rubra)

It occurs naturally along river banks, where there is no stagnant water in the soil, north of the 35th parallel of the North American continent, up to Canada. Tree up to 25 m in height.

A slender tree with a dense hipped crown.

Red oak (Quercus rubra). © Jean-Pol GRANDMONT

The trunk is covered with thin, smooth, gray bark, cracking in old trees. Young shoots are reddish-felt, annual shoots are red-brown, smooth. The leaves are deeply notched, thin, shiny, up to 15-25 cm, with 4-5 pointed lobes on each side of the leaf, reddish when blooming, dark green in summer, lighter below, in autumn, before falling off, scarlet-red in young trees , in old ones - brownish-brown. Blooms at the same time as the leaves open. Acorns are spherical in shape, up to 2 cm, red-brown, as if chopped off from below, unlike English oak, they ripen in the fall of the second year. It bears fruit steadily and abundantly from 15-20 years. When young, it grows faster than European oaks.

Frost resistant. Medium light-loving, easily tolerates lateral shading, but prefers full coverage of the top of the crown. Not drought tolerant. Wind-resistant, not very picky about soil fertility, can withstand even an acidic reaction, however, does not tolerate calcareous and wet soils. Resistant to pests and diseases, including powdery mildew - the scourge of our oaks. It has high phytoncidal properties. Due to its high decorativeness, resistance to adverse environmental factors, magnificent autumn decoration, it deserves the widest use in green building, for creating single and group plantings, alleys, arrays, lining roads and streets.

Downy oak (Quercus pubescens)

Naturally found in the southern Crimea, the northern part of Transcaucasia, Southern Europe and Asia Minor. Tree up to 10 m tall. Durable.

Downy oak (Quercus pubescens). © Petr Filippov

Significantly inferior in size to the previous species, with a low, winding trunk and a wide crown, sometimes even a shrub. Young shoots are strongly pubescent. Leaves 5-10 cm long, very variable in shape and size, with 4-8 pairs of obtuse or pointed lobes, dark green, glabrous above, grey-green below, pubescent. The scales of the plush surrounding the acorn are also fluffy.

It grows slowly, loves light and heat, lives on dry stony slopes and soils containing lime. Handles haircut well. Valuable species for green building in arid areas, grows on stony soils where other species do not develop. An excellent material for high hedges and figured, sheared forms.

White oak (Quercus alba)

Native to eastern North America. Grows in forests with other types of oak and hazel, on various soils, but better on deep, rich, well-drained, limestone; in the north of the range it is distributed no higher than 200 m above sea level. sea, in the south up to 1500 m a.s.l. seas.

White oak (Quercus alba). © Msact

Large beautiful tree up to 30 m, with powerful spreading branches forming a wide, tent-shaped crown. The shoots are bare, the bark of the trunk is gray, shallowly cracking. Remarkable for very large, oblong-oval leaves, up to 22 cm, with 5-9 obtuse lobes; when blooming - bright red, in summer - bright green, with a whitish-gray underside. In autumn, the leaves turn dark red or purple-purple. Acorns up to 2.5 cm, a quarter covered with a plush. Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand. In autumn, sown immediately after harvest and air drying. Germination of seeds is maintained until the spring of next year. Ground germination 80 - 85%. Embedding depth s. 5 - 6 cm.

Marsh oak (Quercus palustris)

Homeland North America.

A slender tree up to 25 m tall, narrowly pyramidal when young, later broadly pyramidal. Young shoots are thin, hanging, reddish-brown. The bark of the trunk is greenish-brown, and remains smooth for a long time. Leaves up to 12 cm long, with 5-7 deeply cut, almost to the middle of the leaf, toothed lobes, bright green above, lighter below, with tufts of hairs in the corners of the veins. In autumn they are bright purple. Acorns sessile, almost spherical, up to 1.5 cm, 1/3 covered by a cupule. Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand. Autumn with. sown after harvest and air drying. Germination of seeds is maintained until the spring of next year. Ground germination with. 80 - 90%. Embedding depth s. 5 - 6 cm.

Swamp oak (Quercus palustris). © Willow

Fast growing, less hardy than red oak and northern oak. It is more demanding on the soil and its moisture, as it grows in nature on deep, moist soils on the banks of rivers and swamps. It tolerates city conditions well. Looks great in single, group and avenue plantings, along the banks of reservoirs. In culture since the middle of the XVIII century. Grows in the parks of Ukraine (Chernivtsi), Belarus, Voronezh region. It freezes in St. Petersburg.

Willow oak (Quercus phellos)

Wildly grows in eastern North America.

A beautiful deciduous tree up to 20 m tall, with a slender trunk and a wide-round (pyramidal in youth) crown. Remarkable original shiny green leaves resembling willow leaves (up to 12 cm long by 2 cm wide). This similarity is even more enhanced in young leaves, strongly pubescent below. In autumn, the leaves turn dull yellow.

Willow oak (Quercus phellos). © Daderot

Differs in rapid growth, photophilous, unpretentious to the soil, tolerates temperature drops down to -23 ºС. Used in single and group plantings. In culture since 1680.

Holm oak (Quercus ilex)

Homeland Mediterranean, Southern Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor.

Evergreen tree up to 25 m tall, with a smooth dark gray trunk and a dense, wide spreading crown. The shoots are grayish-felt, the leaves are small, up to 8 cm, highly variable in shape, leathery, shiny, dark green, yellowish or whitish-pubescent below. Acorns ripen in the second year.

We recommend storing freshly harvested acorns in trenches. Permissible period of dry storage - until the next spring. Acorns are stratified in moderately moist sand for 2-3 months at 2-5°C, then sown in greenhouses or ridges, where they germinate at 0-15°C for 20-30 days. Embedding depth s. 4 - 7 cm.

Holm oak (Quercus ilex). © propio

Grows fast, fairly shade tolerant, hardy, tolerates temperatures down to -20°C without damage. Drought tolerant. Grows on dry rocky slopes and any type of soil. It tolerates a haircut, durable. Valuable, beautiful breed for park construction in the south of Russia. Good in group, avenue and street plantings, in regular gardens - to create dense high hedges and high walls, for which its small-leaved forms are suitable. In culture since 1819of the year.

Chestnut oak (Quercus castaneifolia)

Wildly grows in Armenia, the Caucasus and northern Iran. Listed in the Red Book of the USSR. Protected in the Hyrkansky Reserve. Forms pure or with an admixture of other deciduous forests on the crests of ridges. Light-loving mesoxerophyte.

Tall, up to 30 m, a beautiful tree with a slender trunk, the bark of which remains smooth for a long time, with a wide tent-shaped crown and large leaves, resembling the leaves of a sowing chestnut, up to 18 cm long, with large, sharp, triangular teeth. From above, the leaves are dull, dark green, almost bare; finely pubescent below, greyish-white. Acorns up to 3 cm, 1/3 covered with a plush.

Chestnut oak (Quercus castaneifolia). © Mmparedes

Relatively fast growing, medium frost hardy, not drought tolerant enough. Good in alley, group and single plantings of parks and forest parks. Suitable for cultivation in the southwestern and southern parts of Russia, on the Black Sea coast. In culture since 1830.

Large-fruited oak (Quercus macrocarpa)

North American species, growing as a tree up to 30 m high, with a thick trunk and spreading, tent-shaped crown. The bark on the trunk is light brown, cracking. Leaves obovate, oblong, up to 25 cm long, deeply lobed; shiny, dark green above, whitish-green below, pubescent, in autumn they acquire a spectacular yellow-brown color. Acorns are oval, large, up to 5 cm, 1/3 covered by a cupule.

Seeds are stored for spring sowing in semi-moist sand in the basement. In autumn, the seeds are sown after harvesting and air drying. Germination of seeds is maintained until the spring of next year. Ground germination 80 - 85%. Seeding depth 5-6 cm.

Large-fruited oak (Quercus macrocarpa). © Daderot

Almost as fast as English oak; in terms of frost resistance, it is close to it and to red oak, but more moisture-loving than these species. Decorative, used in green building, like other species. In culture since 1826.

Diseases and pests of oak

Diseases of plant wood are the most dangerous. Infectious diseases that affect wood are divided into two groups. Non-rotten diseases include cancerous ulcers and tumors, vascular diseases of trunks and branches, necrosis of bark and sapwood. Diseases of this group affect the most important tissues of trunks and branches and, if strongly developed, lead to the drying out of trees. Cancer ulcers and tumors develop and spread slowly and are usually caused by fungi and bacteria. Vascular disease develops and spreads quickly and can lead to the drying up of trees in a few years or months. Necrosis of trunks and branches can also form extensive foci of desiccation. Their distribution is ensured by the ability of pathogens to accumulate a huge amount of infection in the dead tissues of affected trees. The causative agents of necrosis are also semi-parasitic imperfect and marsupial fungi, sometimes bacteria. Rot diseases include wood rot of branches and trunks, root and butt rot.

Gall midge

By autumn, yellowish or yellow-pink balls - galls - the size of a small cherry, often develop on oak leaves. They look like tiny apples of the correct spherical shape.

Galls - painful growth of leaf tissue. The gall midge insect, which looks like a very small fly, is to blame for their appearance. The gall midge pierces the skin of the leaf with a thin, sharp ovipositor and lays an egg there. Some time after that, a "ball" grows on the sheet. If such a ball is broken in late autumn, in the middle of it you can find a small white worm - a gall midge larva - or an already adult insect. In some years, oak leaves are literally dotted with galls - there are several of them on each leaf.

Gall on an oak leaf. © Fritz Geller-GrimmGall on oak. © RasbakGall on oak. © Saharadesertfox

Gauls are sometimes called ink nuts. This name is not accidental. Our ancestors at the time of Pushkin used them to make black ink. How to get ink in this way? It is necessary to prepare a decoction of nuts and add a solution of iron sulfate to it. Merging two weakly colored liquids, we get a completely black liquid. This chemical "focus" is easily explained. The gall contains many tannins, and they have the ability, when combined with iron salts, to give a thick black color. The same can be done with tea infusion (it also contains a lot of tannins). If a few drops of a yellowish solution of ferric chloride are added to a glass of weak tea, the liquid becomes completely black.

Pests of oak

Leaf-eating and stem pests, and fungal diseases are the most important factors that increase the drying of oak stands. Violation of the ecological balance of oak forest phytocenoses, especially in oak forest monocultures, leads to violations of the water regime of the territories, changes in light and temperature conditions in the plantation, and all together - to the formation of conditions more favorable for the development of pests and diseases.

Oak is damaged by a huge number of pests and diseases. Different authors give different figures on the number of pests and diseases that damage the oak. In the Tellerman forest area, 184 species of leaf pests were identified (Molchanov, 1975). Among the most common pests that damage the foliage, we should name: 5 types of silkworms, 5 types of cutworms, 6 types of moths, 8 types of moths, 8 types of sawflies, 2 types of leafworms, 11 types of gall wasps, 2 types of psyllids, 5 types of weevils, 2 types of Hermes, 2 species of aphids and 3 species of plant mites. Buds and flowers damage 12 species of gall wasps. Acorns are damaged by 2 species of codling moths, 3 species of weevils and 1 species of nutcracker. The trunk and branches damage 8 species of bark beetles, 7 species of longhorn beetles, 3 species of horntails, 2 species of woodworms, 1 species of flat-footed beetle, 3 species of borers, 1 species from the family of whetstones, 1 species of wood borers (Napalkov, 1953).

Sawfly caterpillars on oak leaves. © Beentree

In Europe, 542 species of pests damaging oak have been identified (Hrast Luznjak…, 1996). In total, 206 species of fungi were found, including zygomycetes - 3 species, mastigomycetes - 2 species, ascomycetes - 50 species, basidiomycetes - 43 species, deuteromycetes - 108 species. 1 virus was found - tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), 14 species of bacteria (Erwinia quercicola Geprges et Bad., Erwinia valachika Geprges et Bad., Pseudomonas quercus Schem, etc.). However, the influence of viruses and bacteria as causes of oak drying has not been clearly established (Ragazzi et al., 1995).

Healing power of oak

Young bark of branches and trunks, leaves and acorns of oak are used for treatment. The bark contains acids, resins, pectin, sugar. In acorns - protein and tannins, starch, fatty oil, sugar. The leaves contain tannins and dyes, pentosans.

Oak bark is used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent. Mixed with other plants, it is used to treat gastritis, colitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, diseases of the liver and spleen. Inside give a cold infusion (1 teaspoon of crushed bark is infused in 2 glasses of cold water for 6-8 hours), 2-3 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.

A decoction of oak bark (1:10) is used for pharyngitis, tonsillitis, skin diseases, stomatitis. For the treatment of burns, a stronger decoction of the bark (1: 5) is used. For skin diseases, an ointment is also used - one part of the condensed decoction of the bark to four parts of lanolin.

A warm infusion of crushed oak acorns in red wine (25% tincture) in the form of compresses is used to treat hernia, and folk healers recommend water decoctions for burns, skin rashes, and excessive sweating of the feet. In addition, a nutritious coffee drink is prepared from acorns, which is consumed with milk and sugar.

For gastric bleeding, intestinal inflammation, poisoning with heavy metals, alkaloids, mushrooms, henbane, dope, food poisoning, a decoction of oak bark is used. For this purpose, 20 g of dry crushed raw materials are poured into 1 cup of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the liquid volume is brought to the original boiled water. Take 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.

Infusion of oak acorns helps with diarrhea and enterocolitis. It is prepared as follows: 1 teaspoon of dry crushed raw materials is poured into 1 cup of boiling water and filtered after cooling. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day.

For gargling with chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, inflammation of the gums and stomatitis, a decoction of oak bark is used. For urethritis and cystitis, a decoction of oak bark is taken 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day. For the same purpose, an infusion of acorns is used in a similar dosage.

For douching with cervical erosion, uterine prolapse, prolapse of the vaginal walls, vulvovaginitis and trichomonas colpitis, a decoction of oak bark is used: 20 g of dry crushed raw materials are poured into 1 glass of hot water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered and the volume of liquid is brought to boiled water.

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