How many palm trees are native to florida


Westcoast Landscape and Lawns | Are Palm Trees Native to Florida?

18 Dec Are Palm Trees Native to Florida?

The sunshine state, the orange state, the alligator state – there are many different things that Florida is known for. People travel from all over the world to take advantage of our beautiful scenery and the 300+ sunny days that we experience annually. While there are many different ways to describe our amazing state, one of the most recognizable is the abundance of palm trees.

Despite the strong association of palm trees to Florida, there is one question that most people take for granted: are palm trees native to Florida? To answer this question accurately, there is some information that you will need to know about Florida and its history.

Non-Native Palm Trees

Florida is the perfect environment for the palm tree. With its warm climate and abundant rainfall, the palm tree fits right in and is a beautiful part of this perfect background. However, even though palm trees help make Florida a tropical paradise, many of the palm trees that people see in Florida are really not native at all.

Instead, according to Florida ecologists, only 12 palm tree species are actually native to Florida. Therefore, the majority of the palm trees that people see each year are not from this area. In fact, most of Florida’s palm trees have been imported from other places like South America and Asia. For instance, while most people may attribute the coconut palm tree to Florida, this is not part of its original history. Based on research that has been done over the years, this species comes from the coast of India, while other groups come from Southeast Asia. Also, according to research, the coconut palm made its way to Florida through settlers who were en-route from Cuba to Spain. After being stranded in Florida, however, the coconut palm was simply planted around the homes of these settlers.

Native Palm Trees

If you want to know more about the native palm trees in Florida, here are a few of the more notable native Florida palm trees, along with a description of each that was prepared by Stephen Brown of Lee County Extension Horticulture.

Buccaneer Palm Tree

 

The Buccaneer Palm, aka Pseudophoenix sargentii, aka Florida cherry palm By Nolege (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Due to the variable budging of its trunk, it is important to note that no two species of the Buccaneer Palm look the same. Presently, the Buccaneer Palm is known as the most durable choice for seaside landscaping. Also, though it is common in the Caribbean and in Cuba, it is now on the endangered list in Florida.

 

Paurotis Palm Tree

 

The Paurotis Palm, aka Acoelorrhaphe wrightii, aka Everglades palm and Madeira palm By Mmcknight4 (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

The paurotis palm tree is equipped with its own unique features since each individual trunk is covered with dark brown matted fibers, and old light-colored leaf dense and bases. If professionals in the landscape industry add this plant to the scenery in Florida, they are normally placing them along the roadway median.

 

The Royal Palm Tree

 

The Royal Palm, aka Roystonea regia, also known as the Cuban royal palm

The royal palm can be described as a tree that has feather-like leaves. These leaves tend to grow about 10 to 12 feet in length. As these palm trees age, they have a distinct look. For instance, the youngest parts of its trunks look like ringed leaf scars and the older part of the royal palm tree gives the appearance of a cement color. Because of the extended height of this palm tree, severe storms tend to leave the palm but cut off its crown.

 

What are the 12 palm trees native to Florida?

QUESTION: What are the twelve palm trees native to Florida? I want to put in some palms in our back yard by our pool, but I only want natives. – Fredrick M

ANSWER: There are twelve palm trees native to Florida. However, you must understand that because a tree is native to one location, doesn’t mean it can’t also be native to another area.

For instance, some palms native to Florida are also native to Texas, South Carolina, Central America, and South America.

Yet there are a couple of trees which are endemic to Florida. This means they can only be found in this region. Here is the list of palms which are native (and a couple which are endemic) to Florida, and we’ll tell you about what kind of palms they are so you can pick on that works best for your yard.

·       Everglades Palm

·       Needle Palm

·       Cabbage Palm

·       Thatch Palm

·       Silver Palm

·       Royal Palm

·       Saw Palmetto

·       Buccaneer Palm

·       Dwarf Palmetto

·       Miami Palm

·       Scrub Palmetto

·       Key Thatch

The Everglades Palm is also known as Paurotis Palm and the Silver Saw Palmetto. They live in marshy wetlands and are native to South Florida. The Needle Palm is more of a shrub and only grows to be approximately five feet tall.

Cabbage Palms are also known as a Sabal Palm. This is Florida’s official state tree and also produces the heart of palm. This is similar to an artichoke, but you must be careful in harvesting it because for every heart of palm harvested, it kills a tree.

The Florida Thatch Palm is used to build tiki huts. Its official scientific name is thrinax radiata. This will come in handy when ensuring you understand the differences between the two thatch palm varieties in Florida.

Another thatch palm in Florida is the Key Thatch. It’s native to the Florida Keys and is an endangered plant species. The scientific name for this variety of thatch palm is thrinax morrisii.

The Silver Palm grows in forests while the Saw Palmetto is another shorter, bush variety of palm tree. However, the Royal Palm is the opposite. It’s native to both Florida and Cuba but grows to towering heights which reach up to seventy feet tall.

A Buccaneer Palm is also native to South Florida and is another endangered variety of palm tree. The two palm trees endemic to Florida are the Miami Palm and the Scrub Palmetto. The Miami Palm is also known as sabal miamiensis.

It’s believed to already be extinct in nature. The Scrub Palmetto is known as sabal etonia. The final native palm tree is the Dwarf Palmetto tree which is also known as sabal minor.

You may have noticed within this list, and the trees’ descriptions, that some palm trees were listed as endangered. This occurs due to construction and natural disasters in the area.

However, Florida and the federal government recognize this as an issue. Therefore, these plants are protected by both state and federal laws.

Hopefully, you’ve gained valuable information through this crash course of native palm trees in Florida. You’re now equipped to learn more about each type and maybe be able to incorporate these unique plants into your landscape in the near future.

Learn

More About Native Palm Trees in Florida

http://blogs.ifas.ufl.edu/leeco/2018/02/02/question-and-answer-i-have-heard-that-there-are-12-florida-native-palms-but-only-tow-that-are-endemic-to-florida-what-are-the-names-of-these-two-palms/

https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/CAT87209899/PDF

Palm

Palms is a botanical family of perennial vines, shrubs and trees. They are the only members of the family Arecaceae , which is the only family in the order Arecales . They grow in hot climates.

Well-known palm trees are:

  • date palm
  • coconut palm

There are about 2600 types of palm trees, most of which live in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates.

Palm trees are one of the most famous and widely distributed families of trees. Throughout the history of mankind, they have played an important role for people. Many common foods and dishes come from palm trees. They are often used in parks and gardens located in areas where there is no severe frost.

In the past, palm trees were symbols of victory, peace and fertility. Today, palm trees are a popular symbol of the tropics and vacations.

Cultural significance

Rabindranath Tagore wrote a long famous poem about a particular kind of palm tree.

The palm as a symbol

The palm branch was a symbol of triumph and victory during Roman times. The Romans awarded palm branches to the champions of the games and celebrated their success in war.

The Jews also had a tradition of carrying palm branches during the holidays.

The motto of the University of Southern California is Palmam qui meruit ferat , which in Latin means "Let the one who deserves it bear the palm."

Palm trees are featured on the flags and seals of several places where they grow, including the flags of Haiti, Guam, Florida, South Carolina and Samoa.

In religion

The palm has many meanings in both ancient and modern Middle Eastern religions.

Christianity

The early Christians used the palm branch to symbolize the victory of believers over the enemies of the soul, as in the Palm Sunday celebration of Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.

In Christian art, martyrs were usually depicted with palm trees, symbolizing the victory of the spirit over the flesh, and it was widely believed that the image of a palm tree on a grave meant that a martyr was buried there. Origen calls the palm "a symbol of victory in that war waged by the spirit against the flesh." In this sense, it was especially applicable to martyrs, victors par excellence over the spiritual enemies of mankind; hence the frequent appearance in the Acts of the Martyrs of such expressions as "he received the palm of martyrdom."

In other faiths

In Judaism, the palm tree symbolizes peace and abundance. The palm tree can also symbolize the Tree of Life in Kabbalah.

It is believed [] that the Prophet Mohammed built his house from a palm tree, and the palm represents relaxation and hospitality in many Middle Eastern cultures.

Palm stalks represented long life for the ancient Egyptians, and the god Huh was often depicted holding a palm stalk in one or both hands.

The sacred tree of the Assyrians was a palm tree, personifying the god Ishtar, connecting the sky, the crown of the tree, and the earth, the base of the trunk. The Mesopotamian goddess Inanna, who took part in the sacred marriage ritual, was considered the one who made the dates plentiful.

The palm tree was the sacred sign of Apollo in Ancient Greece because he was born under it.

Modern times

The palm tree, especially the coconut one, remains a symbol of tropical island paradise.

Palm also represents Oasis.

Waving palm leaves to greet Christ in Jerusalem

Palm trees in danger

Like many other plants, some palm trees are threatened with extinction due to human activities. The greatest dangers are growing cities, mining and the conversion of forests to agricultural land. Harvesting palm heartwood for human consumption is also a threat as it comes from the inner core of the tree and harvesting it will kill the tree. The use of rattan in furniture has led to a significant decline in rattan numbers as they are harvested from the wild rather than cultivated. Another threat is the sale of wild palm seeds to gardeners and collectors.

At least one hundred species are endangered, and nine species are said to have recently become extinct.

It is very difficult to save palm seeds because they die when chilled, which is a common way to save rare seeds for the future. Also, planting rare species in parks can never truly recreate the wilderness they come from, and plants may not do well in those parks.

The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Palm Specialist Group began its work at 1

Cultivation and use of palms

Date palms in history

Man's use of palms is as old as or even older than civilization itself, dating back to the cultivation of date palms by the Mesopotamians and other peoples of the Near East 5,000 years ago or more. [1 ] The date palm has had a great influence on the history of the Middle East. Historian W.H. Barreveld wrote:

"If the date palm did not exist, the expansion of humanity into the hot and barren regions of the 'old' world would be much more limited. The date palm not only provided concentrated energy food that could be easily stored and carried around for long travel through the deserts, but also created a more comfortable habitat for people, providing shade and protection from the desert winds.In addition, the date palm gave a variety of products for use in agricultural production and for the manufacture of household utensils, and almost all parts of the palm had a useful purpose " [2].

The early significance of palm trees in the Near East is evidenced by the Scriptures. They are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible and over 22 times in the Quran.

Palms used for cooking and drinking

In addition to the well-known coconut and dates, there are other types of palm products. Palm oil, sago, palm heart, and palm wine are all eaten or drunk in different parts of the world. Palm oil is used in everything from cosmetics to food ingredients.

War use

South Carolina was nicknamed the Palmetto State after the sabal palmetto whose logs were used to build Fort Moultrie. During the American Revolutionary War, their spongy wood helped stop British cannonballs.

Other palm uses

Coir is a coarse, water-resistant fiber from the outer skin of coconuts. Rugs, brushes, mattresses and ropes are made from it. Dragon's Blood, a resin used in paints, varnishes, and incense, can be obtained from rattan fruit. Trees Washingtonia robusta lined along Ocean Avenue in Santa Monica, California.

Today, palms are popular in parks and gardens in countries outside the tropics. The two most cold-hardy species are the Chusan palm from East Asia and the Igla palm from the United States.

Fruit boxes made from palm leaves.


Phoenix dactylifera date palm fruit

Shapes and flowers

Most palms have a straight, unbranched stem, but occasionally a branched stem or even a creeping vine such as rattan is found. They have large evergreen leaves that are arranged in a spiral pattern at the top of the trunk, either fan-shaped (digital) or feather-like (pinnate). The leaves have a tubular sheath at the base, which usually opens on one side as it grows. The flowers grow on an inflorescence, a special offshoot designed only to carry a huge amount of tiny flowers. The flowers are usually small, white and star shaped. Sepals and petals are usually three. The fruit is usually a single seed surrounded by pulp. The well-known coconut is the seed of a large fruit. Some species may contain two or more seeds per fruit.

Where palms live

More than two-thirds of the palms live in tropical forests, where some species grow tall enough to form part of the canopy and other shorter palms form part of the undergrowth. Some species form pure stands in areas with poor drainage or regular flooding. Other palm trees live in tropical mountains at an altitude of more than 1000 meters. Palms can also live in grasslands and scrublands, usually where water is available and in desert oases. Some palms are adapted to extremely basic calcareous soils, others to very acidic soils.

Unusual palms

Coco de mer has the largest seeds of any plant, 30-50 centimeters in diameter and weighing 15-30 kilograms each. With leaves up to 25 meters long and up to 3 meters wide, raffia palms have the largest leaves of any plant. Palm tree corypha has the largest inflorescence (flowering part) among all plants - up to 7.5 meters in height, containing millions of small flowers. The wax palm, the national tree of Colombia, is the tallest palm in the world, reaching a height of 70 meters.

This grove of Washingtonia filifera in Palm Canyon, California, grows along a desert stream.

Palm fossils

Palms first appeared as fossils about 80 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous. Some descendants of this period are still found today, such as the nipa palm or the mangrove palm.

Range

Most palms grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are found from about 44° north latitude to about 44° south latitude. Dwarf palm ( Chamaerops humilis ) found in southern France, Nikau ( Rhopalostylis sapida ) is a palm tree species growing in New Zealand. The hardiest palm in the world is known as the needle palm (Rhapidophyllum Hystrix), which can withstand temperatures as low as -18°C (0°F).

Author

Alegsaonline.com - Palm - Leandro Alegsa - 19/12/2021 - url: https://ru.alegsaonline.com/art/74227

References

- www.palms.org - Landscaping with Palms in the Mediterranean - www.dipbot.unict.it - ​​Arecaceae - Università di Catania - www.botany.hawaii.edu - Arecaceae - University of Hawaii Botany - www. efloras .org - Arecaceae in Flora of North America- www.plantapalm.com - Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Introduction- www.fao.org - Tropical Palms by Food and Agriculture Organization- www.pacsoa.org.au - Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia - www.plantapalm.com - Virtual Palm Encyclopedia - Evolution and the fossil record - www.iucn.org - Palms: their conservation and sustained utilization - www.plantapalm.com - Palm Conservation: Its Atecedents, Status, and Needs - www. biblegateway.com - Bible search for "palm"- www.hti.umich.edu - Koran search for "palm"- www.nps.gov - Revolutionary War Exhibit Text - November 2002- members.cox.net - Growing Hardy Palms- www.byzantines.net - Palm Sunday according to the Byzantine Rite Tradition

Palmira Palace Botanical Garden - Palmira Palace Crimea, the best hotels in Yalta 2022

Palmira Palace Botanical Garden

Albizia Lankaran

(silky acacia)

Homeland: South of Azerbaijan, northern regions of Iran, Central China.

Lankaran Albizia belongs to the legume family, the species is a relic of the Tertiary period. This is a low (10-15 m) tree with a wide spreading openwork umbrella-shaped crown, like in some species of tropical acacias. Graceful doubly pinnate leaves of albizia consist of 30-60 leaflets, green above, gray below. The leaves bloom late, in mid-May. Albizia leaves fold and droop at dusk, resembling a mimosa with this property, which may be why they are sometimes called "southern mimosa".

Albizia flowering is long and abundant. It starts at the end of June and lasts until the end of August. Small albizia flowers have very long, brightly colored stamens (pink, purple, white, cream), which form openwork panicles, resembling tufts of bright tropical birds. The unusually beautiful fluffy flowers of albizia have a delicate honey smell. In September, straight flat yellow beans appear on the tree, which contain up to 20 small brown seeds of the plant. Albizia Lankaran is a fast-growing breed. Very photophilous, it cannot grow in the shade of other trees. It is not afraid of sea spray and tolerates urban conditions well. The tree can withstand frost down to -15 degrees.

Trachycarpus Fortuna

(CHINESE FAN PALM)

Origin: Korea, Japan and East Asia.

The palm family includes several thousand species. Growing in the conditions of the South Coast, the Chinese fan palm reaches a height of 10 m. The trunk of the palm tree, densely covered with brown fibers, is crowned with 20–30 fan leaves on long petioles. The life span of each leaf is 4-5 years. The plant overwinters in open ground without damage. From low winter and high summer temperatures, the trunk of a palm tree is protected by “felt”, which is formed from the split base of old, falling leaves. In spring, in April-May, inflorescences appear on the trees, and in autumn, dark blue fruits ripen on female specimens in large seedlings, resembling huge bunches of grapes. The palm tree grows slowly, the annual growth is only a few centimeters. At home, the fan palm is one of the most used economic crops. The "felt" of the trunk is used for stuffing mattresses and upholstered furniture. Light, durable palm wood is used in construction and in the manufacture of boats, turning crafts, and musical instruments. Leaves are an excellent material for covering roofs, weaving baskets, ropes, nets, hats, fans. Palm roots are used in folk medicine, and young shoots are eaten.

Homeland: North America, the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

Stiff, long leaves of the plant are arranged in a dense rosette and usually end in a sharp thorn. Lignified short trunks of yucca often fall to the ground with age. In the Crimea, 15 different types and forms of yucca grow, some reach a height of up to 8 m (in the collection of the Nikitsky Garden). Inflorescences of snow-white yuccas with large, as if slightly drooping flowers - bells, are often compared with luxurious candelabra. They are so perfect that many doubt and even look at whether these are living flowers? In the Crimea, yucca bears fruit only with artificial pollination, since its pollinator, the moth from the genus Pronuda, does not live here. So, when it becomes necessary to obtain seeds for the reproduction of yucca, this function is taken over by the employees of the dendrology department of the Nikitsky Garden, taking with them tweezers and brushes.

Indians used sharp thorns at the ends of long leaves instead of needles, for which the Spaniards called the filamentous yucca “Adam's needle”. And the pita fiber contained in the trunk and leaves of the yucca is used by the Mexicans for weaving ropes, which are not inferior in strength to steel ones. The real coarse fiber for the first denim was also obtained from yucca thread. Mexicans boast that their trousers are so durable that they are inherited. You can trust them: the strength of the yucca fibers is such that they have justified themselves even as an additive to concrete to increase its strength. By order of the US Postal Department, more than a hundred years ago, kraft cardboard was made from yucca - a thick and durable paper used for packaging.

Large yucca flowers are used by Mexicans as food, as vegetables for salads or as one of the components of an omelet. In Central America, they prepare chicha - an alcoholic drink.

Agave was brought to Europe immediately after the discovery of America. Over 100 species are known. The name of the plant comes from the Greek “aganos”, which means “amazing”, “noble”, “excellent”. Agaves live for more than 10 years, and in greenhouse conditions up to 40 years. However, they bloom only once in a lifetime, and therefore each such flowering in the Crimea is a real sensation. Yalta residents remember the case when the agave blossomed inside the greenhouse of the Nikitsky Garden, and the employees had to take out the glass on the roof to allow it to grow up and bloom. And another record figure - the inflorescence of only one agave can have up to 17,000 greenish flowers - small and fragrant.

Mexicans use strong, sharp spines from the tops of leaves as nails. And wide strips of dried leaves go to them for weaving mats and roofs.

Evergreen pyramidal cypress

Homeland: Mediterranean, North Africa, Asia Minor, Crete and Rhodes, Northern Iran. Biologists distinguish only 19 species of Cypresses. The most popular and widespread on the South Coast is the evergreen pyramidal cypress.

The arrow-like dense crown of the pyramidal cypress is a garden form, bred by the Greeks of ancient Hellas.

This crown shape is not known in the wild. But the form of cypress with branches arranged horizontally, in the homeland, plants are found everywhere, sometimes forming dense forests.

Cypress grows most rapidly in early youth. At 3 years, the tree reaches a height of 1–2 m; at 50–60 minutes, growth slows down. The tree reaches its maximum height (25–30 m) by the age of 100.

Cypress is a long-lived tree, in the Middle East there are specimens up to 2000 years old. Cypress bark is brown-gray, thin, fibrous, with shallow longitudinal cracks. The needles are dark green, the cones are gray-brown, they ripen for two years.

The oblong pads make them look like a soccer ball.

Cypress trees bloom from the end of March to May. From the abundance of pollen, the needles become dirty green. According to doctors, cypress finger is an allergen for 20% of people. Cypress is a shade tree. It tolerates prolonged drought and short-term temperature drops to -20 ° C. Cypress is easily shaped by shearing, transplanting in adulthood.

Cypress was brought to the Crimea by the second director of the Imperial Nikitsky Garden, Nikolai von Hartvis. The needles and shoots of some species are used to obtain aromatic oil, which has antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic and tonic properties. However, due to the high price, they are relatively rarely used in medicine and perfumery. Cypress wood has a fungicidal effect, and the smell repels insects. The high content of resin in wood ensures its good preservation, for this reason the ancient Egyptians made sarcophagi from this tree, cypress oil was used in embalming mummies. Plutarch recommended that all laws be written on cypress boards. According to some assumptions, cypress is the gopher tree from which Noah's Ark was made.

Himalayan cedar

Origin: northwestern Himalayas, India, mountains of Afghanistan (At 1000-3000 m above sea level), Pakistan and Nepal.

Himalayan cedar is one of the most beautiful trees on earth. The tree in its homeland reaches 60 m in height and 3 m in trunk diameter. In the parks of the South Coast it grows up to 20–35 m in 100 years. The branches are not located in the same plane. The needles are quite long (up to 4.5 cm), bright green (part with a bluish tint), rather soft and elastic. The bark is brown-gray. The tree “blooms” in October-November, and then a gust of wind knocks down delicate pollen into light golden clouds. Cones ripen in November-December of the following year. In shape, they resemble barrels (7–10 cm long). which decorate the tree until the ripe ones crack and crumble into graceful wooden scales.

Himalayan cedar is a photophilous plant. This species is the least frost-resistant of the entire genus (tolerates temperatures as low as -20 ° C), but in terms of drought resistance it does not differ from other types of cedar.

Cedar wood contains aromatic substances. It lends itself well to processing and is especially valuable because it does not rot in water and is not subject to fouling with algae and molluscs. Another unique property is that it is not attacked by termites. That is why the ancient Indian temples of the fourth-fifth millennium have survived to this day.

Asians love cedar so much that even temples-pagodas repeat buildings in their shape, except for the Himalayan cedar. Due to its high decorative quality, the Himalayan cedar is a very valuable species for park construction. It lives up to 1000 years, but in ideal conditions trees can reach the age of 3000 years. Such old and powerful trees are no longer found in the Himalayas. Scientists have only about 20 fossil species of cedar. Currently, only four have survived: Atlas, Lebanese, short-coniferous and Himalayan.

50 species of trees are incorrectly called cedars in many countries of the world. Peter was the first to master the art of shipbuilding on versions in Holland, where a cedar board was used to cover the bottom of the ship. Expensive wood was delivered to Holland by sea from North Africa, the birthplace of the Atlas cedar. Wanting to build a powerful fleet in Russia, Peter the first sent several expeditions to Siberia in search of cedar. Soon, magnificent "mast" trunks of Siberian pine were discovered. The wood of this coniferous tree turned out to be very similar to cedar in terms of technical characteristics. By decree of Peter the Great, the tree began to be called "Siberian cedar". The famous Siberian "pine" nuts are the seeds of the Siberian cedar pine. So the confusion occurred during the time of Peter the Great.

Crimean pine

Distributed in the mountainous and foothill Crimea.

On the slopes of the Main Ridge of the Crimean Mountains at an altitude of 300–1000 m above sea level, the Crimean pine forms entire forests.

This is a large tree, growing up to 35 m in favorable conditions.

Crimean pine has a wide umbrella-shaped crown in old age. The tree has a straight trunk and light brown bark with a gray tinge. Pine needles are dense, dark green. Skeletal branches are located horizontally, and at the ends of the branches there are young shoots rising upwards. Pine wood is very rich in resin, so it almost does not rot in water. It is perfect for the construction of berths, dams, port facilities.

Also used for making furniture, strange musical instruments. The Crimean pine was indispensable in shipbuilding, because of which, unfortunately, for many years its mass felling was carried out. At present, felling of pine and other types of its industrial use are prohibited in the forests of the peninsula. The importance of pine as a sanitary and hygienic tree species is very great. The volatile substances released by it have a detrimental effect on many pathogens, for example, they retard the growth and reproduction of tubercle bacillus.

The healing properties of the South Coast of Crimea are due primarily to the Crimean pine. Pine extracts are very useful for people suffering from cardiovascular diseases.

Sudak pine

(STANKEVICH'S PINE)

Kind of aboriginal flora of Crimea. This is a very decorative breed, is the greatest relic and endemic species.

This plant is listed in the Red Book. Unique natural areas of the Sudak pine forest near Novyi Svet have been declared protected areas.

Montezuma pine

(MEXICAN pine)

Natural habitats: southern half of Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador.

Montezuma Pine is a beautiful tree up to 20–30 m high. Wood with a pleasant delicate aroma. Pine is distinguished by very long (20–40 cm) needles hanging in strands at the ends of branches. Mexican Indians used long needles as decoration for military headdresses. To do this, it was dried and dyed. Perhaps that is why the pine was named after the last leader of the Aztecs - Montezuma. Currently, needles are widely used for upholstery of upholstered furniture, as it does not fray and retains elasticity for a long time. In Europe, the tree has only been known since the early 19th century. Pine Montezuma is very photophilous. In the dry season requires additional watering. The plant suffers greatly from the windbreaker.

Magnolia grandiflora

The species grows naturally only in the state of Florida (USA).

Magnolia is believed to be a tree so ancient that even dinosaurs saw it. Over a hundred million years ago - this is even hard to imagine. But the fact is considered a fact: this is one of the first flowering plants on our planet. Fossils from 38 to 58 million years old have been found in Florida. At home in America, its leaves reach a meter in length and under one of them it is quite possible to hide from the rain. In July, the large-flowered magnolia becomes a real celebrity in the South Coast: It is at this time that huge, white, like porcelain, flowers bloom on it, reaching 30 cm in diameter and having a strong candy-sweet, spicy and heady aroma with citrus notes. Each flower lives no more than two or three days, but there are so many buds on the tree that its flowering lasts until mid-September. Magnolia came from America to Europe thanks to the French monk and botanist Charles Plumier. Captivated by her beauty, he brought to Paris six seedlings in barrels of earth. Three trees were donated to the Royal Garden (Louis 14th), and he sold three, recouping all the expenses of the expedition. The delight of the French was indescribable. A magnolia flower costs fabulous money - more expensive than a diamond necklace. All the ladies chewed on flaunting at the ball, attaching a flower to their bodice.

A real "magnolia fever" has begun, similar to "tulip fever" in Holland. Gardeners began to steal each other's flowering trees. The issue of magnolia was even heard in Parliament, and a ship was sent to America for new seedlings.

Magnolia with a spicy, dense aroma of its flowers - like a fairy tale on a holiday. In hot weather, it evaporates essential oils in such quantity that it is enough to strike a match - and you can see a violet flame.

Magnolia was brought to the Crimea in 1817 by the second director of the Imperial Nikitsky Garden, Nikolai von Gartvis, along with plane trees, cypresses, cedars, Italian pines, California sequoias and fan palms, without which it is impossible to imagine the South Coast today. Magnolia took root very badly, it took scientists more than 30 years to tame the "overseas aristocrat". For the South Coast magnolia is the most valuable ornamental crop. The life expectancy of a magnolia is several centuries. By the age of 30, the tree reaches a height of about 10 m, and by old age it reaches 14-15 m. Tincture of the bark of young trees and fruits is used as an anti-febrile agent. Magnolia leaves and flowers contain rutin and essential oil, which are used in some medicines and perfumes.

Oleander

Homeland: Mediterranean coast (Southern Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor).

Oleander - in Greek "nymph from the beautiful island of Andres". The entire Mediterranean coast turns into a fragrant garden when the numerous pink, white, cream or scarlet flowers of this evergreen shrub bloom. Their beauty is shaded and emphasized by the glossy laustoid leaves of the plant. Oleander blooms for a very long time: from early summer to mid-autumn. In autumn, oleander fruits appear - elongated boxes, similar to a pod.

All parts of oleander contain toxic substances. Therefore, oleander should be handled with care. It is better not to leave a bouquet of oleander flowers overnight in a living room, so as not to wake up with a headache.

During the Napoleonic campaigns in Spain, the soldiers of one battalion fell into an eternal sleep after tasting meat fried on oleander branches, kindly offered by Andalusian peasants. The plant contains the substance oleandrin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases. And from the leaves of the plant, an antibiotic is obtained, which is several times superior in action to penicillin.

The plant is sun-loving, quite drought-resistant, resistant to sea breezes. Oleander tolerates intense heat well.

Indian Lagerstromia

Homeland: China, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Indochina, Philippine and Moluccas.

The name of the country in which the plant was first discovered and described by botanists has been preserved in the species name of Lagerstromia. From East Asia, Indian Lagerstromia came to Europe thanks to the navigator Mangus Lagerstrom. About two centuries ago, returning from my travels in the East, he called at various ports of the Mediterranean coast and left these exotic plants with lush flowers of the finest shades as a gift from the governor.

Lagerstromia indica is a deciduous shrub reaching 8 m in height with an elegant silky crown. At all times of the year, unusual smooth, silvery-gray with a lilac tint, spotted trunks of Indian lagerstromia attract attention. Small oval shiny leaves of the plant bloom late (mid-May), in autumn they turn yellowish-red. Lagerstromia indica blooms profusely from July to the end of September. Small flowers with a corrugated jagged edge form lush brushes of inflorescences (up to 20 cm long) of pink, purple, crimson tones. Honey plant. The culture is quite winter-hardy, withstands temperatures down to -16 ° C.

Laurel cherry officinalis

Homeland: Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Ciscaucasia, Iran, Asia Minor, Balkan Peninsula.

Laurel cherry officinalis is a large sprawling shrub that grows up to 5 m tall.

Dark green, leathery, glossy leaves of cherry laurel resemble laurel leaves in their shape, and the fruits look like small cherries – hence the name of the plant.

Cherry laurel blossoms in April-May. Small white-cream flowers are collected in narrow cylindrical inflorescences (brushes up to 20 cm long), which rise up like candles. The laurel cherry is, as it were, enveloped in a snow-white cloud and a bitter aroma, strong and tender at the same time.

Holly mahonia

Natural range: North America, (British Columbia to California).

Holly mahonia is a low shrub (up to 1.5 m), evergreen from the barberry family. The name of the genus Magonia is in honor of the American gardener Mac Mahon, who lived in the 18th century. The genus includes about 50 species. Magonia received the specific name for the similarity of prickly-toothed leaves with a holly leaf. The plant looks decorative at any time of the year. Mahonia has large glossy leaves. When blooming, they are reddish, dark green in summer, reddish-golden-bronze in winter, especially in sunny places. The bright yellow flowers have a pleasant aroma with citrus hues. The fruits are black with a bluish bloom, sour in taste and edible.

(fig tree)

Homeland: Transcaucasia, Iran, Asia Minor, India, Afghanistan and the Mediterranean.

The plant belongs to the largest family of mulberries. In Asia Minor, figs are often called the fig tree, or fig tree. Figs are the oldest cultivated plant. According to archaeologists, it was grown in Asia about 5,000 years ago. In Europe, judging by archaeological finds, its culture is at least 2000 years old. The fig is a deciduous tree 10–12 m high with a low wide crown. Rigid rough leaves with beautiful smooth cutouts are dark green above and lighter, with soft pubescence below. Small nondescript fig flowers are located inside the fleshy receptacle. The fruiting period of the plant is from June to October. Fig fruits - figs, or figs, as well as wine berries (dried fruits) - are distinguished by high taste, nutritional and medicinal properties. Fresh fruits contain 25% sugar (dried - up to 70%), as well as pectins, enzymes, organic acids, phosphorus, iron (more than in an apple), calcium, various trace elements, boric acid, vitamins. From the fruits of figs he prepares jam, marshmallow, jelly, jam, jam, gingerbread, sweets. Dried fruits are added for better fermentation of wines, hence their name - "vin berry".

Trees are short-lived, rarely living more than 100 years. Figs - a very unpretentious plant, loves moisture, warmth and a long period of sunny days. Figs propagate easily. The plant is resistant to gas and smoke, absorbs tobacco smoke and combustion products in the kitchen. Therefore, it is used in landscaping factory premises and highways of southern cities. The species is very shade-tolerant, moisture and heat-loving, evergreen shrub, the tops of its shoots freeze even on the South Coast.

Japanese aucuba

The main species grows in Southeast Asia, the Himalayas. Garden form of the plant. Aokiba means "always green" in Japanese. The leaves of typical aukuba forms are dark green in color. Japanese aucuba variegated with green-golden leaves spreads in culture. Once in Japan, monks found a very unusual variegated sprig of aukuba in the forest. She became the ancestor of the garden form of the plant. The people call her "Spotted laurel" or "golden sand", "golden tree". Aukuba is a dioecious plant, but only female specimens are common in the Crimea. It blooms in March-April with inconspicuous brown-red flowers in paniculate inflorescences and rarely bears fruits - coral-red berries. The leaves are quite large (8–20 cm), leathery, shiny, with numerous yellow spots. Once upon a time in Southeast Asia, the culinary delight of the rich strata of the population was the smoking of small pieces of meat in the smoke of aucuba branches on special bronze braziers at a festive meal. This gave the meat a spicy taste. The Europeans dubbed it the "sausage tree" for this.

Viburnum wrinkled

Natural range: central and western China.

Viburnum wrinkled is a large evergreen shrub from the honeysuckle family. On the South Coast it reaches 3 m in height. The shrub has recognizable oblong wrinkled leaves of dark green color. Leaves can reach 18 cm in length. Abundant flowering shrub lasts from April to June. The flowers are creamy white, collected in large inflorescences. The fruits are small drupes, first red and then black, shiny and elegant, appear in September-October and adorn the plant until early spring. Viburnum wrinkled is characterized by strong growth and is very decorative. Often used in parks in single landings or small groups.

Noble laurel

Homeland: Mediterranean and Asia Minor.

Laurel is one of the forest-forming species in its homeland. This plastic culture is also widely used in garden and park art. The powerful spreading crown of the laurel is strewn with hard fragrant foliage. The tall trunks of the plant cast a matte sheen of gray-green smooth bark.

Well, laurel is very often found in the form of a shrub, which is due to growing conditions and pruning. In addition to high decorative qualities, laurel is a valuable food and flavoring plant, an excellent technical, essential oil and medicinal crop. Mass flowering of laurel begins in May. Its flowers are white-yellow, very fragrant. They are excellent honey plants, but honey is tricky in this - in large quantities it causes dizziness and a state of intoxication. In October-November, laurel fruits ripen - oval black drupes (1.5-2 cm long). From them, an oil is obtained, which is used in pharmaceuticals, perfumery and soap production. Laurel leaves have been used as a spice for over 2000 years. Collect leaves all winter, since December. The fact is that at this time of the year, laurel leaves accumulate the maximum amount of aromatic substances. Take mature hard biennial and older leaves. Young soft foliage is poisonous! Laurel is valuable in sanitary and hygienic terms: flies, mosquitoes and mosquitoes do not tolerate its smell. Laurel wood is light and fragrant. It polishes very well and is highly valued by craftsmen in the manufacture of turnery and furniture.

Laurel viburnum

Naturally grows on the Mediterranean coast.

Laurel viburnum is an evergreen and almost constantly flowering shrub from the honeysuckle family. Viburnum laurel blooms profusely and for a long time. Flowering begins in late autumn, in warm winters it continues until March and ends with violent outbreaks of mass flowering in mid-spring. The foliage of the shrub is dense, shiny, dark green. It serves as an excellent background for small white and white-pink flowers collected in corymbose inflorescences.

The fruits are almost dry small bluish-black drupes that ripen in September-October. People do not eat them, and birds always feast on them with pleasure. Kalina lends itself well to shearing and architectural molding. It is unpretentious and very decorative in all seasons. Widely used in park plantings.

Large-fruited strawberry

Origin: Mediterranean and southern Europe.

Strawberry is a genus of evergreen trees and shrubs of the heather family.

This plant is revered in Madrid: the symbol of the city is a bear eating strawberry fruit. Unlike the small-fruited strawberry, this tree has a brown, rough, wrinkled bark. A round dense crown forms a shady canopy. On the South Coast, a tree reaches up to 10 m in height in old age.

Large-fruited strawberry is decorative with its graceful foliage all year round. The leaves are oval, dense, shiny. The tree is especially beautiful in autumn, from mid-October to the end of November, when the branches are abundantly covered with flowers. Creamy white strawberry flowers, reminiscent of lily of the valley flowers, are collected in paniculate drooping inflorescences. Flowers of the plant honey plants. They have a delicate smell and attract many bees. Strawberry-like fruits, initially yellow and orange, ripen to a bright red color. They are large (up to 2.5 cm in diameter), juicy, edible and very tasty. Inside the pulp of the fruit are small seeds. In the Mediterranean countries, jams, jams, wine and liqueurs are usually prepared from the fruits of the large-fruited strawberry.

Small-fruited strawberry

(CORAL TREE)

Homeland: Crimea, Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, Eastern Mediterranean.

In Crimea grows only on the southern coast. It is the only deciduous evergreen tree of native flora. This species is a relic of the Tertiary period.

Small-fruited strawberry is a relatively low tree (up to 6 m tall). Surprisingly picturesque intricately twisted trunks and winding ends of branches, which, in combination with smooth coral-red bark, give the tree an exotic look.

In summer (June-July), the upper layer of the bark cracks and falls off, exposing the young light green bark, which gradually (by the middle of winter) acquires a red-brown color. The fall of the bark is timed to coincide with the change of foliage. In May-June, young leaves appear in strawberries, and old leaves fall off. Oblong leathery leaves are too small at first, and so that the tree does not experience stress from a lack of nutrients, young green bark is included in the photosynthesis process. It blooms profusely, usually in April-May. White fragrant flowers, relatively small, similar to blueberry or wild rosemary flowers, are collected in drooping inflorescences. Edible fruits ripen in October-December. Outwardly, they are very similar to strawberries - rounded, orange-red wrinkled berries, sweetish in taste.

Unfortunately, the area of ​​natural growth of this amazing tree is declining. Only a few thousand strawberry trees have survived in Crimea. The small-fruited strawberry is included in the list of rare and endangered plants in Europe. One of the places of its mass growth is the tract Cape Martyan, declared a natural monument.

Opuntia

These outlandish cacti were brought to Europe from the New World by Columbus himself. Prickly pear got its name from the Spanish port of Opunta, where Europeans first noticed it in the 16th century. In June, prickly pear cacti are all strewn with unexpectedly large (5-6 cm in diameter), festive bright flowers with numerous stamens and a pleasant smell. And the juicy green "riveting" prickly pear is its rough and prickly stem. Opuntias bloom for three to four weeks, but each flower lives only one or two days. Its sweet and sour berries, tender, juicy, are popular in Europe under the name Indian figs or figs.

They are eaten fresh, dried and boiled, prickly pear fruit juice is used for syrups and jellies, and also as a dye in the food industry.

Holm oak

Homeland: Mediterranean (Southern Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor).

Oak is a genus of trees in the beech family. In total, there are about 450 species of oaks on the planet, mainly distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. The familiar "lobed" leaf is a privilege of deciduous "northern" oaks. They occupy vast areas on earth, although in terms of the number of species they are much smaller than the evergreen ones.

Holm oak belongs to the evergreen "southern" oaks, therefore it has whole-leaf leaves, unusual for oak, without grooves along the edges. Oak blossoms in May. The plant is monoecious with dioecious flowers. Male flowers in long hanging catkins. Female flowers are placed at the ends of young shoots and are almost invisible. But it is precisely as a result of their modification that a fruit characteristic of all oaks arises - an acorn. Acorns of holm oak are small, elongated, chocolate brown. Some garden forms, such as holm oak, have acorns that are sweet and edible. The wood is strong, hard, and sinks in water. Therefore, the oak was called "stone". Holm oak is a durable species, lives up to 1000 years. Withstands frost down to -20 °C.

Phytoncides

Phytoncides are a complex of antimicrobial substances found in plants. It includes terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters and other compounds that can kill or inhibit the growth and development of bacteria and pathogenic fungi.

The phenomenon of plant phytoncidal activity was discovered by the Soviet scientist Boris Tokin in the thirties of the 20th century. Literally translated as "killer plants" (from the Greek "phyton" - a plant and the Latin "cido" - I kill).

Phytoncides are secreted in different quantities by all plants, since they are one of the factors of their natural immunity. Scientists call phytoncides the term "volatile phytoorganic excretions of plants" (VFE).

The main mechanism of action of phytoncides is associated with the formation of ozonides (charged ozone), which can destroy the DNA structures of microorganisms, increasing the bactericidal activity of air by at least 2-3 times.

The highest content of phytoncides is observed in the pine forest (from 1 hectare of pine plantations 370–420 kg of LFOV), then in spruce and larch plantations (320–405 kg), in birch forests (190–220 kg), oak forests, aspen forests (170–190 kg), maple forests.

Trees and shrubs have a maximum activity closer to noon. In the morning, their content in the air is lower, for example, in a pine and birch forest it is 3–4 times lower than in the daytime, but an even lower concentration (7 times lower) is observed in the evening. In spring and summer, phytoncidity is higher than in autumn and winter. When the air temperature rises to +20, +25 °C, the concentration of phytoncides doubles. The most useful phytoncidal plants:

- White Acacia
- ordinary barberry
- warty birch
- oak red and cherry
- IVIS
- spruce
- Kalina ordinary
- Kashtan horse
- pine
- TIS Pyramidalny
- Topol Pyramidalny
- Toples - lavender
- wisteria
- crimson

Based on numerous studies, B.P. Tokin established the time of death of protozoa after non-contact exposure to volatile trees: oak - 5 minutes, cypress - 6 minutes, yew berry - 6 minutes, Cossack juniper - 7 minutes , pine - 10 minutes, birch - 20 minutes, poplar - 9minutes. The air in parks contains 200 times less bacteria.

Effects of phytoncides on humans

Volatile phytoncides are able to penetrate through the lungs and skin into the human body. They inhibit the development of pathogens, protect against infectious diseases. Phytoncides normalize heart rate and blood pressure, participate in metabolism, lower blood sugar levels, have a beneficial effect on the processes of blood circulation in the brain, liver condition, bactericidal activity of the skin, as well as on the immune and nervous systems.

Inhalation of volatile phytoncides of coniferous trees increases the resistance of erythrocytes to oxygen deficiency, almost doubles their lifespan. Oak phytoncides reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients at all stages of the disease. Phytoncides of lilac, poplar and hawthorn constrict blood vessels, increase blood pressure, stimulate the cardiovascular system. Phytoncides of birch and linden expand the bronchi, stimulate the respiratory system, relieve nervous system overexertion and headache.


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