How many trees are in pennsylvania
Pennsylvania’s climate, rainfall, and soil fertility support forest growth (PDF) throughout most of the state with the exception of areas that are too wet or too rocky. The major forest types are:
Northern hardwood forest
Great Lakes beech-maple forest
Northern Hardwood Forest
The northern hardwood forest occupies the northern third of the state and extends south at high elevations along the Allegheny Front. It also occurs farther south on north-facing slopes and cool, moist ravines.
This forest type is characterized by a mixture of hardwoods and conifers and usually contains:
Wild black cherry reaches its best development in this zone, especially in the northwestern part of the state.
Understory trees typically include:
Oak forests dominate the southern two-thirds of the state.
Oak forests include red oak-mixed hardwood type on lower slopes where red and white oaks occur mixed with:
On drier upper slopes and ridge tops throughout the central Pennsylvania, oak forests dominated by white, black, and chestnut oak are common.
These forests often have a dense layer of shrubs such as mountain laurel and black huckleberry.
Before 1910, American chestnut was an important component of Pennsylvania’s dry oak forests, but the accidental introduction of chestnut blight in New York City in 1904 resulted in chestnut’s shift from widespread canopy dominance to minor status within just a few decades.
Great Lakes Beech-Maple Forest
The Great Lakes beech-sugar maple forest is represented at the western end of the state. The mixed mesophytic forests, which reach their greatest development in the Smoky Mountains, just reach southern Pennsylvania.
These forests contain:
Understory trees include:
The herbaceous layer is very rich and diverse.
In the southeastern corner of the state, in a narrow sliver of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province that parallels the Delaware River, coastal plain forests contain:
Southern red oak
In the northeastern and northwestern corers of the state, in areas covered by ice during the most recent glaciation, peat deposits support forests with a northern character dominated by black spruce and tamarack.
Serpentinite rock, which occurs in a band of outcrops stretching across southern Delaware, Chester and Lancaster counties, supports forests of pitch pine or Virginia pine, coupled with:
Shale barrens and limestone barrens of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province contain drought-tolerant species including:
Table Mountain pine
Riparian areas throughout the state, where periodic flooding ins a limiting factor are characterized by:
River birch is common along rivers and streams in the eastern part of the state but rare in the west. Swamp forests along Lake Erie are the only locations where pumpkin ash occurs.
Insects and Diseases
Forest insects and diseases are serious threats and can have devastating impacts on the long-term health and sustainability of forest ecosystems.
Diseases, such as chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease, and insect pests, such as emerald ash borer, spongy moth (formerly known as gypsy moth), and hemlock woolly adelgid, already have significantly changed our forest landscapes.
DCNR’s Bureau of Forestry monitors Pennsylvania’s forests for insects and diseases, protecting trees when necessary.
Current Threats to Pennsylvania Forests
Of the pests that affect our commonwealth’s forests, the insects and diseases that have caused the most damage in terms of defoliation and mortality during recent years include:
Oaks continue to be at risk from spongy moth defoliation and oak wilt disease, while beech bark disease continues to expand and threaten beech populations.
Threats to oaks and beech are especially important because they are the largest remaining sources of hard mast for wildlife after the demise of the American chestnut.
Additionally, hemlock woolly adelgid, introduced into Pennsylvania in 1967, continues to spread westward and is affecting the eastern hemlock, Pennsylvania’s state tree.
Similarly, the emerald ash borer was detected in Pennsylvania in 2007, and is now found in most of Pennsylvania causing widespread ash mortality.
Monitoring Insects and Diseases in Pennsylvania Forests
DCNR’s Bureau of Forestry has a variety of active surveys and projects to monitor and manage forest insects and diseases.
Each year, the DCNR Bureau of Forestry conducts an aerial survey program to detect and map:
- Tree dieback
- Foliage discoloration
Ground surveys are done to confirm the suspected insect or disease for each mapped area.
The information is used to:
- Determine the extent of damage for insects and diseases of concern
- Anticipate future outbreaks
- Make management recommendations
The data are provided to the USDA Forest Service for developing regional and national maps of current outbreaks, risk maps, and models to predict future conditions for pests of concern. These resources include:
Pennsylvania Aerial Detection Results Maps
2021 Pennsylvania Aerial Survey Results Map (PDF)
2020 Pennsylvania Aerial Survey Results Map (PDF)
2019 Pennsylvania Aerial Survey Results Map (PDF)
2018 Pennsylvania Aerial Survey Results Map (PDF)
2017 Pennsylvania Aerial Survey Results Map (PDF)
Pennsylvania Forest Health Report
The Pennsylvania DCNR Bureau of Forestry collaborates with Penn State Extension to regularly produce forest health reports. Guided by monitoring and research, reports provide forest managers timely information on current and expected forest health stressors.
Spring 2021 Pennsylvania Forest Health Report
National Report and Risk Map
National Report of Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the US
2013-2027 National Insect and Disease Risk Map Viewer
Contributors to Infestations and Tree Mortality
As trees age or are stressed by external factors, they become less able to fight off insects and disease-causing pathogens, eventually succumbing to insect infestations and diseases that help finish off the declining tree.
External factors that can stress trees include:
These trees are ultimately replaced by younger, healthier trees growing in the understory (lower vegetation layer that includes young trees, shrubs, and other plants) through the natural regeneration of trees and forests.
While native insects and diseases (bark borer beetles, bark beetles, Armillaria root rot) contribute to the death of old and stressed trees and lead the way to the regeneration of trees and forests, non-native insects and pathogens can dramatically alter this cycle.
Trees have less ability to fight off non-native invaders and they can succumb even when young and healthy.90,000 Pennsylvania population | US Encyclopedia
Over 12,700,000 people live in Pennsylvania (sixth largest in population in the United States), while the average population density is about 110 people per km 2 (11th in the US).
The largest cities in Pennsylvania are Philadelphia (about 1,530,000 inhabitants, the fifth largest US cities), Pittsburgh (more than 300,000 inhabitants) and Allentown (about 120,000 inhabitants). About 50,000 people live in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania's capital.
The largest metropolitan area in Pennsylvania is around Philadelphia. Here, in the so-called "Valley Delaware", live about 6,000,000 people (together with the population of the adjacent settlements of the states New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland). The Philadelphia metropolitan area ranks fifth on the list US metropolitan areas).
Other large urban clusters of Pennsylvania formed around Pittsburgh (more than 2,350,000 people), Allentown (more than 820,000 people), Scranton ("Wyoming Valley", more than 560,000 people) and Harrisburg (about 550,000 people).
- White 81. 9%
- Black (African American) - 10.8%
- Asian - 2.7%
- Native Americans (Indians or Eskimos of Alaska) - 0.2%
- Other races - 2.4%
- Two or more races - 1.9%
- Hispanic or Latino (any race) - 5.7%
Although there are relatively few Hispanic or Latino Americans in Pennsylvania, this particular population is the fastest growing. Most Pennsylvania Hispanics live in or around Philadelphia.
The largest ethnic (national) groups among the population of the state of Pennsylvania:
- Germans - about 28.5%
- Irish - about 18%
- Italians - about 13%
- Descendants of Afro-descendants (African Americans) - about 11%
- English - about 8. 5%
- Poles - about 7%
More than 1.5% of the population of Pennsylvania are ethnic Russians, about 1% are Ukrainians.
The southeastern counties of the state are often referred to as "Pennsylvania Dutch" ( Pennsylvania Dutch ). Actually this the area was once inhabited by ethnic Germans, and the name, in fact erroneous, came from a distorted German word Deutsch ("German").
Approximately 70% of the population of Pennsylvania state that they belong to one religion or another in polls. The largest groups among religious residents of the state:
- Christian - about 95%, including:
- Catholics - about 53%
- Protestants - about 40%, including:
- Methodists - about 9%
- Lutherans - about 9%
- Orthodox - about 1%
- Jews - about 4%
- Muslims - about 1%
Very large population in Pennsylvania (second largest in the US after Ohio) 90,095 Amish 90,096 adherents of a very conservative current of the Protestant church. The Amish are not allowed to marry. with people of other religions, refusal to use modern technologies, a general desire for isolation from the environment peace.
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This Day in US HistoryAlumni of the US Naval Academy
1845 The US Naval Academy was established in Annapolis, Maryland.
1973 The only resignation of a US vice president in history: Spiro Agnew leaves office, avoiding prosecution for tax evasion.
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Pennsylvania is a state in the northeastern United States. Its area is 117.4 thousand square meters. km, 12.6 million people live here (this is the 6th place in the United States in terms of population). Pennsylvania shares borders with six states and is the only mid-Atlantic state without direct access to the sea.
The name of the state comes from the Latin Penn Sylvania, which means "Land and forests of Penn." The name of the state was not accidental: in 1681, King Charles II of England presented the lands that are now part of modern Pennsylvania to the young Quaker William Penn. This gift was a gratitude to William's father, Admiral Penn (and repayment of the king's debt to him), after whom the colony was named. At first, it was a refuge for Quakers and others persecuted for their faith. The name Philadelphia is also associated with the name of William Penn - in ancient Greek it means "City of Brotherly Love" - he built it specifically for Protestants.
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The DuPont Gardens in Pennsylvania are stunning examples of garden landscapes inspired by the finest examples of traditional English gardening. Here - in flower beds, lawns, in its 20 open and 20 winter gardens, in extensive heated greenhouses - 11 thousand of the most diverse flowers and plants have been collected. The greenhouse includes many halls: absolutely amazing - cactus, no less interesting - tropical with exotic palm trees and lianas, a stream and a waterfall ...
Monuments and monuments
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The Liberty Bell is one of the main symbols of the American struggle for independence from Great Britain. On July 8, 1776, the ringing of the Liberty Bell brought together the inhabitants of all the surroundings in order to hear the announcement of the Declaration of Independence. The Liberty Bell weighs about 943 kilograms, has 3. 7 meters in circumference and 1 meter in height. It was made from an alloy of copper and tin in 1752 in London. Beginning in 1778, the Liberty Bell rang every year at the beginning of the Independence Day holiday. ...
Independence National Historic Park
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Tourists are advised to start their acquaintance with Philadelphia from this very place - the National Historical Park, rightly called "the most historical square mile" of America. The four blocks between Walnut and Arch Streets west of the Delaware River embody the red brick concept of symmetry and balance so characteristic of pre- and post-revolutionary architecture. The area of the park is 18 hectares.