How many trees are there in australia


How Many Trees Are In The World? (2021 Updated List)

While it is virtually impossible to know how many trees are in the world, satellite imaging has helped procure a rough estimate. A study in the journal of ‘Nature’ reported close to 3.04 Trillion trees on earth. And though this might seem like a lot- it’s not! 3.04 Trillion trees make for almost 422 trees per person. But did you know that a lot of trees are just all in the same place? Depending on where you’re from, how many trees there are in the world for you will be a lot less, maybe even more, than 442 trees.

How Many Trees Were There In The World Before Humans?

Before the advent of man, the earth hosted a whopping 6 Trillion trees-double the current number of trees in the world. Historians estimate that the forest spread must have been around 6 billion hectares of land. Still, now the planet only has a fraction of the trees it used to, thanks to intensive agricultural practices and modern civilization infrastructure. Unfortunately, we continue to lose trees at the rate of approximately 10 billion trees a year.

How Many Trees Were There In The World 100 Years Ago?

The 1920s saw exponential growth in the timber industry due to many constructions and recreational sectors’ developments. Interestingly, the number of trees in the world has grown by 400%, and we now have a lot more trees than we did 100 years before.

Where Are All The Trees?

There might be 3.04 Trillion trees in the world, but their distribution is the real problem. 50% of all the trees in the world are present in the five biggest countries, while two-thirds of all trees are in just ten countries. Leaving just 1990 Billion trees for the rest of the world! It doesn’t seem like an awful lot anymore.

Countries With The Most Trees:

For the most part, the larger a country is, the more trees it is likely to have. Brazil, Columbia, and Indonesia have the highest number of native tree species. The top 10 countries in terms of how many trees they have are below.

Russia- The Country With The Most Trees:

Russia has 642 Billion trees which earn it the title of the country with the most trees! Illegal forests occupy vast stretches of the country- yes, the state can ban trees! 10% of Russia, which is almost twice the size of Spain’s whole country, lies in formerly or presently designed regions as ‘agricultural land.’ For some bizarre reason, the Russian legislation demands that landowners keep these areas free of forests, and they are even liable to pay fines in case of the breach! Yet, most of these areas lie forgotten, covered in scores of trees despite the legal opposition.

How Many Canadian Trees Are There In The World?

The world’s second-largest country is also the second-largest when it comes to how many trees it has. Canada is home to almost 318 Billion trees which occupy around 40% of the region. Not surprisingly, Canada’s forests represent 30% of the whole world’s forests! Spruce trees, which are distinguishable by their needle-like leaves, are the country’s most abundant trees. Pines, much like the Spruce, have needles for leaves but are enclosed within cones. Sugar Maple, known for its beautiful colours and sweet maple syrup, represents the red leaf on the Canadian flag. Another tree, the Eastern White Cedar, labelled the “tree of life,” is also very common in the region.

How Many Trees Are There In Brazil?

Brazil hosts the world’s largest forest- The Amazon. The country has a total of almost 302 Billion trees, but they are in danger! Deforestation rates are incredibly high, and unless prompt action is taken, agribusiness and power generation might collapse, and the country won’t have any trees left to boast about!

How Many Trees Does The United States of America Have?

If you think of the USA, you probably don’t think of trees but maybe you should! Over 55% of the U.S. population gets clean, pollutant-free, drinking-quality water from forested watersheds. The 228 Billion trees of the country include one very special tree as well. The “Great Bristlecone pine” in California’s White Mountains is the World’s Oldest Tree at 5000 years old. Additionally, North America is home to more than 1000 tree species. The country’s national tree is the Oak which symbolizes beauty, diversity, and strength and has linked to the Greek god Zeus.

How Much of China Is Trees?

China has 140 Billion trees which cover approximately 23% of the country’s land. In an attempt to tackle its expanding northern deserts, China launched the Three-North Shelterbelt Project in 1978. Also called the “Great Wall Project,” the plan aims to plant millions of trees along the 2,800-mile border of the northern desert and ultimately increase the world’s forests by 10%. So far, more than 66 billion trees have been planted by the Chinese government. The idea has received mixed reviews but will continue till 2050, as planned. Moreover, the famous Chinese Bamboo tree is the World’s Fastest-Growing Tree at 1.5 inches an hour – and it even holds a Guinness World Record!

Trees of The Democratic Republic Of Congo:

Congo has a total of 101 Billion trees which comprise over 600 tree species. The country has 100-120 Million hectares dedicated to the dense forest, Savannah forests occupy a large part, and protected areas span 26 Million hectares.

How Many Trees Are In Indonesia?

81 Billion of the whole world’s trees are in Indonesia. An estimated 51% of the country is forested, of which 50% is a primary forest- the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forests. Indonesia has 4000 species of trees, but only about 120 hardwood species are suited for commercial use.

How Many Trees Are In Australia?

Australia has around 77 Billion trees, of which most are Eucalypts. Eucalyptus trees (gum trees) which include 2,800 different species, cover about 101 Million hectares which amount to approximately 80% of Australian forests.

How Much Of Peru Is Forest?

Peru boasts the 10th-most forested area in any country in the world, with almost half of the country covered by trees. Peru also has the second-largest amazon jungle, “Peruvian Amazonia,” after Brazil.

How Many Trees Are There In India?

An estimated 21.6% of India’s land is in forests, and the country has pledged to increase this coverage by a massive 95 Million hectares by 2030! In 2017, 1.5 Million volunteers helped plant 66 Million trees in Madhya Pradesh’s state- in under 12 hours!

How Many Trees Are In The Rest of The World?

Countries Green Profile
Afghanistan 1,350,000 ha
Albania 776,000 ha
Algeria 1,492,000 ha
Andorra 16,000 ha
Angola 23M ha
Antigua & Barbuda 10,000 ha
Argentina 29,400,000 ha
Armenia 459,900 ha
Austria 3,878,000 ha
Azerbaijan 936,000 ha
Bahamas 331,579 ha
Bahrain 515,000 ha
Bangladesh 2,600,000 ha
Barbados 2,000 ha
Belarus 7,894,000 ha
Belgium 667,000 ha
Belize 1,393,000 ha
Benin 2,351,000 ha
Bhutan 3,249,000 ha
Bolivia 57M ha
Bosnia & Herzegovina 2. 115M ha
Botswana 11,351,000 ha
Brazil 519,522,000 ha
Brunei Data unavailable
Bulgaria 3,927,000 ha
Burkina Faso 5,649,000 ha
Burundi 172,000 ha
Côte d’Ivoire 10,405,000 ha
Cabo Verde 84,000 ha
Cambodia 3.1M ha
Cameroon 19M ha
Central African Republic 23M ha
Chad 593,000 ha
Chile 16.2M ha
Colombia 60.3 or 64 M ha (disputed)
Comoros 3,000 ha
Costa Rica 2,605,000 ha
Croatia 1,920,000 ha
Cuba 2,870,000 ha
Cyprus 173,000 ha
Czech Republic 2,657,000 ha
Denmark 608,078 ha
Djibouti 6,000 ha
Dominica 45,000 ha
Dominican Republic 1,972,000 ha
Ecuador 12. 4M ha
Egypt 70,000 ha
El Salvador 287,000 ha
Eritrea 1,532,000 ha
Estonia 2M ha
Eswatini 590,600 ha
Ethiopia 12,296,000 ha
Fiji 1,014,000 ha
Finland 23M ha
France 16.7M ha
Gabon 22.3M ha
Gambia 480,000 ha
Georgia 2,742,000 ha
Germany 11.4M ha
Ghana 9.17M ha
Greece 3,903,000 ha
Grenada 17,000 ha
Guatemala 3,657 ha
Guinea 3M ha
Guinea-Bissau 2,022,000 ha
Haiti 101,000 ha
Holy See Data unavailable
Honduras 6. 3M ha
Hungary 2,029,000 ha
Iceland 30,000 ha
Iran 11,075,000 ha
Iraq 825,000 ha
Ireland 770,020 ha
Israel 154,000 ha
Italy 9,297,078 ha
Jamaica 335 900 ha
Japan 25M ha
Jordan 98,000 ha
Kazakhstan 12M ha
Kenya 37M ha
Kiribati 12,000 ha
Kuwait 6,000 ha
Kyrgyzstan 1,123,200 ha
Laos 1.49M ha
Latvia 3.354M ha
Lebanon 139,376 ha
Lesotho 43,000 ha
Liberia 6.69M ha
Libya 217,000 ha
Liechtenstein 6,865 ha
Lithuania 8M ha
Luxembourg 1,055 ha
Madagascar 12,553,000 ha
Malawi 3,237,000 ha
Malaysia 20,456,000 ha
Maldives 3,716 ha
Mali 12,572,000 ha
Malta 4B ha
Marshall Islands 13,000 ha
Mauritius 47,159 ha
Mexico 64M ha
Micronesia 64,000 ha
Moldova 4B ha
Monaco 42 ha
Mongolia 18. 3M ha
Montenegro 137.480 ha
Morocco 5,131,000 ha
Mozambique 32M ha
Myanmar (formerly Burma) 29M ha
Namibia 7,290,000 ha
Nauru Almost None
Nepal 3,636,000 ha
Netherlands 365,000 ha
New Zealand 10M ha
Nicaragua 3,114,000 ha
Niger 1,266,000 ha
Nigeria 9,041,000 ha
North Korea 6,187,000 ha
North Macedonia 998,000 ha
Norway 13.4M ha
Oman 1,000 ha
Pakistan 4.57M ha
Palau 46,300 ha
Palestine 9,000 ha
Panama 310,800 ha
Papua New Guinea 28,726,000 ha
Paraguay 17,582,000 ha
Philippines 5. 7M ha
Poland 9.1M ha
Portugal 3.3M ha
Qatar None
Romania 6,249 million ha
Rwanda 435,000 ha
Saint Kitts & Nevis 11,000 ha
Saint Lucia 47,000 ha
Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Data unavailable
Samoa 276,300 ha
San Marino Almost None
Sao Tome & Principe 97,800 ha
Saudi Arabia 977,000 ha
Senegal 8,473,000 ha
Serbia 2,252,000 ha
Seychelles 41,000 ha
Sierra Leone 2,726,000 ha
Singapore 2,000 ha
Slovakia 2M ha
Slovenia 1,094,000 ha
Solomon Islands 4,297,600 ha
Somalia 6,747,000 ha
South Africa 9,241,000 ha
South Korea 3. 97M ha
South Sudan 19,166,700 ha
Spain 18,173,000 ha
Sri Lanka 1,249,300 ha
Sudan 69,949,000 ha
Suriname 15.3M ha
Sweden 23M ha
Switzerland 1.31M ha
Syria 190,000 ha
Tajikistan 410,000 ha
Tanzania 35.3M ha
Thailand 16,320,000 ha
Timor-Leste 742,000 ha
Togo 287,000 ha
Tonga 54,900 ha
Trinidad & Tobago 226,000 ha
Tunisia 1,006,000 ha
Turkey 21.7M ha
Turkmenistan 4,127,000 ha
Tuvalu 1,000 ha
Uganda 959,268 ha
Ukraine 9,705,000 ha
United Arab Emirates 317,000 ha
United Kingdom 3. 21M ha
Uruguay 1,744,000 ha
Uzbekistan 3,295,000 ha
Vanuatu 1,228,100 ha
Venezuela 45,822,250 ha
Vietnam 12,931,000 ha
Yemen 1,955,000 ha
Zambia 75,200,000 ha
Zimbabwe 15,624,000 ha

What Countries Have The Best Tree Density?

Another way to categorize countries is tree density. Some studies have even likened GDP with the tree density of a nation. The countries with the best tree density include Finland, Sweden, Slovenia, Taiwan, French Guiana, and Equatorial Guinea.

Tree Density of Finland:

Finland has a tree density of 72 644 trees per square kilometer. Studies also indicated that Finnish forests are denser than most forests of the world. Finland is Europe’s Most Forested Country, with 70% of the country covered with more than 22 Billion trees. Plus, Finland plants 150 Million trees every year, so the numbers will rise.

Tree Density of Sweden:

Sweden has nearly doubled its forests in the past 100 years. Now, 70% of the country is forested, with 69 161 trees spread per square kilometer. Approximately 10% of the world’s timber, pulp, and paper come from Sweden. Plus, the country plants 380 Million plants annually.

Tree Density of Slovenia:

Slovenia’s tree density is 71,131 trees per square kilometer, and 60% of the region is greenery. The Chamois tree and the Linden tree, both abundant across the country, are two significant national symbols. Over sixty forest associations are present in Slovenia- 45% of these grow deciduous trees while 55% grow conifers.

Tree Density of Taiwan:

With a tree coverage of 62,975 trees per square kilometer, Taiwan is home to the famous Money Tree! The money tree doesn’t require a lot of special care but is thought to attract luck and wealth and be an efficient air purifier. Plus, it’s pet-friendly, so occasional snacking by your feline friends won’t harm them- the pets, at least. Now, you might think the legend of the money tree goes back many centuries, but it dates back to the 1980s. A Taiwanese truckdriver planted the tree in his field and managed to multiply it so many times that he quickly became wealthy, hence the name “money tree.”

Tee Density of French Guiana:

French Guiana is home to at least 1500 tree species which provide a density of almost 60,326 trees per square kilometer. One-fifth of the World’s High Biodiversity Wilderness Areas are here. You’ll be surprised to find out that 98.9% of the country is a majorly virgin forest! But where do all the people live? For one, the population is only 294,071 people, and they are in the metropolitan area of the state capital, Cayenne.

Tree Density of Equatorial Guinea:

Equatorial Guinea has a tree density of 61,791 trees per square kilometer. The green part on the country’s flag symbolizes the Silk-cotton tree, also called the “god tree,” under which the first treaty with Spain was signed. An area of 2.5 Million hectares is forested, which accounts for 93% of the country.

What Countries Have The Most Trees Per Person?

“Tree wealth” can also be measured in terms of the most significant number of trees per person. As per the entire world’s population and tree resources, there are 422 trees for every individual. However, as previously discussed, there is a massive disparity in the three populations of different countries. The countries with the best ratio include Canada with 8,953 trees per person, Russia with 4,461 trees per person, and The Central African Republic with 5,152 trees per person. 53.1 Million hectares of Bolivia account for 5,465 trees per person, while Gabon’sdry’ forests spanning 77% of the region constitute 8,131 trees per person.

Moreover, Guyana and French Guiana also have 14,692 trees and 20,226 trees per person, respectively. However, it is essential to note that their populations are less than a million, so such a high number of trees per person is not surprising. On the contrary, India has a whopping 36 Billion trees, but its population is also more than a billion. Hence, every individual would get just 30 trees each. On the other hand, desert countries have little to no trees, and thus in a country like Egypt, there is only one tree per person.

What Countries Have No Trees?

You might wonder if it’s even possible for a country to not have trees, but apparently, it is! According to the World Bank’s definition, there are four countries without any forest at all- Qatar, Greenland, San Marino, and Oman.

Qatar – A True Desert:

Qatar is a true desert in every way- it has a sub-tropical, dry, hot desert climate with very little to no rainfall. Qatar has everything- from futuristic skyscrapers, ultramodern architecture, large reserves of petroleum and gas, and even the world’s greatest airline, yet it has no trees!

But did you know that Qatar is all set on creating the World’s Largest Manmade Forest with over 95,000 trees! Nakheel Landscapes started the project in November 2016 with an area of 12 square kilometers. Trees selected for the project are ones requiring very little water. Furthermore, treated water from the Doha North Sewage Treatment Works Plant will irrigate the forest through a fully automated process.

Greenland Is Not Really Green!

The Green in Greenland and Ice in Iceland should be the other way around because Greenland is icy, and Iceland is beautifully lush! Well, Greenland wasn’t always green. Historians reckon it was very much green and grassy till the summer of A.D. 982, about 2.5 million years ago. As for the name, Erik Red, a murder who had been exiled to the island, named it to encourage settlement in the area.

Does Oman Not Have Any Forests?

According to the World Bank, Oman does not have any forests. But this might be a thing of the past now as the Sultanate plans to plant millions of trees to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. By planting more than half a trillion trees, 205 gigatons of Carbon can be eliminated from the earth! This elimination almost equals half the carbon dioxide produced by the planet since 1960! In light of a potential crisis, the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, in collaboration with the Petroleum Development Oman, is working on a national initiative to plant 10 Million trees throughout the Sultanate within the next ten years. This goal is also expected to benefit the region regarding biodiversity, wildlife habitat restoration, countering land degradation, and reaping economic benefits.

Faroe Islands- A land of No Trees:

The country doesn’t have any native trees except for a few woody plants. Archeological findings of trees and branches dating back to 2300 BC indicate that some Hazel and Birch trees had inhabited the area before civilization.

Haiti- A Glimpse of What Deforestation Can Do:

Almost 60% of Haiti’s land was covered in trees until 1923, but the country fell prey to massive deforestation. In 1954, Hurricane Hazel drowned the trees on the island, and along with continued deforestation, only 2% of the region still had trees in 2006. The absence of trees meant the lack of tree products, and therefore, Haiti suffered great economic losses due to this environmental negligence. Only about 1% of the area remains forested, and Haiti has been declared one of the world’s most deforested countries.

How Many Trees Will There Be In The World By 2050?

Studies by the Center For Global Development dictate that the world will lose around 1 million square miles of trees to deforestation by 2050. As the world population increases exponentially, we will need more land, agricultural resources, and forest products to meet their demands. By 2050, middle and small economy countries might have only 1% forest coverage, and the number of trees in the world might be reduced to 2 Trillion. On the bright side, though, with the right policies in place and a global collaborative effort, we can potentially manage to turn the tables and get our tree populations back!

How Many Trees Are In The World- Does It Matter?

With all this tree talk, you might think, “Do we need more trees when we’ve been doing just fine till now?” Apart from the apparent reason for needing oxygen to breathe, trees are an asset to humans. They filter our air, block noise pollution, lessen the blow of floods and even prevent soil erosion. Trees improve water quality and act as sponges that collect and filter rainwater before gradually releasing it into streams. Scientists even speculate that planting enough trees can solve global warming and climate change once and for all!

Additionally, like all forms of nature, trees are therapeutic and render certain psychological and health benefits. The Japanese practice of ‘Topiary therapy’ has proven effects like improved heart rate and blood pressure, stress reduction, and an enhanced immune system. Studies from Harvard have even shown that living near trees increases life expectancy. Not to mention the supply of fruits, leafy vegetables, and other healthy yummy goodies we get from trees. Trees just keep on giving and giving and giving- in short, they are irreplaceable, and we can’t afford to lose them!

Can there be life without trees?

If trees disappeared overnight, so would biodiversity, quite possibly including the human race itself! Trees are at the bottom of the food chain- but that doesn’t mean they’re not important! In fact, that makes them all the more important because they provide the energy to be utilized by other organisms and thus, directly fuel the food chain. As Professor Jayme Prevedello puts it, “There would be massive extinctions of all groups of organisms- both locally and globally.” Truth be told, trees don’t need us as much as we need them! Without trees, our planet might not even be able to sustain us anymore!

Still, if we could somehow manage to survive a tree apocalypse, the real question withstands- ‘Would we want to live in a world without trees?’

Can We Run Out Of Trees?

We are not running out of trees, especially as certain countries continue efforts of reafforestation. But that’s not to say that we can’t ever run out of trees! Deforestation is not the only factor contributing to trees’ loss, but some natural wildfires can also cause significant damage. For instance, the Australian fires caused a loss of 21% of trees in the region. The Amazon

Rainforest has also had 44,013 outbreaks in 2020 alone. Some experts have even estimated that the earth could lose all of its trees within 300 years- definitely not something we can ignore!

The bottom line is that while 3 Trillion may seem like a lot of trees to the common man, we can’t afford to go all “that’s a lot of trees!”- because it’s not! If policies to curb deforestation are not effectively implemented, we might not have any trees left to count! So, when our future generations ask, “How many trees are there in the world?” we must make sure they’ll get an answer! The effort needs to be completed today!

Research stories | ANU Fenner School of Environment & Society

Equity in renewable energy rollout

15 Jun 2022

Equity in renewable energy rollout »

In the first major study of its kind, we travelled to where renewable energy is expanding in NSW to ask communities how they feel about the changes. While...

Research story

The Mekong delta’s transboundary water problems

4 May 2022

The Mekong delta’s transboundary water problems »

The Mekong River is the lifeblood of countries in the Mekong region, but the past few years have seen water flows recurringly decline and processes of...

Research story

China is gunning for supremacy in the global green hydrogen race. Will it shatter Australia’s dreams?

6 Apr 2022

China is gunning for supremacy in the global green hydrogen race. Will it shatter Australia’s dreams? »

This week’s report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns global warming is headed for dangerous levels unless greenhouse gas emissions...

Research story

Coming of age: research shows old forests are 3 times less flammable than those just burned

23 Mar 2022

Coming of age: research shows old forests are 3 times less flammable than those just burned »

As coal-fired climate change makes bushfires in Australia worse, governments are ramping up hazard-reduction burning. But our new research shows the practice...

Research story

Trying to cool the Earth by dimming sunlight could be worse than global warming

18 Feb 2022

Trying to cool the Earth by dimming sunlight could be worse than global warming »

Geoengineering could pose grave dangers, potentially worse than the warming it seeks to remedy. To understand the risks, we’ve undertaken a risk assessment of...

Research story

The fastest population growth in the American West’s wildland-urban interface is in areas most vulnerable to wildfires

8 Feb 2022

The fastest population growth in the American West’s wildland-urban interface is in areas most vulnerable to wildfires »

In a study published Feb. 7, 2022, a team of climate scientists mapped out where vegetation is creating the highest fire risks across the western U. S. They...

Research story

Regent honeyeaters were once kings of flowering gums. Now they’re on the edge of extinction. What happened?

14 Jan 2022

Regent honeyeaters were once kings of flowering gums. Now they’re on the edge of extinction. What happened? »

Less than 80 years ago, regent honeyeaters ruled Australia’s flowering gum forests, with huge raucous flocks roaming from Adelaide to Rockhampton. Now, there...

Research story

DBRG

Yes, it’s rocket science: Australia needs eyes in space to monitor our tinderbox landscape

30 Nov 2021

Yes, it’s rocket science: Australia needs eyes in space to monitor our tinderbox landscape »

As climate change worsens, bushfires are likely to become more intense and frequent. We must find new ways of managing bushfires to prevent catastrophic events. ..

Research story

Study shows “dark side of ambition” in climate policy

12 Nov 2021

Study shows “dark side of ambition” in climate policy »

With the eyes of the world on COP26, researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) say the broader environmental and social implications of extreme...

Research story

Roo reform necessary to improve animal welfare

3 Nov 2021

Roo reform necessary to improve animal welfare »

Australia needs to overhaul how overabundant kangaroos are managed, rather than letting them starve or be culled as pests, according to an expert from The...

Research story

Glasgow COP26: climate finance pledges from rich nations are inadequate and time is running out

2 Nov 2021

Glasgow COP26: climate finance pledges from rich nations are inadequate and time is running out »

The make-or-break United Nations climate talks in Glasgow have begun. Much attention so far has rightly focused on the emissions reduction ambition each nation...

Research story

Farming reboot lays seeds for prosperity in poor regions

27 Oct 2021

Farming reboot lays seeds for prosperity in poor regions »

Agriculture experts from The Australian National University (ANU) have teamed up with government bodies and NGOs in sub-Saharan Africa to improve irrigation...

Research story

Pacific forests

Australia. Most of the country lies in the tropics, north - in subequatorial latitudes, south - in subtropics. The forests of Australia consist mainly of different types of eucalyptus (over 600 species). Eucalyptus (myrtle family) is Australia's most characteristic plant. There are 350 of its endemic species and a huge number of varieties - from giants (more than 100 m high) to shrubs. Eucalyptus has become essentially a symbol of Australia. Eucalyptus grows everywhere - from the tropical woodlands of Northern Australia to the mountain peaks of the Australian Alps. Characteristic in the landscape of Australia and acacia (legume family). Australia has 490 types of acacias. Acacia has adapted to a variety of conditions, occurring both under the canopy of eucalyptus forests and in deserts, where it takes the form of thorny shrubs ( malga-scrab ). Another characteristic genus of shrubs is banksia (46 species in Australia).

FORESTS OF AUSTRALIA In forests and forest savannahs, there are "bottle" trees with trunks swollen in the middle, and peculiar tree-like lilies from the genera Xanthorea, Kingia and Dazipogon with bunches of long leaves in the upper part of low trunks, the so-called "grass trees".

Moisture conditions play the main role in the spread of vegetation across the continent.

Semi-desert landscape from central Australia.

The sharp aridity of the climate in most of Australia is the reason why 76% of its area is occupied by deserts and semi-deserts, stretching from the shores of the Indian Ocean to the western foothills of the Great Dividing Range. There are no deserts like the Australian ones in the world. The slopes and tops of the sandy ridges are overgrown with clumps of spinifex, a holly grass; thorny acacia bushes and a few perennial grasses grow in sandy depressions. All these plants are adapted to endure long droughts.

Dense, sometimes impenetrable thickets of malga-scrab cover the surface of rocky deserts, specific Australian species of quinoa and saltwort are found on the lacustrine clay-saline plains of Central Australia. Specific desert soils are formed in areas where deserts are distributed. Often they are colored red and are called "arid red lands" by Australian soil scientists.

The appearance of semi-deserts in the west is only an Australian feature. The vegetation of the semi-deserts is somewhat richer: hard turf grasses, wormwood, saltwort, thickets of shrubs from thorny desert acacias and strongly branching hard-leaved eucalyptus trees (malli). Soils in semi-deserts are red-brown and reddish-brown.

In the north, east and southwest, semi-deserts give way to light forests and shrubs, penetrating along river watersheds even to the coastal lowlands of the east. The main role in them is played by eucalyptus trees, mostly evergreen; in drier places, acacias and casuarinas are mixed with them. The soils of this territory are red-colored (red, red-brown and red-brown) and relict dark-colored are quite fertile, especially the latter, which are distinguished by a large humus capacity.

Tropical light forests and shrubs merge in the south with similar vegetation of the subtropical zone, but it is formed mainly on brown, gray-brown and relict red-brown soils.

Forests occupy less than 6% of Australia's area, although the area where they can grow under moist conditions is almost twice as large. This is partly due to soils (hard lateritic shells) that do not allow the development of tree vegetation, and fires that destroy vast areas of forests. The main forest areas are in the east - on the coast and slopes facing the ocean of the Great Dividing Range, as well as in the southwest of the mainland and on the island of Tasmania.

There are very small patches of evergreen eucalyptus on the north coast, where they penetrate along river valleys quite deep into the interior of the mainland. Under tropical forests, red and yellow soils are formed, and in the subtropics and in Tasmania, forests grow mainly on podzolized brown forest soils.

As in light forests, eucalyptus trees predominate in the forest flora, often without admixture of other trees. Palm trees and tree ferns grow under the canopy of the eucalyptus forest. There are almost no conifers in the forests of Australia.

Due to differences in climate and topography, forest vegetation is arranged in semicircular belts. On the northeastern coast of the mainland, washed by the waters of the Coral Sea, tropical rain and moist evergreen forests grow ( hylaea ), in some areas penetrating deep into the mainland for 50-60 km from Cape York to 30 ° S. latitude. They contain over 4 thousand plant species, including up to 30% of endemics.

Agatis (up to 80 m high) stand out among the tropical coniferous species, in some places the "red cedar" (Australian cedar) has been preserved, which has a very valuable wood. In the north, the forests consist of peculiar ancient conifers - araucaria, among which the Cunningham araucaria (Araucaria cunninghamii) is especially common. There are 26 species of palm trees in the forests: liviston, archontophoenix, kentia, likuala, etc.; many different ficuses, tarriecia, gmelin, cardwellia, flindersia, laurels, tree ferns - Alsophila, Dixonia, Todea. The tree trunks are entwined with powerful vines. In a varied grass cover - orchids, giant herbs from banana, aroid, ginger. The forests are inhabited by colorful parrots that pollinate trees.

The total area of ​​tropical moist evergreen forests is about 1.1 million hectares. Valuable species of trees grow in them: three species of agathis (Agathis robusta, A. palmerstonii, A. brownii), fruiting and regenerating irregularly, five species of araucaria, endiandra, or "nut tree", flindersia, similar to maple leaves, etc. The main productive forest area is located on the Atherton Plateau south of Cairns. Significant areas of forests have been cleared for plantations of sugar cane, maize and pastures.

16 to 21° S where mountains stretch 500-1200 m above sea level. sea, and south of 26°S. in the lower part of the slopes and in the valleys, humid subtropical evergreen forests grow with giant eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. obliqua), reaching 120 m in height and 12 m in diameter. They include powerful ceratopetalums (Ceratopetalum spp.), various acacias - black-stemmed (Acacia melanoxylon), persistent (A. retinodes), decurrent (A. decurrens). There are such valuable species as doryphora laurel (Doryphora sassafras), musky atherosperm (Atherosperma moschatum), Cunningama araucaria, tree ferns (dixonia, alsophila) and cycads. Currently, large areas of humid subtropical and tropical forests have been reduced to arable land, pastures, or derived eucalyptus forests.

On the island Tasmania there is a widespread subantarctic forest, in which there are globular eucalyptus (E. globulus), reaching 60 m in height and 3 m in diameter, evergreen southern beech, or Cunningham's nothofagus (Nothofagus cunninghamii), oblong callitris (Callitris oblonga ) with a columnar bluish crown and round, like metal cones, Tasmanian callitris (C. tasmanica) - a low tree with horizontal branches, Franklin's dacridium (Dacrydium franclinii) with white wood, with a pleasant smell, Gunn's notophagus (N. gunnii), growing on fringes.

Eucalyptus, photo from the site "Gallery of Plants"

Tropical dry evergreen eucalyptus forests are widespread on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, in areas where precipitation is 500-700 mm. These are spherical, micranth, spotted, umbrella, honey-smelling, large, resinous eucalyptus, etc. In the second tier, small casuarina trees and heterogeneous, white-wooded eucalyptus, etc. 900 m a.s.l. seas. They consist of profuse-flowered eucalyptus (Eucalyptus polyanthemos), ashy (E. cinerea), half-skinned (E. hemiphloia), etc. In southwestern Australia, they are also found on thin skeletal or sandy soils. Moist eucalyptus forests dominated by eucalyptus fringing, or "jarrah" (E. marginata), with solid valuable wood and multi-colored eucalyptus occupy more than 5 million hectares in the extreme southwest of the mainland and are the main forest fund of the state of Western Australia.

These forests are also found on the east coast, south of Lismore, but already mixed with turpentine tree (Syncarpia laurifolia) and shrub "boxwood" (Tristania conferta). Riverside eucalyptus forests are common in the Murray Valley, consisting of camaldulian eucalyptus (up to 60 m high), called by the local population "river red gum" (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). Its wood is widely used for the manufacture of sleepers, piles, etc.

Along the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range, on sandy plains with precipitation of 500-700 mm (in the states of Queensland and New South Wales), coniferous forests of callitris (Callitris glauca) and others are found in separate areas with a total area of ​​about 1.1 million hectares. They provide the most valuable timber in Australia. The most important types of callitris are "white pine", "black pine", "belach", or "black oak".

In the north of Australia, where precipitation is more than 1000 mm per year, but the dry season is pronounced (from May to October), evergreen sclerophilic forests are common on sandy soils. Previously, large callitris trees were also found here, but subsequently they were cut down for the buildings of the city of Darwin, Katherine and others.

As we move deeper into the continent, eucalyptus forests give way to vast areas of savannahs with low phyllodes acacias and eucalyptus trees, and then hard-leaved evergreen shrubs (scrubs). There are several main types here.0005 scrubs . In southwestern Australia, malli scrub is common, dominated by shrubby eucalyptus. The central part of the mainland is characterized by mulga-scrub , consisting of various shrubby acacias (Acacia aneura). In the northeast, in the tropical part of Queensland, brigelow scrub is distributed with phyllodes acacias (Acacia harpophylla and others), among which there are "bottle trees" (Brachychiton rupestris), and in the south also "grass trees" (Xanthorrhoea preissii, Kingia australis).

Savanna forests and scrubs in some dry areas are the only sources of fuel and small timber.

Mangrove forests are widespread on the northern coast of the mainland, especially along the shores of the shallow Gulf of Carpentaria. Avicennia officinalis (Avicennia officinalis) grows here with characteristic numerous stilted roots protruding from the water during low tides. The mangroves also include rhizophora, ceriops, brugiera, exocaria. In some places, the ancient nipa palm, low-growing horsetail casuarina (nicknamed "shore oak" by Australians) and fragrant pandanus (Pandanus odoratissima) grow.

A number of heat-loving pines are used for afforestation in Australia, among which the radiant pine (Pinus radiata) native to California is the most established. It is distributed in foothill areas, where the average annual rainfall is 750 mm and morning fogs are observed. In colder areas of the mainland, other pines (Pinus corsicana, P. ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. canariensis) are successfully bred.

Measures to create artificial cultural plantings have been carried out since 1914. Coniferous trees are cultivated mainly. Among eucalyptus trees, two species are mainly used in cultures - large (E. grandis) and ball (E. pilularis). Giant eucalyptus (E. gigantea), ironbark eucalyptus (E. siderophloia) and others are also cultivated.

New Zealand. In the modern flora there are over 1900 species of plants, 75% are endemic. Forests have been preserved mainly in the mountainous, most inaccessible areas. Among the tree species are those that are characteristic of Australia, South America, India, New Guinea. These are conifers - agatis, dacridiums, calocedruses (river cedar), podocarpuses, or legcarps, hardwood southern evergreen beeches from the genus Notofagus (Nothofagus), species from the genus Weinmannia, as well as tree ferns and various palm trees. Over 500 plant species were introduced during the colonization period.

Humid subtropical forests are distributed over most of the North Island. They are most diverse in the hilly Auckland Peninsula. Previously, coniferous forests of New Zealand agathis (Agathis australis), or locally, kauri, which reached 30-50 m in height and 6 m in thickness, prevailed here. The largest agathis trees in all available places were cut down. Now, in mixed subtropical forests, along with agathis, on the yellow earth soils of the North Island and along the western slopes of the Southern Alps, up to a height of 400-800 m, other conifers are found - totar's stalk (Podocarpus totara), dacridium stalk (P. dacrydioides), rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) - and broad-leaved evergreen species: taraire (Beilschmiedia taraire), tava (B. tawa), kamaha (Weinmannia racemosa and W. sylvicola), high find (Knightia excelsa), New Zealand laurelia (Laurelia novaezelandiae) - trees with plank roots.

The second tier is represented by conifers - this is the Indian stalk (Podocarpus spicatus), the middle dacridium (Dacrydium intermedium), the sessile phyllocladus (Phyllocladus trichomanoides) with wide triangular phylloclades, the nikau palm (Rhapalostylis sapida). The moist subtropical forests contain over 110 tree species and many tree ferns reaching 15 m in height (Cyathea medullaris, Dicksonia squarrosa). About 45 species of vines grow here; the most typical are kie-kie (Freycinetia banksii) from the pandanaceae family and liana rata (Metrosideros scandens) from myrtle, which stands out for its bright red flowers. Rhipogonum scandens and Australian raspberry (Rubus australis) form impenetrable curtains. Among epiphytes, the number of which is not more than 5% of the total number of subtropical forest species, there are numerous orchids, ferns, club mosses, mosses and lichens. In the grass cover there are representatives of sedge - kutti (Gahnia xanthocarpa) and cauria grass (Astelia trinervia). In wet swampy areas, communities of "New Zealand flax" from lilies (Phormium tenax) are common - a valuable textile plant used to obtain durable fiber.

Another class of New Zealand formations are evergreen forests consisting of southern beeches (Nothofagus). Between them and subtropical coniferous-broad-leaved forests there are a number of transitional types determined by soil and climatic conditions. Five species of southern beech and many of its hybrid forms are characteristic. Evergreen beech forests are common in the hilly and low-mountain regions (up to 1200 m) of the North Island and in the northwest (up to 1000 m) of the South Island. They are dominated by pure and mixed stands of "black beech" (Nothofagus solanderi) with a partial admixture of "hard beech" (N. truncata). The height of the trees of the upper tier is 20-25 m. In the second tier, there are often trees inherent in subtropical forests: kamahi, rimu, or "red New Zealand pine", southern rata (Metrodideros umbeliata), toa-toa (Phylloclados alpinus), and also guta (Ascarina lucida). There are few lianas and epiphytes in beech forests; small ferns, club mosses, mosses and lichens are common. Beech forests of "red, or brown, beech" (N. fusca) with an admixture of "silver beech" (N. menziesii) are also found on the western slopes of the South Island right up to the coast. Similar evergreen forests are also characteristic of areas with a drier climate. Forests with "hard beech" stretch along the eastern slopes of the Southern Alps, approach the "steppe" spaces ("tussok") of the plains of Canterbury and reach in the south to the Strait of Fovo, which separates Stewart Island. A significant part of these forests is of great water and soil conservation importance.

In the mountains at an altitude of 1000-1300 m on the North Island and 1300-1400 m on the western slopes of the Southern Alps on the South Island, subalpine forests of southern beeches are common. They grow "mountain beech" (Nothofagus cliffortioides), "silver beech" (N. menziesii), and from conifers - "mountain cedar" (Calocedrus bidwillii), mountain totara (Podocarpus nivalis), and also toa-toa (Phyllocladus alpinus ). Among the subalpine beech forests there are also groups of kamahi trees (Weinmannia racemosa).

The upper reaches of the Volcanic Plateau of the North Island and the Banks Peninsula of the South Island are occupied by small subalpine coniferous forests consisting of low toa-toa (Phyllocladus alpinus) and mountain totara (Podocarpus hallii) trees. They are mixed with "mountain cedar" (Calocedrus bidwillii), and evergreen shrubs from the myrtle, araliaceae and linden families participate in the undergrowth.

In the southwestern part of the South Island, patches of "ribbon tree" (Hoheria glabrata), 4-7 m high, with large white flowers, and evergreen shrubs of the Araliaceae and Compositae families form the upper forest boundary.

Poppies in New Zealand. Photo by Anatoly Yushchenko

Significant areas on the site of previously existing forests in the subalpine zone, as well as on pebbles, stony placers, volcanic sediments, and sands are occupied by evergreen shrubs. They grow "red tea tree", or manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) - a small tree or shrub with red-brown bark, leathery evergreen leaves and fragrant white flowers. There are also many other evergreen shrubs, the original "cabbage tree" (Cordyline australis), etc. After fires, thickets of edible bracken (Pteridium esculentum) develop.

In order to reduce "forest hunger" and reduce soil erosion in the fields, forests from fast-growing pre-weight species have long been grown in the country. Among forest crops, the most cultivated are radiant pine, European larch (Larix decidua), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Calabrian black pine (P. laricio). Other valuable species were also tested: Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii), yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa), red (P. rigida), black (P. nigra), Weymouth (P. strobus), large-fruited cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa), Lawson's cypress ( Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), giant thuja (Thuja plicata) and others. Work is underway to restore valuable native forest species - kauri, podocarpus, southern beeches.


Published according to the monograph: A.D. Bukshtynov, B.I. Groshev, G.V. Krylov. Forests (Nature of the world). M.: Thought, 1981. 316 p.

Forests of Australia - Forests of Australia

Australia Despite being one of the driest continents, there are many forests that are important due to their characteristics. As of 2009, Australia has about 147 million hectares of natural forest, which is about 19% of Australia's land area. [1] Most trees in Australia are hardwoods, usually eucalyptus, rather than conifers such as pine. While some natural forests are dominated by conifers, their total area is considered insufficient to constitute a major forest type in the Australian National Forest Inventory. The Forests of Australia website provides up-to-date information on the forests of Australia. Detailed information about Australia's forests can be found at the State of Australia's Forest Reports which are published every five years.

There are 458 forest communities scattered throughout Australia. They were grouped into the following seven primary forest types, which are characterized by dominant species and forest structure:

Plantation forest (softwood and hardwood) was identified as the eighth group, which includes trees planted for commercial use.

In Australia, the states and territories are responsible for forest management. [2] Guidance is found primarily in the National Forest Policy Statement (NFPS) 1992 years old [3] The NFPS allows the inclusion of Regional Forest Agreements, which are 20-year natural forest management plans.

New UALS New UALS NEW WELS Remains of Gondwana forest. Pictured is Point Lookout, New England National Park, New South Wales.
forest State Image Notable features
Alpine National Park Vik Extensive and snowy forests.
D'Aguilar National Park QLD A large nature reserve on the western border of the City of Brisbane, bordering the Coot-ta Mountain Nature Reserve, which supports a large number of native plants and animals.
Brown Mountain Forest Vic Located in East Gippsland, Victoria, abutting the Herrinundra National Park, it is notable for the presence of large areas of old growth forest, including more than fifty rowan trees estimated to be over 300 years old. The eucalyptus forest is a key habitat for rare and endangered species such as the mighty owl, the spotted quoll, mainland Australia's largest marsupial carnivore, and the long-legged potoroo, Victoria's rarest marsupial.
Central Highlands (Victoria) Vic Contain steep temperate rainforest; dominated by myrtle beech and southern sassafras, with an undergrowth of ferns and mosses. They may also contain eucalyptus trees and Australian ebony. The eastern forests of the Central Highlands, such as the Toolangi State Forest and Melbourne's forested watersheds, provide habitat for the endangered Leadbeater's Opossum.
Cumberland lowland forest New South Wales Occurs in scattered forms in the Greater Western Sydney area, consists of dry sclerophyll forest and forests resembling Mediterranean forests, totaling about 6400 ha. Gray box (Eucalyptus moluccan) and Forest red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis) dominate the forested area.
Tropical rainforest QLD Tropical rainforest near Tropical North Queensland. Covering an area of ​​approximately 1,200 square kilometers, the wet tropics rainforest is part of Australia's largest contiguous rainforest area. Contains 30% frog, marsupial and reptile species in Australia and 65% Australian bat and butterfly species. 20% of the bird species in the country can be found in this area, including the endangered cassowary. Added to the World Heritage List at 1988 year.
Frustration reference area Vik Sorbus extensive ( Eucalyptus regnans ) forest with dense ferns along many streams. Prior to the Black Saturday wildfires of 2009, which burned much of the reference area, this forest had not been burned since the 1700s, leaving many trees around 300 years old.
Errinundra Forests Vic Errinundra National Park in East Gippland contains the largest remaining cool temperate rainforest in Victoria. These old-growth forests are home to many rare and endangered species of flora and fauna, including mighty owls, tiger quolls and long-legged potoroo.
Gloster Park Wa Curry eucalyptus forests, including the Glouteen tree, West Australia The most famous carry tree (photo)
Gondwani in Australia
Goolengook Vic Old cool temperate rainforest in East Victoria.
Great Otway National Park Vic Diverse landscapes and vegetation types, including old eucalyptus forests.
Karawata Forest QLD Protected shrubland on Karawata, Queensland.
Kinglake National Park Vic While much of the forest area was cleared in the early 20th century, many old trees remained.
Lake Mountain Vic Old-growth forests of rowan and snowgum, including habitat for the endangered Leadbeater's Opossum.
Lamington National Park QLD NSW Part of the Gondwana Rainforest in Australia from a World Heritage Site at the Queensland/New South Wales border. One of the largest uplands subtropical rainforest remnants in the world and the northernmost southern beech cool temperate rainforest in Australia.
Leard State Forest New South Wales The largest remnant of natural thicket on the Liverpool Plains in northwest New South Wales and Australia's largest and most endangered intact woodland. It is the habitat of 34 endangered species and several endangered ecological communities. [4]
Limpinwood Preserve New South Wales World Heritage Wilderness Protected Area 26 km 2 is located in the border ranges of northeast New South Wales. Vegetation is primarily subtropical rainforest with wet sclerophyll forest.
Mount Buffalo National Park Vic More than 550 native species occur; the most significant plant communities are alpine and subalpine communities. On the lower slopes, there are communities of a mixture of chewing gum and peppermint, including bogong gum, Chapman's eucalyptus. They develop into pure plantations of alpine ash, Delegate eucalyptus about 1100 meters above sea level and subalpine snow gum forests, Eucalyptus pauciflora above 1300 meters. Numerous endemic plant species.
Mount Warning National Park QLD Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Lists in 1986. Extensive remnants of subtropical rainforests.
Mount Reed (Tasmania) Tas Despite extensive historical mining and human activity on its slopes, Mount Reed has unique and significant stands of rare Juon pine forest on its slopes.
Pillig Forest New South Wales Australia's largest inland forest. The area is more than 450,000 hectares.
Sherbrooke Forest Vic Wet sclerophyll forest dominated by mountain ash, Eucalyptus regnans , the highest flowering plant in the world. The forest recovered well after felling, which was carried out from the middle of the 19th century until 1930. Sherbrooke Forest is famous for its population: the magnificent lyrebirds.
Springbrook National Park QLD Part of the Central East Rainforest Reserves World Heritage Site. Tropical forest and eucalyptus forest.
Tarra-Bulga National Park Vik Remains of temperate cool tropical forests in the Strzelecki ranges. The park's deeply incised river valleys are dominated by wet sclerophylls of high open forest mountain ash ( Eucalyptus regnans ), with ebony undergrowth ( Acacia melanoxylon ), walnut pomaderris ( Pomaderis aspera ) and tree ferns ( 9 Dixonia and arctic0149 Cyathea australis ). Pockets of the park are covered with cool temperate rainforest, including myrtle beech ( Nothofagus cunninghamii ).
Tuart Forest National Park WA Contains rare old-growth tuart ( Eucalyptus gomphocephalus ) forest.

Learn more

31 Suttle St, Durango, CO 81303    Phone: (970) 259-3489 ext. 3
Site Map