How many trees to make toilet paper


10 Facts About Paper Waste and 7 Ways to Reduce It – LastObject

Wrapping paper, books, paintings, maps of the world. All of these items are made using paper. But for all their important use cases comes a footprint as well. A footprint that was a lot more sustainable when there were far fewer human beings on the earth. There are eight billion people and rising, which has changed things. Below, we take a look at just how big the footprint of paper waste really is.

 

 

Paper Waste: The Facts & Statistics
  1. The paper industry creates the third largest amount of greenhouse gasses in Canada. In the US it is the sixth largest producer of greenhouse emissions.
  2. Around 40% of all deforestation is caused by the paper and pulp industries.
  3. Paper production causes significant amounts of air pollution. In the US in 2015, it was the second largest cause of air pollution by industry.
  4. It takes over 13 liters of water (or three gallons) to make a single piece of A4 paper.
  5. Over 380 gallons of oil is used to produce a single ton of paper.
  6. On average, office workers were printing fifty unnecessary pieces of paper every day less than just 15 years ago.
  7. Around 26% of the material at landfills is waste paper.

 

 


Toilet Paper Wastage

Approximately 27,000 trees are cut down every day just to make toilet paper. Over seven billion rolls of toilet paper are sold in America alone each year. This amounts to around 141 rolls per person, or 12.7 kilograms (28 lbs.) of paper. Comparable figures can be found in many major European countries. In Germany, they use 134 rolls per person every year. Similarly, in the UK it’s 127 rolls per person annually. Clearly, this is an unsustainable practice.

That being said, many other countries do a better job at paper usage and wastage. This is often due to the use of alternative hygiene practices, such as bidets. To lessen this environmentally devastating practice, more people need to adopt similar approaches.

 

What To Do To Reduce The Paper Waste

 

1. Recycle All Paper Waste

The most urgent step that needs to be taken is to start recycling all paper wastes. The more that can be recycled, the more trees that can be saved. Given the worrying rate of our planet’s deforestation, this is a vital adjustment. It will also reduce the levels of air and water pollution that the process of making paper creates.

2. Go Paperless - Review & Store Documents Digitally

In the long term, it’s vital that everyone makes the switch from paper to digital documents. Before you print anything out, consider whether you really need a physical copy. In most cases, you can now just rely on e-documents. Books can be read on kindles, phones, or tablets. E-tickets can be used for many public modes of transportation. Wherever possible, stick to a digital rather than a paper document. This will dramatically reduce paper wasting.

3. Use Recycled Paper At Home And In The Office

In the rare instances where you do need to print out documents, only use recycled paper. This way, at the very least you’ll not be contributing to deforestation. Try to encourage your place of work to only purchase recycled paper too.

4. Use Both Sides When Printing & Copying

Relatedly, when you can’t avoid printing or copying, be sure to use both sides of the paper. While this may seem unimportant, doing this halves the amount of paper you use. Over the long term, this can save large amounts of paper from being wasted.

5. Adjust Fonts & Formatting To Limit Wasted Space

Another way to reduce the volume of paper you use when printing and copying is to adjust the typography. Pick a font that reads well even when small, and then lower its size as much as possible. Thereafter, adjust the margins so that they’re narrower. It will allow you to fit more content onto each individual page.

6. Reuse Paper Whenever Possible

Once a paper document has served its purpose, don’t immediately send it to the recycling bin. You can repurpose it first, thereby getting more use out of it. For instance, you can use it to take minutes during a meeting. If you enjoy drawing, use it as a blank canvas for your art. Just still be sure you do recycle the paper once you’re completely finished with it.

7. Buy Products With The Least Packaging

Always look for the products that come with the least amount of packaging. There are now plenty of companies that are environmentally conscious. As such, they’ll try to limit the waste their products will create. It’s also a good idea to buy products in higher volumes where possible. This cuts down on the overall amount of packaging over time.


Paper Waste: Solving The Problem

As this article has demonstrated, the world is facing a serious problem with paper waste. This is contributing to the climate crisis through deforestation and pollution. If we carry on at the current rate, we risk causing irreparable damage.

However, there are things people can do to alleviate these problems. By following the steps above, you’ll be going some way towards helping divert a catastrophe. Consider getting a bidet instead of using toilet paper, switching to digital documents instead of paper ones, and always reuse and recycle paper.

By following these simple guidelines, we’ll dramatically reduce our paper use. Let’s save the world together, starting with less paper wasted.

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How Many Trees Does It Take To Make 1 Roll Of Toilet Paper?

Per capita toilet paper consumption is highest in North America.

Toilet paper is one of the most important inventions in the history of human societies. The Chinese were the first society recorded to have used paper for hygiene purposes in the 6th century CE. The Chinese were mostly responsible for the advancement in toilet paper since in the 14th century, and there was the mass manufacture of toilet paper in Zhejiang province. Apart from the Chinese, other individuals who contributed to the invention of the toilet paper include Joseph Gayetty and Seth Wheeler. Like other paper products, toilet paper is made from trees. Today, global toilet paper consumption per capita is just under 4 kilograms in contrast to North America where it is 23 kilograms per capita. It is estimated that a single tree can make 100 pounds or almost 1,500 rolls of toilet paper.

Trees and the Production of Toilet Paper

According to industry experts, a single tree can be used to make nearly 100 pounds of toilet paper with each roll weighing about 0.5 pounds. Due to the difference in the size and shape of the trees, most mathematicians prefer to use the volume of wood in calculating the number of toilet rolls that a tree can produce. Mathematicians at Utopia Mechanicus indicated that a single cubic foot of wood could produce roughly 40-80 rolls of paper. Despite the calculations, they noted that some factors could affect the mass of the wood thus changing the number of toilet paper rolls produced. One of the factors that can affect the mass of the wood is the drying of the wood which reduces its moisture content. According to engineering toolbox, when a piece of wood is dried, and the moisture content reduces by 20%, the weight reduces by approximately 50%. Another factor that affects the mass of the wood is the type of tree as different trees produce wood of different mass. Taking these factors into consideration, calculating the number of toilet paper rolls that a tree can produce is exceptionally difficult. Utopia Mechanicus estimate that a 40-foot tall pine tree that's perfectly conical and has a diameter of 1.5 feet at ground level could produce 1,440 rolls. However, perfectly conical trees do not exist as most trees have a nearly uniform width until the top when they suddenly taper off.

The Environmental Impact of Toilet Paper

Because of the significant toilet paper use around the world, a large number of trees have been cut down to produce toilet paper. The rapid rate of deforestation has had a significant impact on the global climate patterns as it leads to a reduction in the amount of rainfall in some areas. The toilet paper industry has put in place some measures to reduce the environmental impact of toilet paper production, which include the use of recovered fibers as raw materials in the production of toilet paper as well as the use of biofuels to reduce the use of carbon fuels and lower their carbon emissions.

Increases in the Use of Toilet Paper

The Worldwatch Institute indicates that the number of people using toilet paper around the world has increased significantly. The increase has been attributed mainly to the rise in western culture.

Benjamin Elisha Sawe in Environment

Toilet paper manufacturing

There is no standardization of square or roll sizes, so words like "mega roll" or "double roll" mean nothing. Instead, if you want to compare prices, look at the cost and number of layers, that is, the thickness of toilet paper, at this link.

When considering costs, keep in mind that when going to the bathroom you will use fewer sheets of 3-ply toilet paper than single-ply due to superior cleaning and absorbent properties.

The vast majority of toilet paper is made from the pulp of virgin trees. Yes, we cut down trees for all those toilet paper rolls (toilet paper production consumes 27,000 trees a day).

The good news is that 1 tree can provide 50 kg of toilet paper. It's also good to know that trees are a renewable resource and most US companies plant trees after they've taken mature trees.

Pulp is made from trees by grinding virgin wood into small chips. On virgin trees, the bark is first removed and then it is passed through a chopper. The result is a pile of wood chips and sawdust that are ready for the next step.

Toilet paper is also made from recycled paper and hemp, but these are much rarer and require a different type of processing. Using recycled paper probably seems like the perfect solution to save forests, however the process requires extra steps such as separating non-metal waste and removing ink.

After the pulp has been prepared, it is placed in a vat where it is mixed with water and chemicals. Very slowly, the pulp breaks down into cellulose, fibers and lignin, and eventually the soft pulp can be separated from the water.

The flesh is no longer firm so it can be shaped properly. But before that happens, it needs to be cleaned.

Rinse and Bleach

If you have white toilet paper, chances are it's bleached. Yes, toilet paper is bleached to achieve an ultra-white appearance.

The lignin that helps hold the fibers together in the wood is also removed because it tends to turn yellowish over time.

If you used organic or vegan toilet paper, it was probably brown because it bypassed the bleaching step that most toilet paper goes through.

Organic and vegan toilet paper is also less soft due to the lack of chemicals in the manufacturing process.

Is it 1 ply, 2 ply or 3 ply?

Thickness and number of sheets matter. If it is 3-ply, the toilet paper roll size will be about 3 times larger than 1-ply.

Is there a design on paper?

Many toilet paper companies will have their logo on the sheets. When the toilet paper roll, the logo can be pressed on the sheet.

What is the perforated sheet size?

One standard sheet of toilet paper is 20 x 20 cm, however in recent decades we have begun to see smaller sheet sizes. This is done by toilet paper companies to save money and maximize profits.

The roll is cut to fit a toilet paper roll

The last step in the toilet paper manufacturing process is to cut the large roll into sizes that will be sold. When this happens, the toilet paper may be packaged. Sometimes some rolls have errors and can be returned to the beginning of the toilet paper manufacturing process.

What to do if toilet paper comes from a recycled source

Ideally, all toilet paper should be recycled. It shouldn't be necessary to use virgin trees to make a product that simple.

Schools dispose of hundreds of kilograms of paper waste every day, and homeowners throw away junk mail. Wouldn't it be great if all that paper could be reused to make toilet paper?

Although the recycling process is useful for reducing waste, it is horribly inefficient. Toilet paper companies have to separate the metal waste from the paper, then they have to remove the ink and they can start the pulp manufacturing process.

How much wood is needed for one sheet of paper. Paper is made from trees

136 billion sheets of 216mm by 279mm paper (A4 size is 210x297) is needed to produce a printed copy of all the approximately 4.5 billion web pages on the Internet. This result was published in the student research work "How Much of the Amazon Would it Take to Print the Internet?", published in the collection of interdisciplinary works of the British University of Leicester. The students calculated that this amount of paper could be provided by trees from as little as 0. 002% of the Amazon rainforest area.

The calculation method is actually quite simple. Assuming that the English-language Wikipedia consists of 4723991 pages, the authors randomly selected ten of them and printed each one. It turned out that 15 sheets of paper are needed to print one article. After doing a simple multiplication, the students determined that 70859865 pages are needed to print the entire Wikipedia.

They then extrapolated to a known number of all web pages on the Internet, which was assumed to be 4.5 billion. Assuming, using the average estimate, that on average it takes 30 sheets of paper to print a page, the students came up with a number:

4.54 × 109 × 30 = 1.36 × 10 11 pages.

Without stopping there, the authors calculated how many trees would be needed to produce 136 billion sheets of paper. They found out that on average from one industrial tree - birch, oak, spruce - you can get 17 packs of paper, 500 sheets each. In other words, 136 billion paper pages would require approximately 16 million trees. This number is three times the number of all trees growing in New York. The rainforest density in the Amazon is 70909 trees per square kilometer, so an English-language Wikipedia would need roughly 12% of trees per square kilometer to print. To print the entire Internet, 8,011,765 trees would need to be cut down, which is about 113 km 2 of the entire area of ​​the Amazon rainforest.

On the one hand, student research work may seem like just an academic exercise. On the other hand, we can recall the recent statement of the "father of the Internet" Vint Cerf, who warned of a possible "Dark Age" due to the habit of people to store all their information in digital form. We are talking not only about technical failures in data drives, but also about the fact that manufacturers stop supporting obsolete devices, and programmers stop supporting obsolete file formats.

After some time, it may turn out that even if we accumulate huge archives of digital content, we will not be able to find out what it is

Miscellaneous
#1
1. It takes 3.5 cubic meters of wood to produce one ton of printing paper.
2. The average volume of a whip (count one tree) in the operational fund of the Russian Federation is 0.33 cubic meters.
This, of course, is a very rough estimate, but rather, 4-5 cubic meters of wood are consumed per 1 ton of uncoated paper. 3.5 cubic meters is too good an indicator.
The consumption rates given by us are included in special reference books and are used for official calculations.
For a more accurate calculation, we provide additional data:
1. The consumption rate for the production of one ton of cardboard is 1.6 cubic meters of wood.
2. The consumption rate for the production of one ton of newsprint is 2.8 cubic meters of wood.
If we are to be precise, we should take into account the material of the flyleaf. In the Soviet period, books were produced using the so-called endpaper board (not to be confused with cardboard). Wood consumption for the production of which is approximately 2. 1 cubic meters per ton.

And then consider: one page of standard A4 office paper weighs 5 grams (80 grams per square meter). Quality published books are usually printed either on the same paper, or on paper of a slightly lower density (for example, 60-70 grams per square meter). Well, the covers are very different - if this is the so-called "soft" cover, then usually it is paper about 200 g per square meter.

Well, yes, for newsprint books 3.5 is a normal coefficient. It is clear that any calculations in general are very approximate (since, for example, recycled cardboard or materials in general, the production of which is not associated with the use of wood, is often used for covers). But in general, it seems to me that it is more correct to use a coefficient from 4 to 5 for paper publications.
At present JSC "Solikamskbumprom" being one of the largest producers of high-quality paper, the actual consumption of wood for the production of one ton of paper is 3.05 cubic meters.

No. 2
The yield of cellulose from wood is about 60%, but it is wood of a certain grade, so we can consider the efficiency of using wood - 30 percent. And from one ton of paper - you can make about 30 thousand ordinary, student notebooks.
Accordingly - approximately 0.0001848 cubic meters of wood (pine or spruce) is spent on the manufacture of one notebook.
№4
one tree for 2 books

multiks Pro (610) 2 years ago (

Have you ever wondered how many trees you need to cut down for one medium-sized book? And for making a pack of A4 office paper? And for
a beautiful certificate card that can be hung on the wall?

Here's what we found on the Internet:

The consumption rate for the production of one ton of cardboard is 1.6 cubic meters on average. m of wood,

The consumption rate for the production of one ton of newsprint is an average of 2. 8 cubic meters. m of wood,

The production of a ton of printed paper requires approximately 3.5 cubic meters. m of wood.

Take, for example, the production of one standard page of office paper (A4 format, density 80 grams per square meter). It consumes approximately 20 cubic centimeters of wood if this paper is made entirely from virgin pulp
(without the use of waste paper and non-wood fiber materials). The average volume of a whip (count one tree) in the operational fund of the Russian Federation is 0.33 cubic meters.

We considered that our company is only in the partnership direction draws up about 4,000 official documents with partners per year, spending on this about 16,000 sheets of A4 offset paper. I don’t undertake to take up the calculations of paper waste for the entire company in
, I’m afraid to make a mistake.

Let's add here certificates, licenses and subscriptions for the system, which are printed on A4 offset paper with a higher density - comparable to Whatman paper (300 grams per square meter) - about 4000 sheets are used per year.

It is clear that any calculations in general are very approximate, but counting for trees, it turns out:

  • 1 tree per year for official documents in the direction of working with partners;
  • 1 tree per year for certificates, licenses and subscriptions.

Plus, of course, there are numerous printouts for personal use or draft versions of working documents, which cannot be completely avoided, even using electronic document management within the company.

One tree a year doesn't sound like much, but think about it - how many of these trees does each one spend? What can we do to change the situation? We started with ourselves and with our own processes:

1. Since August 2010, we have refused to print documentation sets for the DIRECTUM system when delivering software. All documentation for the system is now provided to users in electronic form.

2. Since February 2013, a pilot project has been launched, under which our company switches to electronic exchange of legally significant documents with business partners through the service

3. Since February 2013, we have refused to print certificates on the status of certified specialists. Now certificates after successful certification are sent to specialists by e-mail in electronic form, in a format convenient for sending and viewing.

These are only the first steps towards preserving our fragile nature, but we are moving in the right direction. Join now!

club.directum.ru

Paper obtained from trees

In today's electronic world, people are starting to consider creating a paper-free environment. However, we still have a very long way to go before we finally lose dependence on this information carrier. From newspapers to paper wrappers, paper is still ubiquitous, and much of it ends up in landfill.

Previously, paper was a rather rare and valuable resource, today there is so much of it that it gradually fills the entire planet. It was originally invented as a tool for communicating and conveying information, but today it is more often used as a package. It takes twice as much energy to make paper as it does to make a plastic bag.

In the case of paper, production also includes cutting down trees. Deforestation is one of the key environmental issues we face today. 42% of the world's wood production is used to make paper. Is it worth the lives of all those trees that are cut down?

Here are some interesting facts about waste paper. We are used to seeing products in their finished form and often do not think about how they are made, and what happens after they become unnecessary.

Facts about paper and waste paper

  • 324 liters of water is used to make 1 kg of paper.
  • As we speak, more than 199 tons of paper have already been produced.
  • It takes 10 liters of water to make one sheet of A4 paper.
  • 93% of paper is made from trees.
  • 50% of industrial waste consists of paper.
  • It takes 75,000 trees to print the Sunday edition of the New York Times!
  • Recycling 1 ton of paper saves about 682. 5 liters of oil, 26,500 liters of water and 17 trees.
  • Packaging makes up 1/3 of our trash.
  • US offices use 12100000000000 sheets of paper per year.
  • Paper makes up 33% of household waste.
  • With all the paper we use to work every year, we can build a 12-foot high paper wall that will go from New York to California!
  • The decrease in the use of paper was predicted in connection with the electronic revolution. This won't happen as paper demand is expected to double by 2030.
  • Each tree produces enough oxygen to breathe for 3 people.

Environmental impact of waste paper

Deforestation is the main result of our thoughtless use of paper. Forest conservation groups have made great strides in protecting the environment and limiting the commercial use of timber. This is great progress for mankind! Just imagine how long it will take for a tree to grow to its full size... Only by reaching the understanding that the use of wasted trees that give us oxygen is detrimental, we will save the planet from global warming.

Pollution from paper waste leads to another problem: by 2020, pulp mills will produce 500,000,000 tons of cardboard and paper annually! Of course, we need to reduce the output of products of this kind, because they are the third in terms of water, soil and air pollution. The use of chlorine-based bleaches in the manufacturing process results in the release of toxic materials that enter the environment. When rotting paper emits a gas - methane, 25 times more toxic than CO2.

10 easy ways to reduce waste and reduce pollution

Many companies operating in North America have modified their manufacturing processes to reduce the production of dioxins. It is a toxic by-product of paper production, which is also a carcinogen. There is an active search for renewable paper sources, so that we can reduce the felling of our beautiful trees.

What can you personally do to reduce waste and paper consumption?

  • Dispose of all your paper waste.
  • Be a conscious consumer and buy products that are 100% recycled. Buy recycled paper materials or those from sustainable forests.
  • In the office, when using paper on one side only, don't throw it away, save it. This small effort reduces paper consumption by 50%.
  • If you already have a scanned copy of the file, do not print it again unless you really need to.
  • Use electronic media instead of paper when communicating with clients.
  • Reduce the use of paper cups and disposable paper plates, use reusable tableware in the office kitchen.
  • Encourage colleagues and friends to send their paper for recycling.
  • Use paper materials made without chlorine.
  • Give preference to products that have been packaged in an "environmentally friendly" facility.
  • Take advantage of the latest technologies such as laptops, computers and smartphones to store your files and notes on them.

Even a small consumer contribution of this kind can contribute to the overall cause of preserving the environment.

ecobaltresource.ru

University of Leicester students calculated how much paper it takes to print the entire internet

136 billion sheets of 216 x 279 mm paper (A4 size is 210 x 297) It is necessary to obtain a hard copy of all approximately 4.5 billion web pages of the Internet. This result was published in the student research work "How Much of the Amazon Would it Take to Print the Internet?", published in the collection of interdisciplinary works of the British University of Leicester. The students calculated that this amount of paper could be provided by trees from as little as 0.002% of the Amazon rainforest area.

The calculation method is actually quite simple. Assuming that the English-language Wikipedia consists of 4723991 pages, the authors randomly selected ten of them and printed each. It turned out that 15 sheets of paper are needed to print one article. After doing a simple multiplication, the students determined that 70859865 pages are needed to print the entire Wikipedia.

They then extrapolated to a known number of all web pages on the Internet, which was assumed to be 4.5 billion. Assuming, using the average estimate, that on average it takes 30 sheets of paper to print a page, the students came up with a number:

4.54 × 109 × 30 = 1.36 × 10 11 pages.

Without stopping there, the authors calculated how many trees would be needed to produce 136 billion sheets of paper. They found out that on average from one industrial tree - birch, oak, spruce - you can get 17 packs of paper, 500 sheets each. In other words, 136 billion paper pages would require approximately 16 million trees. This number is three times the number of all trees growing in New York. The rainforest density in the Amazon is 70909 trees per square kilometer, so an English-language Wikipedia would need roughly 12% of trees per square kilometer to print. To print the entire Internet, 8,011,765 trees would need to be cut down, which is about 113 km 2 of the entire area of ​​the Amazon rainforest.

On the one hand, student research work may seem like just an academic exercise. On the other hand, we can recall the recent statement of the "father of the Internet" Vint Cerf, who warned of a possible "Dark Age" due to the habit of people to store all their information in digital form. We are talking not only about technical failures in data drives, but also about the fact that manufacturers stop supporting obsolete devices, and programmers stop supporting obsolete file formats.

After some time, it may turn out that even if we accumulate huge archives of digital content, we will not be able to find out what it is

habr.com

how many trees does it take to make a piece of paper

In section Other to the question sheet of paper - how many trees? set by the author Lёb_ka the best answer is your garden

Reply by 22 replies [guru]

Hello! Here is a selection of topics with answers to your question: a sheet of paper - how many trees?

Humanity has adapted to get everything it needs from nature. For example, let's take a tree. It is both a building material and a material for making furniture and paper. A huge number of "lungs of the Earth" are cut down to satisfy human needs. Moreover, the spiritual needs of a person require much more costs than, for example, building a house.
It takes 13-21 grams of wood to make one sheet of A4 paper. If you count, it turns out that about 5 kilograms of wood are required to make one book. Statistics speak of 125 million trees being cut down each year for paper production. Take care of the world your children will live in - reduce deforestation! Moreover, it is quite simple to do this: replace ordinary paper books with e-book readers.
To minimize the harm caused to our planet by deforestation, you need to purchase an e-book and read more than 23 new books on it. This is about wood.
It is interesting that you can calculate not only the amount of wood saved, but also air! For the production of one paper book, about 8 kilograms of carbon dioxide are emitted into the atmosphere. And when creating an e-book, 168 kilograms follow there. It is easy to calculate that a book "justifies itself" for 20 books read.
Protect nature and switch to new devices for reading books. Only twenty books read with the help of a reader will not only save life on Earth, but also save wood for a new log house!

Reply from [guru]
13-21 grams of one tree.
And one tree will make 11,855 sheets of paper.

Reply from I-beam [newbie]
,

Reply from Apart [newbie]
13-21 grams

Reply from Yulia Yolgina [newbie]
13-21 grams

Reply from Vadim Gerasimov [newbie]
snake

22oa.ru

LENIZDAT 1987 – on the right track

Miscellaneous
#1
1. It takes 3.5 cubic meters of wood to produce one ton of printing paper.
2. The average volume of a whip (count one tree) in the operational fund of the Russian Federation is 0.33 cubic meters.
This, of course, is a very rough estimate, but rather, 4-5 cubic meters of wood are consumed per 1 ton of uncoated paper. 3.5 cubic meters is too good an indicator.
The consumption rates given by us are included in special reference books and are used for official calculations.
For a more accurate calculation, we provide additional data:
1. The consumption rate for the production of one ton of cardboard is 1.6 cubic meters of wood.
2. The consumption rate for the production of one ton of newsprint is 2.8 cubic meters of wood.
If we are to be precise, we should take into account the material of the flyleaf. In the Soviet period, books were produced using the so-called endpaper board (not to be confused with cardboard). Wood consumption for the production of which is approximately 2.1 cubic meters per ton.

And then consider: one page of standard A4 office paper weighs 5 grams (80 grams per square meter). Quality published books are usually printed either on the same paper, or on paper of a slightly lower density (for example, 60-70 grams per square meter). Well, the covers are very different - if it is the so-called "soft" cover, then usually it is paper about 200 g per square meter.

Well, yes, for newsprint books 3.5 is a normal ratio. It is clear that any calculations in general are very approximate (since, for example, recycled cardboard or materials in general, the production of which is not associated with the use of wood, is often used for covers). But in general, it seems to me that it is more correct to use a coefficient from 4 to 5 for paper publications.
At present JSC "Solikamskbumprom" being one of the largest producers of high-quality paper, the actual consumption of wood for the production of one ton of paper is 3.05 cubic meters.

No. 2
The yield of cellulose from wood is about 60%, but it is wood of a certain type, so we can consider the efficiency of using wood - 30 percent. And from one ton of paper - you can make about 30 thousand ordinary, student notebooks.
Accordingly - approximately 0. 0001848 cubic meters of wood (pine or spruce) is spent on the manufacture of one notebook.
№4
one tree for 2 books

dharmena.livejournal.com

Paper will endure everything. How much waste paper does it take to save a forest? | Society

Experts find it difficult to give exact figures. A lot depends on the quality of the paper, its density, the method of processing wood or recycled materials.

Wood

- The main raw material for paper production is wood pulp. In Belarus, it is obtained mainly from coniferous and deciduous species. Spruce and birch are best suited. Technological wood is crushed into chips and processed by cooking. The age of the tree that is used to make paper does not matter, - said "AiF" Ruzhena NOVITSKAYA, press secretary of the Bellesbumprom concern.

Indeed, spruce has the largest percentage of cellulose. For example, according to experts, 7 kg of newsprint can be made from the trunk of a medium spruce.

The mass fraction of cellulose in wood is on average 50%. At the same time, the share of useful yield is approximately 70%. About 300 grams of paper are produced from one kilogram of wood. Depending on the density, 50-60 sheets of regular A4 office paper are obtained.

Recyclables

- If we talk about the quality of waste paper, then there is first-class recycled paper. The yield of useful substances for processing in it is high. At the same time, this indicator will be much lower when processing cardboard, - said Lilia SEMOCCHKINA, Deputy Director of LLC BELGIPS-ECO, to .

According to the project coordinators, in March 2015 about 16 tons of waste paper were collected in Minsk. This figure is expected to increase in April. In the near future, it is planned to install another 60 similar containers in the Belarusian capital; double their number. It turns out that from 200 to 250 trees were saved in March.

Lilia Semochkina draws attention to the fact that 20% of waste paper is books. After sorting, some of them are transferred to libraries, hospitals, schools, orphanages, shelters, nursing homes, prisons.

www.aif.by

This paper, paper world... | Modern pedagogical technologies

Purpose: find out how the amount of paper use affects the number of forest plantations.

Tasks:

1. Study the history of the first appearance of paper.

2. Find out what is the raw material for paper production.

3. Conduct a survey among students and teachers of the lyceum.

4. Get information about forest resources from "Leskhoz"

5. Make a mathematical calculation.

6. Make a memo "How to save paper", create an instruction.

7. Draw conclusions and results.

8. Prepare presentation

Type: research

Object: paper

Research subject: paper, as a result of the destruction of the forest.

Planned results: having learned from what resources paper is made, everyone will treat it carefully, rationally.

Research methods: search for information, study of special literature, generalization of results.

Project stages: project selection, activity planning, selection of materials, analysis and comparison.

Hypothesis: if you reduce the amount of paper consumption, you can improve the ecological situation of forests.

Techniques and skills to be mastered in the process of work:

1. Rules for working with text, reference material;

2. Computer use rules;

3. Ability to work with information, equipment and materials.

Introduction

Paper is an amazing material that has penetrated into all spheres of human life. It is impossible to imagine the daily household and professional activities of a person without its use, because paper is, first of all, information.

Even electronic information carriers, which have thoroughly entered our lives in recent decades, cannot take over all its functions. Since ancient times, paper has been widely used in a wide variety of forms and purposes. Paper is knowledge, art, interior, communication, money, packaging material and much more.

The modern world has accustomed us to utilitarian treatment of any things that surround us. Once upon a time, centuries ago, things were completely different. Paper became a convenient and not as expensive material as, for example, parchment, which greatly influenced the development of education, literature and painting. But still, paper was expensive, highly valued and used only for its intended purpose. According to experts, the manufacture of paper products takes 42% of all wood harvested in the world, and in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, paper production is three times higher than the emissions of all existing aviation transport. Such indicators make every conscious person think not only about the preservation of forest resources, but also about the cleanliness of the surrounding atmosphere.

According to experts, the manufacture of paper products takes 42% of all wood harvested in the world, and in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, paper production is three times higher than the emissions of all existing aviation transport. Paper is a valuable material. This is evidenced by the recent discovery of the British Museum, who found Michelangelo's sketches for the statue of the Madonna and Child in Bruges. The sketches were found on canvas under a later drawing - traces of carbon contained in the coal that Michelangelo used for rough work showed up in infrared light. Scientists notice that in those days the cost of paper was quite high, so the artists used the same canvas repeatedly.

Chapter 1.

1.1 Relevance

The work is devoted to such a topical issue as respect for paper. Today, we do not think about this issue, we do not consider it important, because you can put aside one sheet and take another, and a third, and so on. And that's what almost every one of us thinks. But environmentalists do not get tired of warning humanity that the resources of our planet are not unlimited. Our paper waste is ruining the planet. Scientists have found that most paper is used by lawyers, financiers and officials of various ranks. It is estimated that one worker in the "paper industry" uses up as many as 17 coniferous trees per year. 10,000 trees a year are cut down in China to make holiday cards. 115 billion pages of office paper annually around the world turn into waste paper due to copiers and printers. And these are just a few facts.

But the paradox is that the paper is not at all to blame here. It is a universal raw material necessary for modern man, like fresh food. At this stage of human development it is impossible to refuse this material, it is only necessary to change one's attitude towards it and towards nature. Rational use of resources will help us prevent a slowly but inexorably approaching environmental catastrophe on a planetary scale. Today, it is more reasonable and expedient to reuse paper, and these are not worn out phrases, but an urgent need. Today, almost half of the industrially cut wood goes to the production of paper. The immoderate consumption of paper by mankind, according to environmental activists, threatens nothing less than the very existence of life on the planet. One of the most restless and eloquent defenders of forests, writer and conservationist Mandy Haggit says: “It's time to stop seeing something clean, healthy and natural in a white sheet of paper. We must realize that paper is nothing but chemically bleached pulp.” Paper is a material made from compressed plant fibers. We cannot live without paper. Paper is used for printing texts. Performing reports at work at various levels. Cardboard, colored paper is used for technology classes. Paper is a packaging material. Napkins, toilet paper are used as hygiene products. We know that paper is made from wood. “The quality of forests in Russia is deteriorating rapidly, degradation is proceeding at a rapid pace. There is a fragmentation of forests, a deterioration in the quality of wood. In the next one or two decades, it will be possible to say not that forests in Russia will disappear, but that they will lose their ecological, ecosystem functions. They will cease to be a habitat for those living beings that are associated with the forest. There will be a sharp depletion of the species composition, and forests will no longer be of value as regulators of the local climate, producers of clean water and air,” said Nikolai Shmatkov, coordinator of forest policy projects at the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Russia. If this happens, then due to the deterioration of the quality of wood, the number of trees will be increased for the production of paper. Russian environmentalists are concerned about this situation. With our work, we want to attract others to treat paper sparingly. This will save the trees. This topic has become relevant for us.

1.2 History of paper

How did paper come about? – this question interested us. Having studied the literature, Internet resources, we found out that paper appeared a very long time ago.

In 1957 in the northern province of China Shaanxi. In the cave of Baoqiang, they discovered a tomb. In which scraps of sheets of paper were found. They have been researched and installed. That paper was made in the 11th century. BC For quite a long time, the recipe for creating a white sheet was kept in the strictest confidence. Paper was sold for incredible money, exchanged for expensive fabrics, metal. The first Fei-tian paper money, called flying coins, even came into use. The official birthday of paper is considered to be 105 AD. It was then that a Chinese official named Cai Lun informed his emperor about that. That the craftsmen managed to discover the technology for the production of thin writing material. It should be noted that a great impetus to the development of paper production in Europe was given by the invention in 1670 in Holland for grinding the paper pulp of the roll, which was about 3 times more productive than the bulky crush used before. Demand for large format paper brought about the emergence of paper machines. The most important innovation of the beginning of the 19th century was the production of cellulose from wood. It was obtained almost simultaneously in different countries and differed mainly in the method of production (mechanical or chemical).

Scientists believe that the Russian word paper comes from the Tatar word ”bumug”, which means cotton. It is likely that for the first time the people of Russia became widely acquainted with paper in the middle of the 13th century, when Batu Khan, to collect tribute, made the first national census of the population of Russia on paper, which at that time was used in Northern China conquered by the Mongol-Tatars, as well as in Turkestan and Persia with whom they traded. Some researchers believe that the origin of the Russian term "paper" should, apparently, be derived from the Greek name for cotton. Paper came to Russia from France. The Russian word "paper" goes back to the name of the Middle Eastern city of Membij. Its first domestic production began in the 16th century, in the village of Ivanteevka near Moscow. A real paper mill was erected there. Alas, it burned down very soon, and the next attempt to get their own Russian paper was made only in the 17th century. Patriarch Nikon. The next significant contribution to the development of Russian paper production was already made by Peter I. Such transformations of Peter I, as the replacement of the complex Old Slavonic alphabet with a simpler one, similar to Latin, the release of the first Russian newspaper in 1703 and a large number of books on various issues of science and technology, required a lot of paper. Seeing that two mills are not able to meet the needs of the country. He ordered to put a few more, but already of the European type. By decree of Peter, several paper enterprises were built near Moscow and St. Petersburg. Well, so that they would not have a shortage of raw materials, he issued a decree: all worn-out linens and rags should be taken to the office of the police chief. To encourage paper production in Russia, he banned the use of foreign paper in offices. Many years have passed since then. But paper, as it occupied leading positions in human life, continues to hold them.

Output: As a result of the studied literature, we found out that the first paper appeared in China in 105 BC, and the ancestor of modern paper, cellulose, appeared in the 19th century.

Making paper today.

Nowadays, as in ancient times, paper is made from paper pulp, but now the raw material for it is mainly chopped wood of coniferous trees - pine, spruce or fir. Plant fibers are made up of a durable material - cellulose. This is why good paper is relatively strong. In modern production, ground wood is boiled in a solution of caustic soda or other substances until a loose pulp is obtained. The paper pulp is placed on a mesh conveyor belt, blown with air, and then rolled between rolls to make paper. Not only wood is used as a raw material for paper production. For example, the highest grades of paper for printing banknotes and important documents are made from cotton and linen rags. Paper from such raw materials is very smooth and durable. Each inhabitant of the Earth spends on average about 300 kg of paper per year. Approximately half of this amount is reused for the manufacture of newsprint, toilet, wrapping and other types of low-quality paper. The rest of the paper ends up in landfills.

1.3 What is paper made from?

The main raw material for paper production is wood pulp. Cellulose is obtained from forest species: mainly from spruce, pine and birch, but eucalyptus, poplar, chestnut and other trees are also used. At the factory, machines peel off the bark from them, grind them into chips. The most economical way to obtain wood pulp is mechanical: at a woodworking enterprise, wood products are crushed to crumbs, which are mixed with water. Paper made on the basis of such pulp is fragile and is most often used in the production of, for example, newspapers. Coniferous forests provide soft wood, which is used to make rough but durable paper. Harder woods produce less durable but smoother paper. Often, a mixture of softwood and hardwood wood fibers is used to make paper. Higher quality paper is made from chemical pulp. Such wood pulp is used to make paper for books, brochures and fashion magazines, as well as durable wrapping materials. In this case, the chips are sorted by size on special sieves and sent to the boil. Wood is cooked in special machines where acid is added. So, having received this information, we learned what paper is made of.

Chapter 2.

2.1 Use of paper in our Lyceum

We decided to find out how, in what quantity teachers and students of our lyceum use paper. To do this, we conducted a survey. For the survey, we took 3.5 classes. They were asked to answer questions.

Student survey

1. How many squared and lined notebooks do you buy for 1 academic year? ___________

2. How many albums do you buy for 1 academic year? ___________

3. How many squared and lined notebooks do you need for 1 academic year? ___________

4. How many albums do you need for 1 academic year? ___________

20 people took part in the survey. The results of the survey showed:

1. Books in a cage and a ruler are bought for 1 academic year - 649 pieces

2. Albums are bought for 1 academic year - 50 pieces.

3. Notebooks in a cage and a ruler are needed for 1 academic year - 427 pieces.

4. Albums are required for 1 academic year - 49things.

We asked the question: “How many notebooks do they have left by the end of the school year?” Many said, on average, 5-6 notebooks.

The analysis of the results mentioned above made it possible to obtain important conclusions.

We calculated:

1) 649:20=32.4 copybooks are bought on average per student.

2) 427:20=21.3 notebooks are needed for teaching.

3) 32.4-21.3=11.1 notebook remains unclaimed.

4) 11.1-5=6. 1 the notebook is simply damaged, it has become “garbage”.

The weight of 1 notebook is 40g, which means 649*0.04=25.96kg of paper.

6.1*0.04=0.240kg = 240g of paper is thrown away by 1 student every year.

Weight of one album 100g. So, 100 * 2.5 = 250g. of paper for one student falls on albums.

25.96 kg + 5 kg = 30.96 kg. -required paper for students per year for notebooks and albums.

Questioning of teachers.

1. How many reams of paper do you need to work for 1 academic year?

2. How many notebooks do you need to work for 1 academic year?

Questioning results. 20 teachers took part.

1. 112 reams of paper are required for 1 academic year.

2. You will need 173 notebooks (48 sheets) for 1 academic year.

On average, one teacher uses 5.6 reams of paper per year. Notebooks for work - 8.6 pieces.

Knowing the weight of a pack of A4 office paper (297 x 210 mm, 80 g/m2, 500 sheets) - 2.5 kg (2500 g), you can calculate how many kg. paper is used for work.

112*2.5=280kg.

1 notebook weighs 110 grams

110*173=19kg.30g.

Total weight: 280kg + 19kg 30g.=299kg.30g - this is how much paper teachers need for a year to work. About 350 people work as teachers in 22 general education and 4 preschool educational organizations of the Uryupinsk municipal district. This means 350 * (299kg.30g: 20) = 5236 kg.

2.2 Paper consumption of trees

How many trees are used to produce 1kg. paper? This is the question we asked ourselves.

The hero of Nikolai Rybnikov in the film "Girls" says the phrase: "200 kg of paper can be made from one cubic meter of wood." This was said in 1961, but how is it now? We decided to find out.

From the sources we learned that:

1. The following types of trees are used to make paper: pine, fir, spruce - coniferous, maple, oak, aspen, poplar, birch - deciduous. For the production of high-quality paper, a mixture of hardwood and softwood fibers is needed.

2. Mature tree - age from 80 to 100 years, overmature - over 100 years. Mature and overmature forests in the Russian Federation account for more than 65% of the total forest area, but over 95% of them are concentrated in Siberia and the Far East. Pine, spruce, larch give the largest amount of wood in Russia; it is used mainly in the pulp and paper industry.

3. 240-375 g of paper can be obtained from 1 kg of wood. It takes one tree to produce 60 kg of paper. When processing 69 kg of waste paper, one tree is saved. When receiving 1 ton of recycled paper, 17 trees are saved. A ton of recycled paper requires 60% less energy and 50% less water to produce it than if paper were made conventionally from cellulose.

299kg 30g: 60kg = 5 trees.

30.96: 60kg = 0.52 trees for about 1 class.

Total: 5.52 trees need to be cut down only for notebooks, albums, paper, given that this calculation was made for 20 lyceum students and 20 teachers.

It is known from statistical data that 96 kg 318 g of paper is needed per student for the entire course of study.

5236 kg.: 60 kg = 82.27 trees per year for teachers of the Uryupinsk district.

How is the situation in our forestry?

Having received mathematical calculations, we wanted to know how many years our forest will last, with such paper costs. To do this, we turned to the specialist of the Uryupinsk "Leskhoz" Rybiev A.P. He answered our questions:

1. What kind of trees does the Uryupinskoye forestry plant? - Oak, ash, acacia, pine, linden.

2. How many hectares. planted with pine? -15 hectares of land

3. How many pine trees are planted per 1 hectare. land? - 4686 pcs. the distance between the rows is 3 meters, and between the pines 70, 75 cm.

4. What kind of work does the forestry do to save trees? - cultivation, watering, loosening.

Our forestry is doing everything to increase the number of plants, and we throw unwritten notebooks, unfinished albums, colored paper, etc. into the trash cans. If we compare the costs of students in grades 3. 5 and teachers, then about 1 hectare. of forest plantations must be cut down for the manufacture of consumable paper for 1 academic year.

2.3 Preventive measures

To prevent an undesirable outcome, as well as to save green spaces, there is an action in Russia to collect waste paper, which applies to every inhabitant. Its essence lies in the fact that:0003

- convince people to take care of natural materials and resources, including paper;

- do not throw it in the trash, but collect it regularly and hand it over to the appropriate services;

- engage in processing and production from secondary raw materials;

- reduce cutting down of trees.

Our lyceum takes an active part in waste paper collection. For the first half of the 2015/16 academic year, we delivered 590.6 kg. Papers. Considering that 69 kg leaves one tree alive, it is easy to calculate 590.6: 69= 8.5 trees. Our guys gave life to so many trees. About 100 million tons of wood pulp are processed annually in the paper industry. Household waste contains 34 million tons of paper. Recycling 1 ton of waste paper saves 17 trees from cutting down.

We have created guides and tips for saving paper.

Save paper leaflet

For teachers.

1. Fewer printouts are needed to reduce paper waste.

2. Print on both sides of the paper, or on sheets that have already been used on one side.

3. Store material electronically.

4. Dispose of waste paper as waste paper.

For students.

1. Use all the pages of your notebook for practice.

2. Use all pages of the album to draw.

3. Use colored paper and cardboard wisely.

4. Paper waste can be used to make crafts and decorations.

5. Hand over paper waste to waste paper.

Paper Saving Instructions

1. Do not discard paper that has text on only one side. There are many ways to use this paper again: to write lists or notes for kids to draw on, print out informal texts and as packaging, or shred the paper and use it as garden mulch.

2. Save toilet paper rolls and paper towel rolls. They can be used for school or home art projects. They can also be used for planting seeds.

3. Keep tissue wrapping paper. It can be reused to wrap another gift, as wrapping material, or to protect stored Christmas decorations.

4. Keep letter paper. It can be used to make lists, as note paper, for children to draw, to create packaging or garden mulch.

5. If you have paper that has not been reused in the above ways, do not throw it away! Recycle it at home or take it to your local waste paper collection point.

2.4 Recycled paper products

Very often we hear about recycled paper products in the media. Along with the importance of paper recycling itself, it is very important that you buy products from recycled materials. And this is slowly becoming the norm. For example, the last Harry Potter book was printed entirely on recycled paper in Canada. What is secondary raw material? We found the answer on the Internet. These are products and materials, after the primary use of which, it is possible to use them in production as a feedstock.

Paper recycling

Why should we recycle paper?

1. Regular offices produce a pound of paper per worker, and 77% of paper used in offices can be recycled.

2. Most of the wasted paper is high quality paper.

3. The use of old newspapers to produce new ones saves 30% to 50% energy

compared to the production of newspapers from wood.

4. Production of paper from recycled materials, reduces environmental pollution by 95%.

5. 40% of waste (on average in the western world) is in the landfill and recycling or the so-called cycle will help prolong their life and prevent the creation of new landfills.

6. Recycled newspapers can be used to make egg cartons, game boards, new newspapers, packaging boxes, etc.

7. Office paper can be recycled into paper towels, napkins and toilet paper.

8. Corrugated cardboard can be used as a raw material for cartons used to pack breakfast cereals.

We believe that such facts of paper recycling (recycling) contribute only to the preservation of the environment.

Students of our lyceum make various handicrafts from waste paper at technology lessons, circle classes, using in practice such techniques as origami, mosaic, quilling and papier-mâché, appliqué, scrapbooking. (Attachment 1). We buy all sorts of unnecessary kits for children's home art, from cheap and sometimes harmful materials, besides, if you dig, they are in every home. And we completely forget what can be done with simple scissors and old periodicals - newspapers, magazines, postcards and give them a second chance. You can make jewelry, paintings, dolls, animal figurines, where materials and accessories for them are in every home.

Conclusion

The hypothesis put forward by us was confirmed. Save paper, save the forest. The forest is the lungs of our planet! Let's save our planet together. The study of this topic showed that the use of paper is growing every year, i.e. there is a clear trend towards cutting down trees. Before working on the project, we did not think about how we could passively harm nature. Now we have learned a lot about such a common material as paper. Conclusion: paper is a valuable material for humans.

Can I change the paper? Now huge libraries fit on several computer disks. But computers are not yet everywhere, and they work only from the electrical network. The conclusion is obvious: no other material or device can completely replace paper. It is necessary to use paper in the required quantity, not to spoil in vain.

Do we need recycled materials? Conclusion: yes, it is necessary, since secondary raw materials are used for the production of various items from paper.

But in order to have beautiful textbooks, notebooks, interesting books, magazines and other items made of paper on the table, it is necessary to save it, because trees are needed for production. Conclusion: saving paper is directly related to the preservation of our forests, beautiful trees. Let's be careful and economical about what is connected with paper!

We think that people around us will be interested in many of the facts that we have learned and will take an active part in the conservation of the forest. As a result of the research work, we studied the history of paper, learned about its properties, developed memos, instructions for the economical use of paper, and, by putting into practice techniques such as origami, mosaic, quilling and papier-mâché, showed the recycling of paper.

We hope that this work will allow both children and adults to take a fresh look at the use of paper and understand the value and importance of preserving the environment.

Social environmental project "Save paper - save the forest!" The document is protected. The authors of the project are Alexandra Vosipenok, Anastasia Shiyanova. The project is based on the research work "Paper saving as a factor of environmental protection". Head - Luft E.V. All students are pupils of the environmental and local history association "Tuesok"

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On the topic: methodological developments, presentations and notes

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The calculation method is actually quite simple. Assuming that the English-language Wikipedia consists of 4723991 pages, the authors randomly selected ten of them and printed each one. It turned out that 15 sheets of paper are needed to print one article. After doing a simple multiplication, the students determined that 70859865 pages are needed to print the entire Wikipedia.

They then extrapolated to a known number of all web pages on the Internet, which was assumed to be 4. 5 billion. Assuming, using the average estimate, that on average it takes 30 sheets of paper to print a page, the students came up with a number:

4.54 × 109 × 30 = 1.36 × 10 11 pages.

Without stopping there, the authors calculated how many trees would be needed to produce 136 billion sheets of paper. They found out that on average from one industrial tree - birch, oak, spruce - you can get 17 packs of paper, 500 sheets each. In other words, 136 billion paper pages would require approximately 16 million trees. This number is three times the number of all trees growing in New York. The rainforest density in the Amazon is 70909 trees per square kilometer, so an English-language Wikipedia would need roughly 12% of trees per square kilometer to print. To print the entire Internet, 8,011,765 trees would need to be cut down, which is about 113 km 2 of the entire area of ​​the Amazon rainforest.

On the one hand, student research work may seem like just an academic exercise.


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