How much is one black walnut tree worth
How Much Is A Walnut Tree Worth?
We all know that stocks and bonds are typical investments, and we watch the movement of the stock market where many have their 401(k) portfolio. Digital currency, the crypto market, is another type of investment popular today – we’ve all heard about Bitcoin as it rose to over $50,000 per coin as well as its fall to below $20,000 per coin.
But when was the last time you considered investing in a tree? For that matter, when was the first time? Don’t scoff, though. We know the stock we purchase for our woodworking projects came from a tree, so there has to be some money in trees.
But just how much is a tree worth? And what is the return on investment in trees? Can I sell one of my yard trees and make some money from it?
Can you make a living growing trees? Someone obviously does, yes, because the wood we just brought home from the lumberyard wasn’t free. From the tree to my woodworking shop, folks made money.
Let’s consider the walnut tree, and specifically the black walnut tree, to find out how much money there is in a tree, how that value might be calculated, and whether it is a worthy investment.
In This Article
- Black Walnut Trees
- The Juglone Problem
- Black Walnut Nuts
- The Value Of A Black Walnut Tree
Black Walnut Trees
Those of us who love working with wood know the beauty of black walnut. Favored as a wood of choice for furniture and cabinetry, black walnut is known for its beautiful color and durability. Black walnut logs are in such high demand that trees have been stolen in the middle of the night by walnut rustlers from tree farms and residential backyards. In one known instance, a helicopter was used to fly one away as it was cut down.
Black walnut trees can be found from Canada to northern Florida, and as far west as the Great Plains. It’s rich-brown toned heartwood is known to resist decay, and was chosen for this reason as fence posts and house shingles by early settlers.
In forest settings where it is surrounded by other trees, black walnut trees will grow straight and tall and usually without low branches. When planted in the open, though, black walnut trees will tend to branch out lower to the ground and develop a spread that makes harvesting the nuts.
It is the former, the forest settings, where the most valuable black walnut trees will be found. The lack of branching in the lower part of the tree, the absence of mars and scars from branching, make that part of the tree desirable.
The Juglone Problem
Black walnut trees, though, have one aspect of their chemical composition that presents problems to many neighboring plants. It is something of a self-preserving chemical called juglone, an herbicide that is exuded by its roots. It inhibits the growth of many plants that could be competition for water, thus ensuring an ample supply for the black walnut tree itself.
Among the plants that are harmed, killed, or have their growth stunted by juglone include garden staples like:
- Berries of all types
And common landscaping plants like:
Notwithstanding the harm a black walnut tree can cause to surrounding plants and trees, it is a beautiful shade tree. Growing to a common height of 50 feet, and even as tall as 100 feet, it casts a wide shade on larger properties with wide-open spaces.
Black Walnut Nuts
The tree produces nuts in abundance and drops them from late summer through October. The lime-green nuts are the size of baseballs, and you would not want to be hit on the head by one falling from the tree.
They are a favorite of squirrels, who have no difficulty gnawing through the shells. Stepping on them will break the husk and allow access to the sweet meat inside. They can be eaten raw, and are often used in baking and even soups.
A healthy black walnut tree can produce over 300 lbs of nuts each year. At $10 – $12 per pound, there can be good money in harvesting the nuts each year.
The Value Of A Black Walnut Tree
The value of crop production, though, is not the value we are considering here. It’s the lumber and the veneer that can come from a fully mature black walnut. Two factors will determine that value: the diameter of the tree from trunk to the first major branch level; and the presence or absence of mars and scars.
The diameter of the tree at its lowest level determines the amount of lumber that can be milled, and the presence or absence of mars and scars determines the lumber and veneer grade of the milling.
The inches in diameter of the portion of the tree to be milled is measured by a Biltmore stick. Its name comes from the estate where it was developed – The Biltmore Estate, one of the first places in the United States where forestry was applied as a science.
Its use dates back to the 19th century. It measures the diameter and height of the lowest section of the tree that will be brought to market. With those measurements, the total board feet of the tree can be calculated, along with tonnage and cubic feet of usable wood to be sold.
That wood will be brought to market either as lumber or veneer. The lumber is graded by quality and the presence or absence of blemishes, which can be caused by branch removal, knots, cracks, metal embedded, or even bird peck scars, for example. Clear wood, wood that is clear of blemishes, will receive the highest grade, and thus be the most valuable, with Grade A indicating no apparent damage, blemishes or knots; Grade B indicating only minor blemishes or light damage, and so on.
The veneer grade will refer specifically to the quality of the wood when cut into thin strips that represent veneer.
A typical black walnut veneer tree will have a 20” or larger diameter at chest height, will have no or very few defects, and be tall and straight. Obviously, the greater the diameter, the more board feet that can be harvested and milled from the tree.
A black walnut that is Grade A veneer at 18” diameter and 12’ in length from the lowest level of the tree can have a value of nearly $900. Add another 6” to 7” and that value can more than double.
In researching for this article, we found a Tree Value Calculator that can estimate values of many different types of trees, and we used this calculator to offer this value estimate.
But a 12’ length of tree can be small, actually. If you want to see just how many felled black walnut trees would represent upwards of $90,000 in value, watch this video. It shows felled trees lined up and ready to be taken for milling.
As a general rule, of course, the taller the tree the greater the value. A tall tree with little or no branching up the trunk to height will be the most valuable and will be expected to be sold as class 1 sawlogs for veneer.
We mentioned tree poaching earlier, and in our research, we found one report that amazed us. Forestry officials were called in on one case that involved the poaching of a 95’ black walnut tree that was worth $28,500, cut down in someone’s backyard while they were on vacation.
Black walnut trees can grow at a rate of 3’ to 4’ per year. A 20-year-old tree can reach a height of 40’ – 50’, and a diameter of around 10”. A 50-year-old tree can reach 80’ and 20″ – 25″ in diameter.
As an investment, black walnut trees will provide a decent return for their lumber and veneer, but only after time. Still, seeing all those downed trees lined up representing upwards of $90,000, is rather impressive.
Good tree management can increase the yield on that return – removing branches early on the lower level from trunk up, protecting the tree from damage that can cause blemishes, and such. And, during its growth, the trees will eventually begin producing nuts that can be harvested and sold.
Value is value, and black walnut trees generate surprising value over time. If you can wait on your investment’s return, and have patience, there is money to be made in trees. After all, we woodworkers are out here waiting for stock to build our furniture and cabinets.
How Much Is A Black Walnut Tree Worth? – Upgraded Home
A black walnut tree is a beautiful plant that can also be worth quite a bit of money. Black walnut trees vary in price based on several factors, but it generally comes down to size. Whether it be the height or diameter, let's explore the factors that determine a black walnut tree's value.
Black walnut trees are sought after because they look great in any yard. Because of that, many builder-owners or large property owners looking to rejuvenate their landscape wonder just how much a black walnut tree is worth.
A black walnut tree in great condition with a large diameter, roughly 20”, is worth between $700 and $800. Through a walnut tree’s life, however, it can grow to be well over 30” or even 40” in diameter. The larger the diameter, the more a black walnut tree is worth. In fact, black walnut trees that are 40” in diameter can be worth $2,000 or more, depending on the lumber grade.
Because of that, many people grow black walnut trees for the purpose of selling them or their lumber. Others simply want to enjoy the great visual a black walnut tree provides while adding value to their yard.
Follow along as we dive into how much a black walnut tree is worth, and why.
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What Affects a Black Walnut Tree’s Value?
The two main factors that affect a black walnut tree’s value are grade and veneer. Lumber grading is a way of testing and notating the quality of specific trees, such as black walnut trees, using measurements and math.
The veneer rating of a tree refers to a specific wood’s quality when sliced thinly into veneer. The final measure of a black walnut tree’s worth is the diameter. The diameter of a tree is measured using an instrument called a Biltmore stick.
At first glance, a Biltmore stick just looks like a yard stick, but its measurements can help determine the value of a black walnut tree. Black Walnut trees can grow to be 70-80 ft. tall and grow to have a diameter between 18” and 40” +, with rare occurrences of 80”-90” diameters. On the low end, a black walnut with 18” in diameter is worth $700.
If that tree were to grow to be 25” in diameter, it could be worth $1,200-$1400. The reason for diameter affecting a tree’s worth so much is that there is more volume for usable products. Larger diameter black walnut trees can produce more veneer and provide a lot of sellable lumber.
How is a Black Walnut Tree Graded?
A black walnut tree is graded based upon the clear wood rating within the lowest 16 ft. of its length past the stump. Clear wood is wood that is free of blemishes or damage, and it is desirable because it can be used to create any wooden products.
The grading scale used to rate trees is much like the one used in U.S. school systems, and it determines how valuable a tree is. No two tree species are alike or hold the same value.
|A||No clear damage, blemishes, knots|
|B||Minor blemishes, light damage|
|C||Small knots on one or both sides of the tree|
|D||Scratches and knots are more frequent|
|1||Many knots covering the entirety of the tree, some spots may be knot-free|
|2||Large knots in a high concentration, possible scratches, and damage|
Just like in school, you want your black walnut tree to have an A or B rating. The less knots, blemishes, and damage to the tree, the more valuable the black walnut tree is. A 25” A-rated black walnut tree would sell for $1,400+, whereas the same diameter with a B-rating would go for roughly $800.
Within the A and B range, black walnut trees are highly valuable. Once you get into the C, D, and 1 and 2 ratings, the tree depreciates in value.
Why Grow Black Walnut Trees?
For many large property owners, black walnut trees are a huge moneymaker, and that is why they grow them. There are countless products that can be crafted and sold using black walnut trees, such as:
- Acoustic guitars
- The walnuts themselves
Yes, even the walnuts that fall from black walnut trees can bring in money. Many black walnut tree owners are able to sell each 100 pounds of shelled black walnuts for $10-$12. That may not seem like a lot, but many healthy black walnut trees can produce 350 pounds a year.
The big money from black walnut trees comes from its lumber used to make products such as high-quality furniture. Black walnut lumber is sold by the board foot. Board foot refers to a 1 ft. length that is 1” thick. A common volume that black walnut lumber is sold in is 20 board ft.
The cost of 20 board ft. of black walnut lumber is $339-$350. That comes out to $16.95-$17.50 per board ft. of black walnut tree lumber. Because they can easily grow to be 70-80 feet or more, black walnut tree lumber can be sold for $1,356 at extremely low end.
If a black walnut tree is A-rated and has a wide diameter that is 20” or more, the lumber can easily sell for $1,400-$2,000.
Do Black Walnut Trees Really Harm the Plants Around Them?
Yes, it is true that black walnut trees can harm and even kill other plants or trees surrounding them. In fact, black walnut trees are known to produce a chemical known as juglone. Juglone is an organic compound that some plants, such as black walnut trees, produce.
The main harm that juglone does to other plants is stunt their growth. Because black walnut trees naturally produce juglone, often times, the plants in close proximity to them will cease to grow or even die.
Property owners can avoid the damage caused by juglone by planning their forest gardening. Avoid planting black walnut trees near gardens or other trees. There is no way to get a black walnut tree to stop producing juglone but spacing nearby plants out by a 50 ft. radius is the only sure way to avoid the effects of juglone.
How Long Before My Black Walnut Reaches Full Maturity?
It takes a full 30 years for a black walnut tree to reach full maturity. Many property owners will chop them down for lumber or to sell them well before then. However, if you plan on making money off of your black walnut tree, look at it as a long term investment.
The larger the tree, the more the lumber for you to sell. With that said, considering that black walnut trees can grow 70-80 ft., you may not want tree looming that large over your property. In that case, consider chopping it down once its diameter between 20” and 30”.
It is also worth noting that you should not wait 30 years for your black walnut tree to grow if it takes a lot of damage or grows nots. That will only depreciate its rating, and ultimately, its value. If and when your black walnut tree has a big diameter but is showing wear and tear, cut your losses before it gets worse, and cut it down for lumber.
Profitable Trees to Grow
Aside from black walnut trees, there are other trees you can grow and turn around for a profit. In fact, growing trees for profit is a great part- or full-time business for anyone who loves working with plants and being in the outdoors. Trees are an incredibly valuable, renewable resource that, although ideal, do not need a 100-acre tree farm. You can even grow trees for selling purposes in a tiny backyard.
For small growers, the most profitable trees tend to be the ones that are easy to grow, in demand by buyers, and elicit above-average pricing when sold. In addition to the black walnut, here are some trees that are worth growing if you’re looking to make some money:
- Instant shade trees. Mature, large trees that provide “instant shade” in just a year or two are highly desirable among both landscapers and homeowners alike. There are also willing to pay much higher prices for them as well. Two popular “instant shade” tree species are the American elm and the Red maple.
- Thornless locust. While the common locust is very often used for erosion control and restoration, newer varieties are more popular for landscaping projects. Both the Sunburst and Shademaster locust are fast-growing, thornless, and are even a great choice for an instant shade tree. They reach a mature height of 13 to 30 feet in just roughly six years.
- Hybrid Chestnut. These trees are blight-resistant chestnuts that offer the best of both Chinese and American chestnut trees. They can also be grown in most areas throughout the United States, especially in areas that are generally too hilly or poor for other crops. Hybrid chestnuts produce about 2,000 to 3,000 pounds of nuts per acre and their timber value is almost as high as the black walnut.
- Willow. As more people have taken up fiber arts in the last few years, the market craft fibers, or wood that can be woven, has nearly tripled. The willow tree is very easy to grow and prolific. In fact, one tree can produce hundreds of profitable willow shoots, or rods, every year.
- Flowering dogwood. The dogwood is frequently found on the top ten list for landscapers. They offer both colorful fall foliage and gorgeous spring blooms. The Kousa dogwood is one of the most desirable, as it produces sweet red berries, resistant to disease, and deer tend to leave it alone.
- Christmas trees. This may sound like an obvious option, but the “real” Christmas tree business is booming. Despite the fact that artificial trees exist, their sales are declining and the number of real trees is increasing ever year. If you have an acre or more of land, Christmas trees can make for a very profitable business. Consider this: fresh-cut trees sell for an average of $42 and one acre of land can hold roughly 1,800 trees!
If you’re looking to make a profit by growing trees, the black walnut isn’t your only option. However, they are one of the best choices, producing a double income since the nuts can be harvested as the tree is growing.
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What Did We Learn?
On the low end, black walnut trees are worth $700 if it has an A or B rating and a minimum 20” diameter. Each 6” added to the diameter past the 20” mark greatly increases the value, with a 26” diameter black walnut going for $1,400 or more.
If you plan to make money off of your black walnut tree, pay attention to its quality and watch out for nots. An A or B rating can add hundreds and hundreds of dollars to how much money you can make off the veneer and lumber the black walnut tree produces.
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Manchurian walnut at their summer cottage. Planting, care, cultivation. Photo — Botanichka
Mighty walnut trees have repeatedly provided travelers with protection and food, for which the people lovingly called them the king of nuts. Beautiful deciduous trees of the walnut family are represented by walnut and are distributed throughout the southern regions of the Russian Federation and the CIS. Their plantations adorn the roadsides and accompany travelers on long trips, some representatives grow in the courtyards of the sleeping areas of cities and, of course, are in every dacha. However, the distribution area of the walnut is limited to the southern region, and repeated attempts to promote the culture to the north ended in failure.Manchurian walnut tree. © grijsz Hans
But for lovers of nuts in the cold northwest, there is a way out. You can grow not a walnut, but a Manchurian nut, which has the same properties and fruits, but is highly frost-resistant. Long 30 and shorter 45 degree frosts do not damage mature trees.
Manchurian walnut or Dumbey walnut ( Juglans mandshurica ) is a species of deciduous monoecious trees or shrubs of the genus Walnut ( Juglans ), Nut family ( Juglandaceae ).
- Manchurian walnut distribution area
- Biological description
- Positive qualities of Manchurian walnut
- Use in site decoration
- How to grow Manchurian walnut at home
- Manchurian walnut care
- Crown shaping
Distribution area of the Manchurian walnut
The natural distribution area of the Manchurian walnut is in the Far East, Northern China, and the Korean Peninsula. It grows mainly in mixed oak-maple forests, preferring the neighborhood with larch, pine, cedar and other coniferous species.
Cultivated Manchurian walnut grows and forms crops on the Solovetsky Islands, in Leningrad, Vologda, Moscow and other regions of Russia.
Manchurian walnut is similar in appearance to the walnut, but there are also distinctive features. The leaf blade is also complex pinnate, but larger than that of a walnut, reaches a length of up to 1 m, contains 7-19 smaller leaves (10-20 cm long), serrated along the edge, with a pointed tip.
Nuts are located on branches of 2-7 pieces, smaller than walnuts, with a very dense shell, oval-pointed to one of the ends. The young bark is light gray, smooth, darkens with age and becomes black in places. When planting seedlings, it forms the first crop in the 4th year, and with seeds - in 7-8. The first 20-30 years it grows very quickly. Annual growth, especially in the early years, is up to 2 meters.Manchurian walnut fruit. © Qwert1234 Male flowers (catkins) of Manchurian walnut. © Qwert1234Female flowers of Manchurian walnut. © Qwert1234
Manchurian walnut is a monoecious plant that forms male and female flowers separately. Men's in the form of long black earrings bloom at the same time as the buds open. Female, represented by few-flowered small brushes. Pollinated by the wind. Flowering occurs in April-May. Harvest Manchurian walnut forms in 1-2 years. With yellowing of the leaves, the fruits are suitable for harvesting (2-3 decade of September).
Positive qualities of the Manchurian nut
- Nut kernels containing more than 50% fat are used fresh.
- From green nuts (at the beginning of June) of milky ripeness (2-3 cm in size), a very tasty, medicinal jam is prepared.
- A decoction of leaves harvested during flowering is used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, loose gums, exudative diathesis.
- Fresh leaves are applied to wounds to prevent rotting. Used to treat furunculosis.
- To cure fungus on the feet (and even nails), the leaf is brewed as a tea. After cooling, the feet are kept in the solution for 20-30 minutes. The procedure is performed within 7-10 days.
- Leaf decoction improves hair quality (accelerates growth, restores shine, eliminates dandruff).
- Well cleans the air from dust. The plant contains the bactericidal substance yuglon (the smell of iodine), which disinfects the air from pathogens.
Use in the decorative design of the plot
Manchurian walnut - reaches a height of 10-25 m, is known for its slenderness of the stem and wide spreading crown. In the northern regions it can grow as a shrub and in this form also produce fruits. Manchurian walnut is a fast growing ornamental crop.
Thanks to its decorative leafy crown, the walnut fits perfectly into any landscape. It is effective in landscaping a summer cottage, both along the perimeter and in a single limited space. Walnut foliage releases phytoncides that disperse mosquitoes, so hazel is a wonderful helper in decorating a recreation area. Particularly distinguished by their aesthetics are joint plantings with conifers, decorating the trimmed areas of lawns with green curtains.
How to grow Manchurian walnut at home
Manchurian walnut is a light-loving crop, not afraid of winds, but sensitive to drought. Propagated by fruits and ready-made seedlings. You can buy seedlings in trade organizations selling planting material. It is undesirable to buy seedlings from random sellers.
Propagation by seedlings
Walnut seedlings are difficult to transplant. Therefore, having decided to propagate the culture in a vegetative way - by planting seedlings, you need to immediately choose a suitable place. Nuts are among the crops that like to grow with their heads open. The place, therefore, should be sunny, not shaded by tall trees. Walnut grows well in low places, but the soil must be fertile. Given the deep penetrating root system with a large branched root, seedlings should be planted away from buildings. If several trees are planted in a row, then holes for seedlings are planned after 10-12 m.
Seedlings can be planted in September or April. We prepare a planting hole with a depth of at least 80-100 cm and a volume equal to the root system of the seedling. We lay drainage at the bottom of the pit, under which you can use broken brick, crushed stone and other material. We pour a layer of soil covering the drainage and part of the planting hole.
If the soil is depleted in nutrients or dense clay, then prepare the planting mixture. The topsoil of the planting pit is mixed with humus, sod and sand in the appropriate parts 4:2:2:1. We add 20-40 g / pit of superphosphate and potash fertilizer. Instead of potash fertilizers, you can add a glass of wood ash. Mix the prepared mixture well.
We inspect the seedling (1-2 years old), shorten the central root. Set in the center of the hole and immediately tie to the peg. We partially fill the soil mixture, carefully pour a bucket of water and, after soaking, add the rest of the soil, crush it around the trunk. Add another 0.5-1.0 bucket of water. We mulch the soil around the trunk with peat, sawdust (not coniferous), mature compost, healthy foliage.
We insulate seedlings for the winter, as at a young age the tips of the branches can freeze over. For insulation, we wrap the trunk and lower branches with burlap or non-woven material and protect it with a net from rodents. We dig the grid into the ground and trample it around. In winter, after snowfalls, we repeat the procedure so that mouse-like rodents do not make moves in fresh snow.Manchurian walnut sapling. © Chika Oka
Propagation by seeds
Propagation of nuts by seeds does not always transfer the positive qualities of the parent tree to the new plant. For propagation by seeds, nuts 1-2 years old are used. Starting from the 3rd year of storage, seed germination is sharply reduced. Seeds can be sown in spring and autumn. It is more expedient to plant walnut fruits in winter. In this case, stratification is not needed and seedlings appear much earlier than during spring planting.
For planting hazel seeds, choose a well-drained fertile area, water thoroughly, form a bed. Walnut does not tolerate acidic soils, so we add 2-3 cups of wood ash per 1 sq. m and dig to a depth of 10-15 cm. We make holes 6-8 cm deep at a distance of 8-10 cm. We dip nuts intended for planting in kerosene from ubiquitous mice and other rodents and put them in holes on edge. We fall asleep with earth and mulch on top with any materials to preserve moisture. Being in natural conditions, the fruits of the nut undergo stratification and powerful shoots appear in the spring.
Seedling seedlings can be immediately transplanted to a permanent position, after pinching the central taproot. You can leave it in place in the first year and plant it permanently in autumn in August, not forgetting to shorten the central root. This operation stimulates the growth of culture. When replanting a sprouted nut or seedling, you must immediately determine its permanent place.
Manchurian walnut care
When replanting a seedling or mature seedling, try to keep the original location of the young plant relative to parts of the world, which will allow it to take root faster. Walnut is a moisture-loving plant and therefore in the first year the soil must be kept constantly moist.
We water 2-3 times a month without flooding the soil. For 2-3 years, the frequency of watering is reduced to 5-7 times, and in subsequent years, watering in the summer season is carried out once a month. After watering, we must loosen the soil, at the same time destroying weeds, and mulch. In the 4th year, the tree blooms and can give the first harvest.
Throughout this period, care for young trees includes fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, which are applied once during the growing season, preferably during the fruit formation period (June). You can feed only with superphosphate, but be sure to add a glass of wood ash, which contains a large set of macro- and microelements necessary for the normal development of the culture.
Trees need annual digging at the level of the crown margins. Mature trees endure a short drought and temporary flooding of the root system. To protect young trees from sunburn, do not forget to regularly whitewash the trunk and skeletal branches with lime mortar with the addition of clay and adhesive. Subject to agricultural technology, trees are practically not affected by diseases and pests.Manchurian walnut tree. © T. Abe Lloyd
Timely and high-quality pruning of the crown is one of the most important works with a walnut tree. In principle, the Manchurian walnut does not need artificial crown formation. It forms itself. In this case, only sanitary pruning is carried out in early spring or during winter dormancy, cutting out dried, crooked branches growing inside. But when grown in a small area, the intervention of the owner is necessary. This is primarily due to the size of the free area on the site, other crops growing next to the walnut tree.
If necessary, the formation of the crown begins from the second year of the nut life, and it can be carried out at any time of the year. Manchurian walnut can be shaped:
- as a spreading tree with a short stem,
- as a single trunk tree with a spherical crown,
- as a shrub with several main trunks.
To form a sprawling tree, a young seedling is left with one most developed central shoot, which is formed like a trunk, up to 50-80 cm high. All buds are removed from the future trunk. Then the main skeletal branches are placed around the trunk at the same distance from each other.
Each skeletal branch must have a large angle of departure from the trunk. You will get a sprawling tree, with strong skeletal branches, a central conductor and a large shady area. The upper skeletal branch on the central conductor is cut off to the lateral kidney. The crown limits its growth upwards, and the departure of the skeletal branch to the side allows the sun to penetrate inside the crown.
If the area of the site is small and does not allow the formation of a sprawling tree, due to the shading of nearby other plant species, then it is possible to give the tree a single-stemmed palm-shaped crown. For this, one trunk is isolated, which is formed with a height of at least 1. 5-2.0 m, removing all lateral buds on it. Above are the skeletal branches, which freely form an openwork crown that does not obscure nearby growing plants.
It can also be cut into a ball shape in several steps. The tree resembles a palm tree with a "tassel" of branches at the top. The shape of the ball is obtained by shortening the lower branches by 2/3 of the length. To the center of the future ball, the trimming length is gradually reduced to 1/3, and then in descending order to the top of the crown. The second option is more economical, as it will not shade other plants.
The bushy form is more suitable for planting along the perimeter of the plot. A bush is formed with several trunks, the skeletal branches of which begin 40-50 cm from the ground. This is especially convenient if for some reason the crown dies. Young shoots will sprout from the root, and the plant can be reshaped, giving the new plant the desired crown shape.
Black walnut planting and care in the open field
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Planting and growing vegetables and fruits, gardening, building and repairing a dacha - all with your own hands.
Black walnut (photo) planting and care
GROWING BLACK WALNUT - PLANTING AND CARE sh., but it definitely deserves the attention of gardeners.
We met individual fruit-bearing trees in Voronezh, Tula, Moscow and even in St. Petersburg, which indicates the high plasticity of this culture. Under the conditions of Tula, the black walnut leaves in May, blooms in late May - early June, which allows it to avoid late spring frosts. It is important that this species is distinguished by greater frost and winter hardiness than that of walnut, the trees withstand severe frosts of 35-38.5 °. The crown of the tree is highly decorative, the leaves have a pleasant balsamic smell.
Begins fruiting in the 7th-9th year, ripens in early October. The kernel is small (14-40%), but it is much easier to extract than the Manchurian, gray, Siebold nuts. I have been doing black walnut for 20 years. During this time, several hundred black walnut trees have been grown.
About 50 nuts under my supervision are bearing fruit.
Black walnut (Juglans nigra) is the largest tree of the Juglans genus, to which the walnut belongs. The walnut belongs to the wind-pollinated monoecious plants with dioecious flowers. The flowering of female and male inflorescences on the tree is non-simultaneous, therefore, for better pollination, it is necessary to have several plants.
The fruit of the black walnut is a false drupe covered with a thick, fleshy green rind that cracks when ripe and the nut falls out. Its shell is thick and strong. The nut kernel is very tasty, has a special aroma, contains 60% high-quality oil, 30% high-value proteins (almost 2 times more than walnuts), 6% carbohydrates.
From fruits in milky-wax ripeness, fortified jam is obtained, which, in terms of vitamin C content, is 1.5-2.6 times higher than walnut jam, with almost the same content of other food components.
Black walnut leaves secrete phytoncides capable of killing pathogenic microbes. Many researchers note the property of volatile secretions of black walnut to repel flies, gadflies, mosquitoes. According to our observations, black walnut secretions had a calming effect on bees.
Green leaves, pericarp, green fruits and other parts of the plant are the most valuable medicinal raw materials. Black walnut oil is highly valued, it does not go rancid.
For those wishing to grow nut crops successfully, it is necessary to know some of the specific requirements of these wonderful plants. Black walnut is a fast growing breed. On good soil and with proper care (weeding, loosening the trunk circle, top dressing), in the first year, black walnut can reach a height of 30-100 cm. This variation in parameters is due to the different genetic origin of the fruit. Nuts of southern origin grow longer, will be taller, but at the same time they will be less prepared for winter.
ATTITUDE TO LIGHT.
Light-loving, shade-tolerant breed. Black walnut is considered more shade tolerant than gray walnut, but less than walnut.
ATTITUDE TO HEAT.
Moderately demanding. It is believed that for normal growth and development, it needs a sum of active temperatures above 10 ° C, not less than 2200-2400 ° C. However, fruit-bearing black walnut trees are found up to the latitude of St. Petersburg inclusive. It is worth noting that not in all years the black walnut gives full-fledged fruits. It is one thing when we see green fruits on a tree, and quite another when these fruits have ripened. Consider the example of first generation introducers.
The Tula form Kutepovsky-1 in different years gave fruits with different kernel yield and fullness. In 2015 - the yield of the kernel is 20-22%, 2016 - 30-32%, 2017 - 7-9%. These years were distinguished not only by warmth, but also by the availability of moisture. In 2015, the sum of active temperatures in Tula was 2400°, in 2016 - 2400°, in 2017 - 2050° (including frosts) and 2180° (excluding frosts).
And we had four of them from minus 5° to minus 7.5°. To taste, the core of the Tula forms of black walnut is more tender than the southern ones, there are fewer essential oils, which, apparently, is associated with a lack of heat. But this does not detract from their nutritional value. The best core yields were the following forms: Lunacharsky-2 (10.5-15.9%), Lunacharsky-go-3 (12-15.5%), Catholic (9.1-11.1%), Yasnopolyansky - 1 (7.2-13.5%), Lunacharsky - 1 (6.2 -8.3%). In the conditions of Tula, fruit-bearing black walnut trees turned out to be more winter-hardy than Manchurian and walnut trees, withstanding minus 38° in the air (2003, 2006), and the root system - minus 17° at a depth of 3 cm (2003).
The first three years of life, black walnut is susceptible to damage by spring frosts, even in its homeland. When the crown leaves the ground zone, frosts are not terrible for him. In autumn, the green organs of the plant are more resistant to frost than those of the walnut.
RELATION TO MOISTURE.
In terms of drought resistance, it occupies an intermediate position between walnut and Manchurian. It is believed that black walnut is suitable for cultivation in floodplains. In the floodplain Kuban black walnut successfully withstands short-term flooding, and in its homeland, in North America, when growing in floodplains, black walnut can withstand flooding lasting 1-1.5 months.
BLACK WALNUT - PLANT.
When sowing, the nut must be full, not empty. For a black walnut, the check is simple: if the nut, peeled from the pericarp, sinks, it is full-fledged, it will germinate; if it floats, then it is either empty or defective - there will be no shoots. The best planting time is autumn, before winter. Planting depth depends on the size of the fruit (3 nut diameters). If the fruits were received late and you don’t have time to plant them in the fall, then you need to lay the nuts for stratification in wet sand or sawdust at a temperature of 1-4 °. Stratification is at least 120 days, otherwise the nuts may not sprout this year. Before planting, it is advisable to soak the black walnut for several days in water so that it is saturated with moisture. This applies to any methods of pre-sowing preparation.
The planting hole is dug in such a way that the roots of the tree are placed in it freely and there is room for their growth in all directions. Humus, wood ash or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are introduced into the pit. In order to keep the moisture longer after watering, the root system of the seedling is covered with 4/5 soil in the pit and abundant watering is carried out. Water is absorbed within 5-7 minutes, after which the rest of the soil is covered and the trunk circle is mulched.
Due to the fact that black walnut trees are vigorous, they should be planted further apart. The optimal distance is 8-10 m, but it can be further (up to 50 m), the main thing is that the nuts “see” each other. This is important for cross-pollination. It is desirable to have a couple of plants for a guaranteed harvest, but sometimes there are single fruit-bearing trees.
For a better survival of a plant in a new place, its correct placement relative to the cardinal points is of great importance. The more "tanned" part of the stem and shoots should face south (corresponding to the original place of plant growth). Proper planting shortens the time for plant adaptation to a new location.
LOCATION AND SOIL.
Walnut plants do not like acidic soil, which is inherent in them genetically, they prefer a neutral or slightly alkaline environment. On such soil, they finish their growth in a timely manner, well
are prepared for winter and better tolerate low winter temperatures. When planting in the Non-Black Earth Region, this can be achieved by introducing wood ash, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers into the planting pit (doses and norms depend on the soil), and later by introducing lime fertilizers into the area around the trunk circle to maintain pH 6.5-7.5. With an excess of nitrogen in the soil, the plant delays growth, the wood does not mature well and freezes in winter.
Walnut trees need protection from north and northeast winds. Protection can be buildings, other more winter-hardy trees. Much depends on the microrelief of the site. As a winter-hardy species, black walnut can be placed on the northern and northeastern sides of the site, which should be moderately blown, at a distance of 5-6 m from existing buildings and 8-10 m between trees. The plant does not like low-lying places with stagnant air.
BLACK WALNUT - CARE.
Walnut trees need a sufficient amount of moisture in the first half of the growing season and its reduction in the second half of summer for the timely completion of growth, wood maturation and preparation for winter. In good years and during dry summers, watering is necessary. For black walnut at the time of fruiting, sufficient moisture is necessary during the fruiting period (July - mid-September). For good plant growth, the soil must be loose and mulched. In the second half of summer, loosening is stopped in order to avoid delaying growth processes.
CUTTING AND SHAPING BLACK WALNUT.
Usually a tree forms itself. Cut out dried, as well as thickening crown branches. The best time for pruning in central Russia is spring, when the threat of severe frosts (below minus 10 °) has passed. Ideal pruning - after bud break and growth begins (less juice flow). Shortening pruning of trees should not be carried out until mid-August, as this can provoke the awakening of the buds and re-growth, which will lead to the freezing of germinated shoots in winter. This technique is appropriate if you want to stop the rapid growth of shoots. But the last pruning (pinching) is best done in mid-August.
NEIGHBOR PLANTS FOR THE BLACK WALNUT
The root system is deep, tap type, with strong lateral branches and anchor roots. It is known that black walnut roots emit toxins that poison alfalfa, tomatoes, potatoes, apple, pine, blackcurrant and birch when grown together. But according to our observations, at the dacha of my friend, 5 m from the black walnut tree, an apple tree grew and gave a harvest.
There was also a greenhouse nearby where they grew tomatoes and peppers. About 17 years ago, I successfully carried out green cuttings of actinidia and mulberry 7 cm from a row of black walnut, which was a shading wall for them. But he noted that after growing black walnut seedlings, the potatoes in this place were small.
The best associated tree species for black walnut are linden (small-leaved, etc.), maples (with the exception of ash-leaved and silver), hornbeam, common pear, forest apple, cherry plum. Of the shrubs - dogwood, cotoneaster, common viburnum, hazel, Tatar honeysuckle, black and red elderberry, Japanese quince, Tatar maple, svidina, golden currant.
Due to winter hardiness and high nutritional and environmental value, black walnut is a promising crop for central Russia and beyond. Based on the climatic characteristics of the region, it is necessary to choose agricultural technology. For regions with a sum of active temperatures of 2000-2200 °, planting material must be selected from northern places or harsh climatic conditions.
It is important to grow 2nd, 3rd generations of nuts that will be adapted to new climatic conditions. In places where there is not enough heat for fruit ripening, walnut leaves and green fruits can be used.
Black walnut - planting and caring for a powerful perennial giant
Walnuts are the largest trees, but the real giant among them is the black walnut, planting and caring for which is of interest to many. It is not surprising, because culture is distinguished by its universality. Possessing increased frost resistance, black walnut can live up to 100 years. Tall trunks of an unusual chocolate color with a wide crown will delight not only with a harvest of delicious fruits. Walnut foliage, due to the increased amount of phytoncides, serves as an air purifier. Walnut fruits are very useful - they are recommended for use in many diseases.
Planting and caring for black walnuts is somewhat different from growing walnuts, which are more familiar to us. This is due to both the dimensions of the tree and the characteristic features of the species. Before we go for a seedling, let's get to know this crop and find out how to plant it and what it prefers.
Black walnut - culture description
At home, in North America, adult walnuts grow up to 50 m in height with a trunk diameter of about 2 m. In our conditions, trees average 18 m in height, and a maximum of 25 m , with a trunk up to 0.5 m in diameter. Agree that these are quite large values, especially for a private garden. Quite naturally, this leaves an imprint on the choice of a place for a seedling, given its future dimensions.
Black walnut got its name for its specific coloration, which is not characteristic of its brethren. The roots, bark and shell of the fruit have a beautiful black color.
Seeing this tree, you are unlikely to confuse it with a walnut, even at a young age, while it is not yet tall.
You can recognize the largest representative of the species by the way the black walnut looks like:
- wide spreading crown with lowered branches;
- strong trunk covered with black chocolate bark with deep fissures;
- the root system is rod-shaped, and the lateral branches go far to the sides;
- in contrast to the walnut with more rounded leaves, the black species has pinnate foliage that is narrower, elongated, and has small teeth on the outside;
- light green young leaves, darkening towards the end of the season;
- fluffy earring flowers also painted light green;
- the skin of the green pointed fruit has the same color;
- in ripe fruits, the shell darkens, and the surface of the thick and hard shell is also dark.
The birthplace of culture is the northern part of America, but it came to us relatively recently - at the end of the 18th century. Natural growing conditions have left their mark on where black walnut grows in Russia. Although it is not yet very popular, most plantings are found in the southern regions. In nature, these are the banks of reservoirs, deciduous forests and wet-soil mountains. As a cultivated black walnut tree, it most often grows in botanical gardens.
Remarkably, black walnut wood is also dark in color, but closer to a rich brown. Despite its strength and density, it lends itself well to processing and polishing.
How to grow a black walnut: planting methods and choosing a place for a tree
On a private plot, this unusual nut appears as a seedling or ripened fruit. Most gardeners prefer not to bother with seedlings, but to purchase young trees in the nursery. If you think so, give preference to seedlings under the age of 3 years. Older nuts are more difficult to adapt and tolerate transplanting worse.
In nurseries you can find seedlings with the name "black walnut". Do not hesitate and buy - it is one and the same culture. The American nut is called for its historical homeland.
If you don't have the seedling you need, and if you want, you can grow it yourself. All you need is to buy a dozen ripe nuts and show a little patience.
Details of growing walnut seedlings from fruits
First of all, please note that black walnut fruits have a thick and durable skin. Planting them dry, you will wait a long time for sprouts. A simple soaking procedure will help speed up germination. Put the fruits in a jar of water and soak them for 3 days. Don't forget to change the water every day. On the fourth day, plant the nuts in pots, one in each. A higher percentage of germination is noted if wet sand is used instead of soil.
Do not make the hole too deep - 10 cm is enough. Place the nut itself on the barrel.
By the way, the best time to germinate nuts is in autumn, right after picking, while the fruits are still fresh. True, seedlings will move into open ground only next spring, after wintering in the basement. If there is no such room for wintering, wait until April.
So that the fruits are preserved and not lost, cover them with sand and leave in the pantry until spring. In this case, start germinating black walnuts in late March - early April. Seedlings can be transplanted into the garden as soon as frosts pass and stable heat is established. But it is desirable that the first year of its life, the young nut overwinter not on the street. If you do not cover it well, the seedling will die.
Where and how to plant black walnut
Frankly speaking, black walnut is not a tree for small plots. Its roots that go far to the sides and the deciduous crown overflowing with phytoncides will leave no chance for close-growing neighbors. The minimum distance between two nuts should be at least 15 m, so it is unlikely that a grove will be planted. Walnut foliage cleans the air well and has antibacterial properties, but it is dangerous for most garden and garden crops. The fragrant leaves release a toxin called juglone, which will quickly kill nightshade crops and potatoes. Do not plant pear, plum and apple trees near the black walnut - it will oppress them.
When choosing a place in the garden for a seedling, be guided by the requirements of black walnut, namely:
- It needs a neutral, not acidic soil, otherwise the tree will not have time to retire and prepare for wintering.
- Black walnut can also grow on heavy soils, but prefers loams with moderate moisture. Enrich soil that is too poor by adding phosphorus-potassium preparations, humus and ash when planting in the hole.
- To make the crown lush and the tree strong and healthy, find a light area for the nut.
Plant the tree with the darker part of the trunk facing south.
Lately mycorrhization is becoming more and more popular among walnut growers - the colonization of fungal mycelium in the root system. For all nut crops, the black truffle is a symbiont fungus. So, walnut mycorrhiza allows you to accelerate the rooting of both seedlings and cuttings. Trees that develop together with mycorrhiza winter better, do not get sick and give higher yields.
This technology can also be applied to the cultivation of black walnut. Useful spores contains the drug Mikovital. Soak the roots of the seedling in it before planting or add to the water when watering. And your black walnut will quickly start to grow.
How to care for black walnut
The largest representative of walnut trees has high moisture requirements. It can even survive flooding as a result of a flood for a period of 1-2 months without damage to the roots. Moisture is especially important for young seedlings under the age of 2 years. Water them often and plentifully, but only until the beginning of August. From this point on, the nut begins to prepare for winter, and excessive moisture will only reduce its winter hardiness.
Compared to walnut, black has better resistance to low temperatures. He will survive the winter with 40 degrees of frost well. But young, still immature trees are not ready for such extreme temperatures. Keep this in mind when growing black walnut in the Moscow region and the northern regions and be sure to cover it for the winter.
Curiously, the tree does not need formative pruning as such. Black walnut shapes itself quite well. With age, its lower branches dry out, the trunk lengthens, and a lush crown remains at the top. You will only have to cut out frozen, damaged and improperly growing shoots in early spring.
If you don't want the nut to grow tall, cut the top growing point off young trees.
Regarding the application of fertilizers, under natural conditions, nuts live without additional feeding. Rather, they feed themselves, since fallen and rotted black walnut leaves are the main source of nutrients. He does not need mineral fertilizers, and he does not tolerate them well. The maximum that you can add is the spring application of organic matter in the form of humus, ash or manure.
Summing up, it can be seen that planting and caring for black walnuts is almost the same as growing walnuts. But the American guest winters well in our area and pampers with useful fruits. So try and you will succeed!
How to grow a black walnut - video
Black walnut: everything you need to know about growing a tree
The tree is one of the largest in the Juglans genus. A mature black walnut reaches a height of 50 m and a diameter of 2 m in North America. In our country, the tree has been cultivated since the 2nd half. 18th century The nuts of central Russia in the fifth decade reach a maximum height of 15-18 m, and a trunk diameter of 30-50 cm. A hundred-year-old walnut tree can grow up to 25 m in height and have a trunk diameter of 60 cm. resistant to drought conditions due to spreading low lowered crown. This variety of walnut trees is a powerful air purifier from dust and harmful inclusions. Crohn emits a huge amount of useful phytoncides and tannins. Walnut fruits are considered a very valuable raw material for many applications, especially for pharmacology.
Where is the best place to plant a walnut?
A tree can live up to seven decades, so you need to choose the best place for planting. For those who want to grow one of the most popular types of nut crops on their site, you need to know some specifics.
Attitude to light
The crown of the tree transmits a large amount of light to the soil, creating a patchy shadow. This contributes to leaf fall - the concentration of organic matter in the soil increases. Due to this feature, the cultivation of black walnut is used for reclamation purposes.
Attitude to heat
For normal growth and development, a tree needs an air temperature of +10 °C. Fruiting nuts of the presented species are found up to the latitude of St. Petersburg. In the climate of Tula, the fruit-bearing nut turned out to be more winter-hardy, withstanding an air temperature of -38 °C. The scientific description of the black walnut states that it is more cold-resistant than the walnut. But inferior in this feature to the Manchurian and gray varieties.
In the first three years, the young tree is very sensitive to spring frosts, even in its native North America. After the formation of the crown, changes in cold temperatures are not terrible for the nut.
This variety of walnut occupies a middle position in terms of drought tolerance between walnut and Manchurian walnut varieties. Botanists recommend planting black walnut in the floodplain. The tree well perceives short-term floods. In North America, it can withstand a full month of trunk flooding without damage to the roots, trunk, or crown.
Relation to the soil
A tree-like plant does not perceive acidic soil. In order to grow a nut from a stone or by other means, it is advisable to choose a neutral or slightly alkaline soil. In such an environment, trees stop their growth in time, preparing for a frosty winter.
If your site for potential planting is in non-chernozem conditions, be sure to add wood ash and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers to the planting hole. Further, lime fertilizers are applied around the trunk to maintain the acid-base balance (pH - 5.5-8.2). Avoid excess nitrogen in the soil of the plant - the tree will stop growing and the wood will lose its frost-resistant properties. Take care of an acceptable micro-relief of the area for the propagation of black walnut with nuts. Plants do not tolerate northern and northeastern cold wind currents.
Growing black walnut
Growing this tree has its own characteristics that must be taken into account.
How and when to plant a nut
The planting hole is dug in order to obtain free space for the roots to grow in all directions. It is advisable to fertilize its bottom with humus, wood ash and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. For better moisture conservation, the roots of the seedling are covered with 80% soil and watered abundantly. Water is absorbed within a few minutes. Next, you need to fill in the rest of the soil and mulch the trunk circle. To increase the survival rate of the plant, consider the light-loving nature of the nut. The more "tanned" part of the trunk and shoots should face south.
Nut propagates in three ways:
How to care for black walnut
For good growth of black walnut, you need to loosen the soil well for planting. Before planting early-growing trees, mulch the soil. In July-August, stop loosening to avoid delaying the growth of walnut pagons.
How to properly water black walnut
Provide sufficient moisture during the growing and flowering period of the young tree. This is important for caring for a nut in the middle lane. Reduce watering in the second half of July for the timely completion of the development of the tree, the maturation of the trunk wood in preparation for the winter cold snap. Timely watering is necessary during productive seasons and during summer drought. For a fruiting nut, it is necessary to maintain sufficient moisture during the fruiting period (July - mid-August).
Pruning and shaping
The tree itself forms its crown - the shape is laid down by its genetics. For better development, you can cut out dried and heavily thickened branches. The best period for pruning is spring, the period of passing the threat of too low temperatures (below -10 degrees).
Experts recommend pruning after bud break. Do not shorten the crown until the middle or end of the summer season - this will provoke a re-awakening of the buds and the growth of shoots for the winter, which may die in the winter.
Fertilizer and top dressing of nuts
For planting in the spring, it is necessary to prepare the soil in advance from autumn. For planting a nut in the fall with seeds - in the spring months. In half a year, the earth will accumulate the necessary moisture for a nut-bearing plant.
- 3-4 kg of manure or compost should be applied per square meter.
- Two weeks before planting the nut, fill the prepared hole (diameter and depth - 0.5 m) with the top layer of soil mixed with superphosphate (150 g), 2-3 medium buckets of humus (can be replaced with 5-8 kg of manure) and a small amount of potassium salt (50 g).
- Prepared fertilizer is spread in the upper and middle parts of the planting hole. In the center of the formed mound, place a wooden stake, near which a walnut seedling will be planted.
- Before planting, straighten the roots, dip in a special solution for the root system.
The tree is characterized by a deep stem root system with strong lateral branches and anchor roots.
Roots produce toxins (juglone) that can significantly harm some other plants:
- apple tree;
The best neighbors for black walnut are: small-leaved linden, some varieties of maples, hornbeam, common pear, wild apple tree and cherry plum. Bushes of dogwood, common viburnum, hazel, Tatar honeysuckle, black and red elderberry, Japanese quince are not afraid of the neighborhood with this species of walnut tree.
Black walnut is the closest relative of the well-known walnut. Black walnut is native to North America, but there are many other places where black walnut grows. It has become widespread due to its use in medicine, cooking and everyday life. The tree got its name due to the specific color of the fruits, wood and roots.
Black walnut is a close relative of walnut
Characteristics of black walnut
The plant has a number of features that make it difficult to confuse it with other nuts.
The tree looks like this:
- the crown is quite wide, with spreading branches down;
- chocolate-black bark with deep fissures all over;
- dark brown wood with a strong texture that can be easily machined;
- rhizome is rhizome, extending over great distances;
- leaves are pinnate, oval, excised with small notches along the outer edge;
- Produces long light green catkins when flowering in the middle;
- round fruit with a pointed end, light green skin when ripe, darkens later;
- fruit shell has a special dark color.
Black walnut can be found throughout Europe, except for the Scandinavian countries, because the climate there is too harsh for this tree. It also grows in the deciduous forests of central Russia, where it was introduced at the end of the 18th century.
Young fruits of black walnut have a light green skin
Growing black walnut
If you decide to grow black walnut on your plot, you need to take into account some features of this tree. The leaves are able to produce phytoncides - biologically active substances with bactericidal properties. They not only fight bacteria, but also improve respiratory function and heart rate, and also help to cope with headaches or migraines. But in addition to pathogenic bacteria, with a high concentration of phytoncides in the air, those that are vital to the human body can die. For this reason, it is better to plant young trees at a distance of 15-20 meters from each other.
Walnut is soaked for several weeks in water at room temperature, constantly changing it so that it does not stagnate. After pecking, the sprout is planted in fertile wet soil.
The plant has some requirements for environmental conditions and care:
It is not recommended to plant birch, apple, pear and plum trees, tomatoes, potatoes and other nightshades in close proximity to the tree. Plants planted close to black walnut will die so quickly that the gardener will not have time to understand what happened to them. By producing the toxin juglone, the black walnut very quickly oppresses the plants closest to it.
An apple tree will not grow near a walnut tree
Pruning a black walnut tree
Planting and care also includes pruning a tree. A properly formed crown increases the productivity of the tree and promotes the growth of side branches. A feature of this tree is its typical growth method for forest plants. The trunk lengthens over time and is cleared of the lower branches, forming a green mass at the top.
It is best to prune in the spring when there is little danger of a hard night frost. Dry branches are removed with a pruner or saw. Branches directed to the middle of the crown are also subject to pruning. The renewed tree gives bountiful harvests.
To make the tree squat, use the apical pruning method, removing the top growth point from young trees at the age of three.
Pruning removes branches towards the middle of the trunk
Benefits of black walnut fruit
Black walnut fruit is used as a food supplement. They are a source of fatty acids, trace elements and vitamins of groups B, A, PP, E and C. 10 nuts contain a daily dose of iodine, which improves thyroid function and helps strengthen immunity during colds and respiratory diseases. Also, black nuts are a source of carotene and tannin.
They have the following properties:
- improves skin tone, helps to smooth mimic wrinkles;
- dilates blood vessels, lowering blood pressure;
- relieves muscle spasms, especially well against pain in women during menstruation;
- destroys worms, helps to cope with intoxication by the waste products of parasites;
- strengthens the immune system;
- reduces the risk of malignant tumors;
- cleanses the blood and lymph;
- reduces irritability;
- eliminates free radicals;
- helps fight infectious diseases;
- cleanses the skin of the face from acne;
- stimulates the brain.
The properties of black walnut make it an indispensable product in the diet of any person, especially those who suffer from diabetes and impaired glucose absorption. Thanks to the substances contained in the kernels of the nut, the work of the pancreas, liver and kidneys improves.
Black nuts have a whole range of medicinal properties
It is recommended for an adult to consume 8-10 nuts a day to get enough natural iodine, vitamins and minerals. Children should be given no more than five pieces.
Kernels can be consumed fresh and lightly toasted. In the second case, the nucleoli acquire a refined taste, but lose most of the nutrients. Also, black walnut fruits are used for making desserts and as a seasoning for first and second courses.
It can stop bleeding and significantly speed up wound healing. Also, a tincture is made from the pericarp, which helps to cure thrush without pills and suppositories.
Why black walnut fruits are harmful
Despite the huge list of positive aspects of eating black walnut fruits, there are also disadvantages. Due to their high fat content, kernels are high in calories. For this reason, people who are overweight are advised to use nuts with great care. Do not abuse this delicacy for allergy sufferers. Nuts are strong allergens and can lead not only to itching and skin rashes, but also to Quincke's edema.
Black walnut fruits should be used with caution by pregnant and lactating women, children under 5 years of age. You should not eat roasted nuts for people suffering from gastritis and cholecystitis.
Black walnuts should be carefully inspected for mold
Black walnut wood
Black walnut cultivation is practiced not only for harvest, but also for timber harvesting. Due to its unusual color (dark gold), wood is used in furniture production. Furniture made of such wood is not only beautiful, but also resistant to external factors, has antiseptic properties. Due to the content of glycosides, essential oils and organic acids in the tissues of the plant, the furniture is protected from fungi and the reproduction of pathogens.
The only drawback of the material is its low strength. When sawing, the wood bends easily. This can be considered a plus, because the elasticity of wood is necessary for the assembly of complex decorative structures.
If properly dried and stored in black walnut wood, black walnut furniture will last a long time. In addition to black walnut furniture, the following are also made:
- gun stocks;
- musical instruments;
- floor coverings;
- decor items.
From a medical point of view, black walnut is also very useful, and therefore, is actively used in pharmacology to create extracts, tinctures and powders.
BLACK WALNUT - PLANTING AND CARE
Black walnut Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is the largest tree of the genus Juglans, which also includes walnut. At home, in the forest regions of the eastern United States, it reaches 30-50 m in height. The leaves have a sharp aromatic and balsamic smell characteristic of black walnut.
The tree is sufficiently resistant to drought conditions due to its spreading, low-hanging crown. This variety of walnut trees is a powerful air purifier from dust and harmful inclusions. Crohn emits a huge amount of useful phytoncides and tannins. Walnut fruits are considered a very valuable raw material for many applications, especially for pharmacology.
The nut kernel is very tasty, has a special aroma, contains 60% high-quality oil, 30% high-value proteins (almost twice as much as walnuts), 6% carbohydrates. In the US, the nut kernel is a prized aromatic food.
Fruits in milky-wax ripeness are an excellent raw material for the production of fortified jam, which, in terms of vitamin C content, is 1.5-2.6 times higher than walnut jam, with almost the same content of other food components.
Green leaves, pericarp, green fruits and other parts of the plant are the most valuable medicinal raw materials. Due to the rich biochemical composition, preparations based on them are used as biological additives. Black walnut oil is highly valued, as it has great resistance to oxidation (does not go bitter), so it is indispensable for confectionery products, and is used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Due to its unique nutritional qualities, black walnut oil is recognized as a product of the 21st century.
Black walnut is propagated by seeds, cuttings and grafting.
For those who want to successfully grow walnut crops on their plots, it is necessary to know some of the specific requirements that these wonderful plants make.
Attitude to light. Light-loving, shade-tolerant breed. Black walnut is considered more shade tolerant than gray walnut, but less than walnut.
Attitude to heat. Moderately demanding on heat. It is believed that for normal growth and development, it needs a sum of active temperatures (from 10C and above) of at least 2200-2400C. However, fruit-bearing black walnut trees are found up to the latitude of St. Petersburg inclusive. Under the conditions of Tula, a fruit-bearing black walnut tree turned out to be more winter-hardy than Manchurian and walnuts, withstanding -38C in the air (2003, 2006), and the root system -17C at a depth of 3 cm (2003).
The first three years of life, black walnut is susceptible to damage by spring frosts, even in its homeland. When the crown leaves the ground zone, frosts are not terrible for him. In autumn, the green organs of the plant are more resistant to frost than those of the walnut.
Relation to moisture. In terms of drought resistance, it occupies an intermediate position between walnut and Manchurian. It is believed that black walnut is suitable for crops in floodplains. In the floodplain Kuban black walnut successfully withstands short-term flooding, and in its homeland, in North America, when growing in floodplains, black walnut can withstand flooding lasting 1-1.5 months.
Seed suitable for planting. It is better to plant them in the fall or in the spring. It is better to use the seeds of past crops, after soaking them for several days in warm water. It is necessary to make a furrow into which the seeds will be sown. The depth should be 8 centimeters. Practice has shown that it is better to plant nuts in the fall, because. seedlings are more viable and strong.
In the case of planting in the spring, the beginning of May is best. Seeds need to be germinated before planting. Toward the end of January, the seeds are planted in small containers filled with peat with the addition of wet river sand. After that, the seeds are cleaned in a room where the air temperature does not exceed 7 degrees. Choose in advance the site on which the tree will grow, as germinated seeds are planted in a permanent place. It is desirable that this area has protection from the wind and is well lit. The distance between seeds should not be less than 75 centimeters. Close up, lay the seeds on their sides, and then level the ground from above and start watering. After two weeks, the first shoots should appear.
After sifting, throughout the year, the plants must be regularly looked after. It is necessary to remove all weeds in a timely manner, loosen the ground and ensure periodic watering. Sunflowers or corn can be planted between rows so that young walnut seedlings do not suffer from wind or snow in winter.
Planting as a YOUNG TREE.
Planting holes are dug in such a way that the roots of the tree are placed in it freely and there is space for their growth in all directions. Humus, wood ash or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are introduced into the pit. In order to keep the moisture longer after watering, the root system of the seedling is covered in a 4/5 hole with soil and abundant watering is carried out. Water is absorbed within 5-7 minutes, after which the rest of the soil is covered and the trunk circle is mulched.
For the best survival of a plant in a new place, its correct placement relative to the cardinal points is of great importance. The more "tanned" part of the stem and shoots should face south (corresponding to the original place of plant growth). Proper planting shortens the time for plant adaptation to a new location.
Place and soil. Walnut plants do not like acidic soil, which is genetically inherent in them, they prefer a neutral or slightly alkaline environment. On such soil, they finish their growth in a timely manner, prepare well for winter and better tolerate low winter temperatures. When planting in the conditions of the Non-Black Earth Region, this can be achieved by introducing wood ash, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers into the planting pit (doses and norms depend on the soil), and later by introducing lime fertilizers into the trunk circle zone to maintain pH 6.5-7.5. With an excess of nitrogen in the soil, the plant delays growth, the wood does not mature well and freezes in winter.
Walnut trees need protection from north and northeast winds. Protection can be buildings, other more winter-hardy trees. Much depends on the microrelief of the site. As a winter-hardy species, black walnut can be placed on the northern and northeastern side of the site, which should be moderately blown, at a distance of 5-6 m from existing buildings and 8-10 m between trees. The plant does not like low-lying places with stagnant air.
Care. Walnut trees need a sufficient amount of moisture in the first half of the growing season (the period of growth and flowering) and its reduction in the second half of summer for the timely completion of growth, wood ripening and preparation for winter. In good years and during dry summers, watering is necessary. For black walnut at the time of fruiting, sufficient moisture is necessary during the fruiting period - July - mid-August.
For good plant growth, the soil must be loose and mulched (especially for early-growing forms of walnut). In the second half of summer, loosening is stopped in order to avoid delaying growth processes.
Cutting and shaping. Usually the tree forms itself. Dried out, as well as thickening crown and poorly located branches are cut out. The best time for pruning in Central Russia is spring, when the threat of severe frosts (below -10C) has passed. Ideal pruning after bud break and start of growth (less sap flow), but not always convenient. Shortening pruning of trees should not be carried out until mid-August, as this can provoke awakening of the buds and re-growth, which in our conditions will lead to freezing of sprouted shoots in winter.
Neighbor plants. The root system is deep, rod type with powerful lateral branches and anchor roots. It is known that black walnut roots emit toxins that poison alfalfa, tomatoes, potatoes, apple, pine, blackcurrant and birch when grown together.
The best associated tree species for black walnut are linden (small-leaved, etc.), maples (with the exception of ash-leaved and silvery), hornbeam, common pear, forest apple, cherry plum. Of the shrubs - dogwood, cotoneaster, common viburnum, hazel, Tatar honeysuckle, black and red elderberry, Japanese quince, Tatar maple, svidina, golden currant, etc.
E.A. Vasin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
American black walnut - a new miracle on his plot
The black walnut tree got its name not at all because the fruits or the trunk are black. Here the black powerful root system played a role. The second name of the tree is American walnut, because in its natural form it can only grow in the forests of North America.
There are several features that distinguish black walnut wood from others:
- the tree reaches a height of 50 m;
- chocolate brown barrel;
- the crown is lowered down, it has a vaulted wide shape;
- black roots, deeply fissured;
- rod type root system;
- begin to bloom at the age of 7-10 years, flowering months are April and May;
- fruits are round, egg-shaped, with a pointed top, their diameter is 3-5 cm. This country is his home. From Texas and Florida to Massachusetts. The plant was brought to Russian cities in the 18th century. Today, the tree is quite common in all European countries, except for the Scandinavian region. After all, there are too cool climatic conditions for him.
The walnut tree tends to grow in areas such as:
- deciduous forests;
- mountains with fertile and moist soil type;
- on the banks of water bodies;
- in alleys, etc.
American black walnut should be germinated from the beginning of April. This is done as follows:
- Place the nut in a glass container and fill with water, which should be at room temperature.
- Three days to change the water every day at the same time - in the morning or in the evening.
- Soak the nut in damp sand for 15 days. In this case, it should be placed on the edge sideways. The nut is placed in a flower pot or a cut-off bottle with holes in the bottom to drain excess liquid. Bury at a depth of about 10 cm.
The container with the planted nut must be at room temperature. Under such conditions, almost all fruits germinate and roots begin to grow, and sometimes shoots come out. The first days of May, in good weather, is the time to plant nuts upside down. Plants are planted in specially made holes, the depth of which is 8-12 cm. It is advisable to keep a distance between the nut and the surrounding trees. It should be about 10 m. From the buildings to the nut, the distance should not exceed 3 m.
Attention! It is recommended to fertilize the landing site in advance - in the fall. If this has not been done, the soil should not be fertilized after planting the nut.
The first shoots usually appear after 2.5 -3 weeks. In autumn, the nut already reaches 10-15 cm. After a year, the stem with branches gradually get fat. In August, it is not recommended to water the seedlings too much. Because in this case it can be difficult for him to endure winter time. The seedling is dug carefully with the ground, without damaging the rhizome. Upon the onset of spring, a plant that overwintered is planted again in the right place.
Involves the cultivation of black walnut from seeds and such an important procedure as crown formation. You need to start in 3-4 years. The best option for crown formation is to leave 3 side branches and a central conductor. So it turns out to form a tree trunk up to 2 m in height.