How much money does one pecan tree produce
Pecan groves offer profitable options
“Pecans offer more profit potential than a typical row crop enterprise, a cow/calf farm or a stocker operation, even at peak cycles.”
Ron Smith 1 | May 20, 2008
Central Oklahoma and North Texas farmers and ranchers looking for a new enterprise might consider pecans — if they’re patient and willing to invest the management and money necessary to produce a profitable crop.
“We’ve seen a lot of interest and a lot of new pecan plantings going in,” says Charles Rohla, pecan specialist at The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation in Ardmore, Oklahoma.
Rohla and James Locke, soils and crop specialist, say pecans provide promising profit potential for the right producers with the right conditions.
“Pecans offer more profit potential than a typical row crop enterprise, a cow/calf farm or a stocker operation, even at peak cycles,” Locke says.
But it takes good yields to make good money. “We set a target of 2,000 pounds per acre,” Rohla says. With a $2 per pound retail market, opportunities are pretty good. “A few do that well,” he says. “I know one producer who says he’s made a profit of $3800 per acre on pecans. But that includes his retail center.”
They say others have compared pecans to soybeans, even with the increased price for soybeans. “They still come out ahead with pecans,” Rohla says. “But it’s a long-term investment. It may take 10 years before a grower gets to half production. It’s 12 years to full production.”
“And the grower will spend from $4,000 to $6,000 per acre, including an irrigation system, in the interim,” Locke says. “Some land owners are putting in dryland pecans and production costs are considerably less, but so is production, 1,000 to 1,200 pounds per acre, with the right varieties. They also can add four to five years until full production.”
They say dryland production also comes with “alternate bearing” problems. A good year often is followed by a poor one as the trees recover. “With irrigation, improved varieties, and other management practices, we can lessen the effect of alternate bearing,” Rohla says.
Gearing up to grow pecans on a commercial scale is not something landowners should take on without considerable preparation. Rohla and Locke say growers should consider three key factors before planting the first tree.
Soil and water availability is the first, they say. “We need deep, well-drained soil,” Locke says. “The tree needs at least 3 to 4 feet of available rooting depth.”
Water amount and quality also is important. “Pecans are very sensitive to salt,” Rohla says. “With some of the water from the Red River aquifer salt is an issue. Water out of the river is also high in salt.”
Pecans need 2 inches of water per week, 50 inches to 60 inches per year. Typical irrigation would be either a micro-jet or drip tape system.
Determining varieties is the second key pre-production decision and variety selection depends on soil and water. “In shallow soil, smaller varieties work best. Also, that’s the best choice with limited water,” Rohla says.
MULTIPLE VARIETIES RECOMMENDED
They recommend planting several varieties to assure proper pollination and staggered maturity. “Select different maturity dates to match market trends and to allow timely harvest,” Locke says.
They recommend Pawnee and Kanza as two excellent choices for improved varieties. “These are good at pollinating each other and are early ripening,” Rohla says. Pawnee is a large nut, 50 to 45 nuts per pound. Kanza is smaller, around 70 nuts per pound. Both produce excellent quality nuts with 55 percent to 58 percent kernels.
“Earliness is an advantage with both these varieties,” Rohla says. “Growers can harvest and get them to market before Thanksgiving.”
Early harvest also has the advantage of getting the crop in before crows and squirrels can cause damage.
“Those pests can cause one pound of damage per day per animal,” Rohla says. “Blue jays cause about half that much.”
Determining size of planting is the final factor. “For a new producer, a big issue is deciding how much to plant,” Locke says, “and that decision depends on management ability.” He says a grower with no crop production background may want to be a bit more cautious than someone with more experience growing tree or row crops. They recommend a newcomer who has a native stand try to improve what’s available and add improved varieties as they learn the ropes.
Native trees would mean less upfront costs for irrigation and less cost and management for disease and insect scouting and control.
“If a producers has native trees, we can find improved varieties that match well with them,” Rohla says.
They say experienced farmers may opt to put in a more high management orchard.
“Anyone can learn how to grow pecans,” Locke says. “It depends on how hard a grower is willing to work.”
In some cases, high management may allow growers to push the crop to production within seven to eight years. Typically, trees produce 40 to 50 pounds per acre at five years. “The record for a 5-year production average is 1,000 pounds per acre,” Rohla says.
Production costs for initial outlay for land preparation, planting and irrigation range from $1,000 to $2,000 per acre “in our old budget,” says Rohla. “Now, it’s probably double that, especially with irrigation costs. We see a lot of variability between varieties, irrigation systems and management options.”
He says growers who have to put in all new irrigation systems will shell out more money to get going. If they have irrigation systems in place and just have to renovate or tap into existing lines, they save a lot of money.
Growers typically space tees in new, improved variety orchards at 35 trees per acre. That spacing remains through the first 14 years. “The high tree population helps pay for initial costs,” Rohla says. “At 14 years we recommend thinning to maximize production.”
During the first 14 years trees are not so big they compete with each other for sunlight, nutrients and moisture.
After the orchard is established, growers will spend from $250 to $1,000 per year per acre to maintain the crop. Variability depends on varieties and year-to-year insect infestations and disease infection. Bad scab years and susceptible varieties may run costs up significantly. Some varieties require less disease management than others.
“We had a bad scab year in 2007 and we did not have to spray Pawnee and Kanza,” Rohla says.
Ample fertility is also critical to establish new orchards. “For improved varieties zinc is the most important nutrient,” Locke says. “Improved varieties need foliar applications of zinc every two weeks, starting at bud break and for as long as the tree is growing in-season, usually July or August.”
Pecan trees do not need a lot of nitrogen, but do need some for adequate growth. Nitrogen typically goes on the ground.
“A lot of growers are showing interest in using a legume to supply nitrogen,” Locke says. “A legume that leaves 100 to 150 pounds of nitrogen provides more than enough for pecan trees. ”
They say producers allow the legume to grow into summer, when, as a cool-season crop, it declines. Growers mow in the fall to facilitate harvest. Alfalfa “is too competitive,” Locke says. “White clover has done well and vetch looks pretty good, too.”
Annual production costs for native varieties are considerably less, typically from $200 to $300 per acre.
“In a good year, we can produce more pecans on native trees than we do on improved,” Rohla says. “But we can’t control alternate bearing.”
He says a lot of producers are getting into native pecan production by cleaning up timberland. “A big factor in making native trees productive is thinning. We need to make certain trees are structurally sound and free of diseases. We thin to 50 percent shade and encourage grass to grow on the orchard floor.”
Some producers graze cattle in the native pecan groves.
Rohla says prices for pecans have remained relatively strong for the past few years, averaging 85 cents per pound for native pecans and $1. 40 per pound for improved varieties (wholesale prices) the past five years.
Oklahoma growers report 86,000 acres in pecans with 85 percent of those natives. “From one-third to one-half of those are commercially harvested,” Rohla says. “We have potential for significantly more acreage in Oklahoma and North Texas. In the last two years we have had 2,200 acres either planted or projected.
“Interest is growing.”
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TAGS: Orchard Crops
U.S. Pecan Industry - Money Does Grow on Trees
Pecans are a species of hickory, and the only major tree nut that grows naturally in North America. They are considered one of the most valuable North American nut species. The word “pecan” comes from the Native American word “pacane” which means “nuts requiring a stone to crack.” As early as the 1800’s, American colonists and Native Americans were using the pecan as a means of commerce. With its buttery flavor and ease of storage, the pecan quickly gained popularity. In the late 1880’s the technique of grafting pecans was discovered; grafting ensured the grower had a consistent variety of nut which allowed growers to plant orchards.
Today the pecan industry is thriving in the southern United States. The University of Georgia Agricultural & Environmental Sciences reports that Georgia continues to be regarded as the top pecan producing state in the U.S., with over 170,000 acres planted. Pecan orchards may range in size from just a few trees to several thousand acres. The U.S. produces between 250 and 300 million pounds of pecans annually with an average farm price around $2 per pound. This puts just the farming of pecans at a half-a-billion dollar industry. This does not include the economic impact of the pecan downstream when it enters the candies, cookies, cereals, pies, and all the other goodies we consume.
As the pecan industry has evolved, so has the reach of the pecan. New varieties with better traits such as ease of cracking, better taste, and earlier ripening have been developed. In recent years, as much as 30% of the pecans produced in the U.S. have been exported. With domestic and global markets taking an interest in pecans, investors are expressing optimism that pecan investments will pay attractive dividends.
Pecans are priced high enough for consideration as a sound investment, and it has both small and large investors taking notice and looking at orchard land for sale as a long term investment.
Matthew Bailey, a south Georgia native born and raised in the heart of pecan country, is the editor of PecanReport.com, the world’s leading news organization covering the global pecan market. Pecan Report provides the latest reports and news that has to do with the current state of the pecan nuts industry.
LANDTHINK asked Matthew, who is also currently involved in the growing and exporting of pecans both in-shell and shelled, some questions about the global and domestic market for pecans, depressed prices, trade wars, and the long-term outlook for growers or investors that might be considering planting a new orchard.
Here’s what he had to say:
How does pecan production in the U.S. compare to other emerging markets/countries such as Mexico?
In quantity, Mexico is “supposedly” near the same capacity as the U.S. or maybe even a slightly larger producer. I say “supposedly” because the information received is not highly reliable.
Which state is the leading producer of pecans?
Georgia. Most of the Georgia’s pecan industry is in its southwest region. Albany and Dougherty County are known as the “pecan capital of the world,” because of the number of pecan trees in the area. Pecans are harvested during October and November, but are available year-round.
What has caused pricing to be so depressed this year?
Pecan prices have only slumped at the farm gate level; retail is booming. Large imports from Mexico, along with China sitting out of the market for 2 years due to a 47% tariff on U.S. pecans entering China, have likely caused the slump in prices at the farm gate/wholesale level.
What percentage of this year’s crop has been/will be put in cold storage?
Most of it. Each year, most of the crop goes into cold storage immediately, then gets pulled out to be shelled. The difference this year is that growers are storing more due to a slip in prices. Eventually, the crop will change hands to buyers as they work through the current inventory.
What effect will storing large quantities of pecans have on the 2021 market/prices?
If I knew the answer to that, I would be a very rich man!
Is the Chinese demand for pecans as strong as it was 3-5 years ago?
Not currently, but the “Phase One” trade deal has allowed importers to apply for a tariff reduction which, coupled with lower prices, has seen China come back to the table and start buying more this year.
Which producer do you think will ultimately get the majority of the Chinese market?
I think the U.S. will get the majority. The U.S. has been marketing more than anyone else; however, the tariffs have had a big impact on demand.
Is India a viable market to export pecans to?
Yes. There is currently a high tariff, but our council is working to have that reduced. I have written several articles about their work.
What is a long term average price a grower/investor should look to receive if considering planting a new orchard?
As we all know, historical values are no indication of the past, but the future does look very bright. To answer that question, a grower/investor should consider the market they plan to sell in. Wholesale is vastly different than retail, and costs are different as well.
Do you see some of the older varieties of pecans becoming obsolete? If so, which varieties?
Yes. Any savvy grower is replacing old varieties with new better varieties or has done so already. Again, that depends on the markets in which each grower plans to sell.
The Stuart and Desirable varieties are becoming obsolete. While there is still plenty of these varieties in and around the southeastern U.S., predominantly in Georgia, commercial growers are planting varieties that either cost less to grow or produce higher quality nuts.
The Stuart is an older variety that on average yields between 45-48% kernel. That means that for every 100 pounds of Stuart pecans produced by the grower, only 45-48 lbs of edible kernel will be produced (assuming a 0% damage or cull rate which is not realistic). We now have varieties regularly yield 55-58%. When comparing thousands of pounds over hundreds of acres, it’s a no-brainer.
As for the Desirable pecan, the input cost has become the determining factor. Desirable makes a beautiful pecan that yields above 51%, but the input cost to get it to harvest is much higher than a Kiowa or a Cape Fear, which will make just as good of a pecan with less input cost. As we put in new orchards and replace older, lower-producing orchards, we continue to upgrade to better varieties.
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Pecan planting and care. Pecan nut diseases and pests
Pecan nut is a long-lived deciduous tree, up to 40-60 meters high. The crown of the plant is in the form of a tent, branched, up to 40 meters in diameter. The trunk is erect, grayish-brown in color with cracks. The kidneys are yellow, with pubescence. Shoots at the beginning of growth are also with brownish pubescence, but become bare over time. The leaves are large, long saturated green color, unpaired and pinnate, arranged alternately. The leaves are compound, consisting of lanceolate-elongated leaves arranged oppositely. Walnut flowers are represented by female and male, located on the tops of the shoots: male drooping, female - sessile. The tree blooms from late spring to June. Trees are pollinated by the wind, so for the ovary it is necessary to plant in the neighborhood with other trees.
The fruits of the tree are elongated drupes, up to 8 cm long. Their shell is fleshy and leathery, which eventually becomes woody and cracks. The walnut is oval brown with a pointed tip, smooth and wrinkled. Inside, the nuts are oily, similar to walnuts, but smoother and do not have partitions. Nuts can be eaten, nuts taste sweet.
The fruits ripen from the beginning to the middle of autumn, and then fall off. The tree bears fruit every year and abundantly after 9-11 years from the moment of sowing. If the tree is grown by grafting, then it gives the first crops after 4 years. In the first years of growth, yields are about 5 kg, later - up to 15 kg. Mature trees can yield up to 200 kg of fruit. The tree grows for about three hundred years.
Where can I grow pecans?
Pecans can grow in well-lit areas as well as in partial shade. Needs fertile, loose soil with good drainage. It is also important that water does not lie on the site, and the soil passes air and water well. It can tolerate severe, but not prolonged frosts. Regular watering is necessary for good growth and fruiting, although the tree is resistant to arid climates. With good watering, the tree will produce bountiful harvests of large and flavorful nuts every year. Young trees must be mulched, cleared of weeds nearby and loosened the soil. Annual growth at the beginning is small - 20-30 cm, but over time, growth becomes more active.
Pecans are also grown in indoor, greenhouse conditions, in a greenhouse. If it is planted in a room where the air is rather dry, it must be sprayed with water. In winter, until the beginning of spring, the plant should be at a temperature of 8-12 ° C. When the plant is at rest, watering and fertilizing is stopped. A tree can also bear fruit for 4-8 years of planting, while yields are not abundant - 2 kg, but this is only temporary. With age, not only the tree grows, but also the number of nuts.
Planting and propagation of pecans
Pecans are propagated in several ways: cuttings, budding, grafting or seeds. The most common method for this culture is seed. Tree planting is carried out in spring or autumn. Nuts that are already falling off are ripe, and they are used for reproduction. At the same time, it is important that the nuts fall off on their own without someone's help and not because of the wind. They should be brown, without dark spots and have a pleasant aroma. After collecting all the fallen nuts, you can immediately sow or stratify them.
Autumn planting of pecans
If planting in autumn, stratification is not necessary, the seeds can be planted immediately in a prepared place. To do this, small grooves are made 10 cm deep, nuts are placed in them, sprinkled with soil. Optimal planting, if 10 to 15 seedlings are placed per 1 meter of the plot. In this case, there should be a distance of at least one meter between the furrows. Thanks to such an autumn planting, stratification will take place naturally - the seedlings will harden in winter conditions. In the spring, all the nuts will sprout and be more stable than when planted in the spring.
It is recommended to plant in a sunny area, protected from the wind, where moisture does not stagnate. If the ground water remains standing, the plant will rot and not even take root. When sowing nuts immediately in a permanent place, the site is pre-fertilized with compost. During the first years of the tree, tree growth is slow, because. it still forms the root system. After three years, the annual growth will increase from 30 cm to 50 cm. At this time, the plant can be transplanted to a permanent place.
The optimal size of the pit is 60 x 60 cm. If the soil is highly acidic, the right amount of lime is added to it. In this case, you need to make a nutrient mixture for planting from soil and compost. The roots are placed so that they are perfectly spaced apart and do not wrap. It is necessary to place a support in the hole and tie a seedling to it. It is necessary to place the seedling so that the neck of its root is flush with the ground. After planting, you need to compact, water well and mulch with humus or other organic matter. It is desirable to plant trees at a distance of 15 meters. A young tree must be constantly watered, fertilized and cleaned of weeds. Fruiting will begin after 8-10 years.
Pecan spring planting
This planting takes place from April after mandatory stratification. Before sowing nuts, they need to be processed and hardened. To do this, the seeds are poured into water for a couple of days, after which they are laid out on moistened sawdust or peat so that they germinate. Next, the seeds need to be moved to a cold room, for example, to a balcony. At the same time, you need to make sure that the soil does not dry out, and the air is less than 4⁰С. In such conditions, they should be about two months. After the seeds can be moved to a warm room and sown in small furrows. The sowing scheme is the same as for the autumn planting. Seeds need to be sprinkled with humus and then constantly watered. It should also be planted in a well-lit area where there is no strong wind and no water.
You can plant a walnut in the garden or in the greenhouse. To transplant a grown plant, use a large pot or box. In indoor conditions, they are cared for in the same way as other house plants. That is, be sure to water, feed, spray with water. From the beginning of winter to the beginning of spring, the tree should be left in a cool rest - stop watering, fertilizing and provide a temperature of 8-12 ° C.
Growing a tree with a seedling is more difficult, because they are quite tender and often die at the slightest damage to the roots. The root system of the tree is mixed, it consists of the main and lateral roots, which are well developed. Be sure to plant in fertile soil with good drainage, in which water will not stagnate. After the tree is tied up, moistened and applied mulch. To propagate the tree by grafting, a stock is used - a white pecan. With this method, the walnut yields after four years.
How to care for your pecan
- In the early stages of growth, the pecan should be watered regularly and abundantly, and the area cleared of weeds.
- It is especially important to irrigate in dry, hot summers so that the soil does not dry out.
- It is also advisable to feed the tree and prune it for crown formation and rejuvenation. Pruning for shaping is carried out only on seedlings; adult nuts do not need to be pruned. In the spring, to rejuvenate the tree, dry, frozen and damaged branches are cut, as well as branches that thicken the crown.
Pecan nuts are attractive to gardeners because they almost do not get sick and are not damaged by pests. It is impossible to defeat even a nut codling moth, because. tree nuts are hidden under a solid shell compared to walnuts, which have a soft partition between the halves of the shell.
Fertilizing and feeding pecans
In spring, it is imperative to fertilize the tree with nitrogen-containing preparations that stimulate the growth of young shoots. At the beginning of autumn, it is worth applying fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium in order to stimulate the maturation of wood and the laying of a good plentiful harvest in the future. Thus, young trees are fed, while adult plants are fertilized in autumn with potassium salt, superphosphate and urea.
If the tree is properly cared for and planted correctly, it will bear fruit in as little as five years.
How to choose and store pecans when buying?
When buying nuts of this tree, you need to monitor the condition of its kernel - it must be whole and fleshy. If you buy nuts in shell, it is better to choose clean ones and without any damage. At the same time, according to their size, they should be heavy. To prolong the storage of nuts in good condition, it is recommended to keep them in an airtight container, in the refrigerator or freezer. Pecans keep in the refrigerator for about 4 months, and in the freezer for up to six months. Before eating nuts for food, they need to be warmed up at room conditions to 20-23⁰С.
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Pecan nuts (photo) - planting and care
Relatives from Georgia brought unusual nuts as a gift to a friend. I accidentally saw them in his car and asked him to give me a few pieces for breeding. Since we live in the south, in the Krasnodar Territory, I thought that perhaps our climate would also be suitable for growing this interesting crop.
Pecan or a mysterious culture
For a long time I could not even find out the name of the plant whose nuts I got. Outwardly, they are similar to walnuts, but more oblong and slightly pointed at the ends. The shell is smooth, thin, there are no partitions inside. The kernels look like those of walnuts, but the folds on them are not as sinuous.
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The taste is softer and sweeter. Having reviewed more than one reference book and determinant, I realized that this is an ordinary pecan (or hazel illinois ). Culture is able to bear fruit for 300-400 years! Belongs to the genus hickory of the walnut family. It is a spreading deciduous tree up to 60 m in height. Their leaves are like those of mountain ash, but larger - up to 50 cm in length and without notches along the edges.
Pecans are commercially grown in Central Asia and the southeastern United States. In our country, there are small plantings of it in the Caucasus and in the Crimea.
Pecan - 200 kg per tree!
Flowering in May-June. Pollinated by the wind. Male walnut flowers - earrings. Women are collected in inflorescences-spikelets - up to 11 pcs. in everyone.
Nuts are 8 cm long and 3 cm wide. They weigh up to 20 g. They ripen in September-October. The yield of old trees reaches 200 kg per tree. Young produce less fruit. Nut kernels are high in fat and can go rancid if stored too long. Pecans are eaten fresh and fried, used in cooking and in the confectionery industry.
Anyone who decides to grow these trees should take into account their impressive size. That is, under the pecan you will have to take a large part of the garden. Moreover, for fruiting, a culture requires at least 2 trees.
Winter sowing of pecans
Nuts need to be stratified before sowing. They are soaked for 3 days in water, and then planted before winter in pits with sand. Sprinkle with compost.
But the nuts fell into my hands before the New Year, when it was already snowing. So after soaking, I put them in a pot of wet sawdust and put them in the fridge. And in April I planted it in the country, deepening 5-7 cm into the soil. A month later, 5 strong seedlings sprouted. Now they are a year old. If you believe the information that I found, the seedlings will begin to bear fruit only at the age of 8-11 years.
In the south, pecans are also propagated by budding, grafting onto other varieties of the same crop, and cuttings. And then the trees begin to bear fruit after 4-5 years.
Greenhouse or room?
The culture grows both in the sun and in partial shade. Likes fertile, loose, well-drained soils. Withstands a short-term decrease in temperature in winter to -30°C. Responsive to abundant watering, although it also tolerates drought.
Around young trees, weed, fertilize, loosen and mulch the soil. Seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place from the age of one. At first, they do not grow quickly - 20-30 cm per year. Then their growth accelerates.
You can also grow pecans indoors, in a greenhouse, in a conservatory. Only in dry apartment air, trees should be sprayed regularly. And in winter (from November to March), keep the plants in a cool room at a temperature of 8-12 °. During the dormant period, do not fertilize them and reduce watering.
Personally, I plan to sell 3 of my seedlings and plant 2 in front of the country house. When they grow up, they will shade the yard in the summer heat.
If I am lucky enough to find pecan seedlings in nurseries, I will buy 2 more for planting behind the house so that cross-pollination occurs with my seedlings. If only the seedlings of the same variety as mine did not come across. Although this is unlikely, because more than 150 varieties of pecans have been bred. Among them, for the Russian climate, as I found out, they are considered the most suitable: Major, Textam, Green River, and Indiana. Stewart and Success .
Where and how pecans grow
There are more than 15 types of edible nuts in the world and each of them is delicious and unique. Peanuts, almonds, cashews, all of them have long become familiar and affordable for us, but there is a nut that has recently appeared on the Russian market - pecans. This exotic "guest" is a close relative of the walnut, but its mineral and vitamin composition is different. Why was it unavailable to European countries for a long time? Dealing with this is easy if you find out where and how the pecan grows.
Hickory and Kariya
One of the representatives of the Nut family is the hickory tree, the name is taken from the Indian culture. These trees are considered the oldest on earth with a solid trunk. In Greek, the tree received another name "hazel - hazel", but most often this name was identified with a walnut.
After a long study at the end of the 18th century, there was a division into two groups of plants: nuts and hickory, and in 1818 a separate genus Kariya was identified.
Pecan is unique
Hazel pecan or common pecan (pecan) belongs to a tree species of plants from the Nut family. It is often referred to as the king of nuts due to its unique biological composition. It contains:
- vitamin E,
- ascorbic acid,
- polyunsaturated fats.
Thanks to this composition, the nut has a beneficial effect on the body:
- With regular use, developing cancer cells are neutralized.
- Reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke and varicose veins.
- Immunity is strengthened and appetite increases.
- The work of the cardiovascular system is being adjusted.
- Favorably affects the eyes, improves visual acuity.
- Women's hormonal balance is getting better.
And these are far from all the properties of a healthy nut - pecan in its organic composition can absolutely replace meat, so it is a frequent guest on the tables of vegans.
Pecan belongs to the Walnut family of woody plants, native to the southeastern United States, but today the tree has successfully established itself in Australia, Spain, Mexico, Turkey and the Caucasus.
Hazel is a tall tree, it can reach 60 m, it has a wide tent-like crown, the diameter of which can reach 35-40 m. Depending on where the pecan grows, the tree forms a wide crown either in the shape of a tent or an ellipse. The straight gray trunk is covered with bark with cracks, stratified into plates. The walnut has large, up to 0.5 m leaves with a bright green color, smooth and shiny. The life expectancy of a tree is about 300 years, and throughout the whole time it bears fruit.
In order for the nuts to ripen, a hot and humid climate is necessary, if these conditions are met, the crop ripens in mid-autumn, the ripened fruits fall to the ground on their own.
Many people do not know where the pecan grows, as this crop is little known in Russia. The spread of pecan began from its historical homeland - North America, where it was eaten by Indian tribes. In some Indian tribes in the homeland of the nut, it was believed that pecan helps prolong life, so it was often used by shamans during rituals.
Today, hazel trees grow throughout most of the southeastern United States and Central Asia. In the USA, there is even a national dish with this product - pecan pie.
Pecan also grows in Russia, so there are small nut plantations in the Caucasus and Crimea, only here the climate allows it to fully ripen. However, these trees have no industrial value.
Varieties of pecan
Breeding has now resulted in varieties of pecan that can withstand colder temperatures and longer absences of rain, and can also grow in soil poor in organic and mineral matter. In total there are about 150 varieties. The most common varieties of nuts are:
Each of these varieties has a different nutritional composition, but they are all useful in their own way, as they contain more or less vitamins and minerals.
In pecans, the fruits are false drupes of oblong shape 5-8 cm and a width of about 2.5 cm and a weight of about 18 g. They are covered with a leathery shell, which becomes stiff and cracks after ripening. Fruits are collected in a bunch from 3 to 11 pieces.
The nut (which is the stone of the fruit) has an oval shape with a pointed top, 2-2.5 cm long. Hazel has a smooth, shiny surface, slightly ribbed and wrinkled brownish in color. The core itself resembles a walnut, but there is still a difference - the pecan has no partitions, and the convolutions are smoother. One tree brings from 5 to 15 kg, depending on its age, very old trees can produce up to 200 kg of nuts.
Self growing pecan
In order for the tree to bear fruit, it is important to follow all the rules of planting and caring for it. Propagation can take place in several ways:
- growing from seeds.
With the last method of planting, seeds should be planted only in fertile soil, in places where water does not stagnate, an important condition is a lighted area, it will be difficult for it to grow in the shade of a house or other trees.
Healthy mature seeds should be planted in the ground in spring or autumn. In the spring version, a necessary condition is the stratification of seeds - they are kept in a humid environment with a temperature of 3-4 C for 50-60 days. The best time to land is April.
For planting, it is necessary to form beds, the distance between rows is at least 1 m. The seeds are lowered into loose soil by 1 cm. After planting, the rows must be watered, sprinkled with sawdust or dry grass. This is necessary in order to protect young shoots from the scorching sun.
The first sprouts during spring planting appear within a month, as soon as they get stronger (after 1-3 years, their height should be at least 150 cm), they can be transplanted to a permanent place. At a permanent place, the seedling sits in a deep hole with a depth and width of at least 60 cm. To grow a healthy tree, you should be careful when planting so as not to damage the pecan root. In the hole, the roots are carefully straightened and sprinkled with loose earth on top, after which the tree is carefully watered and the soil is sprinkled with peat.
Care and top dressing
The main condition for the growth of hazel pecan is regular watering and top dressing, the soil should not dry out, as the roots should always be wet, therefore, during the dry period, watering should be plentiful.
In spring, the tree begins to actively grow, leaves appear, so the trees need to be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. In autumn, fertilizing with potassium and phosphorus is necessary, this is necessary for the ripening of fruits and the growth of wood.
Cutting and finishing
Shaping pruning is carried out when the pecan has grown sufficiently. The procedure should be carried out in the spring, removing dry and damaged or excessively thickening branches. Pruning rejuvenates the tree and gives the crown a neat appearance.
Pecan grown in Russia does not need to be treated for pests, as we do not have them in our country.
Growing a crop in Russia is difficult due to unsuitable climatic conditions, however, botanists have bred the northern pecan variety Carlson 3, this nut is adapted to conditions of low temperatures down to -30 C, poor soil and drought. The northern variety is actively cultivated in Canada.
Diseases and care
Since the pecan grows in warm climates, the plant can be damaged by mold, especially if the weather is damp and the tree trunk is left in the shade for a long time. The appearance of mold is very dangerous for pecans, as over time it can lead to rotting of the trunk. If the disease is noticed immediately, then it is not difficult to deal with it, for this there are both special chemicals, and ammonia, vinegar or soda can be used.
A feature of the nut is its hard shell, besides, unlike the walnut, its shell does not have cracks and holes, which is a plus - insects cannot penetrate and damage the nut, but for a person this is a big minus - it is very difficult to get the kernel.
Application of pecan
Pecan is one of the most high-calorie nuts - 690 kcal, it is also the leader in fat content - 72%, while walnuts have 62%. In addition to eating, ordinary pecans are used for other purposes.
- Pecan oil is produced, the properties of which are not inferior to olive oil.
- The cosmetics industry uses extracts from nuts to make cosmetics.
- Wood is an ideal material for making furniture.
Pecan can hardly be called an ordinary nut, as the benefits of eating it are enormous. Just a few nuts a day, two or three times a week, can heal the body and enrich it with useful substances. The main condition is in no case to eat too much at once, so as not to add extra pounds to yourself.
The first pecan orchard was planted in Ukraine
Pecan is a close relative of walnut, they are similar in taste, but pecan kernels are a little softer and more tender. A prerequisite for the ripening of this type of nuts is the presence of hot and humid air in summer. The tree can bear fruit for 300 years. The homeland of the pecan is North America, where it was especially revered by Indian tribes. Pecans are 70% fat, 11% protein, 14% sugar, making pecan recommended for fatigue and lack of appetite. Edible pecan oil resembles olive oil in taste and smell. Pecan contains vitamin A, B, C, E, iron, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, zinc. One of the varieties of vitamin E, which contains a pecan, can inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Pecan nuts are recommended for beriberi, lack of appetite, fatigue, anemia, it regulates the level of testosterone in the blood well and has a beneficial effect on the reproductive system.
Walnut garden is an activity for mature people. And this is a certain aesthetics, because not everyone can wait 7 years before the first harvest. This was stated by the head of the Impak company Sergey Malinovsky, commenting on the laying of the company's first walnut orchard in an interview with the EastFruit project.
“And this does not mean that you can just plant a garden and forget (as many people think), there are enough problems. Why did I do it? I grew up in the Ternopil region, in an area where there were a lot of nuts, so the nut business is my old dream. The garden is like a small child - and it will catch a cold, that is, it can freeze, but still you really look forward to the result when it becomes an adult. Now the first nuts have already appeared, this is a joy for me. You need to love nuts, have fun, and only then everything will work out, ”said Sergey Malinovsky.
At the same time, he explained that at present “we are not talking about a gold mine or an ambitious business project.”
“Walnut growing is a bit of a wrong type of activity in case you want to earn quick money - you can think of a lot of adventures. No matter how hard we try, we are still far from the California gardens, they have been working in this direction for a hundred years already. A walnut garden that yields a minimum of 5 tons per hectare or 30 kg per tree. The world market price of unshelled walnuts is at least a dollar. Thus, a hectare of a garden in any scenario can give $ 1-2 thousand in net profit. Therefore, one way or another, the walnut project will not fail,” the head of Impak told about the prospects for business development.
Now the company owns 80 hectares of walnut orchard.
Prior to the cultivation of walnuts, according to Sergey Malinovskiy, Impak specialists reviewed both Ukrainian and foreign varieties in nurseries. “Because we are located at the 50th latitude, there were no recommendations for varieties for our zone. We chose and 4 years ago planted what could be the most suitable - the Moldovan selection, Ukrainian and European. However, I am used to doing everything correctly and efficiently. Since I did not find the quality of nuts that I wanted, I had to organize my own nursery for further work. We are working on rootstocks, their frost resistance, experimenting. This is the employment of people at the enterprise - they can work both in winter and in summer. We are looking for new forms, we are conducting research, and not so long ago we became the first certified nursery in Ukraine. We were the first in the country to grow pecans,” Sergey Malinovsky explained.
Commenting on the results of growing walnuts with a closed root system in pots according to American technology, Sergey Malinovsky noted that he was pleased with this.
“The results are good, we plant up to 50 thousand seedlings a year. Now enterprises are very interested in walnut growing, thanks to compensation - the state returns 330 UAH for each nut, we have a wholesale seedling costs 350 UAH, if the client returns a bucket, then minus 20 UAH. So it turns out that the nut is free. You just need to want to, make a project, buy seedlings in a certified nursery and learn care technologies,” the specialist explained.
He also noted that the cooperation of Ukrainian walnut growers is a vital necessity. “It is difficult for Ukrainians to understand why they need to cooperate, but if they want a price, they will unite,” Sergey Malinovsky expressed confidence.
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10 useful nuts: what are you 🥜
Thanks to their super-nutritious properties and bright taste, nuts can be both the perfect snack and the "highlight" of a complex dish. We tell you what the main benefits of the 10 most popular nuts are and how to cook them.
Nuts are an amazing product. They are tasty and filling, suitable for any type of diet - from vegan to keto diets, they can be added to a variety of dishes or eaten separately as a nutritious snack. All nuts are an excellent source of healthy unsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins and minerals. But still they differ in composition and their most important properties. It's time to find out what's special about each of the popular nuts and create your own perfect mix.
Plant-based and vegan favorites because the protein-rich cashews make amazing cream cheese and other dairy products. And these nuts are also ideal for Asian dishes: salads, curries, fried noodles and rice.
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Cashew nuts are high in copper (more than a third of the daily value in a handful of nuts) and provide powerful antioxidant protection  and aid in the absorption of many important vitamins and minerals. It also contains a lot of magnesium (strengthens bones and the nervous system) and iron (oxygenates the body).
These nuts are 65% fat, and they are all healthy. They are high in omega-3 essential fatty acid (more of it only in fish and chia seeds), which reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes , .
It is not for nothing that the walnut is shaped like a brain. Due to the large amount of polyphenols, vitamin E and the same omega-3 in the composition, these nuts can improve memory, concentration and reduce anxiety .
Why walnuts are extremely good for the heart
These are not actually nuts, but real beans. Therefore, in peanuts, as in any leguminous plants, there is a lot of protein and little carbohydrates . This means that peanut butter without added sugar is a healthy and nutritious sandwich topping and addition to your favorite dishes (vegans often use it as a thick sauce).
Peanuts are rich in B vitamins, which we often lack. For example, vitamin B1 improves brain function, B3 reduces blood pressure and regulates the nervous system, and B9(folic acid) ensures normal cell growth and division.
Pine nuts should not be overdone - they are quite fatty and high-calorie, but they serve as an excellent finishing touch to salads, pastas, cereals and other dishes. If you eat them regularly, but a little bit, you can reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Cedar contains a lot of magnesium and phosphorus, which strengthen bones, as well as zinc, a mineral that plays an important role in the functioning of the immune system . Finally, cedar is rich in vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant that protects the body at the cellular level.
Ideal nuts for those who want to improve their digestive system and balance their weight , . Firstly, almonds can improve the state of the microflora and increase the growth of beneficial bifidus and lactobacilli. Secondly, this nut contains a lot - but not too much - of fats (mostly healthy unsaturated ones), enough protein and little sugar.
Almonds make delicious and nutritious milk, cheese and butter. And almond flakes are the perfect complement to desserts and fruit salads. But people with kidney and gallbladder diseases should eat almonds with caution: they contain a lot of oxalates, which can aggravate the pathologies of these organs.
Like other nuts, hazelnuts lower the level of “bad” cholesterol in the blood , and also reduce the risk of developing inflammatory processes in the body and improve the tone of blood vessels.
Hazelnuts are rich in biotin (a catalytic vitamin that helps the body release energy from proteins, fats and carbohydrates), B vitamins and a record amount of magnesium for nuts - in 50 grams of hazelnuts, about 85% of the daily value of this important mineral that improves our mental abilities and normalizes sleep.
These incredibly nutritious "creamy" nuts are actually the seeds of one of the largest trees in the Amazonian tropics. They are the richest source of selenium (its deficiency is more common in people who adhere to a plant-based diet) - this mineral works as a strong antioxidant and improves immunity .
Research confirms that regular consumption of small portions of brazil nuts (up to 50 grams) can reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, improve lipid metabolism and reduce oxidative stress (a condition in which our body slowly breaks down at the cellular level).
The lowest calorie nuts . In pistachios, there is a lot of fiber useful for the intestinal microflora and essential amino acids - the main building block of our body. Thanks to this composition, these nuts saturate quickly and for a long time and therefore are an ideal snack.
The main thing is to choose unsalted pistachios, otherwise there is a risk of getting carried away and greatly exceeding the daily intake of sodium (and this is fraught not only with edema, but also with health problems).
The main beneficial properties of these exotic nuts are associated with improving the functioning of the cardiovascular system, strengthening blood vessels and lowering cholesterol levels , .