How much sun does a redbud tree need
Best Redbud Tree Guide - How to Plant and Grow Redbud Trees
If you spot lavender-pink flowers clustered on bare tree branches in early spring, you've probably stumbled upon a lovely redbud tree! This flowering tree (just like the mighty magnolia tree), native to woodland areas, has exquisite sweet pea-like flowers that last for weeks before their pretty heart-shaped leaves appear. Pollinators love redbuds because they’re one of the first trees to bloom in early- to mid-spring. They even display bright colors come fall! Best of all, they’re tough little trees that will work in any garden and look beautiful as part of your landscaping ideas. Plus, they always bring a smile to Ree Drummond's face. She absolutely loves them! "If you love purple, the short time when Oklahoma Redbuds are blooming is like being in a dream," she says. If you were hoping to learn how to plant redbuds in your yard, there's good news ahead for you.
"Redbuds are very adaptable," says Nancy Buley, communications director for J. Frank Schmidt & Son, Company, wholesale tree growers in Oregon. “They grow from Massachusetts to Florida and Texas to Minnesota, with more cold-hardy cultivars—or cultivated varieties—having developed in recent years.”
But before you plant one of these gorgeous trees in your own garden, there are a few things you need to know about how to care for a redbud tree! Read on for a total redbud tree guide ahead, including information about redbud varieties, planting tips, maintenance, and more.
What types of redbud trees are there?
There are many different varieties of redbud trees, so make sure you choose one that's suited for winters in your USDA hardiness zone. You can buy online or at a local nursery, where you’ll find both single trunk and multi-stem varieties, the latter of which have a shrubbier appearance.
Here are a few outstanding types of redbud trees you might want to check out:
- Appalachian Red Redbud Trees: Show off bright rosy-red flowers.
- Oklahoma Redbud Trees: Have pink flowers and then glossy green leaves.
- Merlot Redbud Trees: Boast pink flowers that turn into wine-red foliage later.
- Flame Thrower Redbud Trees: Have pink flowers and red foliage that fades to yellow and green.
- Lavender Twist Redbud Trees: A weeping variety with pink flowers.
How do I plant redbud trees?
Find a spot for your redbud tree that gets six or more hours per day of full sun exposure. Most varieties will grow about 20 feet tall by 25 feet wide, so make sure your tree will have plenty of room to spread its branches out. Watch out for low rooflines or wires before planting too. Redbud trees are considered moderate growers and can reach about 10 feet in five to six years.
When planting, dig a hole about two- to three-times as wide as the container it came in.
Stainless Steel Shovel
Stainless Steel Shovel
$70 at AmazonCredit: Amazon
Don’t add anything such as peat moss or potting soil to the hole. This old-school planting practice is no longer recommended because studies have shown that it may cause drainage problems and encourage the roots to stay in the hole instead of spreading out into the surrounding soil. Ultimately, your plant has to grow in its native soil so it can be nice and strong.
Next, gently tip the tree out of its container—or remove burlap, twine, or wires if it’s a balled and burlapped tree (burlap won’t biodegrade quickly so you have to remove it). Use your hand to rough up the surface of the root ball or use a pruner to snip any tree roots that are circling around it. This part necessary as it stimulates the roots to grow, says Buley.
Finally, you'll want to place your tree in the hole at the same height it was in the container. “The biggest mistake is planting too deep,” says Buley. “Make sure the tree’s root flare, where the base widens slightly, is above ground.” Refill the hole with soil, gently tamp down, and water it well.
How do I care for redbud trees?
Help your tree get established by watering it deeply for the first few years, especially during droughts. Most new trees need about 15 gallons a week! “It’s better to water deeply and infrequently than give it a daily squirt because that encourages roots to stay near the surface,” says Buley.
It’s also a good idea to add a two- to three-inch deep layer of mulch around the base to retain moisture and keep down weeds. However, you'll need to pull the mulch away from the tree trunk and spread it so it looks more like a donut, rather than a volcano. “Volcano mulching,” or mulch placed right up against the trunk, encourages decay and could invite pests and disease.
You'll be pleased to hear that pruning isn’t necessary for a redbud tree because it keeps its shapely form naturally. That being said, it’s fine to trim off any broken or crossing branches. Otherwise, all you have to do is enjoy this beautiful springtime bloomer!
Shop Different Types of Redbud Trees to Plant in Your Garden
$180 at fast-growing-trees.comCredit: Fast Growing Trees
Merlot Redbud Tree
$160 at thetreecenter.comCredit: The Tree Center
$80 at springhillnursery.comCredit: Spring Hill Nursery
Forest Pansy Redbud
$80 at naturehills.comCredit: Nature Hills
Arricca SanSone writes for CountryLiving.com, WomansDay.com, Family Circle, MarthaStewart.com, Cooking Light, Parents.com, and many others. She’s passionate about gardening, baking, reading, Polish pottery, vintage cookbooks, and spending time with the people and dogs she loves.
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How to Plant a Redbud Tree| Redbud Tree Care| Perfect Plants – Perfect Plants Nursery
A redbud tree, with its vibrant, magenta-colored blossoms that appear on the dark stems before the foliage in early spring, creates a relaxing sanctuary right in your front yard. You could spend hours lying under the tree reading a good book or simply gazing at the web of colored flowers spreading out over you. Here’s a guide on how to plant a redbud tree and care for it while it grows into a beautiful mature tree.
Are you thinking about getting one of these for your garden? The best part is, they’re super easy to plant and equally simple to take care of; they’re even drought tolerant. We’ve already nurtured a young plant for you, 4-5 feet tall, so your work is minimal. Instead of raising a vulnerable small tree, you have a young plant that can instantly transplant into your garden and brighten your spring landscape.
The best time to plant your young tree is in early spring or fall. When planting in the Spring you will want to wait until after the last frost to ensure the best possible chance for survival. If you plan to plant your tree in the fall, make sure to plant six weeks before the first frost so that the tree roots can get established.
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Where Is the Best Place To Plant a Redbud Tree?
Native to North America, the Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis)is cold hardy to zones 4 to 9. It will easily survive most climates, as long as it’s planted in well-drained soil, and gets a little bit of sunlight every day. Choose a location with full sun or partial shade. The ideal exposure for your redbud is 4 to 8 hours of sunlight every day, with some protection from the bright afternoon sun.
Keep a minimum of 6 to 8 feet distance between any structures and the planting site, and a minimum of 3 feet from fences.
Planting Redbud Trees
Beautiful Redbud Pink Flowers Clear the area of any weeds, debris, or grass. Incorporate a 4-inch layer of compost and mix it into the soil to a depth of 1 foot before putting your tree in the hole.
Breaking the soil to this depth loosens it and makes it easier for your redbud tree to develop stronger root zones. Check the pH of the soil. While the redbud will do well in most pH levels, it prefers slightly alkaline soil. If your soil isn’t already alkaline, you can amend it with agricultural lime to raise the pH to 7.5.
How to Plant a Redbud Tree
Once you’ve prepared the site, dig a hole thrice the width of the redbud’s root ball. Carefully remove the tree from its original container and place it in the hole. Position it straight and backfill with soil.
Water the plant well right after planting it, you may even consider adding a drip line to make watering easier. Spread a 4-inch layer of mulch around the tree, but make sure it doesn’t contact the trunk to prevent rot.
Redbud Tree Care
State Tree of Oklahoma As far as the ongoing care is concerned, your flowering tree won’t bother you at all. Whether you have an Eastern Redbud tree or Forest Pansy Redbud, both are exceptionally easy to maintain. Also check out our Weeping
Red Tree 'Ruby Falls'.
Maintain a moist soil, but make sure you don’t overwater. The redbud doesn’t like sitting in waterlogged soil. Ideally, check to see if the top 2 to 3 inches of the soil are dry before you water it.
Prune the redbud tree in the fall, once the blooming ends. Remove any dead, diseased branches, and also the ones that run across one another. If you remove any diseased branches, sterilize the pruning tools before resuming. Also, be sure to clean up the heart-shaped leaves that have fallen and discard them properly.
Apply a slow-release fertilizer each year, in early spring to maintain its health and ensure plenty of blooms. It will also help prevent your tree from diseases and other problems.
If you’re looking for a blast of rosy pink in your garden at springtime each year without the hassle of complicated maintenance, a redbud tree covers it. It’s not just the beautiful display of pink in early spring that the tree is popular for. The changing colors of the heart-shaped foliage with the seasons – blue-green in spring, dark green and purple foliage in summers, and yellow in winters – will leave you mesmerized throughout the year.
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species, description and photo, material properties
Mahogany was first brought to the European continent by English sailors from Africa many centuries ago. Later it came to America. In those distant times, mahogany species were called the word "swallowtail" or "mahogony". It got its name primarily because of its color - red-brown tones of varying intensity. In the 17-18 centuries, furniture from this breed was very popular with the nobility of those years. English aristocrats highly valued mahogany and furnished their houses with furniture from it.
After the introduction of the new Neo-Empire style in the 18th century, mahogany only grew in popularity. Currently, mahogany is also considered the lot of only the rich, it is used for the production of furniture, interior decoration, although there is a big risk of acquiring a fake one. This article will describe what mahogany is, how it is grown, made and how it differs from other species, as well as why it is so expensive. A couple of useful videos on the topic have been added, as well as interesting material for downloading.
- What is “Red Tree”
- Red tree history in Russia
- Types of red tree
- Properties of merbau wood: it does not sink in water, it is impossible to destroy it
- Yew wood
- Application: from ancient times to the present day
What is "mahogany"
This name means mainly ornamental, and partly timber timber of a large tree from the genus Swietenia L. , belonging to the meliaceae family. The only species that belongs here, S. Mahagoni L., is precisely what gives everyone the well-known furniture K. tree. It is a significant tree with feathery leaves. Small flowers are bisexual, their stamens grow together into a tube; box fruit. Grows in Central America and Westindia. Heavy wood of its red-brown color. Another tree that grows in Senegambia and belongs to the same family is Khaya senegalensis, close to the owlet.
What is mahogany?
Mahogany is a generalized name for a range of exotic tree species that have a similar structure, general quality characteristics and, of course, a noble, red-brown wood color.
These breeds traditionally include South American makare and kaoba, African sapele, mower, iroko, kaya and sipo, as well as a representative of Southeast Asia - meranti. The most famous, "genuine mahogany" is called mahogany and grows in the tropical rainforests of Central America.
Inferior grades - “plain” wood (Madeira Mahagoni), without a pattern on a longitudinal section, and “striped”, obtained from the same wood when sawing parallel to the core rays, are the wood of Cedrela odorata L. , C. guianensis Aubl. and C. Toana Roxb. sw. (Khaya) senegalensis Desn. - the best variety (specific gravity-0.91) and partly Soymida from Africa.Cut mahogany.
The history of mahogany in Russia
Russia, making furniture from this wood, tried to preserve the natural pattern inherent in mahogany - unique "tongues of flame". Also, furniture of this kind was simple, without frills, even the backs were not covered with fabrics, and metal inserts were not used in the decoration of secretaries and cabinets. In England, there was a different approach to furniture from this breed - it was decorated in every possible way with carvings and inlays.
Unfortunately, today it is rare to find a piece of wood made entirely of solid mahogany. Even when purchasing expensive mahogany furniture, there is a chance to actually buy furniture made from a completely different breed, but painted like mahogany. Cheap mahogany furniture can generally be covered with imitation - varnished paper of the appropriate color.Mahogany sequoia.
Mahogany furniture is very valuable and beautiful, it is a real shortage. Most often they come to us in the interior by inheritance. In this case, the item must be restored by giving it to the master. True, restoring mahogany furniture is not an easy task, especially if the “tongues of flame” pattern is visible on it, in most cases, traces of restoration can be seen.
Color and wood drawings
strength and processing capabilities
The value of the wood of wood
Almost all types of red. trees are well suited for carpentry, but the most popular are yew, mahogany and amaranth. Mahogany wood is used for the production of office partitions, wall panels, and other interior items. Mahogany wood has a unique pattern - dark core rays that stand out clearly on the sawn surface. In addition, it is also very durable and perfectly tolerates high humidity - this quality allows the use of mahogany in shipbuilding.Types of mahogany.
The first mention of mahogany dates back to 1595 and is found in the logbook of one of the British ships, during the repair work on which this wonderful wood was used. By the beginning of the 21st century, mahogany is confidently leading the list of valuable varieties, and this is due not only to its high aesthetic and operational properties, but also to a sharp decrease in the size of supplies that do not fully satisfy the demand for a unique breed.
Mahogany is a tropical deciduous tree of impressive size. Its height can exceed the fifty-meter mark, the thickness of the trunk reaches two meters. Wood of this variety is usually used as a standard for the qualitative assessment of other species. In fact, for individual trees, some of its indicators can differ quite strongly. This fact is used without hesitation by unscrupulous timber merchants, passing off the so-called “false mahogany” species (eucalyptus, black alder and many others) as valuable mahogany.Mahogany tree trunk.
A fresh cut of mahogany usually has a yellowish color that changes to a deep red over time. Mahogany wood is represented by many shades, among which there are brownish red and dark crimson, grayish red and copper red, pale pink and purplish brown.
Dark heartwood with distinct growth rings bordered by narrow whitish sapwood. Barely noticeable core rays are arranged in tiers, forming an original pattern of horizontal, wavy lines on the sawn surface of the board. Such a woody pattern can serve as one of the criteria for determining the authenticity of mahogany wood.
Interesting to read: Why boxwood was called a stone tree.
Wood of different varieties of mahogany differs not only in a variety of shades, but also in the pattern of fibers, which, by the way, along with other factors, affects its value. So, for example, mahogany has a straight-grained wood, while representatives of the African branch usually have a graininess, giving a richer texture.
Smooth and patterned, striped and knotted, marked and fiery rock patterns are known. The density of wood ranges from extremely low (like soft tulip wood) to high - exceeding the density of oak. Natives of Africa (sipo, sapele, mowing) have a heavy and dense wood, which, however, is less biologically stable and more difficult to process than mahogany wood.Mahogany trees.
Mahogany has the highest durability, is resistant to weathering, temperature fluctuations and high humidity. Products made from this wood do not change their shape and size over time. Mahogany lends itself easily to all types of carpentry and turning, sanding, polishing, and gluing.
One of the disadvantages of mahogany is its ability to "print" when in contact with lighter wood surfaces (dyes contained in the wood can transfer to them at the points of contact).
Related material: everything about balsam fir wood.
Its noble hue adds elegance to even the simplest pieces. Latin American mahogany and Asian meranti have found the greatest use in the furniture industry.
Mahogany's striking texture and soft, warm color are perfect for exclusive interiors in homes and luxury yacht cabins. In addition, durable wood is used to make musical instruments (pianos and grand pianos), and is actively used in shipbuilding.
The high demand for mahogany wood and the intensive logging associated with it has threatened the continued existence of the main mahogany species. Fortunately, the artificial renewal of plantations has helped to introduce its most valuable varieties in India and Sri Lanka, in Brazil and on the islands of Oceania.
Berry yew was often used to decorate the park area. Under favorable conditions, the plant is able to grow for a very long time - up to 4000 years, perfectly tolerates cutting and transplanting at any age. Yews - a plant that is less demanding on climatic conditions, is often found in Western Europe, the Caucasus and Asia Minor.
The peculiarity of the wood of this plant is its high bactericidal properties and high strength. Its use by man was quite extensive, because of which the plant was almost completely exterminated. Currently, in natural conditions, yews are quite rare and are among the rarest plants on the planet.Tiss.
Mahogany" is used for a group of different types of trees that are distinguished by their special color and wood properties. They grow in the tropical latitudes of America, India, Africa and southeast Asia. The following types of mahogany are especially popular:
Each of them has its own characteristics and advantages.Table of density of wood of various species.
This type of mahogany is found in the Central American jungle. It is also known as American or Honduran redwood. Its appearance is amazing: the plant reaches 60 m in height, the diameter of the trunk is approximately 2 m. Red-brown wood of different shades and density is stored under a thin layer of bark.
Some specimens are quite hard, like red oak. Others have an average density and are equated to an ordinary chestnut. In the world market, mahogany, supplied from the territory of Fiji, is especially valued. There, the tree is considered a national treasure.
Good to know: why a carpenter cannot do without a chisel.
The genus Switenia is a genus of evergreens, in which, according to various sources, there are from 5 to 8 species that live in the New World (America, Antilles). Of these, three very close species, known in Europe since the middle of the 17th century as mahogany, provide the most valuable wood. They are united by the common name of mahogany.
The first species of mahogany (Switenia mahagoni), mahogany, mahogany or mogno, which has the best properties of wood, was investigated and became known. This is a large tree: height - up to 30, and sometimes up to 45 m, trunk diameter - up to 2 m in the butt.
Leaves are small, pair-pinnate and oblong-pointed, with opposite leaflets. The flowers are small, axillary, collected in panicles. The fruit is a box. Grows profusely in tropical rainforests, in lowlands and on low hills on moist fertile soils, sometimes climbs mountains up to a height of 1200 m. Distributed in the West Indies (Antilles).Mahogany mahogany.
From the beginning to the middle of the 20th century, mahogany stocks on the islands of the Caribbean were practically destroyed. In the 60s and 70s, forest plantations were laid on a number of islands, including Cuba (about 300 thousand hectares), the species was introduced by the British on about. Sri Lanka and India. Svitenia large-leaved (Switenia macrophylla) or caoba, slightly inferior in quality to the first type of wood, but much more widespread (Mexico, Ecuador, eastern Peru, central Bolivia, western Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela).
The species was introduced by the same British in the Fiji Islands, where at present more than half of the area is ready for industrial development. A lesser known species is Switenia humilis. It grows in the west and south of Mexico, in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
Material on the topic: Why wood needs fire protection.
Technical maturity of mahogany occurs at the age of 40-50 years. Svitenia (mahogany) Yadrova, scattered vascular rock with narrow white sapwood. The core is brown or brown-red, with a color of varying intensity. On a fresh cut of a growing tree, the wood has a flesh-pink color, which gradually darkens in the air.Mahogany item.
On the cross section, the light boundaries of the annual layers are visible. The core rays are narrow, underdeveloped, arranged in horizontal rows or tiers on a tangential section. Vessels are quite large, collected two or three in small radial groups. The wood is mostly straight grained. Kayi wood is similar in structure to mahogany wood, but graininess is often observed. The nucleus is pale pink to dark red-brown in color.
Sapels, sipo and kosipo have a denser and heavier wood. Light sapwood up to 10 cm wide sharply separates from the core, often different in color from mahogany, but there is also a dark reddish or purple-brown color. Vessels are smaller than in mahogany. The fibers are svitlovatisha and form a uniform striped pattern on a radial section.
Two genera of the meliaceae family grow in Africa. One of them is Kaya (Khaya) - a genus of evergreen trees growing in the tropical forests of Africa, on the Cape Verde Islands and on the island of Madagascar. The most common species - Khaya ivorensis (African Kaya, African mahogany, Kaya mahogany, Neallon, African kaoba) grows in the coastal belt of closed or tall moderately humid forests at the foot of the slopes, rising no higher than 800 m above sea level. A more limited range has the species Khaya anthotheka.
It is found mainly in the interior of the continent, in gallery forests and savannas. It is known under the names kazhu white (according to the color of the bark), Kaya twisted-colored, stole, muniama. These are large trees: from 15 to 50 m high and from 60 to 130 cm in diameter. There is another African genus in the meliaceae family - Entadrophragma. Three of its species are also classified as African mahogany: sapele (Entadrophragma cylinaricum, sipo (Entadrophragma utile) and kosipo (Entadrophragma condellei.
These species are widespread from Sierra Leone in the north to Angola and from the west coast of Zaire to Uganda. So the same as Kaya, these are large trees with a straight cylindrical trunk up to 45 m high and up to 2 m in diameter.
Amaranth is a plant that grows in Central and South America. The wood has a uniform texture and a beautiful even pattern. Amaranths are very sensitive to sunlight, which can cause the color of their wood to change and darken. Their most frequent use is the manufacture of furniture, inlays and carvings. Amaranth wood lends itself well to processing, so that even when stained and varnished, it retains its natural shade.Amaranth wood.
Another "red giant" - Amaranth - will grow in South America. The tree reaches a height of approximately 25 m, with a maximum trunk diameter of 80 cm. If you carefully examine the cut of the tree, you can see the original drawing. It is obtained due to the chaotic interweaving of plant fibers. Interestingly, the fresh saw cut is colored gray-brown, which can change during the oxidation process. These can be the following colors:
Amaranth wood is valued for its ease of processing, wear resistance and the ability to restore color after removing the top layer.
Interesting to read: where MDF panels are used.
The tree grows in the forests of Southeast Asia. Its height reaches 60 meters. The thickness of the trunk of an adult plant is almost 2 meters. Saw cut Keruinga can be of the following shades:
- light beige;
- dark brown.
At the same time, crimson or red inclusions are visible on it. Products made from this type of wood are particularly resistant to various chemicals and moisture. The main reason is the presence of rubber resins. This fact can be taken into account when buying keruing products.Keruing tree trunk.
Density: 750 – 850 kg/m3. Brinell hardness - 4.5. The structure of the fibers is usually straight, but may be slightly tangled. Keruing wood is dense and 30% harder than oak. Due to the large amount of resins in wood, keruing perfectly tolerates a variety of natural phenomena, high humidity and more. Due to its high density and hardness, this wood almost does not rot and is not damaged by pests. Keruing wood has a high modulus of elasticity. That is why wood is actively used not only for the construction of terraces, piers and facades of buildings, but also in the manufacture of furniture, shipbuilding, etc.
Keruing is characterized by a pronounced texture and, as a rule, a direct distribution of wood fibers (this explains its high density). It is highly recommended to treat the wood with special products to avoid unnecessary release of resins. The structure of wood in keruing stands out with a rich mahogany color. The wood itself has a rich color palette, from beige to maroon and red, sometimes with purple tongues. Very often found in dark brown. The sapwood is greyish brown and distinct. The texture is pronounced. The darker the wood, the stronger it is.Harvested wood keruing.
The content of rubber resins in wood adds moisture resistance and acid resistance, although they create some difficulties in processing. Keruing is high-quality wood, optimal in terms of price and high technical performance. Keruing, due to its high qualities, has a fairly wide range of applications. Its wood is used in the production of:
- various products;
This mahogany grows in the African continent and southeast Asia. Its wood has a uniform golden color and is characterized by the following properties:
- high strength;
- resistance to changing external factors;
- ability to withstand strong mechanical loads;
The material is used for the manufacture of various types of furniture, in the construction of buildings and ships.Teak deck.
Unique merbau tree
Merbau terrace board is known throughout the world for its amazing properties, and the merbau tree is considered unique in the plant world. Its wood is very dense and hard, does not react to moisture. The tree grows in countries with a warm and humid climate - on the island of New Guinea, in Southeast Asia. Beautiful natural shades - golden burgundy, chocolate, bright brown and fawn make it possible to create true masterpieces when carrying out finishing work.Merbau wood terrace board.
The ancient inhabitants of the island of Feji believed that merbau had a sacred origin, various magical properties were attributed to it. Modern inhabitants of the island and now a man of unusually strong will is compared with this tree. The saw cut merbau has an even and rich range of shades:
- light beige;
- dark brown;
Against this background, golden veins stand out brightly, which looks really beautiful. The material is resistant to insects, various fungi and changes in humidity.Merbau tree.
Properties of merbau wood: it does not sink in water, it is impossible to destroy
Many people consider merbau to be the most durable tree in the world, which is not susceptible to any destruction. Wood properties such as:
- The unique beauty of the texture (the special pattern of the fibers and amazing shades - from burgundy to milk chocolate open up wide application possibilities).
- High density.
- Strength (higher than other breeds).
- Hardness - far superior to solid oak. Resistance to various mechanical influences.
- Resistant to moisture and pests, rot. Merbau has proven itself in the design of swimming pools, decks, mooring facilities, beach areas.
- The ideal surface of a merbau decking board, which is a flawlessly even surface, without any flaws.
- Longevity (grade 1-2, longer than other breeds that grow in South Asia). Over the years, it only becomes stronger, the service life of wood products is not limited.
These properties are due to the density of red wood.Table of density of wood of various species.
Yew is a small tree; yew berry reaches a height of 30 m, and pointed - 15 (20) m and up to 1 m in diameter. But such dimensions are observed in the oldest trees growing in the most favorable conditions. In practice, there are yews 10-12 in height, and sometimes in the form of bushes. The crown is often sharp, low lowered, very dense. The trunk is irregular in shape, sometimes ribbed. The bark is thin, reddish-brown, on old trees it peels off in long thin ribbons. The needles are single, relatively wide, dark green above, shiny, located on the shoots in two rows, very thick, soft.
Seed ovoid, about 8 mm across, with a hard dark brown shell, almost entirely enclosed in a bright red or pink seed. This is not a berry, but a modified cone, like other conifers. Here I would like to suggest to those who like to take various twigs, blades of grass and needles into their mouths: do not do this with a yew - its needles are poisonous! But pink, sweetish seedlings are edible, they do not contain poison.Yew wood.
Yew is the most shade-tolerant breed; at a young age, yew can grow in the strongest shading. In green building it grows even in full light, but in trees suddenly exposed to light (after the removal of neighboring trees in the forest), coppice shoots form on trunks from dormant buds. The best grows on drained fertile soils. Frost and wind resistant. There is a lot of data in the literature about the very slow growth of yew and its long lifespan (up to 3000 years).
It is difficult to check, because old trees usually have a large hollow inside. The age of trees 50 cm in diameter on the stump, calculated by us, did not exceed 300 years, and the height of 5-year-old plants was 80 cm. you can give it a crown with a haircut of any shape. All this makes yew indispensable in decorating various squares, boulevards, parks and squares. Especially a lot of yews are planted in the resorts and sanatoriums of the Black Sea coast. Yew is also used for landscaping in other places, but so far very rarely. It is much more beautiful than blue spruce.Young yew trees.
Use: from ancient times to the present day
In ancient times, canoes, temple supports and ritual gongs were made from merbau wood. Later, it became indispensable in the construction of bridges and dams; sleepers were made from it. Now exotic merbau wood is used to create various decorative surfaces - parquet, decking, decking, pool areas. Merbau decking is the most sought-after material for finishing elite-level venues. The decks of luxury yachts, open terraces of restaurants, areas for VIP areas are built from merbau wood.
But even in conventional buildings, the exceptional properties of merbau are always in demand. It is used for the manufacture of facades and terraces, it is used to create masterpieces of furniture, decorative joinery products.
Region of origin: The merbau tree grows in countries with a warm, humid climate - New Guinea, Malaysia, Indonesia, etc. Texture: circles. Used to create decorative elements Colour: Varies from bronze to maroon. Something like mahogany with gold flecks. Light tones darken on exposure to dark brown Processing: Very dense wood makes it difficult to process and damages the blades of cutting tools. On the other hand, it forms a perfectly even cut and is perfectly polished. This is, first of all, furniture of the highest category of value and quality, interior decoration of luxury yachts and palaces. Nowadays, for obvious reasons, most of the mahogany goes to sliced veneer for processing less "noble" woods. The export of mahogany has long been a significant part of the revenue side of the budget of Latin American countries.
Durability of wood
pleasant warm colors
does not dry out and not crack,
Sun and direct rays of the sun
The difficulty of delivery
Strong User during the processing of,
POODS OF THE RESTORITION9000 9000 9000 9000 Needs special care
However, intensive logging has significantly reduced these opportunities and almost led to the disappearance of the main mahogany species common in the Antilles, so the areas freed up as a result of logging were occupied by plantations of sugar cane, coffee and other "colonial" crops. Currently, most of the mahogany coming from Central America and the West Indies comes from artificially restored plantations. It is harvested mainly mahogany of the type of wreath growing on the continent. The largest supplier is Brazil.
Far-sighted British exported from their possessions not only trees, but also planting material. They successfully introduced the most valuable types of mahogany not only in India and Sri Lanka, but also on the islands of Oceania (architect Fiji), but the prices for mahogany have increased significantly and continue to creep up relentlessly. Demand for this fine material remains very high. The authors of the British Encyclopedia of Wood refer to the first description of the properties of mahogany in 1595, when the carpenters of the expedition of Sir Walter Raleigh tried to use it for the repair of ships. The Spaniards began to actively use mahogany wood for processing and repairing their ships from the beginning of the 17th century.Jamaican tree.
The mention of the first use of mahogany (Jamaican wood) as a finishing material dates back to 1661: it was again used by the British to equip Hampton Court Palace.
Samples of the first mahogany armchairs from this period are in the Trinity Hall Museum in Aberdeen. There is an opinion that the beginning of the popularity of mahogany as a material for furniture and interior decoration was laid in 1704, after most of the walnut forests died due to severe frosts in Europe.
Intensive harvesting of mahogany began in 1721, when the English Parliament abolished high duties on the export of valuable timber from the colonies, which limited the consumption of mahogany in favor of the royal navy. However, information about the first use of mahogany in the United Kingdom cannot be considered final, because for quite a long time it was called either “Jamaican”, then “Bermuda”, or even “cedar”.
Mahogany first came to Russia during the era of transformations of Peter the Great, gradually gained popularity during the reign of Catherine II and reached its peak in the middle of the 19th century. In the distant past, experienced craftsmen determined wood by eye and touch by color, texture and density, rarely erroneously because a small number of domestic and foreign tree species were used.Mahogany furniture.
But when wood of numerous tropical species from Asia, America and Africa began to be imported to Europe, and methods of skillful imitation of mahogany appeared, errors in the definition became inevitable, especially in color, often similar in wood of different genera and families, they differ greatly in physical -mechanical and, consequently, structural properties. A vivid example of this is the history of the use of mahogany wood (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq) and its many substitutes, close to it in color and often opposite in properties.
How to distinguish mahogany from a fake?
To qualify as mahogany, a material must meet the following requirements:
Produced from a rare breed. As a rule, growing in hard-to-reach places located close to the equator.
Works well. Although this may require special tools and technologies.
Have a natural shade of red. From maroon to pink, but be sure that the color does not fade over time. Covering the product with varnish, the master does not try to paint the surface. He only tries to emphasize the play of colors created by nature itself.
Be sufficiently hard and strong. High-quality mahogany sometimes takes a very long time to dry. At the same time, the material significantly loses in volume and weight, but its cost increases.
What types of wood are considered red?
The concept of "mahogany" includes a variety of types of wood. They are not only obtained from different tree species growing on all continents, but they also differ greatly in key indicators:
But there is one thing in common - a high price and not just beautiful, but even an exquisite appearance.
Ostakhov Alexey Mikhailovich
Practical experience, higher construction education. I talk about repair and construction in an understandable language
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This reddish-brown wood with a soft warm sheen, plastic and durable, was exported by the Spaniards from the Caribbean islands to build ships, palaces and monasteries, and only at the beginning of the 18th century appeared in England , where the named "mahogany" (in Russia - "mahogany") has become a favorite decorative furniture material for Europeans. Now there are already several dozen tree species that make up the “false mahogany” group, which includes even black alder, eucalyptus, sterculia, birch, pterocarpus, canariums and many others.
For more information on red wood, see the Wood Species Key file. And also interesting materials are published in our VK group, which you can get acquainted with first. To do this, we invite readers to subscribe and join the group.
Sources of the article
In conclusion, I would like to express my gratitude to the sources from which the material for the preparation of the article will be obtained:
Mahogany | The Kint
Mahogany - a royal material
A symbol of luxury and wealth for the past four centuries. Rare mahogany wood is one of the best materials for the production of luxury fine furniture.
Equally highly valued by craftsmen and designers, as well as by clients all over the world. From it you can cut complex and large parts. It has a deep, rich color and a beautiful texture. Opens wide horizons for creativity - solid red wood is easy to process, glue and even bend (some types).
Mahogany is used to make musical instruments, pipes, boxes and expensive accessories. Wall panels and wardrobes from it adorn the royal bedrooms. And tables are considered the most expensive and beautiful products. The tabletop is in front of the eyes, the eyes of the guests are riveted to it.
The main secret is how to distinguish a valuable breed from a fake
The concept of "mahogany" includes a variety of types of wood. They are not only obtained from various types of trees growing on all continents, but also differ greatly in key indicators:
But there is one thing in common - high price and not just beautiful, but even sophisticated appearance.
To be eligible for the designation "mahogany" a material must meet the following requirements:
- Produced from a rare breed. As a rule, growing in hard-to-reach places located close to the equator.
- Works well. Although this may require special tools and technologies.
- Have a natural shade of red. From maroon to pink, but be sure that the color does not fade over time. Covering the product with varnish, the master does not try to paint the surface. He only tries to emphasize the play of colors created by nature itself.
- Be sufficiently hard and strong. High-quality mahogany sometimes takes a very long time to dry. At the same time, the material significantly loses in volume and weight, but its cost increases.
Durable and beautiful wood is one of the first luxury items that appeared in our civilization. People very quickly realized how good this material is.
Mahogany - in vogue since 965 BC
The oldest mention of rare types of wood is found in the Third Book of Kings (one of the books of the Bible). It tells how the Queen of Sheba, having learned about the wisdom of Solomon, decided to test him with her riddles. She did not arrive in Jerusalem empty-handed. The ship delivered a lot of gold, precious stones, incense and mahogany.
Timber was brought from Ophir. Scientists are still arguing about where this country was located. Most likely, we are talking about India. And mahogany is one of the varieties of sandalwood. Although, it is possible that rosewood was delivered to Solomon from Latin America.
The Israeli king Solomon, considered the wisest of the rulers, started the mahogany decoration of the Temple, his own palace and the production of musical instruments. He made railings and harps. Almost three thousand years have passed, and we still use mahogany for harps, guitars, luxury furniture and home decoration.
From kings to emperors
Trade relations between Europe, Asia and Africa have long been complex and fragile. Therefore, trade was conducted mainly in small and expensive goods. It was hard for a caravan moving along the Silk Road to take a lot of timber.
Therefore, for a long time, the mahogany remained the property of only the supreme rulers. But not all, but only those who ruled the largest and richest countries. The people of India and China are more fortunate. There, not only rajahs and emperors, but also their nobles could afford a table made of a rare breed, or at least a box.
Birth of French Antiques
By the end of the Middle Ages in Europe, there was an acute shortage of quality wood. Slash-and-burn agriculture, construction of houses and ships, constant wars have done their job. The problem was solved by the great geographical discoveries.
In America, India and Southeast Asia, travelers, naturalists and entrepreneurs have found many new plant species suitable for furniture and home decoration.
This is how the offer appeared on the market.
King Philip II of Spain was the first to appreciate the beauty of mahogany. By his order, wood was widely used in the decorative decoration of the Escorial monastery. The monastery soon turned into one of the most beautiful palaces in Europe and a royal residence.
Louis XIV de Bourbon, the most majestic king of France, created a wide demand. The first European monarch who moved from the theory of absolute monarchy to practice. His nobles no longer needed to build well-fortified castles with thick walls and high towers. The king protected them from the encroachments of their neighbors. Therefore, the dukes and marquises turned to the construction of magnificent palaces. Beautiful buildings that needed to be furnished with the same exquisite furniture.
It was at this time that the mass production of luxury goods began. Now we buy them at auctions as the most expensive antiques. Please note - almost all antique furniture is made of mahogany.
During the reign of Queen Victoria, the British Empire reached the zenith of its power. She was no longer just the "mistress of the seas." The sun literally never set on the British Empire - the possessions were spread all over the world. This facilitated the conduct of trade, which means that prices also fell.
Throughout the 19th century, the assortment of rare wood dealers grew, while prices fell.
Tables, cabinets, chests of drawers and secretaries made of mahogany began to appear in the living rooms and bedrooms not only of nobles, but also of merchants, officials, and petty nobles.
By the end of the century, naturalists had found and described almost all kinds of plants, the wood of which we now call "mahogany". And entrepreneurs have arranged their delivery to Europe.
In our time, the cost of rare breeds has not decreased at all, and in some cases even increased. Most of the plants that are raw materials for the production of wood fell under the scope of environmental laws. Even in countries where logging is allowed (such as Indonesia), there are significant restrictions on exports.
But no matter what dams governments build in the way of valuable goods, the flow will always find cracks and crevices, break through and flow with renewed vigor. Now up to 80% of all mahogany is smuggled out of producing countries.
Then they go to the exchange or shop in Singapore. Boards are sold individually. The best samples, including slabs, go up for auction. And all this in order to decorate your home.
They belong not only to different species, but also to different genera. For example, red sandalwood and padauk belong to the genus Pterocarpus and the legume family. And the rose tree is already the genus Jacaranda and the Bignoniaceae family.
Yes, you heard right - these beautiful purple flowers, which your spouse loves so much, also grow in the tropics. Only there their dimensions are such that the trunk can be sawn into boards. And already from them to make a table on which you put a flower pot.
King Solomon knew a lot about luxury and beauty. The tree, locally known as Ronga Chandan or Rakta Chandan, is native to Eastern India. Height - up to 8 meters, trunk diameter - from 0. 5 to 1.5 meters. Clearly, wider boards and slabs are highly valued.
The first three years it grows very quickly, reaching a height of up to 5 meters. Then the growth rate drops. Young trees are ground into powder - Indians make medicines and cosmetics from it.
Interestingly, red sandalwood and ordinary sandalwood are completely different plants. They are only slightly similar to each other.
It grows mainly in Southeast Asia - Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia. It is also found in West Africa - in Zaire, Cameroon, Nigeria. Huge trees can reach a height of 40 meters or more. The sap of the tree contains latex, but in small amounts, so it is not used to make rubber.
African woods are bright red but darken over time to brown and in some places even black. When drying the board in direct sunlight, the darkening is uneven. A beautiful transition is formed, highly valued by designers and furniture makers.
African padauk is used to make backgammon boards and billiard cues. The best and most expensive slabs go into the production of tables. A copy of a large size and with a beautiful color transition can cost tens of thousands of dollars.
Although the padauk can be worked well, only experienced craftsmen can work with it. You need to know a lot of subtleties so as not to spoil an expensive board.
When they say "mahogany" they mean mahogany. And when they say "mahogany", they mean mahogany. It grows mainly in Central and South America. It was he who was taken to Europe by the followers of Christopher Columbus to make furniture for the court of King Louis.
From Swietenia mahagoni, the Spanish colonists made a cross for the church in Santa Domingo, one of the first built in the West Indies. Less religious conquistadors used the wood to repair their caravels and galleons.
This cross and other mahogany interior elements have been perfectly preserved from 1514 to the present day in perfect condition. The plant has become the national symbol of the Dominican Republic.
Nearly all English furniture produced in the early 18th century that has survived to this day is made of mahogany.
More than 150 plant species found in the warm latitudes of both hemispheres. Caesalpinia hedgehog (thorny), she is also the "fernambuco tree" gave the name to the whole country - Brazil. The Portuguese called it "Pau-Brazil", cut it down and exported it. Pedro Alvares Cabral of course wanted to name the new lands Terra da Vera Cruz (Land of the Holy Cross). But his associates got carried away with the export of wood, so now we use the name "Brazil".
By the way, thorns do not grow on branches or on the trunk of Caesalpinia, but on fruits. Of these, by the way, they used to make red dye for fabrics. So far, the chemical industry has not been able to create synthetic paints.
Caesalpinia wood is still highly valued. Especially among musicians. It makes excellent stringed instruments and conductor's sticks.
Fernambuco has a unique combination of qualities - it is firm yet light and elastic. An almost ideal material for the production of furniture, especially tables.
A typical story for rare woods - names given by entrepreneurs, smugglers, sailors, not naturalists. They are primarily interested in the consumer properties of the material, and not in botany. Rosewood is a prime example of this approach. Under this name came a number of plants growing in tropical latitudes.
No matter how hard the botanists tried to remedy the situation, they did not succeed. Under the name "Rosewood" Jacaranda, Dalbergia, and some other breeds can be sold. But you can be sure - the wood is delivered from the tropics, it is quite hard, has a beautiful color and intricate texture.
Translated from Portuguese - "fragrant". Belongs to the Bignoniev family, has beautiful flowers of all shades of blue. It grows not only in Latin America, but also in Africa, and even in Eurasia. But only in subtropical latitudes.
As a child, you probably read Alexander Volkov's fairy tales about the Magic Land and the Emerald City. So, the famous villain Oorfene Juice made his wooden soldiers from ordinary wood, and his generals from especially valuable wood. Yes, yes, his general Lan Pirot was created from Jacaranda.
Smugglers are not strong in botany, so they often call the Jacaranda "violet tree". Especially those parties that come from Africa.
Dalbergia - Rosewood
It is this breed that the British consider "real mahogany". They call it Rosewood. The French completely agree with them - they use the term Bois de rose. And, of course, the Portuguese are to blame for everything.
In the middle of the 19th century, at the height of the fashion for mahogany furniture, they began mass deliveries of Dahlbergia from Brazil. Thus, they seriously brought down prices in the market. Tables, caskets and musical instruments have become more accessible.
But this happy time did not last more than a few decades. Very quickly, the thickets of Dalbergia, located in coastal areas, not far from the ports, were completely cut down.
Today, rosewood is much more expensive and belongs to rare breeds. But the fashion for it has not passed. Therefore, cunning merchants cut Dalbergia into thin veneers and paste it over guitars and harps made from ordinary European maple. We don't do that - we supply only solid boards and slabs, from which we create excellent tabletops.
Dalbergia has two remarkable qualities - it tolerates high humidity (does not absorb water) and has no smell. Therefore, humidors are made from it - boxes designed to store cigars. In order for tobacco not to lose its wonderful qualities, it must be stored at a relative humidity of 68-72%. No other tree, except Dalbergia, will endure such conditions.
Nowadays, the centers of production have shifted from Latin America to Southeast Asia. Here are the main consumers - Japan and China. Therefore, Singapore became the center of trade in valuable breeds. And the places of cultivation are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines.
Some species are artificially planted, but most trees come from wild tropical forests. But, unlike Europe, here you will not find deep clearings. Valuable trees are rare. This is the difficulty of their extraction. Local lumberjacks go on boats deep into the jungle and try to find trees located as close to the water as possible.
Poor peasants are engaged in logging, for them it is the only source of income. The work is very hard and dangerous - the jungle is full of predators, snakes and poisonous insects.
Primary processing and drying
Entrepreneurs and small companies are involved here. They organized production and warehouses in the countryside, closer to the logging sites. There, the trunks are cleared of branches, cut into logs and sent to the dryer.
The technologies used are very different. From sophisticated modern vacuum dryers to conventional drying techniques under the hot rays of the tropical sun. It all depends on the specific type of plant and the effect that you want to get. Some varieties darken, others become lighter.
Only then is the wood cut into planks. Slabs are made from the largest and most beautiful logs - bark and sapwood are left to maximize the area of \u200b\u200bthe product.
The last step is sorting. Small boards, scraps and chips are shipped straight to China. There they will make boxes for tea, caskets and musical instruments. What is bigger, better and more expensive goes to Singapore.
At the stage of export from the country of origin, smugglers come into play. Each government sets quotas for the export of valuable breeds. And he imposes huge taxes, because he considers the material his national treasure.
Of course, entrepreneurs exceed these quotas. The demand in the market is very high, and the price is always high. Officials understand this well and want to get a share of each delivery for themselves. Therefore, smugglers compete not so much with the official customs service, but with corrupt officials.
Wholesale of rare mahogany wood
Anything over 1 meter long and priced at $50 is sold on exchanges in Singapore. Most of these places are designed as "family businesses", small furniture stores. But in reality, these are auctions where exporters and wholesalers trade with each other to get the best copies.
At this stage, the mahogany is "laundered". Now it is no longer logs that are sold and bought, but boards - a material for the production of furniture, musical instruments and other products. Through simple manipulations with documents, the wood gets a new history. Some boards appear to be sourced from Dalbergia grown in South America. How amazing!
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