How much water do almond trees need


How Much Water Do Almond Trees Need?

Almond trees require up to 4 inches (10 cm) of water every 2 weeks. These nuts are one of the most water-intensive crops to grow. It takes approximately 1900 gallons of water to grow a single pound of almonds. These high water requirements make almonds difficult to grow during water shortages. Even a slight dip in the water supply can kill off almond farms quickly. Almond growers should avoid growing these trees anywhere that is prone to water crisis or drought conditions.

Table of Contents

How Much Water Do Almond Trees Need Per Day?

During peak season, almond trees need 3-4 inches (8–10 cm) of water every 2 weeks. Almond trees require 2 inches (5 cm) of water every 2 weeks in the off-season. This is a pretty high rate of water consumption and it is very necessary. Almond trees die easily if they are not thoroughly watered as much as they need.

  • Almonds need 2 inches (5 cm) of water every 2 weeks in the off-season.  
  • 3-4 inches (8–10 cm) of water every 2 weeks is ideal in the peak growing season.
  • You can reduce watering to 1 inch (3 cm) of water every 2 weeks during winter.

In an environment with plenty of summer rain, you won’t have to do much watering. If you don’t have frequent summer rain, you will need to use a soaker hose to water. Use this soaker hose to provide your almond tree with plenty of water.

How Do You Water Almond Trees?

The best way to water an almond tree is to soak the soil using a soaker hose. While some almond growers use micro-irrigation systems, a soaker hose is more efficient. Simply turn the soaker hose on a low setting and water the soil within 12 inches (30 cm) of the tree. These trees need 4 inches of water at peak season. However, you can visually tell when you’ve watered enough once the soil is very wet but not waterlogged. 

  • Use a soaker hose or micro-irrigation to water your almonds.
  • Water for 1 hour with the soaker hose, or until the soil is wet but not flooded.
  • Let the ground dry out completely before watering again (this should take about 2 weeks).

After watering, wait 10–14 days before watering again. You can tell your almond tree is ready for more water once the soil is dry and looks like it may begin cracking soon.

Do Almond Trees Like Wet or Dry Soil?

Almonds hate overly wet soil. Overly wet soil leads to health issues like root rot and fungal disease that can harm your plant. What they love is infrequent soakings and then allowing the soil to thoroughly dry out before the next watering. 

  • Almond plants may develop disease if they are grown in consistently wet soil.
  • Your almond tree will thrive if the ground is soaked, then allowed to dry for 10–14 days.
  • Water your soil slowly but thoroughly so that you can control how wet the soil gets.

If you water to the point that your soil begins to look swampy then you are verging into overwatering territory. Almond growers recommend watering slowly but thoroughly so you can control how wet the soil becomes.

Can You Overwater an Almond Tree?

Almonds require such high amounts of water that it’s hard to overwater them. The first warning sign of overwatering is if the soil around your tree is constantly wet or swampy. Long periods of waterlogged soil will begin to negatively affect the health of your almond tree.

  • Your almond tree is overwatered if the soil is constantly wet and swampy.
  • Light-colored or yellowing leaves are a sign of an overwatered almond tree.
  • If leaves and stems easily break off, your almond tree is overwatered.

If your almond tree is overwatered, the foliage will be lighter in color or even begin to turn yellow prematurely. The foliage will also be fragile and easy to break off if it is overwatered. Keeping a close eye on the soil at the base of the tree and the leaves of your almond helps you avoid overwatering.

How Do You Know If an Almond Tree Needs Water?

You’ll know that your almond tree is ready to be watered once the soil is dry and verging on cracking. If you’ve waited too long, the soil may be actively cracking and the plant may begin wilting or browning. These are the common signs of underwatering. 

  • Dry, cracked soil at the base of your almond tree signifies it’s time to water.
  • If your almond tree shows signs of underwatering (browning leaves, wilting) water at once.
  • Almonds can die from underwatering very quickly and easily.

You’ll want to do everything in your power to avoid underwatering your almond tree as it is extremely dangerous to almond crops. Even a relatively short period of underwatering can kill your tree outright. Almonds are very unforgiving in this way. If you want to grow this nut, be prepared to monitor the tree closely to keep it healthy.

Do Almond Trees Require Lots of Water?

Almond trees require several inches of water every two weeks. The amount of water needed can be quite intensive and require a dedicated water source. When growing almonds, remember these tips:

  • It takes roughly 1900 gallons of water to grow a pound of almonds.
  • Almond trees need several inches of water once every 2 weeks.
  • Almond watering needs to increase in summer and decrease in winter.
  • At each watering, deeply water the soil by using a soaker hose for about 1 hour.
  • If the soil is muddy, swampy, or waterlogged, you have provided too much water at once.
  • Allow the soil to dry out between waterings—this usually takes 10–14 days.
  • It is difficult to overwater an almond tree, so provide more water when in doubt.
  • Almond trees can be quickly killed by drought.

Remember that the water consumption of almond trees is extremely high. You shouldn’t grow almonds anywhere with a limited water supply or where there is a danger of extreme drought. However, if there is no danger of drought, then you should absolutely grow this healthy food.

Almonds - UC Drought Management

 

Summary of University of California research on irrigation management for almond trees under drought conditions

For maximum growth, yield, crop quality and orchard longevity almonds trees should be supplied with water to meet their full water requirement. There are some disease concerns with hull rot under full water conditions which can be addressed with moderate water stress during hull split. (Teviotdale et al. 2001) If water availability is limited, growers can react by applying irrigation water when trees are most sensitive to stress and by taking measures to minimize water losses that occur during irrigation events. Supplying less water than the trees can potentially use reduces soil water availability, causes tree water deficits, and reduces transpiration. Cover crops, depending on the coverage and the time of the season in which they are grown can increase the orchard water use by up to 30% . Cover crops should be removed when water is in limited supply (Prichard et al. 1989).

Water deficits affect almond orchards not only in the year in which stress occurs, but also in the following seasons. Generally, nut size is reduced in the first season of significant water stress. Because water stress also reduces vegetative growth and potentially decreases productivity per unit canopy volume, nut load can be reduced in subsequent years (Lampinen et al. 2007). Recent research indicates some stages of almond fruit growth are more sensitive to water stress than others. Understanding these stages permits growers to withhold water while minimizing damage to trees and to current and subsequent crops.

Early season stress

Water stress affects more tree and crop development processes during the early season - from leaf out through shoot growth and development of terminal and lateral buds. During this period, rapid vegetative development is necessary for canopy development and fruiting positions for the following season. (Goldhamer et al. 2006) (Prichard et al. 1994) In addition, orchard water use during this time is low compared to summer demand, reducing potential water savings from an early-season deficit irrigation strategy.

Fruit growth and developement

Nuts undergo a rapid growth phase early in the fruit growth and development period and are sensitive to water deficits during this time. However, trees can tolerate drought stress fairly well during the two months prior to harvest, allowing for the successful use of deficit irrigation strategies during this period. (Shackel et al. 2004). Providing less than the full water requirement to cause moderate water stress during this period, will have little influence on kernel weight. However, severe water stress in the months leading up to hull split will reduce kernel weight and significantly reduce hull spliting. A one-inch irrigation prior to hull split will mitigate the water stress impacts and will improve hull split and reduce the number of hull-tights. (Prichard et al. 1994) If drip irrigation is used, possibly less irrigation can provide the same benefit, but this has not been proven in the field.

Post harvest stress

The effect of water deficits during the postharvest period are substantially affected by 1) pre harvest water deficits and 2) the quantity of water use over the remainder of the season. Bud differentiation can continue through mid-September. Moderate stress during this period will have little effect on subsequent year's nut numbers, but severe stress during bud differentiation has been found to dramatically reduce fruit set the following spring (Goldhamer et al. 2006). In early harvest (early August) districts, particularly with early varieties, more of the high water use season remains after harvest. This increases the necessity for postharvest irrigation. Later harvest (north State) districts and later varieties have a slightly shorter postharvest period which occurs at a time of lower crop water demand. These factors reduce the chance of moderate water deficits causing bud differentiation problems (Prichard et al. 1994).

Tree response to postharvest stress can be influenced by the type of irrigation system used, and the previous irrigation management. Low volume systems with limited soil water reserves can result in severe water deficits very quickly after irrigation cut off. In the southern San Joaquin Valley where harvest is earlier than in the north, or with drought-sensitive varieties, postharvest irrigation is a necessity. Deep rooted, surface irrigated trees may have enough pre-harvest deep moisture remaining to carry them through the critical period of bud differentiation. This all depends on the irrigation management occurring pre-harvest.

 

• Developing a Deficit Irrigation Strategy

Crop Water Use

Almond water use begins when the leaves develop and shoot growth begins. Concurrent with canopy development, the climatic demand increases, driven by longer days and higher temperatures and low humidities as the season progresses. Both of these factors result in a seasonal water use starting at a low level, peaking in mid-season and falling as season ends. Sources of water available to trees include: soil-stored moisture (including frost protection water applications if the root zone is less than field capacity when applications are made), any in-season rainfall absorbed by the soil, and applied irrigation water. These all combine to determine the total seasonal water available to the orchard.

Mature conventionally spaced almond trees in the Southern Sacramento Valley can use about 41- 44 inches of water in an average year of unrestricted water use. High-density orchards, long pruned orchards, or those with a cover crop can have even higher use. . Soil moisture monitoring demonstrations in more than 40 almond orchards in Kern County indicate that seasonal water use in the southern San Joaquin Valley may be as high as 50 - 54 inches (Sanden 2007). Figure 1 shows a typical water use pattern for fully irrigated and a deficit irrigation regime for almond in the Manteca area.

The moderately deficit irrigated orchard used (in a combination of soil supplied and irrigation water) 28 inches of water or about 34 % less than the full potential orchard.

Water Deficits

Water deficits occur when the climatic water demand exceeds the water absorbed by the roots. As the soil becomes depleted of readily available moisture, water uptake by the roots lags behind water use causing plant stress in the mid to late afternoon. This minor crop water deficit has little effect on the crop yield. However, as soil water becomes increasingly difficult to extract water stress increases. One way to measure "tree stress" is to use a portable pressure chamber to measure "midday stem water potential". To use this technique a few leaves from representative trees are first covered with an opaque plastic bag while still on the tree. The covers need to remain on the leaves at least 10 minutes after which they are detached and the the water potential measured using the pressure chamber (Fulton et al. 2001). The pressure chamber measures the amount of pressure needed to force water out of the leaf petiole, indicating trees water status. http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/General_Management/The_Pressure_Chamber,_aka_The_Bomb.htm

A Moderate Water Stress Strategy

From the previous discussion it can be concluded that tree water use from leaf out through mid June should not be compromised. From mid June through harvest, reductions up to 50% of full water use have been successfully used to reduce orchard water use with only minimal reductions in kernel weight. It is important to supply the trees with water near hull split to avoid hull-tights.

There are various approaches growers can take to manage limited water supplies depending on what types of irrigations scheduling tools interest or are available to them. A simple method is to reduce irrigation run time or lengthen irrigation intervals to obtain the desired percentage of irrigation reduction in applied water. In a four-year study investigating pre-harvest, post-harvest, and uniform deficit irrigation for the entire season, the best results were achieved when water applications occurred at a uniform deficit rate across the season relative to full potential crop ET. The uniform deficit rate does not mean a uniform irrigation amount across the season (e.g. 1.5 inches each week), but rather a uniform (e.g. 85%) reduction of full ET for each period. Deficit irrigation rates of 55%, 70%, and 85% were tested with the 70% and 85% irrigation reduction treatments showing little yield loss compared to the full ET treatment. (Goldhamer et al. 2006) The 70% and 85% uniform across the season deficit treatments experienced little early season stress, likely because stored soil moisture supplemented the applied irrigations.

Another approach that is likely an improvement over the approach outlined above is to schedule irrigations using periodic pressure chamber readings and irrigate when midday stem water potential reaches a pre-determined threshold stress level (see Figure below). This method effectively extends the irrigation interval, but the interval is determined by tree water status rather than the calendar. Irrigations should be in the volume of a normal set as performed with a full irrigation regime. In a deficit irrigation study conducted on mature almond in the Manteca, CA a just prior to irrigation threshold value of -20 to -22 bars midday stem water potential beginning in June resulted in 34% less tree water consumption and no significant influence on yield for the 4-year measurement period. (Prichard et al. 1994) It should be noted that a reduction in vegetative growth was measured in this treatment, indicating that use of this threshold for a longer-term strategy (more than 4 years) may reduce yields by reducing nut numbers. The impacts of stress on a developing tree canopy is much more detrimental as opposed to the impacts on a canopy that has already reached it's full volume.

A More Severe Water Stress Strategy

A more severe strategy that reduces seasonal tree water use by 50% requires that stress be imposed early as well as mid to late season. Using this strategy, irrigations in April and May are withheld until trees reach a midday stem water potential of -12 to -14 bars. Using conventional sprinklers, a normal set time is used. If lighter applications are made, more water is lost by evaporation. From June 1st through hull split, midday stem water potential values should be allowed to reach -20 to -22 bars just prior to irrigation. This strategy will require a pre-harvest irrigation of about 2 inches with sprinklers-less with micros and drip--to ensure good hull split. Note: this strategy reduces water use significantly but also reduces nut weight the year it is used and the nut number in succeeding years. In the Manteca trial discussed above, it took 2 years of full irrigation for trees to recover. (Prichard et al. 1996)

A "Staying Alive" Drought Strategy

Less is known about this strategy since it is a rarely used option. However, based on past drought conditions, trees may be kept alive with about a foot of applied water. This strategy does not consider growth and yield-just tree survival. This strategy is best conducted using a micro-irrigation system which maximizes water distribution and minimizes evaporative losses from irrigation. Using this strategy no irrigation is applied until water potential reaches -16 bars from leaf out through the end of May. Monitor stem water potential until the threshold is reached again then repeat the cycle. After June 1st, and for the rest of the season allow the stress to climb to -25 bars prior to irrigation. As a guide, try to just retain the leaves on the tree. Good luck, as this is only a guide. Remember that following this severe deficit strategy, it will take at least 2 years of full irrigation for the trees to recover to normal yields.

List of References

Fulton, A., Buchner, R., Giles, C., Olson, B., Walton, J., Schwankl, L., and K. Shackel. 2001. Rapid Equilibrium of Leaf and Stem Water Potential under Field Conditions in Almonds, Walnuts, and Prunes. HortTechnology 11: 502-673.

Fulton, Allan. 2007. UC Research on Deficit Irrigation of Almonds. Column written for Trade magazine publication.

Goldhamer DA, Viveros M, Salinias M. 2005. Regulated deficit irrigation in almonds: effects of variations in applied water and stress timing on yield and yield components. Irrig. Sci. 24(2):101-114.

Lampinen, Bruce, Ted DeJong, Steve Weinbaum, Sam Metcalf, Claudia Negron, Mario Viveros, Joe McIlvane, Nadav Ravid and Rob Baker. 2007. Spur Dynamics and Almond Productivity. 35th Annual Almond Industry Conference Proceedings, Dec. 5-6, 2007, Modesto, CA. Pp. 73-77.

Prichard, T.L., W.M. Sills, W.K. Asai, L.C. Hendricks, C.L. Elmore. 1989. Orchard Water Use and Soil Characteristics, California Agriculture, 43:4, 32 p. 23-25.

Prichard et al. 1994. Comprehensive Project Report, Project No. 93-H5 - Effects of Water Supply and Irrigation Strategies on Almonds. Report to CA Almond Board.

Prichard et al. 1996. Project No. 95-M7 - Residual Effects of Water Deficits and Irrigation Strategies on Almonds. Report to CA Almond Board

Sanden, B.  2007.  Fall irrigation management in a drought year for almonds, pistachios and citrus.  September Kern Soil and Water Newsletter, Univ. CA Coop. Ext., Kern County.  8 pp.

Shackel et al. 2004. Final Report (2004 and 2001 - 2004 summary): Deficit Irrigation Management During Hull-Split. Report to the CA Almond Board.

Teviotdale BL, Goldhamer DA, Viveros M. 2001. Effects of deficit irrigation on hull rot disease of almond trees caused by Monilinia fructicola and Rhizopusstolonifer. Plant Dis 85(4):399-403.

Contributors:

Allan Fulton
Dave Goldhamer
Bruce Lampinen
Terry Prichard
Blake Sanden
Larry Schwankl
Ken Shackel

planting and care, photo, cultivation, pruning, grafting, types and varieties

Author: Elena N. https://floristics.info/ru/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=19 Category: Fruit and berry plants reprinted: Last amendments:

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  • Landing and Care for Almond
  • Botanical Botanical Lesson Planting Lesson
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    Plant almond (Prunus dulcis) is a small tree or shrub of the subgenus Almond of the genus Plum of the Rosaceae family. The subgenus unites about 40 species of almonds, but ordinary almonds are more often grown in culture. Even though almonds are considered nuts, they are actually stone fruits. The almond tree comes from the Mediterranean and Central Asia - it appeared in these areas long before our era. Today, almonds, in addition to Central Asia and the Mediterranean, grow in California, China, the Western Tien Shan, the Crimea, the Caucasus, in the vineyards of Slovakia, the Czech Republic and South Moravia.

    The almond tree prefers gravelly and rocky slopes with calcium rich soil at an altitude of 800 to 1600 m above sea level, although in Israel it grows much lower. Almonds are located in nature in small groups of 3-4 trees or bushes at a distance of 5 to 7 meters from each other.

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    Planting and caring for almonds

    • Planting: at the beginning of March or the last days of September.
    • Flowering: in March or April, before the leaves appear.
    • Lighting: bright sunlight.
    • Soil: well-drained and breathable chernozems, loams, sandy soils with a high lime content and a pH of 7.7. Groundwater at the site should be deep.
    • Watering: regular: one bucket of water when the soil in the trunk circle dries to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Saplings are watered more often than mature trees. In case of difficulties with the delivery of water in a season with a normal amount of precipitation, two plentiful irrigations per season are sufficient: spring and autumn water recharge.
    • Top dressing: at the end of April or at the beginning of May, a solution of 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of water is added to the tree trunk. In autumn, for digging, 1 kg of manure and 20 g of double superphosphate and potassium sulfide are added to the trunk circle.
    • Pruning: in spring, before the start of sap flow, and in autumn, after leaf fall, sanitary pruning is carried out. Formative pruning is done after flowering.
    • Propagation: by budding, shoots, layers, sometimes seeds (stones).
    • Pests: spider mites, almond seed-eaters, plum codling moths, aphids, plum sapwood beetles and leafworms.
    • Diseases: cercosporosis, rust, moniliosis, gray rot (botrytis), scab, clasterosporiasis (perforated spotting).

    Read more about growing almonds below. suffered from drought. The shoots of this branchy plant are of two types: shortened generative and elongated vegetative. Almond leaves are lanceolate, with a pointed tip, petiolate.

    How do almonds bloom? Light pink or white almond flowers up to 2.5 cm in diameter consist of five petals. Almond blossom begins in March or April - before its leaves bloom. The fruit of the almond is a dry, velvety to the touch oval drupe with a leathery green pericarp, which, after drying, is easily separated from a stone 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, having the same shape as the fruit, but often dotted with grooves.

    Almond begins to bear fruit from four to five years, full fruiting occurs in the tenth or twelfth year, and the tree bears fruit from 30 to 50 years. With good care, an almond tree can grow 50 to 80 years in your garden, and some specimens can live up to 130 years.

    The common almond has two varieties - bitter almond grown in nature and sweet almond grown in cultivation. The almond is a plant that requires cross-pollination, and in order for it to begin to bear fruit, at least three more almond pollinating varieties must grow in close proximity to it, the flowering period of which must be the same. In addition to remarkably tasty fruits, the value of almonds is represented by its decorative qualities. Almonds are a wonderful honey plant, exuding a magical aroma during flowering. Since almonds are pollinated mainly by bees, they bear fruit best if there are 3-4 hives on the site or somewhere close to it.

    Almond is a relative of such fruit trees as apple, pear, plum, apricot, cherry plum, peach, chokeberry, mountain ash, wild rose, hawthorn, quince and other representatives of the rose family known in culture. From our article you will learn how almonds grow in the middle lane, how almonds are planted and cared for, what types of almonds exist, what varieties of almonds are more adapted to our climatic conditions, what are the benefits of almonds, and also for whom and what can lie harm almonds.

    Planting almonds

    When to plant

    Almonds can be grown from seed, and we will tell you about this in the section on plant propagation, but it is best to grow almonds from a one-year-old seedling. Seedlings are planted in the ground in early spring - early March - or in autumn, in the last days of November. Choose a sunny area for almond trees, although they grow well in partial shade, but the seedlings must be protected from drafts and strong winds.

    Best ground for almonds - water and breathable chernozems, sandy or loamy soils with a high lime content - optimum pH 7.7. Acidic, chloride or saline soils are unsuitable for growing almonds, as well as areas with high standing groundwater.

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    Fall planting

    Almond seedlings planted in autumn take root much better than those planted in spring. Two weeks before planting, pits are dug in the area allotted for almonds with a diameter of 50-70 cm and a depth of up to 60 cm at a distance of 3-4 m from each other in a row and 5.5-6.5 m between rows. A layer of crushed stone or broken brick with sand is laid in each pit for drainage and mixed with fertile soil consisting of sand, humus and leafy soil in a ratio of 1: 2: 3, 5-6 kg of rotted manure and a pound of superphosphate are added. If the soil is acidic, dolomite flour or lime should be added to it in an amount of 200-300 g. Two weeks later, when the soil in the pit settles, you can start planting almonds.

    How to plant almonds? Planting an almond tree is not much different from planting a plum or apricot tree. Dig a support into the center of the pit - a pole of such a height that it rises half a meter above the level of the site. Place a mound of earth in the center of the hole. Dip the roots of the seedling into a clay mash with the density of store-bought sour cream and place the tree on a mound so that the root collar is slightly above the surface level. Fill the hole with fertile soil, compact it and water the tree with 10-15 liters of water. When the water is absorbed, tie the seedling to a support and mulch the near-stem circle with a layer of peat or dry earth 3-5 cm thick so that the mulch does not come into contact with the root neck of the tree.

    How to plant in spring

    If for some reason you had to postpone planting almonds in the spring, you still need to dig holes for them in the fall. Lay a drainage layer of sand and gravel in them, pour a layer of fertile soil mixed with fertilizers and leave the pits until spring. At the beginning of March, before the juice begins to ferment in the trees, almonds are planted in the same order as they are done in autumn.

    Growing almonds in the garden

    Caring for almonds

    Almonds are planted and cared for in accordance with the agricultural practices of the crop. You will have to perform procedures such as watering, loosening and weeding the trunk circle, pruning and feeding the plant, as well as prevention against diseases and pests. And if you do everything right, then you have to harvest a good harvest.

    How to care for almonds? At the end of March, you need to make the first loosening of the trunk circle to a depth of 10-12 cm, and then during the growing season, carry out 3-4 more loosening to a depth of 8-10 cm. Keep the trunk circle clean, remove weeds in a timely manner.

    Harvest the almonds when the outer green shell darkens and begins to easily separate from the kernel. The collected fruits are peeled and laid out in one layer to dry, after which they are stored in cloth bags.

    Watering

    Despite the fact that almonds are drought-resistant, they grow and bear fruit better under conditions of timely and sufficient irrigation. Almonds growing in sandy soil need more frequent and abundant watering than those grown in clay and loamy soils. When you find that the soil under the almonds has dried out to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, pour a bucket of water into the near-stem circle. Waterlogging can lead to rotting of the root neck of the plant.

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    Seedlings need more frequent watering than mature trees: maintenance watering should be done once every 10-14 days.

    How to grow almonds without water? If you do not have the opportunity to irrigate almonds during the entire growing season, spend at least autumn and spring watering watering the plant.

    Top dressing

    Almonds in the garden are in need of nitrogen, so in late April or early May, 20 g of ammonium nitrate diluted in a bucket of water is added to the near-stem circle of each adult tree. Under the autumn digging of the site, 1 kg of manure, and 20 g of potassium sulfide and double superphosphate are added to the trunk circle of each tree. In the aisles of young plants for the first 5-7 years of life, it is desirable to grow green manure.

    Treatment

    The cultivation of almonds requires preventive treatments of trees against pests and diseases. In order to destroy pathogens and harmful insects that have overwintered in the soil of the near-trunk circle and cracks in the bark of a tree, in early spring, before the buds open, treat almond trees with a one percent solution of Bordeaux mixture. And at the end of the growing season, after the end of leaf fall, spend the autumn spraying of almonds with Bordeaux liquid or its analogues in order to destroy pests and pathogens that have settled down for the winter.

    Almonds in Siberia

    Despite the fact that almonds do not hibernate without shelter in the middle zone, there are frost-resistant plant species and varieties that are successfully cultivated not only in Vologda and St. Petersburg, but also in the forest-steppe and steppe parts of Siberia . Frost-resistant species include steppe almonds, or low, or Russian, or bean, or almond. This is a shrub up to 1.5 m high with brown or reddish-gray bark, lanceolate, leathery, shiny, serrated along the edges of dark green leaves up to 8 cm long and up to 3 cm wide. undemanding to the composition of the soil and easily propagated.

    There are two garden forms of steppe almond: white-flowered and Gessler - with bright pink flowers. In spring, flowering branches of steppe almonds amaze with their beauty. On the basis of the bean, breeders have bred such highly decorative varieties as Anyuta, Pink Flamingo, Mechta, White Sail, Pink Fog.

    The kernels of the fruits of the steppe almond are edible and tasty. Another advantage of this species is that it quickly recovers even in those cases when it freezes in a harsh snowless winter.

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    Almonds in Moscow and Moscow region

    In conditions of Moscow and Moscow region, besides the bean tree, the three-lobed almond grows well, which winters normally without shelter and quickly recovers in case of slight freezing. The most persistent in the conditions of winters near Moscow were the forms of the plant grafted onto the rootstock of the blackthorn. Nevertheless, it is desirable to protect even trees of cold-resistant varieties from frost - to cover their stems with lutrasil. And in order to prevent freezing of the shoots, it is necessary to remove the apical buds at the end of July or the beginning of August - this procedure stimulates the rapid lignification of the shoots, after which the almonds will not be afraid of frost.

    Pruning almonds

    When to prune

    Almonds need shaping and sanitary pruning, while mature trees require a rejuvenating treatment. Sanitary pruning is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, when the almonds enter a dormant period, and formative pruning is done after the flowering of almonds.

    How to cut

    Form the crown of almonds like plum, apricot, peach or nectarine - three tiers of skeletal branches are brought out. Immediately after planting the seedling, it is cut at a height of 120 cm, while the stem near the tree is formed with a height of 50-70 cm.

    Thinning pruning of fruit-bearing trees removes crown thickening and irregularly growing branches. When freezing flower buds, annual shoots are shortened.

    Spring pruning

    After winter, even before bud break, frozen annual growths of almonds are shortened, cutting them down to healthy tissue, broken, diseased or deformed branches and shoots are removed. After the end of flowering proceed to the formative pruning of the tree. On a seedling planted in autumn or spring, there are usually at least three branches located at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other - they are shortened to 15-20 cm, and on the central conductor for the next 2-3 years new tiers of skeletal branches are laid, which should be one from the other at a distance of 20-30 cm.

    Unnecessary shoots for the formation of the crown are pinched several times during the summer, and those that are needed are shortened no later than July, as soon as they reach 50-60 cm in length. In the second and third years of almond growth, unnecessary shoots are cut out, the rest are shortened. Upon completion of the formation of the crown, the central conductor is cut so that the last skeletal branch of the almond is 55-60 cm lower than the conductor. 3-4 eyes. Annual shoots that do not interfere with the proper development of branches do not need to be cut.

    Pruning in autumn

    In autumn, after leaf fall, sanitary pruning of trees and shrubs is carried out: dry, broken, diseased shoots and branches thickening the crown are cut. If you have to cut or cut down a thick branch, do not forget to treat the cut with garden pitch, and if for some reason you did not have time to cut the almonds before the start of winter, transfer the sanitary pruning to spring.

    Propagation of almonds

    Propagation methods

    Under natural conditions, almonds are propagated by seed, but in cultivation, reproduction by budding is preferred, since it takes too much time to grow a tree from a seed. Nevertheless, you should know how you can grow almonds from the stone, if only because in this way you can grow a stock for a varietal cutting. You will need bitter almond seeds to grow rootstocks, but if you can't get them, you can use sweet almond seeds. In addition to these two methods, if your almond grows not as a tree, but as a bush, they resort to propagating the plant by shoots and layering.

    Growing almonds from seeds

    Sow seeds in spring or before winter. If you decide to sow almonds in the spring, you need to stratify the seed material - place them in the vegetable box of the refrigerator for 3-4 months. Almond seeds are sown in furrows 8-10 cm deep at a distance of 10 cm from each other, keeping a distance of 45-60 cm between the furrows. The seeds will germinate next year, in April, and you will need to water them, weed and loosen the plot. In July, when the seedlings reach a height of 50-60 cm, the side branches on the trunks below 10-12 cm from the surface level should be cut with a pruner into a ring. During these periods, the thickness of the seedling stem in the region of the root neck approaches 1 cm, which means that the tree can already be used as a stock, but first it must be transplanted to a permanent place and allowed to take root.

    Grafting of almonds

    Almonds are also propagated by budding. As a stock, not only almond seedlings are used, but also plums, cherry plums and blackthorns. It is better to carry out the procedure in the midst of sap flow - in mid-April or at the end of August, in the cool time of the day - at 16 o'clock in the afternoon or early in the morning. Two days before the procedure, the stock is watered abundantly so that during budding the bark is well separated from the wood. For the scion, developed straight shoots with formed vegetative buds are chosen. So that the scion does not lose moisture, all leaves are removed from it, leaving only petioles no more than 1 cm long.

    The bole at the grafting site is wiped from dust, then a T-shaped incision is made in the region of the root neck with a sharp knife and the bark is carefully folded back at the point of convergence of perpendicular lines. From the scion, a shield with a kidney is cut so long that it fits into the incision on the rootstock. When you cut the shield, grab a thin layer of wood besides the bark with a budding knife and, trying not to touch it with your hands, insert the shield into the T-shaped incision on the rootstock, firmly press the bark against it and fix the grafting site by wrapping it with plaster or tape, but so as not to close the kidney itself with them.

    If after 2-3 weeks the rest of the petiole falls off and the eye is green, then the budding was successful and the patch can be loosened. If you carried out budding at the end of summer, then the fixing bandage should not be removed until next spring, and it is better to spud the root collar with the graft with earth. In the spring, when you make sure that the bud has taken root, free the root neck from the ground, and the grafting site from the plaster or tape, then cut the stock just above the grafting site, and if it is windy in your spring, then the cut should be made 10-12 cm above the grafted kidneys. When shoots begin to appear from dormant buds below the budding site, they should be removed immediately, not allowing them to become woody.

    Propagation by shoots and cuttings

    Almonds growing in a bush after pruning, as a rule, form a shoot. In the second year, when the roots of the shoots become strong, the offspring are dug up and transplanted to a permanent place.

    If you decide to try propagation by layering, choose flexible shoots for this, lay them on the ground, fix them in several places with wire pins and cover with a layer of earth about 20 cm thick. loosen the soil around it and remove weeds. After about a year or a little more, when a strong root system has formed at the layer, it is separated from the mother plant, dug out and planted.

    Diseases of almonds and their treatment

    Diseases of almonds affect the plant in cases where the agrotechnics of the crop is disturbed or it is weakened by improper or untimely care. Most often, almonds suffer from scab, cercosporosis, rust, moniliosis, gray rot and clasterosporia.

    Cercosporosis - This fungal disease most often affects the leaves of almonds, but if the disease progresses, the petioles and shoots of the plant may also be affected. The first signs of the disease can be detected in June - rounded red-brown spots with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm appear on the leaves, and in conditions of high humidity a grayish coating forms on them. Over time, in the center of the spots, the leaf tissue dries up and falls out, the plant has to grow new leaves, which takes a lot of effort, and this negatively affects the development of the fruit. As a fight against the disease, as soon as its first symptoms are detected, almonds are treated with fungicides.

    Scab - this disease affects not only leaves, but also flowers and shoots of almonds. As preventive measures against scab, one can consider the cultivation of disease-resistant plant varieties, digging the site after leaf fall, preventive spring and autumn treatments of almonds with Bordeaux liquid, timely pruning and burning of diseased shoots and branches. They cope well with scab, as well as with other fungal diseases, drugs from the category of fungicides.

    Rust - this disease appears as small red spots on the upper side of the leaf blade, and brownish pads form on the underside of the leaves. The spots grow, merge, from which the leaves dry and fall prematurely. As a rust control, the treatment of almonds with an aqueous colloidal suspension of sulfur is used. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to remove plant debris from the site in the fall and dig up the soil.

    Moniliosis - the causative agent of this disease penetrates through the pistil of the flower and affects young shoots, leaves and flowers of almonds. You can get rid of moniliosis by timely treatment of almonds with fungicides - for example, Horus.

    Clusterosporiasis, or perforated spot, affects all stone fruits. The almond is no exception. Warm rainy weather contributes to the emergence and rapid development of the disease. The disease affects leaves, flowers, shoots and fruits, however, typical signs of clasterosporiasis appear primarily on almond leaves - small spots of red-brown, raspberry or red-violet hue. They gradually increase in size, merge, and the tissue in their center dies, brightens and falls out. A distinctive feature of the disease is a pronounced dark border around the spots, which makes it possible not to confuse clasterosporiosis with other diseases. With a strong defeat, gum begins to flow from the bark of damaged shoots.

    To combat the disease, almonds are treated with Horus, Kuproksat, Skor, Topaz or Vectra, spraying the plant the first time at the beginning of flowering, the second time after flowering, then two weeks after the second treatment.

    Gray rot, or botrytis, is manifested by the formation of brown, rapidly increasing in size spots on leaves and shoots. In conditions of high humidity, the plant is covered with a gray fluffy coating, consisting of spores of the fungus. This plaque is carried by the wind, and neighboring plants become infected with gray rot. To combat this fungal disease, fungicides such as Topaz, Champion, Kuproksat, Oksikhom are used.

    To avoid gray rot infestation, try not to plant too densely and avoid putting fertilizers with a high concentration of nitrogen on the leaves. When symptoms of the disease appear, it is necessary to cut out the affected areas, and then treat the almonds with one of these drugs. You can use the coating of the affected areas by diluting 30-40 g of Rovral fungicide and 300-400 g of CMC glue in a bucket of water.

    Pests and control of almonds

    Among insect pests, almonds are most affected by spider mites, almond seed-eaters, aphids and leafworms.

    Almond seed beetle spends the winter in damaged almonds, which is why it is important to remove plant debris from the tree and from the trunk circle in autumn. Carrying out preventive work (spring and autumn spraying of trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid) can also reduce the risk of damage to almond nuts by the seed beetle. For guaranteed plant protection, carry out another treatment of almonds immediately after flowering.

    Leaf roller, or rather, its caterpillar, feeds on leaves, while folding them. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to cut and destroy the masonry of leaf-rolling butterflies and leaves rolled up by caterpillars, and in early spring, when the temperature in the garden rises above 4 ºC, treat the trees with Bordeaux liquid or Prophylactin, dissolving half a liter of the drug in 10 liters of water. If the caterpillars have bred, you will have to resort to treating almonds with insecticides such as Actellik, Calypso, Fufanon, Ditox, Tagore, Zolon and other similar preparations.

    Aphid is a ubiquitous and very dangerous pest that feeds on the cell sap of leaves and young shoots of almonds and carries incurable viral diseases. The fight against it must be merciless, especially since it can give nine generations in one season. As a preventive measure, you can plant umbrella plants near almonds - dill, fennel - which will attract hoverfly aphid eaters to your garden. It is better to destroy aphids with folk remedies - an infusion of wormwood, tansy, tobacco dust, hot pepper, garlic, onion, dandelions, tomato and potato tops. To defeat the pest, 3-4 treatments are required. Of the insecticides, Biotlin and Antitlin do well with aphids.

    Spider mite colonizes almonds during drought. It multiplies rapidly, its population lives in the thinnest web woven by ticks. This pest feeds, like aphids, on the cell sap of leaves and young shoots. As a result of the activity of spider mites, the plant weakens, and any diseases can affect it, including those carried by spider mites. It is useless to use insecticides against ticks, since they are arachnids, so the fight should be carried out with acaricides (Apollo, Omite, Flumite) or insectoacaricides (Agravertin, Akarin, Kleschevit, Fitoverm).

    Varieties of almonds

    Sweet varieties of common almonds are divided into hard-shelled, from which the shell is removed with tongs, and soft-shelled, from which the skin is removed by hand. We offer you several well-established varieties, among which you can choose almonds for your garden:

    • Jubilee - a late flowering drought-resistant variety with a medium-thick shell and a dense, sweet, dry core;
    • Ayudagsky is a late-ripening, early-growing productive variety that begins fruiting in the third or fourth year after planting. The variety is soft-shelled, the core is flat-oval, dense and sweet, light brown in color;
    • Sevastopolsky - heat-resistant and drought-resistant late-ripening variety of very high productivity with soft shells and dense, sweet white kernels;
    • Mangup - drought-resistant late-ripening variety, rarely damaged by pests and diseases, with soft shells and hard, dense, sweet oily kernels;
    • Fragrant late-flowering variety with hard shells and fragrant, dense and oily kernels of excellent taste;
    • Dessert is a frost-resistant, self-fertile variety with a rough, soft shell and oval sweet kernels with a buttery taste. Primorsky and Spicy varieties are suitable as pollinators;
    • Primorsky is a productive, self-fertile variety with a fan-shaped crown, with a stable dormant period, with elongated oily fruits. Dessertny and Alenik varieties are suitable as pollinators.

    In addition to those described, varieties Yalta, Nikitsky 62, Paper-shell, Rims, Nikitsky late-flowering, Nessebar, Dabkov, as well as Californian varieties Nonparel, Neck plus ultra, Carmel, Padre, Mission, Monterey and Sonora are in demand in the culture.

    Varieties for the Moscow region

    As we have already mentioned, it is problematic to grow any of the common almond varieties in the conditions of the Moscow region - cold winters are to blame, after which the plant may not recover. Therefore, it is better to grow steppe almonds, or the so-called beaver, in the Moscow region, the decorative effect of which is beyond praise, and the nuts are almost as good as the fruits of sweet almonds in taste.

    Properties of almonds - harm and benefits

    Useful properties

    Why are almonds useful? Almond kernels contain up to 67% fatty oil. Almonds are one of the world's best plant sources of protein, containing up to 30% of the same amount of protein as lean meats, and are high quality, almost completely absorbable protein. In addition, almonds contain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and manganese, sugars, enzymes, a powerful antioxidant vitamin E and B vitamins. , increases the production of sperm in men. It is recommended for patients with asthma and pleurisy, it is indicated for ulcers and abrasions in the intestines and bladder. Italian scientists have experimentally proven that regular consumption of almonds increases the body's resistance to viral infections.

    The peel of almond kernels contains ten times more antioxidants than the kernels themselves. And, by the way, it is used for tinting wines and making brandy.

    In folk medicine, almonds with sugar are used to treat anemia, anemia, insomnia and cough. Almond kernels have analgesic, anticonvulsant, enveloping and softening effects.

    Despite their calorie content, almonds, when used correctly, contribute to weight loss, since part of the fatty acids contained in it are excreted from the body without having time to assimilate. If you eat no more than 30 g of raw (not fried or salted) nuts per day, this will help you reduce lipids, normalize cholesterol levels and lose weight.

    Almond oil is a valuable product. It is used for inflammation of the lungs, asthma, otitis, stomatitis, heart and kidney diseases. It has a beneficial effect on the skin, eliminating irritation, moisturizing it and giving it elasticity. Almond oil is one of the best remedies for strengthening hair, stimulating its growth and giving it shine and elasticity. It is quickly absorbed and activates the process of regeneration of body cells, so it is used as the basis for various ointments and creams.

    Contraindications

    For some people, almonds can be a strong allergen. Patients suffering from obesity should limit the use of almonds due to their high calorie content.

    Unripe kernels can be dangerous because their cyanide content causes poisoning. Spoiled or expired kernels should be treated with caution - they can be poisonous. Do not give almonds to young children because the nut kernel can be inhaled.

    Literature

    1. Read related topics on Wikipedia
    2. Peculiarities and other plants of the Rosaceae family
    3. List of all species on The Plant List
    4. More information on World Flora Online


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    planting, care, cultivation, types and varieties, how it looks, where it grows, photo

    Contents:

    1. Description of the plant
    2. How the almond tree blooms
    3. Almond tree: productivity, varieties
    4. Popular species and varieties
    5. Nuances of growing a tree from a stone
      • Planting algorithm
      • Features of care
      • Watering rules

        In regions with warm winters, the tree bears fruit 5 years after planting. The average yield from 1 tree is about 10 kg of peeled kernels. You can get sweet nuts for 50 years if you choose the right variety and follow the rules of agricultural technology. In this article, we will tell you how to grow almonds and properly care for them.

        Description of the plant

        The almond tree is not a nut, as many people think, but a stone fruit plant from the genus of plums.

        The common almond is a plant with gray shoots and smooth bark. It reaches a height of 6–10 m. The leaves are pointed, dark green. The tree branches strongly, in spring it is covered with large single flowers with a strong aroma.

        How the almond tree blossoms

        Almond trees bloom from January to March, but this is only in those regions where the winter is especially warm. If we take Russia, then in the southern regions the buds appear in April, but in the middle lane, where the winter is colder and longer, flowering plants can only be expected in May. Almonds begin to bloom after planting only for 4-5 years.

        Almond blossom is an unforgettable sight, and the photos presented in the article are proof of that. That is why many gardeners are wondering how to grow an almond tree in their area. During flowering, the branches are simply strewn with white or pale pink flowers. The flowers can be simple or double, with a diameter of 2 to 6 cm. The flowering period lasts for three weeks.

        Almond tree: yield, varieties

        The yield of almonds depends not only on the variety, but also on the age of the plant. The first small harvest can be obtained as early as four years after planting the seedling. The maximum yield can only be expected from trees 10 years old and older, provided that all the rules for growing and caring for almonds are observed.

        On average, 7-9 kg of peeled kernels can be harvested from one almond tree. Plants can bear fruit up to 45-50 years. But here are averaged data, because in many respects the yield will depend on the chosen variety, climatic and weather conditions.

        The most commonly grown edible varieties of almonds are:

        • Foros;
        • "Nikitinsky 62";
        • Dessert;
        • "Slovenia".

        Popular species and varieties

        If you want to grow almonds in the country, first of all you need to choose the right variety from more than 40 varieties of shrubs and trees. When choosing, the nutritional characteristics and resistance of the plant to local weather conditions should be taken into account.

        1. Foros. This variety is successfully grown in the North Caucasus. An adult tree with a spreading crown reaches a height of 4 m. Flowering occurs in May, the flowers are pale pink. The fruits are large, the shell of the stones is soft.
        2. Dessert. It grows up to 5 m. Ripening occurs in September. The fruits are pleasant to the taste, large.
        3. Nikitsky 62. Ideal for cultivation in the southern regions. The tree of this variety is afraid of frost. The fruits are sweet. The height of an adult tree is up to 5 m.
        4. Slovenia. The tallest variety is up to 6 m. With age, the crown takes on the shape of a ball. Harvest only after 6 years. Ripening is in September. The fruits are large.

        If the tree is planted for the purpose of decorating the site, and not for the sake of obtaining almonds, the suitable variety is Rosenmund. The plant reaches only 3 m in height, and in spring it is covered with beautiful terry buds of bright pink color.

        Nuances of growing a tree from a stone

        Many people are interested in how to grow almonds from a stone? Experienced gardeners recommend that, before directly growing almonds from the stone at home, perform the following sequence of actions:0007

        1. Choose a variety taking into account the climatic characteristics of a particular area. The fact is that with strong spring frosts, the ovaries fall off, therefore, in regions with harsh winters and a long spring, varieties are planted that are suitable only for decorative purposes.
        2. Decide on a landing site. Trees are not demanding on soil quality, but do not tolerate acidic soil and wet areas with high groundwater levels.
        3. Don't forget the "company" for the almonds. In order for a tree to bear fruit, it must be pollinated. There are varieties with cross-pollination and insect pollination. In the first case, you need to plant related seedlings nearby, in the second case, install beehives nearby.

        Planting algorithm

        It is possible to grow an almond seedling from a stone in room conditions, but when the plant gains strength, it is time to transplant the tree into the ground. The optimal season for planting almonds on the site is autumn. The algorithm of actions is as follows:

        1. Dig a hole with dimensions of 60x60 cm.
        2. Half fill the hole with a mixture of soil, sand and turf in the ratio 1:2:3, mixing 5 kg of humus and 500 g of superphosphate.
        3. Place a support in the hole for subsequent tying of the seedling.
        4. Coat the roots of a young tree with clay mash, lower into the hole and gently straighten.
        5. Cover the planting hole with earth.
        6. Water the soil around the trunk liberally with 12 liters of water.
        7. Mulch the tree trunk with peat.

        Care instructions

        When growing almonds in the garden, care in the first years after planting consists in removing weeds, loosening the soil and timely watering. It is important to know when and how to feed decorative almonds, cut the crown in time. If you planted a fruit-bearing variety, then after 5 years you can get a harvest of healthy tasty nuts.

        Watering rules

        One of the secrets to growing beautiful and healthy almond trees is proper watering. A tree planted in spring needs constant moisture. When the seedling begins to grow, watering is reduced. In the case of autumn planting, almonds are not so picky about watering. Excess moisture is more harmful than deficiency: from a lack of flowering time is reduced, and with an excess, the root system rots, and the bush weakens.

        Feed options

        Almonds need nitrogen in spring. This element stimulates the growth of shoots and the laying of buds. Fertilizer is applied in early May. 1 tree will require 25 g of ammonium nitrate. You can add copper. It is recommended to plant green manure (such as peas or alfalfa) next to the tree to attract pollinating insects.

        In the process of growing and caring for almonds, fertilize 3 times per season:

        • in the spring before flowering - with nitrogen;
        • in May - complex fats;
        • after flowering in late August - early September - potassium and phosphorus.

        The dosage is selected according to the composition of the soil and the age of the plant.

        Pruning

        The yield of the plant depends on whether the tree has enough sunlight. Therefore, it is important to regularly thin out and shape the crown, removing excess branches. Pruning rules are as follows:

        1. Pruning is carried out 2 times a year, at the beginning and end of the growing season.
        2. Young trees are cut to a height of 1.2 m. The shoots are cut into a ring.
        3. Damaged, crooked shoots are removed from mature trees.

        How to protect a tree from diseases and pests

        If you want a tree to please you with its beauty and bear fruit, it is important to take preventive measures to protect the plant from diseases and pests. The most common diseases are scab, rust, gray rot and monolial burn. The main pests are plum codling moth, aphids, leafworm, sapwood bark beetle and almond seed beetle.

        For prevention, it is recommended to thin out the crown of trees every year, cut off diseased branches, and remove plant debris from the near-trunk circle. It is also desirable to loosen the soil, deal with anthills and prevent excess moisture in the soil.

        Propagation methods

        Wild almonds are propagated by seeds, while cultivated varieties are propagated by cuttings and root shoots. It is risky to propagate by seeds - it is not known what will grow from the stone and what will be the content of amygdalin in nuts. Because of the latter, the fruits of the plant are not recommended to be consumed without heat treatment.

        Although almonds are naturally propagated by seeds, vegetative propagation methods are most commonly used by growers because they produce a faster flowering plant.

        Cuttings

        Suitable time for cuttings is the end of June and July. Strong twigs with two internodes, at least 15 cm long, are cut into cuttings. Cuttings for planting should be chosen not completely lignified and still flexible.

        The place for rooting cuttings should be moderately lit. Before planting, the site must be prepared: add light compost soil, peat and sand in equal proportions, dig it up.

        Soak the cuttings in any rooting stimulator for 12 hours, then plant them in a prepared place. From above it is better to build a small greenhouse to maintain the necessary humidity. Roots form in about 2-3 weeks.

        Grafting

        Almonds can be grafted on plums, cherry plums and blackthorns. The vaccination procedure is best done in the spring, when stable warm weather is established. To do this, cut off a strong stalk, carefully cut off a kidney with bark and a small strip of wood from it. On the rootstock, an incision is made in the bark in the form of the letter “T” with a clean tool, where the scion is inserted, leaving the kidney open. Then the scion is tightly fixed to the rootstock with garden tape and a strip of cloth.

        Layers

        Almonds can be easily propagated by layers. To do this, young branches that have not yet lost their flexibility need to be bent to the ground, fixed and dug with a layer of soil 16–20 cm thick. After about a year, a strong root system is formed, and the young plant can be transplanted to a new place in open ground.

        A young plant should be cared for like other stone fruits: weeds removed, loosened and watered. As it grows, annual crown shaping will be required. Fertilizer for almonds is just as necessary as for other crops.


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