How much water does a persimmon tree need
Persimmon Tree Care | LemonCitrusTree
Persimmons are Japan's national fruit. Persimmons have been cultivated for over a millennium in Asian countries.
Persimmons make delicious bread, bagels, and muffins, along with stuffing, jams, jellies, curry, pies, and cookies. They can also be served in salads with watercress, tomatoes, basil, red pepper, onion and almonds along with homemade salsa and marinades.
The sky's the limit on recipes that can change the traditional boring meal, transforming it into a scrumptious feast.
Any home gardener can have oriental persimmon trees, even with limited space, growing persimmons is possible in a container.
We offer 4 varieties of persimmons these varieties are Fuyu, Hachiya, Suruga, and Tanenashi.
We offer two types, astringent (not as sweet) and non-astringent (sweeter).
The Fuyu Persimmon is a non-astringent variety, the fruit is eaten fresh off the tree. The Fuyu is seedless and great for cooking and eating. The fruits tend to ripen in November and are as sweet and crisp as apples.
The Hachiya Persimmon is an astringent variety, the fruit is picked when firm and bright orange and stored until soft. It is often used for baking also a favorite for eating as a fresh fruit. Hachiya Persimmons when ripe are wonderfully sweet.
The Suruga Persimmon is a non-astringent variety, the fruit is small round, deep orange with a sweet maple syrup flavor, vibrant, and delicious fruit.
The Tanenashi Persimmon is an astringent variety, a seedless prolific producer of a medium-sized round to cone-shaped orange-red fruits.
Our Persimmons can be planted in USDA growing zones 9-11 only.
Trees that are planted in the ground that experience freezing temperatures above zone 8 need protection in unusual inclement weather.
Planting in the wrong hardiness planting zone will void the warranty.
Planting zones- https://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/PHZMWeb/
Planting In The Ground
1. Do not plant a new persimmon tree in a space where an old tree has died, the soil may be contaminated and create problems for your new tree. Mature persimmon trees can grow to a height of 25 feet tall, so choose your planting site carefully.
2. The location should be chosen that is sunny, in a well-draining area. Persimmons prefer deep loamy soils but will tolerate a range of conditions, provided soil salts are low. The preferred soil pH for persimmons is between 6.5 and 7.5.
3. Place the potted tree in a chosen location for 2 weeks and allow the tree to acclimate to the area before you plant in the ground. The tree needs full sun.
4. Dig a planting hole double the width of the root ball or double the size of the pot and fill with water and wait 24 hours.
5. Fill the hole with water again. If water has drained from the hole within an hour this area has good drainage and the tree can be planted.
6. If the area has terrible drainage choose another area.
7. Add a mixture of compost and well-draining soil into the hole and remove the tree from the pot.
8. Place tree in the hole. DO NOT allow the tree to drop down into the hole-The soil line of the tree should be above the existing soil grade approximate 1-2 inches above the existing grade.
9. Do not bury the root-crown with soil or mulch. A photo of the root crown can be found here - https://lemoncitrustree.com/store/pest-disease
10. Keep other plants away from the young tree by creating a 5-foot circumference around the trunk of the tree. Weeds allowed to grow around the tree's base compete for water and nutrients, so pull them up as they appear.
11. Deep-water newly planted fruit tree.
The Potted Persimmon
Persimmons are best grown in loamy soils in a well-draining pot.
Do not allow the tree to sit in standing water.
Do not re-pot until you have had the tree at least 2 weeks, the tree needs time to adjust
Never plant a tree in a container more substantial than a 10-gallon pot. Always water according to pot size, with a moisture meter. Drilling additional holes in the pot is an easy way to improve drainage.
When repotting DO NOT transplant using stones in the bottom of the pot or use stones on top as a decoration, this will cause a drainage issue and lock moisture into the pot which will cause root rot.
DO NOT USE SELF-WATERING POTS OR GLOBES.
DO NOT USE POTS WITH THE DRAINAGE TRAY ATTACHED.
Select the right sized pot with adequate drainage holes. If the pot has no holes on the side or bottom, it is not the correct pot for planting.
Self-watering is incorrect watering, self-watering is not infrequent deep watering.
Do not over-water Persimmon trees!
Overwatering trees in the ground in certain soils are often the number one factor in causing root rot.
Persimmon trees prefer deep root watering.
Regular watering helps the tree to establish a deep root system.
Persimmon trees produce more abundant and better fruit when watered regularly, ideally receiving 36-48" per year.
They will drop leaves and fruit in extreme drought conditions but can withstand shorter drought periods. In hot areas, it may be necessary to water a few times a week, unless they are growing in heavy clay soil.
Deep Watering Method For Potted Trees
Trees will die if they don't have basic requirements and the biggest mistake made is incorrect watering.
1. Check the tree with a moisture meter before watering.
2. The prong should be deep into the pot.
3. Only water when the meter reads 4 (for a meter that reads from 1-10)
4. All trees require deep watering. Deep watering is drenching the soil until water pours from the holes at the bottom of the pot.
5. Watering with a few cups is not acceptable, this will cause deep roots to die. Never be stingy with the water when the tree needs to be watered.
6. Once the tree has been watered properly, recheck the soil with the moisture meter again. It should read high (9 or 10) if it doesn't, water until the meter level is high. Remove the meter and then do not water again until the meter reads 4.
7. In the winter you will water far less, like twice a month (but always check the tree with a meter weekly, because this can vary).
8. The meter should never be left in the pot when not in use.
9. Never water with cold water in the winter.
10. Never water the tree with water from a water softener.
Persimmons can be grown as large specimen trees or pruned heavily to create a hedge. Persimmons can even be trained as espaliers if cut back to about one half the original height at planting.
Because fruit is borne on branch tips, it is best to prune selectively and thoroughly in the first few years so the tree will develop balanced structure and strong branches for fruit.
Regular maintenance pruning involves heading some branches and removing others, usually resulting in a general "Open Vase" shape.
Persimmon trees benefit from spring fertilization with a slow-release, balanced fertilizer. In early spring, before new leaves appear, apply a granular, general-purpose 5-5-5 fertilizer
DO NOT over fertilize, this can prevent persimmon fruit from developing.
Use mulch for ground planted trees only.
Maintain a 3-4 inch layer of mulch around the persimmon tree to retain soil moisture and improve soil quality
Apply the mulch in the spring and fall under the canopy of the tree.
Avoid piling mulch against the trunk of the tree.
The tree trunk needs air circulation, without circulation, the truck could rot away from the root ball so avoid piling soil and mulch close to the root crown and tree truck.
Note on Dormancy
Dormant trees still need to be protected (winterized) to remain healthy and free from diseases and insects. Prune dead branches in the later part of fall. Foliage and branches that are in contact with soil invite undesirable pests. Therefore it is best to keep the winterized potted dormant tree clean of debris. Set it in an unheated garage or basement and allow it to go dormant for the winter months. Water the tree as you would typically through dormancy. It helps to have a moisture meter because in colder climates (even indoors) the tree will not need to be watered as often (about twice a month).
Water the dormant tree when the meter reads 40%. Fertilize dormant trees in February with a 5-5-5 fertilizer.
Please contact us at [email protected] or call if you need assistance with your Persimmon tree.
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All About Growing Persimmons – Grow OrganicAll About Growing Persimmons - Organic Gardening Blog – Grow Organic Skip to content
Persimmons are beautiful and adaptable fruit trees and the fruit can be eaten fresh, dried or pickled. They grow best in warm southern regions, in the Pacific northwest and into central and southern California. They are standard size trees so make sure you have lots of room for this one to grow. The oriental persimmon is native to China and Japan and is a relatively pest-free tree to grow. It has glossy dark green leaves that turn red, orange and yellow for a fiery fall display. Even after all the leaves drop the deep red orange fruit hangs on the bare branches for a dramatic fall picture.
Types of Persimmon Fruits
Non-Astringent - like the Fuyu variety. The Fuyus' fruit can be eaten right off the tree like an apple. The Fuyu is a popular cultivar grown worldwide. This cultivar is a heavy producer, so it is important to thin the fruit. Astringent - like the Hachiya. The Hachiya needs to be fully ripe and very soft before you eat them. If you eat them before they are ripe, it might taste like eating alum powder (from the high levels of tannic acid). Pick them when they're fully colored but still firm. They can be left on the tree to ripen but more often than not birds or racoons will eat them before you do. To ripen them, put them in boxes and leave them in the garage or you can ripen them on the kitchen counter. When they're ripe they will feel like holding a bag of jello and they'll be translucent instead of opaque. If you see a little sun scald on the fruit, don’t worry. It actually helps the fruit taste sweeter. Once they're fully ripe you can freeze them whole and then take them out and enjoy them whenever you want.
Are Persimmons Right for You?
Persimmons will need plenty of room, full sun and good drainage. They're hardy down to zone seven and have a low chill requirement. They bloom late enough to avoid most late spring frosts. They grow best in warm southern regions, in the Pacific northwest and into central and southern California.
Planting & Growing Persimmons
Soil type - these trees prefer loamy soils but they will tolerate heavier clay soils better than most fruit trees, especially if the tree that you are planting is grafted onto a "D Lotus" rootstock. Just make sure there is adequate drainage, they will not tolerate soggy soils. Water Requirements - don't over-water your newly planted persimmon tree. The biggest cause of death for persimmon trees is too much water. Once established, persimmon trees are fairly drought tolerant but they'll bear more fruit with regular watering.
Pruning Your Persimmon
You want to train your persimmon to a modified central leader system and you can watch our video on Summer Pruning of Cherries and Apricots but you will prune the persimmon in the winter. Persimmons are heavy producers a mature full-size tree can produce three hundred pounds of fruit, so it's important to prune and thin. Persimmons bear fruit on long shoots. Thin out some of these long fruiting shoots to limit the amount of fruit the tree is able to set. Prune out weak and twiggy growth and water sprouts. Don’t head back your scaffolding branches, it will produce too many shoots. Find a lateral at least a third the size of the branch you're taking out, then use a thinning cut to take the branch back to that lateral. This will keep the tree smaller and more compact without creating a lot of messy water sprouts. Flower or fruit thinning may be necessary later in the season too, especially for the Hachiya cultivar. Thin fruit in early summer, leaving about 1-4 fruit per shoot. Persimmons are known to biennial bearing (fruiting every other year) and thinning may help avoid this pattern. Grow a persimmon tree for the summer and fall beauty and also the super sweet fruit, and Grow Organic for Life!
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Persimmon - divine fire in the garden. Growing, planting and care. Types, varieties. Photo — Botanichka
Each garden is rich in fruit crops familiar to the region. In spring, gardens are full of flowers, in autumn - in fruits. But more and more gardeners appear - lovers of exotic fruit, unusual for the region. Their many years of work and the time spent are rewarded with unusual fruits. And although their harvest may be quite small, it attracts with its unusualness. The mysterious persimmon, a natural storehouse of useful substances, also belongs to such exotic cultures.Persimmon. © Milacroft
- Origin and distribution of
- Brief description of persimmon
- Where can I grow persimmons? Persimmon requirements for growing conditions
- Outdoor persimmon types and varieties
- Persimmon varieties
- Dates for planting persimmon seedlings
- Rules for planting persimmons in the open field
- Protection of persimmons from pests and diseases
- Harvesting and storing persimmons
Origin and distribution area
Persimmon belongs to the ebony family and is separated into a separate genus - Diospyros. Latin has Greek roots and translated into Russian means "food of the gods", "divine fire". Cultivated types of persimmons are often called date plums or wild dates.
According to various sources, China is considered the birthplace of persimmon, where its wild forms are 500 years old. Others consider Indochina to be the place of origin, where wild forms live at an altitude of up to 2. 5 km above sea level and withstand sub-zero temperatures up to 18-20 ° C.
“Once you try it, you won't forget it” – people say about persimmon. Indeed, this amazing fruit, which forms the taste of fruits only after frost, is mesmerizing. Today it is difficult to name a country that would not be familiar with persimmon fruits. The culture is widespread in many countries of Europe and Asia. It is successfully grown in China, Japan, the Philippines, Australia, Indonesia, USA, Israel.
This list of states also includes the Eurasian continent of the CIS and Russia. Persimmon enters the markets from the Krasnodar Territory, the southern Stavropol Territory, the Ferghana Valley and other warm regions. As a fruit crop, persimmon is cultivated in all countries and regions where there are suitable climatic conditions, in open and protected ground.
Brief description of persimmon
Under natural conditions, persimmon trees reach 10-12 and even 20-30 m in height and resemble an apple tree in appearance. The leaves are alternate, dark green, without pubescence, a lighter shade below. According to the shape of the leaf blade, they are broadly lanceolate, oblong-ovate, by autumn they acquire a red color of different shades and intensity.
Persimmon flowers are arranged in leaf axils, solitary or in bunches of several on short pedicels. The calyx and corolla are 4-lobed. Corolla petals are yellowish white. The calyx "grows" to the fetus. Persimmon blooms from May to June. Flowers are formed of 3 types: female, male and mixed. Plants can be monoecious and dioecious, when female and male flowers are located on different trees.
Beginning gardeners sometimes cut down barren persimmon trees (male), depriving the crop of a tree with female flowers. Persimmon belongs to insect pollinated crops. Sometimes unpollinated female flowers develop as parthenocarpics and form seedless fruits. (Parthenocarpy - fertilization without pollination of plants).
Persimmon fruit is a berry, the color of which, depending on the species, varies from brownish-yellow to bright orange, bright red, brown, with tasty slightly tart pulp, unusually sweet at biological maturity. The pulp contains 3-8-10 seeds. The smooth skin of the berry and the shape resemble a tomato. Fruit weight from 100 to 500 g.
Unripe fruits have an astringent, bitter taste due to the high content of tannins. The fruits ripen in October-November, remaining on the tree after the leaves fall. It is after freezing that the fruits acquire their unusually sweet taste.Persimmon tree with fruits. © olgaman
Where can I grow persimmons? Persimmon requirements for growing conditions
Persimmon, according to breeders, has more than 725 species and naturally grows in subtropical and tropical regions of different countries. In other regions, persimmon can also be grown in open and closed ground, creating conditions that meet its requirements.
If you decide to try to grow persimmons in your country house in the open field or at home, carefully read the requirements of this crop for environmental conditions and cultivation practices.
Persimmon requires a lot of heat and sun. Therefore, before deciding under what conditions to grow a crop, be sure to use the reference books to find the values of active temperatures and the duration of solar radiation (sunny days during the growing season) in your area. They should be at least +3000 °C and 2000 hours per year, respectively. At such temperatures, persimmons can be grown in open ground.
At the nearest station, get acquainted with the climatic characteristics of the area of residence: the number of sunny days, precipitation, the temperature threshold for summer and winter temperatures, and other indicators. Note that persimmons are wind resistant. See if the indicators fit into the optimal for growing persimmons. With other indicators - you can grow a crop in greenhouses with year-round heating and lighting, in greenhouses or at home.
During the growing season, persimmon develops well at temperatures of +25..+28-30 °C. Likes sunny weather, but without dry air. On such days, the tree needs to be sprayed with clean water to create a humidified microclimate (except during the flowering period).
In winter, the root system withstands frosts down to -6..-8 °С. Frost-resistant varieties withstand air temperatures in the range of -16 ..-18 ° C. With a further decrease (-19 ..-20 ° C), one-year and partially two-year growth is frosted over. Separate zoned frost-resistant varieties can withstand temperatures of -25..-27 ° C, but crown frostbite constantly occurs.
It should be taken into account that sharp drops in temperature to -9 °C, especially in late autumn (November), can cause frostbite in young seedlings. With such climate cataclysms, young seedlings must be covered in the first years.
In regions where the winter temperature does not fall below -5..-8 °C, persimmon can be grown without winter shelter. In other regions, even frost-resistant varieties need winter shelter. For shelters, you can use any covering, but breathable, material: agrofibre, reeds, spruce branches, etc.
Lighting for persimmon
Persimmon has a very long growing season, but one positive temperature is not enough for normal growth and development. Requires bright lighting for extended periods. Therefore, for cultivation in the open field, areas well-lit by the sun, closed from wind and drafts, are chosen. Some gardeners who have been dealing with persimmon for a long time recommend planting it against the wall of the house, thus creating a natural protection.
The number of sunny days with sufficiently high temperatures is very important for this crop. With a lack of bright sunny days, the persimmon crown becomes slightly branched, the fruits are small, crumbling early.
For example: in the Moscow region, the bright sun and summer heat are not enough for normal persimmon vegetation. In this region, it will normally develop in a partially heated greenhouse, home garden, greenhouse.
Persimmon soil requirements
The best soils for persimmon are chernozems (even loamy, with good drainage) forest, sod. Does not tolerate the culture of marshy, saline, carbonate soils. It does not grow on pebbles, and when grown on sandy soils, it requires increased amounts of humus, mature compost and other additives that increase the moisture capacity of the soil.
Under natural conditions, persimmons need 900-1200 mm of precipitation per year for growth and development, that is, irrigation is needed during prolonged dry weather. So, in the Krasnodar Territory, approximately 700 mm of precipitation falls annually, which is clearly not enough for this crop. With good irrigation, persimmon easily tolerates increased dryness of the air and reacts positively to additional fine spraying. The soil should be moist, without stagnant water in the root zone.Young persimmon seedling
Types and cultivars of persimmons for outdoor cultivation
Despite the great variety of species growing naturally, three species are mainly used in fruit growing.
- Caucasian persimmon or Common persimmon (Diospyros lotus),
- Virgin persimmon (Diospyros virginiana),
- Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki).
On the basis of the Caucasian and virgin, used as rootstocks, hybrid varieties of persimmon with increased frost resistance and fruits characterized by increased weight, sweetness and lack of astringency were obtained.
Caucasian persimmon, or common persimmon
The culture is distributed mainly in China and Japan. In Russia and the CIS, Caucasian persimmon occupies significant areas in the Crimea and Transcaucasia. The height of the trees is 5-18 m, it is characterized by small fruit and astringency of the pulp. Characterized by frost resistance. The roots withstand frosts of -10 ... -12 ° С, and the crown -22..-24 ° С. These temperatures for her are the limit of frost resistance.
No cultivars, does not form shoots when used as a stock. Used mainly as a rootstock for eastern persimmon. Seedlings on the Caucasian rootstock tolerate transplantation well, are drought-resistant, undemanding to soils.
Persimmon virgin is considered to be native to the southern part of North America. Trees no more than twenty meters in height, have fairly good resistance to frost.
Persimmon virginia - quality rootstock. The root system withstands frosts down to -15 ° C, the crown - up to -35 ° C. These properties allow the grafted varieties to be promoted to colder areas. Moreover, they are not afraid of winter thaws. Seedlings develop well on heavy loams and sandy loams, waterlogged soils, but they are difficult to transplant due to the formation of weak taproots. Persimmon trees on this rootstock are less durable than on the Caucasian one and form relatively low yields.
Cultivars of persimmon virginia, which in America are called persimmons, have been bred. In Russia, an interspecific hybrid with oriental persimmon was bred, called Rossiyanka and Nikitsky burgundy variety, which, respectively, have frost resistance of -25 and -30 ° C. A Russian woman brings the first harvest in 2 years. It grows well in Transcarpathia. Of the new varieties, the variety Belogorye is distinguished by high frost resistance.
Oriental persimmon is also called Japanese. Deciduous trees with a loose crown, characterized by rapid growth. In Russia, persimmon grows in the Krasnodar Territory, Sochi, Sukhumi.
Currently, more than 1000 varieties and hybrids with different taste and economic qualities have been bred on the basis of oriental persimmon. Varieties of this species are intended mainly for garden plantings. The culture forms large juicy, very sweet fruits, the shape of which varies from round to elongated-round, and the color is from yellow-orange to dark red.
Oriental persimmon trees are single and dioecious. The flowers are female, solitary, large, yellowish-white with fused corolla petals. Male flowers are much smaller. Bisexual flowers are usually arranged in groups of 2-4 flowers, forming colonies on the increments of the current year. Oriental persimmon blooms in the second half of May - early June, pollinated by bumblebees and bees.
The vast majority of eastern persimmon varieties endure frosts down to -15 °C. Oriental persimmon is grown in all regions where climatic conditions are optimal for the crop (see Persimmon Requirements for Growing Conditions).Young persimmon tree with fruits
Persimmon varieties with sweet pulp
Persimmon varieties with sweet pulp that do not change color during ripening and storage include: Jiro, Krymchanka 55, Nakhodka, Kiara, Meotse saukune, Fuyu, Twentieth century, Wren, Crimean, Excellent, Triumph, Sharon, Golden, Hope, Gypsy, Harvest, Eastern, Hianume, Ukrainian, Dawn, Dawn, Chocolate and others. Fruits acquire the sweet taste of pulp after the appearance of a characteristic varietal color on them, even if the pulp itself is still hard.
Varieties of persimmon with tart pulp
Large-fruited varieties of Tanenashi and Khachia were obtained from Virginian Rossiyanka. Seedles with brownish pulp, medium-large, Zorka-187 with characteristic flattened fruits. They remain tart until biologically mature and acquire sweetness after full biological maturation and maturation or light freezing.
In addition to the above, these include the varieties Gosho, Soyo, Tsuru, Costata, Adreula, Emon, Aizu-Mishirazu, Mechta, Novinka, Nikitskaya burgundy, Mider, John Rick, Weber, Autumn Souvenir, Century, Varying, Golden Autumn, Abundant , Yalta, Friendship, Crane, Adjara.
Varieties of persimmon with increased frost resistance
Varieties of persimmon with increased frost resistance, the most common among gardeners of the Crimea and the southern regions, some areas of the middle zone, where it is possible to grow persimmon in open ground without shelter and with shelter, include Rossiyanka, Gora Goverla and Gora Roman-Kosh, Eastern, Virginian, Caucasian, Mider, Korolek, Nikitskaya burgundy, Golden, Souvenir of Autumn, Nakhodka, Dawn, Krymchanka, Nikitskaya burgundy, Southern beauty, Golden autumn. They are able to endure short-term frosts down to -20..-30 °С.
Varieties of persimmons by maturity
It is best to grow early persimmon varieties of large and medium fruit in summer cottages.
- Ultra early: Ukrainka, Izobilnaya, Yankin-Tsuru. The fruits are ready for harvest in late August - early September.
- Early: Satellite, Hyakume, Chocolate, Asterisk, Golden, Southern Beauty. The fruits are harvested in the 2nd - 3rd decade of September.
- Medium: South Coast, Batumi II, Tempting, Dawn, Dawn, Khachia, Souvenir of Autumn, Dream, Crane, Kuro-Kuma, Gaily, Pollinator-48. The fruits are harvested in October.
The varieties of persimmons listed above are annually replenished with more modern ones, with improved economic properties. But you need to remember: the older the variety, the more resistant it is to frost, drought, fog and other climatic disasters. Therefore, for growing in the country, it is better to purchase old proven varieties.Virgin persimmon seedling. © Darryl McCullough
Promising varieties of persimmon
Among the above-considered varieties, one can single out a group of the most promising ones for country cultivation: Zolotistaya, Autumn Souvenir, Nakhodka, Zorka, Krymchanka, Southern beauty, Rossiyanka, Nikitsky burgundy, Pollinator-48, Tempting, Mechta, Zvezdochka, Gold autumn.
When selecting persimmon varieties for growing in the country, be sure to familiarize yourself with the zoned local varieties in advance. Enter their name and a brief description in your garden diary.
Dates of planting persimmon seedlings
In southern regions with early hot spring and bright dry sun persimmon seedlings are recommended to be planted in autumn. A long warm time will allow the young tree to take root and adapt to the new environment, and early regeneration of their root system will begin in the spring.
In cooler regions, persimmon seedlings are planted in spring. In this case, planting carried out in sufficiently warm soil (+14-15 °С) will contribute to better development of the root system, and a moderately warm climate (+18..+20-22 °С) will ensure the development of the upper part of the plants.
Persimmon seedlings for autumn planting are purchased not earlier than the third decade of October - the first decade of November in specialized stores or firms. By this time, the wood of the seedling has time to mature. A seedling with matured wood has a brownish bark.
Persimmon seedlings with greenish bark are not worth buying. They will not survive the winter frosts and will die. After autumn planting, seedlings need to be covered from frost and protected from rodents. The frost resistance of the culture increases with age. Therefore, in the first 3-4 years, even frost-resistant varieties need shelters.
For spring planting, persimmon seedlings bought in autumn are added in drops and in the spring in the third decade of March - the first half of April they are planted in a permanent place. It is more reliable to determine the timing of planting by the temperature of the soil in the root layer.
It is better to buy 2-3 seedlings, one of which should be a pollinator (male variety). You can pick up self-fertile or female varieties, get by with 2 seedlings with a lack of free space suitable for planting persimmons. Keep in mind that persimmons bear fruit self-fertile female and some male varieties. With cross-pollination, large-fruitedness increases and fewer fruits fall off in the process of development and maturation.Persimmon seedling protected from rodents
Rules for planting persimmons in the open field
In general, planting and caring for persimmons is carried out in the same way as for apple trees and peaches. Landing pits are prepared in advance, of the usual size. Usually its dimensions are 40-60x40 - 60x40-60 cm. The distance between plantings, depending on the future variety, is at least 4-5-6 m. The final volume of the planting pit is prepared before planting, according to the size of the root system of the seedling. The depth depends on the type of soil.
If it is necessary to install drainage or introduce a large amount of humus, sand, the depth of the pit is increased to 60-80 cm. At the bottom, a drainage is formed from crushed stone, broken brick, pebbles 15-20 cm high, especially if groundwater is close to the surface or soil clayey and slowly passes water.
The day before planting, the root system of persimmon seedlings is slightly shortened and the central conductor is cut to 80-90 cm. The root is soaked in a solution of root or zircon, another similar preparation. The soil from the pit is mixed with 1 - 2 buckets of humus or mature compost. Add a glass of nitroammophoska, you can kemira. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and part of the slide is transferred to the pit. A support is installed in the center, preferably a wooden one, to which a planted seedling will then be tied with a soft tourniquet through a figure eight.
A persimmon seedling is planted in the center of a soil mound in a hole. The root is straightened along the sides of the hill and covered with soil mixture to the middle. Lightly crush with your hands and pour a bucket of sun-warmed water. Fill up all the remaining soil.
At the final planting, the root collar should be at the level of the soil, which means that the graft will then be higher. A mound (side) 5-6 cm high, about 1 m in diameter is poured around the planted persimmon tree, so that the water does not spread over the soil surface, but wets the soil in the planting pit. Pour 3-4 buckets of water. After soaking up water, the soil around the seedling is mulched. During the growing season, weeds are removed. The soil around the seedling should be constantly loose and mulched.Oriental persimmon tree age 7 years. © tonyOmahaz5
Outdoor care for persimmons
Persimmon crown formation begins the year following planting. The height of the trunk is left 50-60 cm. The crown is formed according to a sparse-tiered system or in the shape of a bowl, which makes it possible to reduce the height of the tree: this is very important for winter shelter (if necessary) and harvesting.
Persimmons are usually grown in warm, and therefore generally dry, areas. Persimmon is considered an irrigated crop. In the first year, watering is carried out 3 times a month (without flooding). With age, their number is reduced to 3-4 times during the growing season, including autumn moisture charging before winter shelter. If the year is rich in rains, do not water the persimmon.
The best persimmon fertilizer is organic. Depending on age, they bring under one tree in the spring from 0.5 to 2 - 3 buckets of humus once every 3-4 years. From mineral fertilizers, a year later, a full mineral fertilizer (nitrophoska, kemira, others) is applied under the tree in the spring.
Before flowering, 1-2 cups of ash gives a good effect. Fertilizers are applied into special grooves around the crown or into dug holes, closed and watered. Good results in saturating the soil with the necessary nutrients are provided by winter sowing of green manure. In the spring, trying not to injure the roots, they are finely buried in the soil.
Protection of persimmon from pests and diseases
Most often, persimmon is affected by scab. For protection, spraying the crown with 1% Bordeaux mixture is used during the phases of leaf blooming, budding and mass formation of ovaries. Among other diseases, gray rot is common, causing massive shedding of ovaries, and powdery mildew. Under adverse climatic conditions, cracks appear on the branches, bark of boles, shoots, through which infection with bacterial cancer occurs, which leads to the formation of ulcers and death of plants.
From other fungal diseases, the aerial mass of persimmon is affected by black spot of leaves and shoots, fusarium. Persimmon is susceptible to bacterial burns. A neglected disease even affects the roots of the plant.
It is expedient in a small garden to use biological preparations (phytosporin, mukosan, gaupsin, trichodermin, glyokladin, planriz, etc.) for protection against diseases that do not harm human and animal health. In all cases, biological preparations should be used only in accordance with the recommendations. An independent change in the concentration of solutions will not give the expected effect.
Among pests of persimmon, the soft scale insect, odorous woodworm, seaside mealybug are common. With a high number of pests, they populate the entire tree, severely damage the generative organs and young shoots. Over time, they cause complete abscission of leaves, ovaries, create conditions for secondary infection with fungal (“niello”), which, covering the organs of the plant with a dense black film, prevent the passage of metabolic processes. A tree in an advanced form of infection may die.
The fight against pests, as well as diseases, when growing persimmons in summer cottages, is best done with biological products, using Bikol, Boverin, Aktofit, Akarin. The last 2 biological preparations are effective against the mealybug, but only when processed in warm weather (+18..+28 °C).
If the tree is severely affected by the mealybug, then, in the bud phase and no later than 30-40 days before harvesting, you can use a chemical preparation (which is undesirable in the country) confidor-extra for spraying. According to gardeners, it effectively destroys worms.
Among biologics with double action against pests on persimmons, gaupsin can be used, which destroys not only fungal diseases, but also a number of pests.Persimmon harvest. © Helen Norman
Harvesting and storing persimmons
The fruits are harvested by hand, very carefully so as not to injure the delicate skin. The beginning of the collection is determined by the color of the fruit characteristic of the variety. Store crops in baskets and boxes.
To prolong the freshness of persimmon, it is stored at a temperature of 0..-1 °C. Storage time up to 3 months. Soft to the touch persimmon is ready to use, its flesh will not be astringent. Freezing in refrigerators is the best way to store persimmons. Fast freezing preserves all the quality indicators of the fruit. At the same time, the fruits become sweeter, their astringency goes away. The shelf life is extended up to 6 months.
Persimmon. Growing at home. Caring for persimmons at home
Growing exotic plants at home is not an exception these days, but rather the norm. Many do this, but not many know how to handle them so that they develop normally, and even give at least some kind of harvest. Caring for persimmons is no different from caring for lemons, feijoas, figs, pomegranates, etc.
1 Growing at home
2 Useful uses of persimmons
3 Main varieties
For normal development of this plant, it is necessary to maintain the required temperature and humidity, both in summer and in winter. This is especially true for the winter period. For its overwintering, certain conditions are necessary: the temperature is not more than +10 degrees, the light is not necessary, but regular, although not plentiful, watering is needed. For this, a basement or cellar may be suitable, if there are none, then you can insulate a balcony or loggia or use an unheated pantry. This period starts from the end of October and ends in February. As for the rest of the year, it only benefits her, including the high summer temperature. At this time, she feels good in the open air, where there is a lot of heat and light.
Persimmon from the stone. There is an opinion that persimmon seeds do not germinate well and they need special treatment before planting. For this purpose, many instructions and wishes have been written. But if it is decided to plant a stone of a fruit that has just been eaten, then none of this is required. Their germination decreases sharply during long-term storage, and only then will it be necessary to carry out "resuscitation" measures in order for the seeds to germinate. And so the bone is taken, sprinkled with earth, regularly watered, and after two weeks maximum, you can see powerful shoots.
Feeding and watering. In order for a young, newly appeared tree to grow successfully further at home, it needs to be watered and fed. It should be recalled that this is a tropical plant and needs tropical conditions. Only in this case, you can count on the harvest. Despite this, ordinary persimmon can tolerate 20 degree frosts, and its virgin form is even more than -40 degrees. It is best to water with soft (rain) water, but if this is strained, then you can soften the usual one by taking a handful of peat, wrap it in a rag and lower it into a bowl of water overnight.
Persimmon prefers light soils and does not tolerate heavy soils - this should be remembered when growing it at home. As for top dressing, the persimmon feels fine on poor soils. Therefore, it is better to underfeed her than to overfeed her. This applies to both mineral and organic fertilizers.
Transplant. In the process of growth, this tree needs to be replanted several times, so the volume of the root system increases. In the first year, when the seedling is growing rapidly, it will have to be transplanted 2-3 times, the next year and up to 3 years of age - every six months; after 3 years - every year, and after 5 years of life - every other year. During transplantation, it is not recommended to immediately greatly increase the volume of the container. With each transplant, the diameter of the pot increases by no more than 3-4 cm.
Crown formation. Persimmon is a tree and can grow at home to large sizes. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to control its growth, while forming a compact crown. Usually, a spherical crown is formed. To do this, when reaching 35-40 cm in height, pinch its top with side shoots. This is also done in order to limit the growth of this tree, resulting in a small compact tree with a spherical crown.
Fruiting and grafting. There are myths that it is impossible to get fruits from persimmon, growing it at home, and, therefore, why do it. But if you know some of the nuances of its agricultural technology, then this task becomes such and not difficult. Basic conditions for harvesting:
- Proper organization of wintering. It is at the time of wintering that the persimmon lays the next year's crop. It requires cold wintering, despite the fact that it is a very heat-loving plant. The optimum temperature is 0..+5 degrees. As you know, she calmly endures winter with frosts of -20 degrees.
- Permanent inhibition of growth due to shortening of fast growing shoots.
- Keep her on a "diet". In no case do not overfeed, as this will only cause its rapid growth.
- Graft cuttings from already fruiting persimmons. This will speed up the fruiting process.
- Growing a tree in a small amount of soil limits the development of a large root system. A disproportionate root system will contribute to an overdose of nutrients, and therefore the tree will grow sickly and frail.
- to accelerate the appearance of fruit buds, you can ring individual branches, but in no case - ring the trunk.
If these recommendations are followed, over time it will be possible to rejoice at the appearance of the first flowers, and with the onset of winter, pick the first fruits. This miracle can happen as early as the third year of life.
Useful use of persimmon
Persimmon contains many vitamins (C, PP, E, A), as well as a large number of microelements (potassium, phosphorus, iodine, copper, manganese, iron, calcium). Which in turn help with beriberi, scurvy, increase the number of red blood cells.
In addition, it has antibacterial properties and is able to neutralize various Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. With poor heart function, cardiologists prescribe it to remove excess fluid from the body. To reduce the load on the kidneys, it is recommended to drink it with milk. It can not be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis - a daily dose of about 100g. It helps to calm the nervous system, increases efficiency, helps restore brain function in case of lesions and hemorrhages. With violations of the thyroid gland helps the body, making up for the lack of iodine.
Its fruits can be successfully used as a source of valuable sucrose and are recommended for "Kremlin" and vegetarian diets. Persimmon is an integral part of salads, meat dishes and in the preparation of various desserts and drinks.
There are three types of persimmon:
- Persimmon Verginskaya. It can be found mainly in the western United States and the Mediterranean. The fruits of this variety have a high (about 45%) sugar content and they are of great nutritional value, despite their average size (from 2 to 6 cm in diameter).