How often to water plum tree
How Much Water Do Plum Trees Need?
Plum trees need deep watering once every 2 weeks in their early growth stages. Established trees only need monthly watering. Give your trees water using a soaker hose. Let the water run for 5 to 10 minutes each time. Always water your trees all the way past the dripline. Plum trees prefer moist, well-draining soil. You can easily overwater your trees. So, be sure to stick to a strict watering schedule. Remember to account for the changing weather conditions, too.
Table of Contents
How Much Water Do Plum Trees Need Per Day?
Plum trees do not need water daily. Water your young trees once every 14 days. Give your trees water monthly once they’re established. Let your soaker hose run 5 to 10 minutes each time to fully saturate the roots.
- Do not water your plum trees daily.
- Water your young trees about once every 14 days.
- Decrease watering to once a month for well-established trees.
- Let your soaker hose run for up to 10 minutes each time.
- Increase watering frequency when drought conditions occur.
Increase watering frequency when temperatures rise to summer highs or during periods of drought. Plum trees prefer moist soil. But it cannot get waterlogged. Otherwise, the roots will fail to pick up enough oxygen and nutrients to support growth. Remember, plum trees have precise sun exposure needs, so you must make sure the soil does not dry out due to hot temperatures and direct sunlight.
How Do You Water Plum Trees?
Water your plum trees deeply once every 2 weeks through the first year. Reduce watering to once per month after that. Use a soaker hose to evenly apply water all around your trees. Let the hose run for up to 10 minutes at a time.
- Water your young plum trees every 2 weeks.
- Once your plum tree is over a year old, reduce watering to once per month.
- Use a soaker hose to evenly add water all the way around each tree.
- Let the hose run for up to 10 minutes to deeply soak the roots.
- Always water out past the drip line to nourish the critical root zone.
Water out past the dripline for the best results. The dripline is the area underneath the canopy of branches. The critical root zone lies just beneath the edges of the tree canopy. The roots in that area need extra care to ensure your plum trees stay healthy. Once your plums are properly watered and thriving, check out our guide to harvesting plums at the right time.
Do Plum Trees Like Wet or Dry Soil?
Plum trees do not prefer overly wet or dry soil. They thrive in soil kept evenly moist throughout the year. PLum tree roots cannot take up enough nutrients and oxygen when the soil is overly saturated with water. On the other hand, dry soil dries out the cells of the tree and starves it of nutrients. Both too little and too much water can kill your plum trees.
- Plum trees grow best in moist, well-draining soil.
- Plum roots cannot absorb enough nutrients if the soil gets too dry or wet.
- The right soil matters when it comes to maintaining the right moisture levels.
- Amend the soil as needed to create a well-draining mix for your plum trees.
The right soil makes all the difference in keeping your tree’s roots adequately moist. The soil should drain within a day or two after heavy rainfall. Soil that stays moist for far longer than that could benefit from the addition of sand, perlite, or vermiculite. In addition, the soil should not get hard and compacted as it dries out. Add peat moss to reduce soil compaction and encourage healthy root growth.
Can You Overwater Plum Trees?
Plum trees can suffer from overwatering. They do not like to sit in overly saturated soil. The soil where your plum tree is planted needs to drain well to allow the roots to thrive. Roots that get too wet cannot properly absorb oxygen. The excess water also makes it difficult for the roots to absorb enough nutrients.
- You can easily overwater your plum trees.
- Plums grow poorly in wet soil.
- Too much water prevents roots from absorbing nutrients and oxygen.
- Avoid overwatering your trees by adjusting your approach to the weather conditions.
You can prevent overwatering your trees by staying in tune with the weather. Try to keep the soil reasonably moist year-round. Skip the watering session if you get a lot of rain that keeps your soil moist. Adding irrigation on top of natural rainfall is a surefire way to overwater your plum trees.
How Do You Know If Plum Trees Need Water?
Plum trees only show signs they need water when they are overly dehydrated. At that point, their leaves will wilt and start to turn brown. You do not want to wait until that happens. Otherwise, it might be difficult to impossible to help your trees recover.
- Plum trees only display signs of needing water once they get severely dehydrated.
- Dehydrated trees will have wilting leaves that turn brown on the edges.
- Do not wait until your trees get dehydrated to give them water.
- Keep your trees on a strict watering schedule to avoid dehydration.
- Adjust how much you water to account for the changing weather conditions.
Avoid severe dehydration by keeping your trees on a regular watering schedule. Start by watering your young trees once every 14 days. Then, move to monthly watering sessions after the first year of your plum tree’s life. Adjust your watering approach to account for the weather conditions. Give your plum trees more water when temperatures rise above 80°F (26°C). Hot weather can dry out the soil quickly. In extreme heat, you may need to water 2–4 times per month. Once the soil feels dry to the touch, your plum tree needs water.
Does a Plum Tree Require Lots of Water?
Plum trees have moderate watering needs. In order to properly water plums, follow these tips:
- Plum trees need water once every 2 weeks for the first year after planting.
- After the first year, reduce the watering frequency to once per month.
- Use a soaker hose to thoroughly irrigate the root zone for 10 minutes at each watering session.
- Aim to keep the soil in your plum tree’s root zone moist but not wet.
- If the soil is soggy or marshy, your plum tree is overwatered.
- If the soil is dry to the touch, it’s time to water your plum tree.
- IN temperatures above 80°F (26°C), increase watering frequency to maintain moist soil.
Plum trees will reward you with sweet, juicy fruit every season when you meet their watering needs. So, take the time to get it right, and then enjoy fantastic harvests every year.
Advice for Taking Care of Plum Trees
Plum trees are great additions to any landscape not only for the added beauty, but also for the delicious fruit crop that adds a tasty bonus to every spring. Plums are delicious when consumed fresh from the tree, baked in pies, and even made into jelly. With the proper knowledge of taking care of plum trees, they can prove to be easier to grow than any other fruit tree, making them a favorite among novice arborists.
Whether you are thinking about planting a new plum tree in your yard or have inherited an older one, there are some important steps to follow for proper care.Make a plan before you plant a plum tree.
This will help you avoid future issues with disease and ensure a healthy and fruitful tree year after year. If you are planting a new plum tree, you should start by choosing a variety that will thrive where you live. European Plum trees are hardy and do well in most regions of the U.S., whereas other plum trees do best in warm climates.
Once you choose a variety that fits your climate, you should plan out where you will plant your new tree and prepare the land. Plum trees do best in full sun and well-drained locations. While they can grow in most types of soil, plums thrive in acidic to neutral soil with pH levels between 5. 0-6.5. It is a good idea to test your soil to make sure you do not need additional fertilizer to get the pH level right.Feeding your plum tree
with all-purpose organic fertilizer may be necessary to promote healthy growth, but there are a few things to consider. First, regularly test your soil to make sure you choose the correct fertilizer if any is needed at all. Over-fertilizing can cause unwanted growth and decrease the amount of fruit production.
In the first year of planting a new plum tree, fertilize only once in the early spring before the leaves appear. Then, fertilize twice in the second year, once in the early spring and then again in early autumn.In addition to fertilizer, it is a good idea to apply mulch
around your plum tree, but make sure to avoid the trunk. Mulch is a layer of organic material typically made of leaf debris, bark, or compost. This step, in addition to fertilizer, will help enrich the soil, prevent weed growth, retain water in dry months, and provide warmth in the winter.
You should apply mulch annually in the first four years of your new plum tree and its best done in mid-spring. To help protect your tree from the winter, apply another layer of mulch in the fall. When taking care of plum trees, providing the proper nutrients is essential in promoting healthy fruit production.Just as important as feeding your plum tree, it’s equally important to provide adequate water.
Young plum trees need to be watered at least once a week to promote healthy root growth. Once the tree is established, it requires regular watering, especially in the dry summer months.
Deeply water your plum tree once every two to four weeks. This ensures that the soil is saturated down to the root line, but also has time to dry out a bit.
Watering too much or too little can cause stress-related diseases, so always make sure you are checking for dry or waterlogged soil. Properly feeding and watering your plum tree is crucial for a strong root system, which will help increase the tree’s drought resistance and prevent against disease and infestation.Regular pruning is a key responsibility
that will help promote the overall health of your plum tree. It may sound intimidating, but pruning plum trees is less demanding than many other fruit trees and itis necessary in maintaining the shape and fruit crop.
It’s important to know what to look for when pruning so that you are not removing more than necessary. Only trim branches that are diseased, broken, or dead and make sure to trim back to undamaged wood. Also, remove any suckers or shoots that grow at the base of the trunk; these can compete for water and nutrients and negatively affect the health and crop of the tree.
When taking care of plum trees, avoid pruning in the off season. Trimming in the summer, fall, or early winter can be detrimental to the health of your tree and make it more susceptible to disease. Late winter or early spring is the best time to prune because your tree is dormant. The cuts heal more quickly and diseases are less active in these seasons. You can always call one of our arborists if you don’t want to prune your own tree, but nevertheless, it is an important part of taking care of plum trees and should not be neglected.
Because they produce a large fruit crop, plum branches can break due to excessive weight. Pruning in the late winter or early spring will help ensure a healthy and strong tree, but you may need to perform fruit thinning as well. Fruit thinning is when you remove fruit right when they begin to show on the tree. Ideally, you want to remove smaller plums so that the remaining fruit have 4-6 inches between them. Fruit thinning reduces damage that could lead to infestation or disease.
Taking care of plum trees doesn’t require a lot of work or time. With a little attention, your plum tree will gift you with beauty and fruit for years to come.
How to water the plum correctly? - Magazine "Sovhozik"
Watering and feeding plums
From the third year of life, plums need special attention. It should be borne in mind that the plum has a feature of resuming growth in the fall. Especially in warm and rainy autumn, plum trees begin to grow actively. In connection with this phenomenon, in the second half of summer, plums should not be fertilized with organic fertilizers, nitrogenous mixtures and liquid top dressings. Watering should be limited. Mulching the soil around trees should also not be done.
The most optimal time for watering plums is the spring-summer period, that is, during the development of buds, flowering and formation of the ovary.
Watering and feeding plums
Depending on the amount of natural precipitation, water consumption during irrigation is 30-50 liters per tree. The soil should be moist but not swampy. Over-watering plum trees can lead to waterlogging of the trunk circles and harm the fruit tree.
In early spring, a fertilizer complex containing ammonium sulfate is applied to the soil around plum trees. In acidic soil, it is recommended to add lime-ammonium nitrate.
Mulch the soil around young trees with compost or rotted manure at a distance from the tree trunk to keep it clean.
Particular attention should be paid to the fact that plum loves alkaline soil. Therefore, plum dressing requires the mandatory application of lime or wood ash to the soil.
Soil acidity can be determined using a litmus paper test. To do this, you need to take a handful of soil after rain or moisten dry soil with boiled water and tightly attach a test sheet of paper.
Red paper indicates high acidity of the soil. Pink color indicates that the soil is slightly acidic or neutral.
Plums are top dressed with organic fertilizers every 2-3 years during the autumn digging of the soil.
Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers are applied annually in autumn.
During the growing season, in early spring, it is necessary to feed plums with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Many gardeners practice foliar feeding of plums. For this, a 0.5% solution of urea is used.
The crown of trees is sprayed 2-3 times with an interval of 7-10 days. A non-hot day is chosen for spraying, and it is better to carry out this procedure in the evening. Such top dressing increases fruiting.
Summer watering of plum crops
Plum care should be based on knowledge of agrotechnical rules. They are easy to remember and take into account in the growing process. However, these "little things" have a significant impact on the quality and quantity of the crop. One of the most important nuances is the moistening of the tree during the fruiting period. How to water a plum in the summer, not all gardeners know, and for this reason they sometimes lose most of the crop.
Features of plum trees
Plum is a stone fruit crop that needs a lot of moisture due to the special location of the root system. Its roots lie close to the soil surface, most of the shoots are located at a depth of up to 50 cm. In a dry summer, in the absence of proper care for the crop, fruit shedding is possible.
Waterlogging is also dangerous: the close location of groundwater and excessive watering of the plums lead to a violation of the aeration of the earth, and then to rotting of the roots.
Due to the risk of destruction of plantings, it is not recommended to plant plums in places with a close location of groundwater. The best place would be a small hill or hill.
The greatest amount of moisture is necessary for draining during flowering and ovary formation, especially in hot weather. Due to such conditions, the anthers and pistils dry out, which leads to the difficulties of fertilization.
At the time of active irrigation, wetted areas are amenable to reclamation work.
Irrigation depending on the climate
The annual level of precipitation in the middle zone does not affect the need for stone fruit crops in water. But in certain periods (flowering and the formation of ovaries), the planted plum should be treated more carefully. Agrotechnical measures must be adjusted to rainfall or lack of precipitation.
In the absence of precipitation in late May - early June, the gardener should apply a large amount of water under each plum. This is necessary for the growth of shoots and the formation of ovaries. With a lack of moisture fruits:
If it is difficult to keep track of the frequency of watering, it is worth taking care of grafting the planted tree. For rootstock, a turn is suitable, which is highly resistant to drought.
During the flowering period, increased air humidity contributes to the deterioration of pollination of flowering. During the fruiting period, signs of root rot are possible. You can identify such problems by the state of annual shoots - they do not ripen and can dry at the top, the fruits can crack.
If the summer was dry, and at the end of the season there were heavy rains, signs of secondary flowering and active growth of shoots are possible. If the gardener does not pay attention to the plum, its immunity is reduced, which will lead to the freezing of the plant in winter. Most often, such problems arise when growing the Chinese plum, which has a short dormant period and requires special care.
Summer moisture schedule
In summer, during fruit set, plums need a lot of water. Calculate the norm according to the projection of the crown. Apply under the root should be 50-60 liters of water per m².
During fruiting and ripening of fruits, the norms decrease. During the summer, the plum planted in the garden is watered 4-5 times:
- During the formation of ovaries.
- 2-3 weeks after first watering.
- When fruit is growing and pitting (2-3 weeks after second watering).
- During ripening.
Last summer watering after harvest. Finish the season with watering after the end of the growing season.
Automatic watering system is convenient and easy to use
Calculation of the amount of water
During fruiting, watering the stone fruit is limited to 7-8 buckets of water per tree. More water is dangerous for the crop.
The older the plant, the more water it needs. You can water with a bucket or watering can, or use automatic systems. Moisten the soil should be 1 m deep. The frequency of events is controlled by the condition of the soil: it should not dry out completely. With a lack of moisture, the fruits lose their appearance, can dry out and crumble.
Plum is a moisture-loving crop. Trees planted in the garden during the growing season are watered 4-5 times. During fruiting, the volume of water introduced is reduced due to the risk of cracking the fruit. Take into account seasonal climatic features.
Source: http://seloved.ru/sliva/kak-polivat-letom. html
Rules for watering plums in summer
Nature does not always care about watering the garden in time and in the right amount. In such cases, gardeners take on this responsibility, but not everyone knows how to do it right. You should figure out how to water the plum in the summer.
Peculiarities of culture
Plum is a crop that includes about 250 species. Many representatives of the genus are well-known fruit trees. A huge number of varieties are known, today there are about 2000. They differ in color, shape and taste.
The period of fruit ripening depends on the variety and runs from the beginning of July to the end of October. Late varieties are considered especially tasty after the first frost.
Most of the trees are of low height, with a rather shallow root system that forms an abundance of undergrowth. During flowering it is covered with white flowers. After ripening, the fruits acquire all kinds of colors, ranging from light yellow to almost black.
All species growing in garden plots can be grouped under one name - house plum. It came from crossing cherry plum and blackthorn. It does not occur in the wild.
Plum is demanding in the choice of soil in which it will grow and bear fruit. When planting in mid-latitudes, you need to choose warm, well-warmed areas by the sun. If possible, preference should be given to the southern and southwestern slopes. Do not choose lowlands where rain and melt water will accumulate.
The optimal planting time starts from the end of April and lasts until the middle of May. This interval is good because the soil already has time to warm up with the spring sun, but does not dry out yet.
Seedlings should not be placed too close, the distance between them should be at least 3 m. This is necessary for the free growth of branches and the formation of a correct crown. The near-trunk circle should be at least 2 m.
The hole should be 60 cm deep. The root collar is level with the ground or 3-4 cm higher, but not lower than ground level. The roots are sprinkled with the top layer of soil, lightly tamped. If voids remain that are not filled with earth, the roots will dry out. Vigorous varieties are fixed with pegs for the first 2 years to form a strong and even trunk.
Watering starts at the end of the planting process. At this stage, 3 buckets will suffice. This will saturate the seedling with water and help compact the soil around the tree.
For an experienced gardener, there is nothing difficult in this matter. A beginner summer resident may not know all the subtleties. Depending on the age of the tree, there will be differences in watering.
- The first year of the plant's life. During this period, the earth is still poorly compacted and the root system is not strong. Irrigation will be most effective with a watering can, sprinkler. You can put the hose in the near-trunk circle of the seedling and turn on a slight pressure of water.
- In the second year after planting. By this time, the plant is strengthening and does not require such constancy in moisture as in the previous year. Watering is necessary in the absence of rain for a long time. The main indicator is dry cracked earth, just dig it with a shovel to check.
- Tree age up to 15 years. Irrigation is carried out at the time of fruit ripening and in summer. In autumn, to prepare the tree for winter. After each time, you need to mulch the soil with manure.
- Trees older than 15 years must be fed. Fertilizers scattered around will not bring anything useful to the tree. It is worth making several recesses in the ground around the perimeter and pour fertilizer into each (preferably choose a complex one), after which wetting is carried out. Feeding will be enough for the next few years.
It is important to control soil moisture according to the age of the plant. The decrease in yield directly depends on this factor. The soil should be wet, but not like a swamp. This type of fruit trees has a feature - the resumption of growth in a warm autumn. The amount of moisture in the second half of summer should be limited.
No additional water is required during the spring season. The soil is moistened after winter with melted snow. It rains abundantly in autumn, but in the summer, moisturizing is carried out especially carefully. Choosing a method and determining the amount of moisture is based on several important factors:
- plant age;
- tree variety;
- soil type and moisture;
- how long ago it rained.
It is advisable to water at the beginning of each phase: active growth, budding, crop formation. Young trees planted in the spring of this year are moistened on average every 2 weeks. The plant that has not yet reached the fruiting phase should be irrigated in June and July. Here you should use the following rule: it is better rarely and a lot than often, but not enough.
The first watering is carried out a few weeks before flowering. It is recommended to make in the morning and in the evening. During periods of prolonged drought and at night.
During dry summers, trees should be refreshed. This will positively affect the general condition of the garden. Fruit plants need soil and air moisture. The last moistening in the fall should be carried out before the first frost, so as not to overcool the roots.
Flowering and fruiting season
Insufficient moisture will certainly affect flowering, and subsequently the number of fruits. Poor moisture supply during the fruiting stage will subsequently result in fruits that:
- do not sap;
- do not grow to the right size;
- take the wrong form;
- are crumbling.
Abundant wetting of the soil is carried out during the activity of the tree - flowering and the formation of ovaries on the branches. At the stage of crop ripening, an increase in the level of air humidity contributes to rotting of the roots and the spread and development of diseases, in particular, fungal ones. The presence of a problem is detected by the external state of annual shoots - they do not ripen and dry out at the top, at which time the fruits crack.
Watering during fruiting
During the period of fruit ripening, an average of 7 buckets for any tree is enough to wet the ground. More moisture will not increase the yield, but will certainly lead to rotting of the fruit. The older the plant, the more water it requires. The soil should be moistened 60-100 cm deep.
Heavy rainfall throughout the year is not an indication of the moisture content of the soil in which the tree grows. Moisture distribution is controlled according to the growing season. During the rest period, hydration must be stopped and increased during the period of activity.
Proper and timely watering of the plum is the most important factor for the growth of a healthy and long-lived tree. In this process, pay special attention to the fruiting period to form an abundant amount of fruit. Seasonality and climatic features of the area are important.
Proper watering for plum
Of the stone fruit crops, plum is the most demanding on moisture. This is due to the superficial location of the root system. The main part of the roots lies at a depth of 20-40 cm. With a lack of water, the trees grow poorly and bear little fruit. At the same time, waterlogging caused by the close (less than 2 m) location of groundwater, or even the temporary standing of flood waters, worsens soil aeration and causes suffocation of active roots. This is manifested in the weakening of growth, the non-ripening of annual shoots, dry tops. With periodic waterlogging trees often freeze slightly and fall prematurely. Waterlogged areas need land reclamation. To do this, drainage ditches are arranged around the garden plot, and plum seedlings are planted on mounds 60–80 cm high.
It is important that their loss or watering occurs evenly throughout the growing season - from the beginning of bud break to the start of fruit ripening. In spring and in the first half of summer, a large amount of water is required for the growth of shoots and the formation of ovaries. Drought during this period weakens the growth of shoots, causes shedding of ovaries. During a prolonged drought the fruits become smaller, wilt, wrinkle and, not reaching the required size, fall off. In arid regions, for the successful cultivation of plums, a turn is used as a rootstock, which is characterized by high drought resistance.
Dry hot weather during flowering causes the anthers and pistils to dry out, resulting in difficult fertilization and reduced plum yield. High air humidity during flowering is also unfavorable, prolonged fogs interfere with the normal flight of bees and other insects, make it difficult to cross-pollinate self-fertile varieties, thereby reducing yields. Abundance of precipitation during fruit ripening contributes to their cracking and the spread of fungal diseases (gray rot). Late summer doges can cause secondary growth of shoots and even secondary flowering after a long summer drought. In such years, the plants weaken, do not have time to undergo the necessary hardening and freeze slightly in winter. Most often, secondary growth and flowering are observed in Chinese plum varieties that have a very short dormant period.
How to water the plum tree
Watering trees: from seedling to mature tree
Fruit trees in different periods of their existence in the garden require a different approach to watering. So, when and how much to water, so that the orchard annually rejoices with its harvest?
Watering fruit trees in the year of planting
Sooner or later the gardener has to plant new fruit trees in his garden. Naturally, after planting, the seedling must be watered. It does not matter when you planted it: in the spring in moisture-saturated soil, in the summer, planted out of the container, or in the fall. Watering is still needed.
The first watering not only makes it possible to saturate the seedling with water, but to a greater extent is required to compact the soil around the root system. Therefore, you should not just pour 2 buckets of water under the seedling, watching how it spreads over the entire area, washing away the loose earth around the seedling. It is better to put a sprinkler, making the water pressure small so that the spray does not fly further than the trunk circle.
If there is no running water on the site, the first watering is best done from a watering can. By pouring the same 2 buckets of water under the seedling with a watering can, you will spend it much more efficiently.
So, the seedling is planted and watered. If the season is not very rainy, watering the seedling will be necessary regularly throughout the summer and autumn. At first, until the earth in the planting hole is compacted, you will have to water it with a sprinkler or watering can, as well as at the time of planting the seedling. Then you can simply put the hose in the trunk circle and turn on a small pressure of water.
If the summer is moderately rainy, then watering is carried out only when the soil is very dry. In rainy summers, watering may not be needed at all. In the case of a dry summer, you will have to water the seedling often and abundantly, otherwise you will simply lose it.
For a seedling of the first year of planting, watering should be carried out at least once a week. If you are watering with a sprinkler, keep track of the time. It will take about 2 hours to water (this mode refers to the average summer, you will have to water more often in a drought).
Watering trees in the second year after planting
In the second year of the tree's life on your site, watering is no longer as necessary as in the first season. Now you will water the tree only when necessary: in extreme heat or with a long absence of rain. At the beginning of spring, there is already enough water. Irrigation methods also do not depend on the timing of the ripening of the crop.
Watering should be started in the event of a long absence of rain, if the earth is dry, if you dig it with a shovel. In this case, the tree should be watered. The time and mode of watering may coincide with the mode of watering the seedling of the first year.
However, in these situations, you should not be too zealous. The fact is that over the previous season, the tree has already developed an extensive root system, which needs not only moisture, but also breathing. If water is constantly spilled around the tree, then there will be practically no air flow into the soil. As a result, the root system may rot and the tree may die.
The first sign of problems with the root system may be the drying out of newly blossomed leaves. Noticing this phenomenon, try to loosen the soil in the trunk circle. If it is an excess of moisture, then this event will increase the access of air to the roots and the tree will gradually recover.
Watering a tree from 3 to 15 years old
Trees from the age of 3 years are no longer so demanding on watering. As a rule, they are watered only in very dry summers or during the period of fruit ripening.
Also requires abundant and regular watering in autumn. This enables the tree to better prepare for winter and largely avoid frost damage.
Plentiful autumn watering is especially useful for plums and cherries. Stone fruits are vulnerable in the winter cold, but if they are well watered in the fall, then the winter will pass without much damage.
Pre-winter watering is carried out after the leaves fall from the trees. At the same time, pay attention to the fact that different breeds and varieties shed their leaves at different times, therefore, watering in the fall for each tree is individual. If possible, water 2 buckets per tree once a day for a week. In most cases, this is sufficient.
Sprinkler irrigation can be used for seedlings and young trees during hot, dry summers. However, you need to remember that this should be done in cloudy weather, and preferably in the evening at sunset or after sunset. If you use rain during the day, the water droplets focus the sunlight and the leaves will get burned.
Sprinkling of adult fruit-bearing trees is carried out as a preventive measure before possible return frosts. This treatment increases the resistance of the leafy crown to sudden temperature changes. In this case, sprinkling is carried out throughout the night and ends before dawn.
How to water a tree older than 15 years
Watering for trees over 15 years old can be combined with top dressing. However, it should be borne in mind that simply scattering mineral fertilizers on the surface or watering with nutrients diluted in water leads to a large consumption of chemicals with minimal effect. For fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, 5-6 recesses are made along the perimeter of the near-stem circle, for example, they drive scrap to a depth of 25 cm into the ground and pull it out.
A handful of complex fertilizer is poured into each such hole and sealed with earth. After that, a sprinkler is placed under the tree so that the water is evenly distributed throughout the near-trunk circle, capturing the places where fertilizers are applied. Such top dressing is enough for 2-3 years.
If organic fertilizers are applied, a trench is made around the tree along the perimeter of the trunk circle, into which manure is laid and covered with earth. Watering after this is carried out in the same way as when fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
Thus, watering a seedling or a mature tree is an important factor on which the health of your garden pet can depend.
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How to plant a plum tree in autumn?
In a large garden or cottage, there will surely be a tree that yields sweet and fragrant fruits - plums. If plum does not grow in your area, it's time to plant it. By the way, they usually do it in spring or autumn. Well, in our article we will talk about how to plant a plum in the fall.
Autumn planting of plum trees - choice of place and time
Since plum is a light and heat-loving crop, the best area for it will be small hills or hillsides where the sun's rays fall. At the same time, the site must be protected from strong winds. The tree is suitable for fertile, but at the same time loose soil. Wetlands and lands with groundwater above 1.5 m are not suitable for this purpose.
If we talk about when it is possible to transplant plums in autumn, then it is best to choose a day at the end of September, when there are no frosts yet. It is important that the sap flow of the tree slows down, but at the same time it manages to get used to the new place.How to plant a plum seedling in autumn?
Two weeks before planting, you need to dig a hole up to 60 cm deep, about 80 cm in diameter. Fertilizers mixed with the excavated soil are placed on the bottom (a bucket of rotted manure, potassium salt 65 g, superphosphate 350 g). If the soil is dense, it can be mixed with sand to improve drainage properties.
When choosing a seedling, pay attention that the plum seedling has a strong root system. For planting, it is optimal to use a one- or two-year-old seedling. It is lowered into the planting hole, the roots are carefully straightened and the earth is covered, periodically trampling it down. It is important that the root neck was located at a height of 3-4 cm from the ground level. If necessary, a stick is stuck into the hole for a tree, which will become a support for an unstable plum. Then the tree is watered and mulched with peat or hay.
If, due to circumstances, it is necessary to plant a seedling late in autumn, then for a better wintering, the plum should be buried in a small ditch obliquely and almost completely covered with earth, peat, and in winter also with snow. And already in April, a young tree can be transplanted to a permanent place.
How to replant a plum tree in autumn?
There are times when a grower needs to replant an adult plum tree to another location, such as more light or closer to other varieties of plums, to help improve yields. Keep in mind that "relocation" is tolerated well only by young trees under the age of 5 years. Two weeks before transplanting the plum in the fall, dig a hole in the new location and place fertilizer on the bottom of the hole. The tree is dug out along with an earthen clod. It is recommended to wrap the earth lump tightly with wet burlap. Then the plum is carefully placed in a prepared hole along with burlap, covered with earth, trampled down, watered with 1-2 buckets of water and mulched.
The plum falls off.
Why the plum is crumbling.
What happened to the plums (there are three of them in our dacha): the fruits set and then fall off.
Most often, of course, plums fall from those trees that are affected by pests and diseases. It severely damages the crop, in particular, the plum codling moth does this, it gives us three generations over the summer. In some years, due to this pest, up to half of the crop is lost. However, this does not apply to your plums: you have carried out protective spraying of trees in a timely manner and the dominance of the codling moth is not observed.
This means that the matter is different - the possible starvation of plums, insufficient moisture in the soil on which they grow. I don’t know whether you take into account or not that the plum is very demanding on moisture.
Moreover, she often cannot get this moisture herself, since her root system lies in the upper layer of black soil. Water the plum should be more often and do not spare water. Especially now, when the heat is unbearable and the dry earth is cracking from the hot air.
In general, it must be said that plum trees do not grow very well on dry soils, and because of this, the fruits become smaller and quickly crumble. Depending on what kind of soil you have, how deep the groundwater is, how often it rains, and you need to set the irrigation regime. But in any case, plums have to be watered at least five times per season. Moreover, with each watering, the soil must be spilled to a depth of 50-60 cm.
And 14 days before harvesting plums, experts recommend good soil moisture. They strongly emphasize that the better the nutrition of the whole tree, the more full-fledged ovary on the plum is preserved until the final fruit ripening. Unfortunately, in practice this is not always taken into account.
For some reason, it is believed that a tree is able to provide itself with everything necessary. But this is possible on well-filled, well-groomed soils at one time. The rest of the plum sometimes lacks the most necessary, which negatively affects its development and fruiting.
So, with a lack of nitrogen in the plum, not only growth decreases, the leaves turn yellow and decrease in size, but at the same time the fruits are few and the ovaries are heavily shed. If there is a lack of potassium, large ovaries crumble. The conclusion is again extremely simple - plum needs additional nutrition, and therefore the plum should be constantly fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers, especially on poor soils.
Experienced gardeners try to introduce mullein under plum trees in the first half of summer, or feed them with slurry, a solution of bird droppings and other fast-acting fertilizers.
Still, it makes sense to once again inspect the trees - whether they have a plum sawfly. In appearance, this is a nondescript bug. Its larvae carry the trouble to the fruits, which very soon eat up, not yet a solid ovary of plums. Knowing the features of the harmful effects of this insect, it is necessary to spray trees with insecticides in a timely manner.
True, the State Chemical Commission of Ukraine has not registered a single drug intended for the treatment of stone fruits. You can use a solution of Sumition (20 ml per 10 liters of water) used in industrial horticulture. But we must remember that this drug is toxic, and therefore the last treatment can be done 20 days before harvest.Advertisements.
It would seem easy to grow a plum. But only a very self-confident person and not very knowledgeable can think like that. This culture has its own specifics, subtleties. They will be discussed in the selection of materials.
Features of growth and fruiting
By the nature of fruiting varieties and types of plums are conditionally divided into three groups :
- fruiting mainly on annual growth;
- on perennial overgrown branches;
- both on annual shoots and overgrown branches.
In the first group of plums, on strong annual growths, group buds predominate - two or three in one node (usually the middle bud is leafy, and the lateral buds are flowering). Group buds are concentrated in the middle part of the shoot. Below are single flower buds. The apical and several buds closest to it are single leaf buds. The following year, bouquet twigs and spurs develop on the one-year-old shoot from the lower leaf buds. Above them, stronger growth shoots develop. Flower buds produce flowers and fruits. Bouquet twigs and spurs in varieties of the first group are very short-lived. The yield is determined by the number of flower buds on a one-year shoot. After picking the fruit, the branches become very bare, especially if single flower buds predominate. Varieties of the first group are characterized by early maturity and productivity, but require constant attention to maintaining strong shoot growth. This group includes most varieties of Chinese, Ussuri, American and Canadian plums.
Varieties of the second group are distinguished by the formation of perennial overgrown twigs or fruiting branches . They contain the bulk of the crop. For varieties of this group, it is important that there is no excessive thickening of the crown, otherwise the overgrown branches die off en masse and fruiting deteriorates. The second group includes mainly domestic plum varieties of Western European and southern origin.
Varieties of the third group have an intermediate nature of fruiting between the first and second groups . They bear fruit well both on one-year growth and on relatively short-lived 3-4-year-old overgrown branches. For varieties of the third group, along with maintaining strong growth, it is very important to change bare branches in a timely manner. Crown thickening should also not be allowed; overgrowing branches should be in favorable lighting conditions. The third group includes most of the Central Russian varieties of plums: Skorospelka red, Hungarian Moscow. Tula black, Ochakov yellow, etc.
When growing plums and pruning, it must be remembered that stone fruits have simple fruit buds, i. e. only fruits can be formed from them . On strong annual shoots there are group and single fruit buds. On weak growths, mainly single flower buds are formed. Therefore, when the growth is weakened, the branches are exposed. It is enhanced by the fact that after two to four years of fruiting, the bouquet branches and spurs die off, forming thorns.
In summer, shoot growth may stop in plum trees and then start again. In this case, secondary shoots are formed.
These features of plum growth and fruiting should be taken into account when pruning and forming a crown.Plum
Shaping and trimming
Trees are formed with a trunk 25-40 cm high, crown - from 5 - 7 well-developed and well-placed branches. It is desirable to form skeletal branches not from adjacent buds, but from 10-15 cm apart from each other , shorten them for subordination, preventing the formation of forks, changing the direction of growth. The first pruning is carried out in early spring immediately after planting. If you are late with the start, then it is better to wait until next year.
Plum pruning in the early years is necessary to form the main branches of the crown . Excess branches, which can contribute to the thickening of the crown, must be weakened or removed. For varieties that bear fruit on annual shoots (annual wood), shortening should be minimal so as not to cause excessive branching, thickening the crown . Strong (50-60 cm) annual growths of young trees bearing fruit on two-year-old wood (bouquet twigs and spurs) should be shortened more. Well-developed shoots are shortened by 1/4-1/5 of their length in order to enhance the formation of shoots and the development of spurs.
When the tree enters its full fruiting period, pruning is necessary to maintain the vigor of the shoots. If the crown is formed correctly and there is a sufficiently strong one-year growth (at least 40 cm), there is no need to shorten it . They are limited to thinning the crown with cutting out thickening, dry, improperly located and rubbing branches. With a weak growth (less than 25-30 cm), without shortening the one-year-old shoot, cut to 2-3-year-old wood above the nearest lateral branching. If the growth is even smaller (10-15 cm), rejuvenating pruning is carried out on 4-5-year-old wood, that is, perennial branches are cut to a strong lateral branching.
In grafted, well-developed trees, root shoots are removed annually to the main root of the mother plant, leaving no stumps. In root-own varieties, shoots are used for propagation. In case of severe freezing or death of the entire above-ground part, own-rooted varieties can be quickly restored by leaving two or three coppice plants at a distance of about 3 m from one another and forming them according to the described type. In the event of the death of grafted trees, 2-3 coppice plants can also be left, but they must be re-grafted with the desired varieties.Plum
Work calendar (November to December)
November - December . Regularly tread snow on the tree trunks and around the digging of seedlings to prevent mice from getting to young trees. In heavy snowfalls, shake the snow off the branches. This will reduce their breakage. For better overwintering, sprinkle dug seedlings with snow.
Before the onset of severe frosts, prepare cuttings (annual shoots 20-30 cm long) for spring grafting. Leaving the harvesting of cuttings until spring is risky, since in winter the shoots can freeze slightly and the survival rate of grafts will drop sharply. Tie the cut cuttings into bundles and store in a snow pile until spring. Inside the shoulder, the temperature is maintained at about 0″. Snow protects cuttings from drying, low winter and high spring temperatures.
January . In snowless winters, shovel snow up to tree trunks to protect roots and stems from freezing. After snowfalls, shake the snow from the branches to avoid breakage. In young gardens, after a snowfall, trample the snow around the trees to protect them from damage by mice and the accumulation of moisture in the soil.
February . Continue snow retention in the garden, repair garden tools, import fertilizers, pesticides, etc. At the end of the month, shovel snow from plum stems, free them from winter strapping. It should be immediately taken out of the garden and burned. Whitewash the stems and bases of the branches with lime mortar (3 kg of freshly slaked lime -) - 2 kg of clay per bucket of water). This will help in the winter-spring period to smooth out temperature fluctuations on the surface of the bark during the day and reduce the appearance of sunburn. 9work on cleaning boles and caring for the crown. Dig grooves to drain melt water.
When planting plums, take into account the strength of the growth of trees, depending on the soil and climatic conditions and varietal characteristics. In the southern regions of the country, on fertile soils, plum trees develop more strongly, so plant them more spaciously - with a distance of 3-4 m in a row and 5-6 m between rows, in the middle lane, Siberia and the Far East - thicker: 2-3 m in row and 3-5 m between rows.
The best time for planting plums in the middle and northern zones is spring, in the south - autumn and winter.
As soon as the soil is ripe (becomes loose, crumbly), level the area and start digging holes (if this work has not been done since autumn). The size of the planting holes depends on the size of the root system. Usually, holes are prepared with a diameter of 60-80 cm, a depth of 40-60 cm. When digging holes, discard the top layer of soil in one direction, the bottom layer in the other. Mix the top layer of soil with organic and mineral fertilizers by adding 1 bucket of rotted manure (or 2 buckets of compost), 200-300 g (2-3 handfuls) of superphosphate and 40-60 g of potassium salt (or 300-400 g of wood ash). Then put the seedling to the stake in the planting hole, straighten the roots, cover with fertile soil, compacting it with your feet so that voids do not form between the roots. Immediately after planting, make a hole around the seedling, pour water (2 buckets), tie the seedling to the stake with a figure-eight twine (loosely), mulch with peat, sawdust or loose earth. Scatter the bottom layer of soil over the area. After planting, the root neck of the plants should be at the level of the soil.
If the garden is already planted, dig up the soil under the canopy and between the rows with a fork or shovel. In order not to damage the root system, the plane of the shovel should always be in a radial direction towards the trunk. Closer to the trunk, dig smaller (to a depth of 5-10 cm), as you move away - deeper (10-15 cm). Before digging, scatter nitrogen fertilizers under the crown of trees (100-200 g per tree of urea or calcium nitrate in a young garden, 300-500 g in a fruit-bearing one). They will provide good growth and plum blossom.
Prepare smoke piles to protect flowering trees from spring frosts.
Cherries and plums are sometimes planted in lowlands, where cold air often stagnates in winter, causing damage or death of flower buds and branches. If the site is located in a lowland, the cultivation of stone fruits will have to be abandoned.
Need to know the depth of groundwater. They should not be closer than 1.5-2.0 m from the soil surface. At a closer location, cherries and plums should not be planted.
The importance of crown pruning should not be underestimated: it is sometimes carried out irregularly, which causes the crown to thicken, fruit formations die off, and fruiting becomes irregular. Trees overloaded with crops freeze even in relatively mild winters and bear little fruit. That's why you need to prune cherries and plums every year.
At the end of the month, start grafting the cuttings. This work can be done during the period of sap flow.Plum (Plum)
May . If the air temperature drops to +1°, light the smoke piles. Finish smoking 1 to 2 hours after sunrise. To mitigate the effects of frost, irrigate the soil under the trees and spray the crown with water.
In hot, dry weather, be sure to water the plums (4-6 buckets of water per tree). Before flowering, it is useful to feed the tree with organic or mineral fertilizers. Organic fertilizers (cow dung, bird droppings or feces) are diluted in water in a ratio of 1:10 and 4-6 buckets of solution are added under the tree (depending on the age of the garden). If organic fertilizers are not available, liquid mineral fertilizers are used. One tablespoon of urea is dissolved in 10 liters of water and applied in a young garden 2-3 buckets, in an adult - 4-6 buckets of liquid fertilizer per tree. To reduce moisture loss due to evaporation, immediately after top dressing, mulch the soil with peat or sawdust.
If the aisles of the garden are kept under black fallow, weeding and loosening the soil are carried out 2-3 times a month. When naturally grassed, mow the grass regularly (5-6 times during the summer) and leave it in place as mulch.
Remove wild growth or store it for propagation.
June-July . Continue caring for the plum orchard: remove weeds, loosen tree trunks and aisles. In dry years, irrigate (5-7 buckets for each tree). After flowering (at the beginning of June) and during the formation of fruits (at the end of June), it is useful to fertilize with organic and mineral fertilizers. Doses of fertilizers are the same as for spring feeding.
In good years, support the main branches.
August-September . In gardens with natural sod spacing, grass mowing is stopped. If the soil is kept under black fallow, dig the trunk circles and autumn plowing of the row-spacings. Before digging, evenly scatter organic and mineral fertilizers under the crown of trees. Good results are obtained with the alternate application of organic and mineral fertilizers (in a year). Based on one tree, organic fertilizers (humus or compost) are applied 1-2 buckets, mineral - 200-500 g of superphosphate, 200-400 g of potassium salt (or 1-1.5 kg of wood ash). For young plantings, the doses of fertilizers are reduced, for fruit-bearing ones, they are increased. Autumn fertilization improves the ripening of shoots, overwintering of plants and provides them with the nutrients necessary for growth and fruiting next year.
If the soils in the garden are acidic, lime them once every three years. To do this, grind lime materials (hydrated lime, ground limestone, dolomite, chalk), evenly scatter over the area (300-500 g per 1 m2 of surface) and dig.
Plums are harvested in August-September, canned and processed.
For better overwintering of trees (especially in dry years), carry out water recharge irrigation (5-7 buckets of water for 1 tree).
Start digging holes for spring planting. Purchase planting material in the fall. For better overwintering, seedlings are best stored in a prikop. To do this, dig a groove 30-40 cm deep, lay the seedlings obliquely (lowering the roots into the groove), sprinkle them with soil, compact it with your feet, water it well (1 bucket of water for each plant), sprinkle it with soil again from above to form an earthen roller 20 cm high. -30 cm. In this state, the seedlings winter well until spring.Plum
© Forest & Kim Starr
October . Moisture-charging irrigation is completed, followed by soil mulching.
Clean boles and bases of branches to remove dead bark, moss and lichen. After cleaning the wounds with a knife, wash them with 2-3% (20-30 g per 1 liter of water) solution of iron or 1-2% (10-20 g per 1 liter of water) copper sulphate. Then cover the wounds with garden pitch. If there are hollows, seal them with cement. Whitewash the stems and bases of the branches with lime mortar (the concentration is the same as in February).
To protect young trees from rodents (hares, mice), tie the stems with spruce branches (tops of branches down). For better wintering, spud the trees with soil with a layer of 15-20 cm. Rake the fallen leaves into heaps and compost or burn them (to destroy pests and diseases).Plum (Plum)
How to prevent errors
When caring for stone fruit plantations, amateur gardeners often make mistakes, which results in low fruit yields.
One of the typical mistakes is dense planting of trees. When the crowns close, the illumination of the branches deteriorates and they rush upwards, which makes it difficult to care for trees and harvest . This circumstance should be taken into account when laying the garden.
Many mistakes are made by inexperienced gardeners when fertilizing. Often, too much or too little is added at one time. Large doses of organic fertilizers can cause fattening of young trees, delay the growth of shoots, worsen their ripening, which increases the risk of freezing in winter . Increased doses of mineral fertilizers, in turn, increase the concentration of salts in the soil, which has a depressing effect on fruit trees. When applying low doses of fertilizers on poor soils, trees grow poorly and bear fruit. Therefore, you need to adhere to the optimal doses for your particular area.
Often the reason for the low fruiting of cherries and plums is the wrong selection of pollinating varieties . With single-varietal plantings of self-fertile varieties, trees often bloom well, but almost do not bear fruit due to premature shedding of ovaries. In such cases, it is necessary to plant pollinating varieties (of the same flowering period as the main varieties) or to graft their cuttings into the crown.Plum (Plum)
Stone fruits may bear little fruit due to freezing of fruit buds or partial damage to them . If the fruit buds do not bloom, then they are frozen. Often in early spring, freezing of the pistil (central part) of the flower is observed. In this case, the tree blooms profusely, but does not form an ovary. Therefore, choose highly winter-hardy varieties. In addition, you can protect trees from frost by preparing them well for winter: carry out water-recharging irrigation in the fall (especially after a dry summer), apply organic and mineral fertilizers, and protect plants from pests and diseases.Please rate this article in our rating: Total: 166 (4.88 out of 5), votes: 34. Loading...
Plum is the most heat-loving and less winter-hardy plant among all fruit crops of the Nonchernozem zone. Shedemanding on soil fertility, suffers greatly from shallow groundwater, strong cold winds. On light, slightly podzolic soils, plum grows better than on heavy podzolic ones. On peatlands and former marshy soils, plum does not even give mediocre yields, it gradually dries out and dies. On all podzolic soils, liming is required for draining.
In gardens, the most common multi-stemmed bush is an indicator of frequent damage even after notvery harsh winters. Like cherries, plums come out of dormancy at the end of winter and fall under frost in early spring, so its harvests are less regular than those of apple trees and even cherries. Ceteris paribus, plum gives the best results when planting on the upper parts of the southern and western slopes.
Plum fruits are widely used both fresh and in processing (jam, compotes, marinades). In mature fruitsplums contain more than other fruits and berries, vitamin B3 (riboflavin).
Plum can be planted as one to two year old seedlings, preferably in spring rather than autumn. Plum trees when planted inat the age of 3-5 years, they usually do not take root well and freeze more strongly in winter. Plums are planted in the warmest and most protected places of the garden at a distance of 3-4 m from each other. Care for plums (grafted and rooted) is the same as for cherries.
Unlike cherries, plums produce stronger growth shoots throughout the year. In a warm and rainy autumn at the plum treenew growth resumes, which is why in winter it freezes strongly and weakens. Therefore, under the drain, one should not apply too much organic fertilizer, give liquid top dressing from mineral nitrogen, and also mulch the soil of the trunk circles and water. Plum trees at a young age should be with minimal care and nutrition (loosening the soil under the trees only in the first half of summer). When trees enter fruiting, all activities that promote growth (watering, top dressing, loosening, additional cultivation of tree trunks) must be completed by mid-June.
Plum trees in the period from planting to the beginning of fruiting are pruned very little. In severe winters in the crown of a tree partbranches die, they must be completely cut. Some old trunks begin to suffer from fungal diseases and white rot. If the end branches of such a trunk have weak growths (up to 10 cm), then it is better to cut out the entire trunk. Below the snow level, many tops appear on the trunks. In the spring, the strongest of them are left, and the rest are cut out. In September, pinch the top so that it ripens better. In subsequent years, tree trunks are formed from new shoots. Top-shaped shoots are also formed in the crown of the tree (after a harsh winter or at the bend of the tree). During spring pruning, they decide what to do with them. If the part of the branch above the top is dead or heavily shaded, then it is removed to a healthier part, and the top is left. If the branch is healthy, then the top is shortened by 1/3-1/4 of the total length. If there are a lot of tops, then the weakest ones are cut into a ring.
Climatic conditions in most areas of the Non-Chernozem Zone are very harsh for plum cultivation. So beforeplanting, it is necessary not only to assess the location of the garden, but also to strictly approach the choice of varieties. Otherwise, a lot of work will be spent in vain.
Plum, due to biological characteristics, to a greater extent than cherry, forms root shoots. To get it rightremove the growth, it is first freed from the ground, then the shoot is cut out on the ring in the place where it appeared on the horizontal root. Due to the low winter hardiness of cultivated varieties, plums are not used in landscaping.Z. L. Devochkina, I.