How tall do rowan trees grow


Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) - British Trees

Bane of witches, diviner of the future and producer of jam, rowan is an elegant tree with a mystical history. Its leaves and berries are a favourite for wildlife in woods and towns alike.

Quick facts

Common names: rowan, mountain ash, witch wiggin tree, keirn, cuirn

Scientific name: Sorbus aucuparia

Family: Rosaceae

Origin: native

Mature trees can grow to 15m in height and can live for up to 200 years. The bark is smooth and silvery grey, and leaf buds are purple and hairy.

Look out for: its 5–8 pairs of serrated leaflets which are distinctive.

Identified in winter by: the young twigs which start hairy and become smooth later. Buds are hairy all over. Terminal buds (on the ends of shoots) are up to 8mm in length and lateral buds (in leaf axils) have 2–5 scales.

What does rowan look like?

A year in the life of an rowan tree

Credit: Mark Hamblin / naturepl.com

Leaves

Pinnate (like a feather), comprising 5–8 pairs of leaflets, plus one 'terminal' leaflet at the end. Each leaflet is long, oval and toothed.

Credit: Brian Hird / Alamy Stock Photo

Flowers

Rowan is hermaphrodite, meaning each flower contains both male and female reproductive parts. Flowers are borne in dense clusters, each one bearing five creamy-white petals.

Credit: Ben Lee / WTML

Fruits

After successful pollination by insects, the flowers develop into scarlet fruits. The seeds are dispersed by birds.

Could be confused with:

Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) or elder (Sambucus nigra); however, the leaflets are serrated and more or less pointed at the end in rowan than both of these.

Ash

Elder

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Did you know?

Rowan is also known as the mountain ash due to the fact that it grows well at high altitudes and its leaves are similar to those of ash, Fraxinus excelsior. However, the two species are not related.

Where to find rowan 

Native to cooler regions of the northern hemisphere and most common in the UK in the north and west, it often grows in high-altitude locations.

It is commonly found in the wild, particularly in the highlands of Scotland, but it is also widely planted as a street or garden tree.

Rowan grows well at high altitudes.

Credit: Niall Benvie / WTML

Value to wildlife

The leaves are eaten by the caterpillars of a number of moths, including the larger Welsh wave and autumn green carpet. Caterpillars of the apple fruit moth feed on the berries.

Flowers provide pollen and nectar for bees and other pollinating insects, while the berries are a rich source of autumn food for birds, especially the blackbird, mistle thrush, redstart, redwing, song thrush, fieldfare and waxwing.

Did you know?

Its old Celtic name, 'fid na ndruad', means wizards' tree.

Mythology and symbolism

Rowan was once widely planted by houses as a protection against witches. The colour red was considered to be the best colour for fighting evil, and so the rowan’s bright red berries have been associated with magic and witches. In Ireland, it was planted near houses to protect them against spirits, and in Wales rowan trees were planted in churchyards. Cutting down a rowan was considered taboo in Scotland.

The wood was used for stirring milk to prevent the milk curdling, and as a pocket charm against rheumatism. It was also used to make divining rods.

Rowan is widely planted as a street or garden tree.

Credit: Niall Benvie / WTML

Uses of rowan

The wood is pale yellow-brown with a deeper-brown heartwood. It is strong, hard and tough, but not particularly durable. It is sometimes used in turnery, furniture, craftwork and engraving.

Rowan berries are edible to humans when cooked – they are sour but rich in vitamin C, and can be used to make a tart jam.

Trees woods and wildlife

Trees fight climate change

They aren't just sources of food, medicines and materials. The carbon-locking qualities of trees and woods are crucial in the fight against climate change.

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Threats and conservation

Rowan can be susceptible to fireblight, European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus and silver leaf disease. It can also suffer from browsing by deer.

European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus

Rowan Trees | Rowan Tree Facts & Information

  • Latin Name: Sorbus aucuparia
  • Native Words: Old Irish (luis) Scots Gaelic (caorunn) Old English () Welsh (cerdinnen) eastern Celtic ()Old Norse (regnir)
  • Ogham Sign: L
  • Height when Mature: 15 m (49 ft)
  • Height After 10 Years: 3-4m (10-13ft)

Rowan Botanical Description:

Rowan Trees are comparatively small and grow in a compact upright shape. Rowan is sometimes called the mountain ash tree because of the similarity of its leaves to ash trees, both having many opposing finger like leaflets set along either side of a midrib (known as pinnate).

In spring, Rowan displays clusters of creamy white flowers around May, shortly after which the bright red berries begin to develop. In autumn the spectacular display of orange or red berries cover the tree and the leaves turn a brilliant flame colour. The berries cover hard seeds which require consumption by birds in order to germinate. Rowan bark is purplish grey and in winter and early spring the buds are large and purple and covered in white downy hair.

Rowan Natural History and Ancient Wisdom:

Rowan is the highest growing native tree in the British Isles*. Although naturally an upland tree of river valleys, pine forests moors and crags, Rowan trees are now found in all habitats and locations in the UK.

Many are cultivars or exotic varieties grown for their attractive spring flowers, bronze autumn foliage or large vibrantly coloured berries. As Rowan berries are a favourite food source of birds, and the seeds within the berries are dispersed with the birds that ate them.

In Irish myth, the ancient race of giants, the Tuatha de Dannan brought Rowan from the land of promise. The giant, who Fionn MacCool meets at the festival of Sahmain on 31 October (when we celebrate Halloween) when he travels into the Underworld throws Rowan on the fire burning in the Chamber of the dead to prevent the dead from rising.

Rowan trees were planted in graveyards with a similar purpose in mind. It is now believed that the English word rowan derived from the Norse regnir when Norse settlers arrived in eastern Britain. The Norse alphabet known as runes were carved on to Rowan wood; hence the similarity rowan/rune; “rune wood”.

Rowan is also known as the quicken-tree, which is a corruption of “witchen tree”, as it was planted near homesteads and even in churchyards to protect against witches. Scottish crofters believed that planting a rowan would keep evil spirits away; next to abandoned crofts, rowans still grow.

On the Isle of Man, Rowan twigs were placed in doorways and boughs carried at Beltaine**. This last fact points to Rowans second association in folklore: rejuvenation. In Irish myth, the salmon of knowledge eats rowan berries falling into the stream in order to keep young. * Juniper (Juniperus communis) grows in a similar environment and although technically a native British evergreen tree, is low growing and has the appearance of a shrub. **Beltaine the Celtic festival of renewal (May 1)

Rowan Place Names in the UK:
  • Meall nan Chaorunnaich (Perthshire)
  • Beinn Chaorunnn (Inverness-shire)

Wildlife Rating:

Rowan berries are an excellent source of food for birds in winter and trees can often be seen crowded with birds in winter. The red fruit is loved by thrushes such as Redwing and Blackbirds. An uncommon winter visitor from Scandinavia, the striking Waxwing, seeks out rowans to feed on and flocks of 100 in a single tree can be seen.

Rowan Good Points / Bad Points:

Ideally favours a light well-drained soil. Very hardy. Its berries and foliage add a wonderful colour to the garden, and its slim compact nature means it doesn’t take up much space.

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planting and care, types and varieties photo, reproduction of mountain ash

Mountain ash (Sorbus) is a genus of woody plants of the tribe Apple, which is a representative of the Pink family. According to information taken from various sources, this genus includes 80–100 species. Rowan red or common (Sorbus aucuparia) is a fruit tree and a species of the genus Rowan, it is widely distributed throughout almost the entire territory of Europe, the Caucasus and Asia Minor. This species has an extensive range, which even reaches the Far North. In the mountains, the red rowan grows in the form of shrubs, while they rise to the border of vegetation. The scientific name of the genus "sorbus" comes from the Celtic language, it means "bitter, tart" in translation, this is due to the taste of berries. The name of the species comes from the Latin word, which translates as "bird" and "catch". The fact is that birds like to eat the berries of this plant, so people used them as bait.

Such a tree was part of the culture of the Scandinavians, Slavs and Celts. They believed that the mountain ash had magical powers. So, this plant helped the warriors in battles, and also provided protection from witchcraft and from the world of the dead. If you look at the fruit of this plant from below, then it will be similar to one of the very ancient pagan symbols of protection - a five-pointed equilateral star. During the wedding process, the leaves of the rowan tree were placed in the shoes of the spouses. Its wood was used to create travel staves. Such a plant was planted near the house, and if it was destroyed or damaged, then this was an extremely bad omen.

Content

  • 1 Features of the Rowan tree
  • 2 Loyabin planting
  • 3 Breeding for Ryabina
    • 3.1 Diseases and pests
  • 4 Ryabye multiplication
  • 5 species and grades of ryabyan with photo and description
    • 5.1 Elderberry mountain ash (Sorbus sambucifolia)
    • 5.2 Glogovina mountain ash (Sorbus torminalis)
    • 5.3 Domestic mountain ash (Sorbus domestica) or large-fruited mountain ash (Crimean)
    • 5.4 Rowal Robin (SORBUS ARIA), or Aria, or Ryabina powder
    • 5.5 Hybrid Ryabar (Sorbus X Hybrida)
    • 5.6 Rowal (Red)
  • 6 Redban design
  • 9000 9000 7 properties of ryabyan: Harm and benefits
    • 7.1 Useful properties of mountain ash
    • 7.2 Contraindications

Peculiarities of the mountain ash tree

The mountain ash is a shrub or tree, the height of which does not exceed 12 meters. The shape of the crown is round, on the surface of the red-gray stems there is pubescence. In mature trees, the bark is smooth and glossy, it has a brown-gray or gray-yellow color. Unpaired alternately arranged leaf plates are about 20 centimeters long, they include from 7 to 15 pointed elongated leaves with a serrated edge, their front surface is matte, green, and the wrong side is painted in a lighter shade and has pubescence. In autumn, the foliage changes its color to red and golden hues.

The final lush corymbose inflorescences are about 10 centimeters in diameter, they consist of a large number of white flowers that have an unpleasant aroma. The fruit is a juicy red-orange apple, the diameter of which reaches 10 mm. This tree blooms in May-June. Berries fully ripen in the last weeks of the summer period or the first - in the autumn.

When planting, it should be taken into account that such a culture reacts extremely negatively to smoke and gas content in the air, as well as to waterlogging and stagnant water in the soil.

Rowan wood is resilient and hard and very easy to process. In ancient times, it was used to make runes and spindles. The berries of this crop are used to make dyes for fabric.

Rowan


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Planting rowan in the open ground

Since the rowan tree is quite tall, it is recommended to plant it at the edge of the garden, in this case it will not cause shading of the area. Nutrient soil is best (light to medium loam that retains water well), but mountain ash can be grown on less fertile soil. Landing is recommended to be carried out in the spring before the sap flow begins or in the fall - during leaf fall. In order to harvest a good harvest, it is recommended to plant several plants of various varieties at once on the site.

When purchasing seedlings, a thorough inspection of their root system should be carried out, paying attention to the fact that it must be completely healthy and well developed. A developed root system has 2 or 3 branches, which reach a length of more than 0.2 m. It is not recommended to purchase a seedling with dried and weathered roots. Examine the bark, it should not be wrinkled, but rather smooth. Break off a small piece of bark from the plant, if its inner side is brown, then the seedling may be dead. In a normal living plant, it will have a green color. Before planting, the plant should be prepared, for this it is necessary to cut out all injured, dried and disease-damaged stems and roots. If the mountain ash is planted in the fall, then all leaf plates are cut off from its branches, while trying not to injure the buds in the axils.

A distance of 4 to 6 meters should be observed between seedlings, the same distance should be from mountain ash to other trees in the garden. The diameter and depth of the pit can vary from 0.6 to 0.8 m. Before planting, prepare the soil mixture, which should consist of 5 kilograms of topsoil and peat compost, 200 grams of superphosphate, 2-3 shovels of rotted manure and 100 grams of wood ash . Mix everything well. Fill the pit with 1/3 of this soil mixture, after which it must be filled up to half with simple soil. Then 10 liters of water is poured into the pit. Wait until the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil.

The root system of the plant must be dipped in a clay mash, then it is immediately installed in the center of the pit, which is covered with soil from the top layer or the remains of the earth mixture. When the plant is planted, the surface of the soil around it must be compacted, then it is well watered. The tree should be planted 20–30 mm deeper than it was grown in the nursery. After the liquid after watering is completely absorbed into the near-stem circle, its surface must be covered with a layer of mulch (peat, grass, sawdust, humus, hay, straw or other organic material), the thickness of which can vary from 5 to 10 centimeters.

Planting rowan seedlings


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Caring for rowan

Growing rowan is nothing unusual. For normal growth and development of a plant, it is necessary to water it in a timely manner, weed it, loosen the soil surface, cut, feed and carry out treatments in the fight against pests and diseases.

Such a tree needs watering only during a long drought. It should be taken into account that the plant needs mandatory watering at the very beginning of the growing season and after planting in open soil, and another 15–20 days before the crop is harvested, and 2–3 weeks after that. Along the perimeter of the near-stem circle, it is recommended to make grooves into which water flows during irrigation. From 20 to 30 liters of water is taken per 1 tree for one irrigation, while the final volume of liquid used depends on the condition and composition of the soil, as well as on the age of the viburnum itself.

The surface of the tree circle must be loosened at the beginning of the spring period, during the summer this procedure is carried out 2 to 3 times. And the surface of the near-stem circle must be loosened after the entire crop has been harvested. The easiest way to loosen the soil is the next day after rain or watering. During loosening, you need to pull out all the weeds. When the trunk circle is loosened, its surface must be covered again with a layer of mulch.

In order for mountain ash to be more productive, it will need systemic top dressing. Starting from the third year of growth, humus or compost is introduced into the soil under the plant - from 5 to 8 kilograms and ammonium nitrate - 50 grams. At the beginning of June, 1 bucket of a solution of bird droppings (1:10) or mullein (1:5) should be poured under a tree. Instead of organic fertilizer, you can use Agrolife solution. In the last summer weeks, 100 grams of superphosphate and 500 milligrams of wood ash must be added to the trunk circle.

Pruning is carried out at the very beginning of the spring period before the awakening of the kidneys. It is necessary to cut out all the dried, diseased and growing shoots growing inside the crown, as well as those that depart at a right angle. Those varieties that bear fruit on last year's stems will need thinning and slight shortening of the branches. If fruiting is observed on various types of fruit formations, then such trees will need periodic thinning and rejuvenation of the ringlet, as well as shortening of the skeletal branches.

The most important goal of pruning mountain ash is to better and evenly illuminate its crown, which has a very positive effect on the yield of the plant. Due to the fact that such a tree has a pyramidal crown shape, the branches grow at an acute angle to the trunk, which makes them more fragile. When forming skeletal branches, it is necessary to try to make sure that they are brought out at an obtuse or right angle.

If the plant has a weak growth, then it will need anti-aging pruning. It is made on two-year-old or three-year-old wood, as a result of which the growth of new shoots is activated.

Diseases and pests

In May or June, you need to carefully examine the mountain ash, because it is at this time that the first symptoms of a disease or damage by harmful insects may appear. This plant is susceptible to the following diseases: anthracnose, septoria, brown and gray spotting, powdery mildew, monoliosis, scab, rust, necrosis (black, nectrium and cytosporous) and viral ring mosaic. If the plant was planted completely healthy, while planting and caring for it followed all the rules of agricultural technology for this crop, then the mountain ash may never get sick at all. The fact is that only weakened trees are susceptible to diseases. However, in spite of everything, it is necessary to periodically examine the mountain ash in order to start treatment in a timely manner, if necessary.

Any type of necrosis, as well as mosaic, are incurable diseases. In this regard, it is necessary to try so that the tree does not get sick with them at all, and for this it is necessary to carry out a number of preventive measures. It is necessary to take a very responsible approach to the choice of planting material, the site will need pre-sowing preparation, the purpose of which is to destroy pathogens. Also, when pests appear that are carriers of viruses, it is necessary to get rid of them as soon as possible, and it is also very important that the trunk circle is always clean. Do not forget to make periodic inspections of mountain ash, because any disease is easier to cure at the initial stage of development.

Mountain ash is affected by the same diseases as other crops of the Rose family (apple, plum, pear). At the same time, the symptoms of diseases and methods of treatment are the same for them.

Mountain ash can host about 60 species of mites and other harmful insects that injure the stems, berries, seeds, leaf blades, flowers and buds of the tree. Most of these pests can settle on various fruit crops of the Rosaceae family. Most often on a mountain ash tree settle:

  1. Weevils . To destroy them, Karbofos is used.
  2. Bark beetles . To get rid of them, the plant should be sprayed with Confidor, Aktara and Lepidocide.
  3. Moths . To exterminate these pests, Karbofos, Chlorophos or Cyanox are used.
  4. Rowan gall mites . When they appear, the tree is sprayed with colloidal sulfur.
  5. Rowan moths . They are destroyed by Chlorophos.
  6. Green apple aphid . To destroy it, Decis or Actellik is used.
  7. Shields . You can get rid of them by spraying mountain ash with 30 plus.
  8. Apple fruit sawflies . In order to exterminate them, use an infusion of white mustard. To prepare it, you need to combine 1 liter of water and 10 grams of mustard powder, everything is mixed and left for 24 hours. Before use, the infusion should be diluted with water in a ratio of 1:5.

In order to prevent pests, the tree must be sprayed on the foliage before the sap flow begins, for this, a solution of copper sulphate is used (100 grams per 1 bucket of water). Spraying the mountain ash and the surface of the near-stem circle with Nitrafen, which is carried out in the spring, is also quite effective. Also, for the purpose of prevention in the fall, it is imperative to rake all the foliage from the site and destroy it, while the soil in the trunk circles is dug up.

Rowan propagation

Vegetative and generative (seed) methods are used to propagate red ash. From seeds, species mountain ash is most often grown. Seeds are sown in autumn. To begin with, they are taken out of the fruit and washed from the remnants of the pulp, then they need to be deepened into the soil by 0.5–1 cm. From above, the surface of the crops should be covered with a layer of mulch (dried fallen leaves). If sowing seeds is scheduled for spring, then they will need stratification. To do this, they are combined with coarse sand in a ratio (1: 3), then the mixture must be kept at room temperature for 4–8 weeks, and then removed for 3–4 months on a refrigerator shelf intended for vegetables. The seedlings that appear need systematic watering and weeding, as well as loosening the soil surface around them. Seedlings are transplanted into shkolka in autumn. A tree grown in a generative way begins to bear fruit in 4–5 years.

For propagation of valuable varietal mountain ash, vegetative methods are used, for example: green and lignified cuttings, grafting, layering and shoots. As a rootstock for grafting a varietal cutting, it is recommended to take a seedling of Nevezhinsky, ordinary or Mooravian mountain ash grown from seed. Vaccination should be carried out in the first days of April, when sap flow begins, as well as in July or August. It is necessary to remove the bandage from the vaccination site after 20 days. The top of the stock should be trimmed, leaving a spike. It is to this thorn that you need to make a garter of a growing varietal shoot.

If the mountain ash is rooted, then shoots can be used to propagate it. Green cuttings do not root very well, on average 4. 5–6 cuttings out of 10. And lignified cuttings root even worse than green ones.

Rowan red (common)


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Types and varieties of mountain ash with photos and descriptions

Gardeners cultivate most types of mountain ash. Most of these species are fruit, but there are also ornamental ones.

Elderberry mountain ash (Sorbus sambucifolia)

Under natural conditions, this species is found in Japan and the Khabarovsk Territory, as well as in Sakhalin, Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands. This spectacular shrub reaches a height of 250 cm. A not very dense crown can be round or ovoid. Straight bare stems of dark brown color have a bluish bloom on the surface, gray branches with well-defined lenticels. Unpaired leaf blades reach 18 centimeters in length and have lanceolate stipules. The composition of the leaf plates includes from 7 to 15 sharply serrated oval-shaped leaves and dark green color, they are glossy and almost naked, located on petioles of light red color. Complex corymbose inflorescences consist of flowers having a diameter of about 15 mm and a white or pale red color. On the surface of the branches and pedicels there is a pubescence of a light red color. Edible berries are juicy, rich red in color and spherical in shape, they have a fifteen-millimeter diameter and a sweet and sour taste. Also, they do not have bitterness and have a very pleasant smell. The fruits may not fall from the branches until the onset of the spring period. This plant is undemanding to the soil, and is resistant to drought and frost.

Glogovina mountain ash (Sorbus torminalis), or medicinal bereka

In the wild, this species can be found in the Crimea, Western Europe, the Caucasus, Southwestern Ukraine and Asia Minor. Such mountain ash grows not in very large groups or singly. In height, such a tree can reach 25 meters. Its trunk is covered with dark gray bark, which has longitudinal cracks. On young shoots, the bark is olive in color. Simple broadly ovate leaf plates reach 18 centimeters in length, heart-shaped and rounded at the base, they are also pointed, at the top there are from 3 to 5 lobes. The front surface of the leaves is dark green glossy, and the wrong side is hairy-pubescent. In autumn, the color of the foliage changes to yellow or orange. Loose corymbose inflorescences, reaching a diameter of 8 centimeters, consist of small (about 10 mm in diameter) white flowers. Rounded berries, reaching a diameter of 1.8 cm, have a pale red or orange color, which gradually changes to brown. The floury pulp has a sweet-sour taste. This species is highly frost tolerant but not drought tolerant. There are 2 decorative shapes:

  • hairy;
  • with pinnately dissected leaf blades.

Sorbus domestica, or large-fruited mountain ash (Crimean)

Under natural conditions, this species occurs in the southern part of Western Europe and in the Crimea, it prefers to grow in the undergrowth of broad-leaved forests singly or in groups. This plant is characterized by slow growth and reaches a height of 15 meters. The shape of the crown is broadly pyramidal or spherical. The bark covering the trunk is already fissured in a young plant. But the stems are almost bare, smooth and glossy. The composition of unpaired complex leaf plates, reaching a length of 18 centimeters, includes smooth glossy sharp-serrate lanceolate leaves, painted green and having a length of about 50 mm. Broadly pyramidal branched felt-pubescent inflorescences, having a diameter of about 10 centimeters, consist of flowers reaching 15 mm in diameter and painted white or pale pink. Oblong-ovate or pear-shaped berries, up to 30 mm in diameter, can be yellow-green, red or brown, have a mealy, fragrant, slightly sweet astringent pulp, which includes many stony cells. Such a plant is resistant to pests, drought and frost. There are 2 shapes:

  • pear-shaped;
  • apple-shaped.

Round-leaved mountain ash (Sorbus aria), or aria, or powdery mountain ash

In nature, this species is found in the Carpathians and in the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. The height of such a vigorous tree is about 12 meters. The shape of the crown is broad-pyramidal. The trunk is covered with brown-red or brownish bark, on the surface of the stems there is a felt pubescence. Leathery whole leaf plates of a round-elliptical shape along the edge are sharp-double-serrated. During opening, the foliage is white-felt, then the front surface of the leaves turns green. In autumn, the color of the foliage changes to various shades of bronze, because of this, the mountain ash begins to look like an alder. Shields, reaching 8 centimeters in diameter, consist of white flowers. Edible berries of spherical shape in diameter reach 15 mm, they are painted in red-orange or pink-orange color. Sweet and sour mealy pulp is not as tasty as sweet-fruited varieties. Cultivated since 1880. There are several garden forms:

  1. Decayne . Flowers and leaf plates of this form are larger.
  2. Edible . The shape of the leaf plates is elliptical or oblong. The berries of such a plant are somewhat larger than those of the main species.
  3. Chrysophyll . Throughout the season, the foliage is painted in a pale yellow color. In autumn it becomes oily yellow.
  4. Manifika . During opening, the leaf plates are snow-white; in the summer, their front surface turns green. In autumn, their color changes to bronze. Red berries on the surface have pubescence in the form of a white pile.
  5. Majestic . The height of this plant is about 15 meters. It does not form berries.

Hybrid rowan (Sorbus x hybrida)

This plant is a natural hybrid of the intermediate rowan and the red rowan. Under natural conditions, this species can be found in Northern Europe. Complex leaf plates combine simple pinnate and lobed leaves. The front surface of the foliage is green and bare, and the wrong side has a pale gray or whitish pubescence. Gardeners grow only one more hybrid - the Thuringian variety, which was obtained by crossing round-leaved mountain ash and red mountain ash. In this tree, compared to the mountain ash, the hybrid blades on the leaf plates are not cut so much, while they are more blunt and wider.

Common mountain ash (red)

A detailed description of this species can be found at the beginning of the article. It has a large number of decorative forms that differ in berry color, crown shape and foliage color, for example: Burka, liqueur, pomegranate, Michurin dessert, Russian, pyramidal, weeping, Beisner, Nevezhinskaya, Moravian, or sweet, Fifeana, etc. All these forms retain their spectacular appearance throughout the growing season. Particular attention should be paid to the following forms:

  1. Nevezhinskaya . Outwardly, this variety and the main species are very similar. These plants are distinguished by the fact that the Nevezhinsky mountain ash berries do not have bitterness and astringency, even when they are not ripe, when the main species can eat fruits only after the first frosts have passed.
  2. Moravian rowan or sweet . Found naturally in the Sudetenland. The leaf plates are more openwork compared to other varieties, and the flowering of such mountain ash begins a little later. The composition of the inflorescences can sometimes include about 150 flowers. Red scarlet berries have juicy orange flesh and a sweet-sour taste.
  3. Liqueur . This variety was born thanks to Michurin, for this he crossed chokeberry and red mountain ash. The color of the berries is black-purple. This rowan has a very high frost resistance.
  4. Garnet . The variety was born as a result of crossing large-fruited hawthorn and red mountain ash in 1925. The height of such a tree is about 400 cm. Smooth glossy simple leaf plates are about 17 centimeters long. In the upper part, the leaves are entire, elliptical or ovoid in shape, and in the lower part, pinnately dissected. Burgundy sweet-sour berries have a size equal to cherries. The species has a very high frost resistance.
  5. Burka . She was born in 1918 by crossing red ashberry and alpine ashberry. The dark green, simple leaf blades are pinnately dissected and slightly hairy. Oblong brown-red berries are medium in size. Rowan remains very beautiful throughout the season.
  6. Michurinskaya dessert shop . This is a hybrid between rowan liquor and German medlar. The height of the tree is only 300 cm, the crown is wide. Unpaired compound leaf blades reach 18 centimeters in length, they consist of 6 or 7 pairs of greenish leaves, the underside of which is slightly pubescent. Medium-sized dark red berries are very similar in shape to medlar fruits. The tree has a high decorative effect and frost resistance.

Gardeners also grow such varieties of mountain ash as: mixed, intermediate, or Swedish, alder-leaved, Köhne, Vilmorena, Amur and some others. The plant is medium. The berries are juicy and have a taste similar to cranberries.

  • Vefed . The sweet-fruited variety is characterized by high productivity and frost resistance. The purpose of this variety is table and dessert. Fruits of pink-yellow color are very showy.
  • Solar . The variety is consistently fruitful. Intense orange berries with a red blush are very tasty and fresh, and grated with granulated sugar.
  • Sorbinka . The grade differs in productivity and frost resistance. The berries are red and large and can be eaten fresh or used for processing.
  • Also very popular are red rowan varieties such as: Kirsten Pink, Red Tip, Carpet of Gold, White Max, Shimi Glow, Leonard Springer, Fastigiata, Integerrima, Jermyns, Titan, etc.

    Rowan tree in landscape design

    Rowan tree in landscape design can play a secondary or major role. Pavilions and arches are decorated with weeping rowan, it is also planted on a lawn or edge away from other trees, as a solo plant.

    This plant looks great in a group with other shrubs and trees, such as pigtail, spirea, snowberry or barberry. Also, mountain ash goes well with coniferous crops (thuja, pine, fir or spruce). Especially in autumn, when motley mountain ash looks very impressive against a bluish or green background of coniferous trees.

    This plant can also be planted together with deciduous trees: linden, black poplar, maple, ash and white willow. Most types of mountain ash are able to emphasize the showiness of viburnum, mountain ash, honeysuckle and wrinkled rose. From shrubby mountain ash, you can create a hedge, against which perennial flowers will look great. When choosing a place for planting such a crop, one should not forget that it reacts extremely negatively to the gassed and smoky air that is inherent in cities.

    Rowan trees in the garden. Survey of species and varieties.


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    Properties of mountain ash: harm and benefits

    Useful properties of mountain ash

    Red rowan berries contain a lot of vitamin C, it contains even more than lemons. The berries also contain vitamins P, B2, PP, K and E, as well as provitamin A, glycosides, amino acids, pectins, bitterness, tannins, organic acids (succinic, citric and malic), flavonoids, iodine, potassium, magnesium, iron , copper, manganese, zinc, alcohols, essential oil and phytoncides. Such berries are distinguished by a diaphoretic, hemostatic, choleretic and diuretic effect. In Norway, such a plant is used as a wound healing and decongestant, in Hungary it is used to treat dysentery, in Bulgaria stones are removed from the kidneys with the help of berries.

    Since berries contain a lot of vitamins, they are used to improve the condition of the body in case of diabetes mellitus, kidney and liver diseases, anemia, hemorrhoids, diseases of the digestive system, especially in gastritis, colitis and peptic ulcer.

    Rowan juice stimulates appetite, so it is recommended to use it for rheumatic pains, exhaustion, kidney and bladder stones. This juice has the ability to eliminate swelling, normalize metabolism, lower blood cholesterol levels, stop bleeding and has an antimicrobial effect. The juice is also indicated for use in gout, atherosclerosis, asthenia, capillary fragility, hypertension, arrhythmia, bleeding and malignant tumors, as well as carbon monoxide poisoning.

    The flowers, bark, leaves and berries of the rowan tree have healing properties. Hypertension is treated with a decoction of the bark, with scurvy it is recommended to take the drug from the foliage, since they contain a lot of vitamin C (more than in berries). Preparations from flowers and berries are used for diseases of the digestive tract, metabolic disorders and colds.

    This plant can also be used externally for wounds, various inflammations, burns and warts.

    In the confectionery industry, rowan berries are used as raw materials, which are a multivitamin agent. They are used for the production of sweets, liqueurs, vodka, liqueurs and liqueurs, marmalade, marmalade, jelly, marshmallows, jams and soft drinks.

    A rich decoction of rowan berries is used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of pulmonary diseases in animals.

    To improve health in the morning, it is recommended to drink a drink made from mountain ash, which has tonic properties. In the evening, in a thermos with a volume of 3 liters, you need to pour one large spoonful of fresh or dried berries of mountain ash, barberry and wild rose. It is filled with freshly boiled water and tightly closed. This tea should be drunk from morning until lunch, then boiling water is poured into the thermos again, they wait until the drink is infused, and drink again. When the drink prepared in the second drink is over, take out the berries, crush them well and put them back in a thermos filled with freshly boiled water. You can use one serving of berries 3 times.

    USEFUL PROPERTIES OF RED ROWAN. APPLICATION OF ROWAN BERRY FOR THERAPEUTIC PURPOSES.


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    Contraindications

    Rowan berries should not be consumed by people who have had a heart attack or stroke, as well as those with coronary heart disease and increased blood clotting. Also, they are not recommended for people with high acidity of the stomach.

    Mountain ash - planting and care, useful properties

    In the article we discuss mountain ash . We tell you what the culture looks like, how to properly plant it and the necessary care. You will learn about rowan varieties and where you can buy seedlings of this plant.

    Description of mountain ash

    Mountain ash is a genus of low woody plants of the Rosales tribe of the Rosaceae family. The buds of the culture are felt-fluffy. The leaves are large, with 11–23 oblong leaflets. Numerous white flowers are collected in dense inflorescences that form at the ends of the branches. The flowers have a strong specific aroma.

    Rowan fruits are spherical bright red juicy apples with small seeds, rounded at the edges. Berries contain approximately 8% sugars, organic acids, vitamins C and P, glycosides and carotene.

    Currently, there are more than 100 species of mountain ash, a third of which grows in Russia. The culture is widespread in Europe, Asia and North America.

    The tree has high frost resistance and is undemanding to the soil. Quietly grows in areas with close groundwater.

    Mountain ash is classified as a low-value fruit crop due to its prevalence and low quality of berries. As a rule, it is used as an ornamental tree, the fruits are used for food, and the wood is used for carpentry.

    Reproduction of the plant occurs from the vegetative and generative method. As a rule, specific mountain ash is grown from seeds. Sowing seeds takes place in the fall.

    Benefits and harms of mountain ash

    The fruits of mountain ash have many useful properties. Red rowan berries contain a lot of ascorbic acid, even more than in citruses. Also in it are:

    • vitamins K and E;
    • nicotinic acid;
    • rutin;
    • riboflavin;
    • provitamin, A;
    • glycosides;
    • pectins;
    • bitterness;
    • tannins;
    • essential oil, etc.

    Thanks to this rich chemical composition, the following beneficial properties are observed:

    • hemostatic;
    • diaphoretic;
    • diuretic;
    • choleretic.

    Berries are used to improve well-being in:

    • diabetes;
    • diseases of the kidneys and liver;
    • anemia;
    • hemorrhoids;
    • diseases of the digestive system;
    • ulcers;
    • gastritis and colitis.

    Rowan juice improves appetite, for this reason doctors advise drinking it for exhaustion, rheumatism, bladder and kidney stones. Such a drink helps eliminate swelling, normalizes metabolism, reduces cholesterol levels, stops bleeding and has an antimicrobial effect. It is also useful to drink juice for gout, atherosclerosis, asthenia, hypertension, arrhythmia, oncology, etc.

    Not only rowan berries have healing properties, but flowers, bark, leaf blades. A decoction of the bark will help cure hypertension, preparations from berries and flowers are used for diseases of the digestive tract, colds and metabolic disorders.

    Contraindications

    Rowan berries should not be taken by people who have had a stroke or heart attack, with ischemia and increased blood clotting. It is also not recommended to use fruits for people with increased acidity of the stomach.

    Rowan planting

    The maximum height of a mountain ash is 12 m. Therefore, when choosing a seat for a crop, consider this feature. We recommend planting a tree on the border of the plot so that it does not obscure other plants.

    It is advisable to plant in spring before the start of sap flow or in autumn during leaf fall. To get the maximum yield, it is recommended to plant several mountain ash of different varieties on the site.

    When buying seedlings, pay attention to the condition of the root system - it must be completely healthy and without damage. A developed root system has 2-3 branches that are more than 20 cm long. Do not purchase seedlings that have dry, damaged roots. The bark of the seedling should be smooth, not wrinkled.

    Before planting, prepare the plant by cutting out injured and dry stems and roots. When planting in autumn, cut off all leaf plates from the branches, but try not to injure the buds that are in the axils.

    The distance between rowan and other trees should be at least 4–6 m. The depth and diameter of the planting site should be within 60–80 cm. superphosphate, 3 shovels of rotted manure and 0.1 kg of wood ash). Thoroughly mix all the ingredients, then fill the pit by ⅓ with this composition. Then fill up to half with ordinary soil and pour in a bucket of water. Wait until the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil.

    Dip the roots of the plant in a clay mash, then place the seedling in the middle of the hole and start filling it with the top layer of soil or the rest of the soil mixture. After planting, thoroughly tamp the soil surface and pour a bucket of water over it.

    An important rule: the seedling must be planted 2-3 cm deeper into the soil than it was grown in the nursery. After watering and absorbing the liquid, treat the surface of the near-stem circle with a layer of mulch, the thickness of which should be within 5–10 cm.

    Caring for mountain ash

    Caring for mountain ash consists of timely watering, weeding and loosening the soil surface, pruning and removing dry and damaged branches, as well as fertilizing and treating the crop from pests and diseases.

    It is necessary to water mountain ash in case of:

    • prolonged drought;
    • at the beginning of the growing season;
    • after planting in open ground;
    • 20 days before harvest;
    • 3 weeks after harvest.

    Before watering, make a small depression in the trunk circle, then pour a bucket of water into it. For 1 mountain ash, 20-30 liters of water will be required.

    At the beginning of spring, loosen the surface of the tree circle, during the summer repeat the procedure 2-3 times. After harvesting, be sure to loosen the top layer of soil in the trunk circle.

    The best time to loosen the soil is the day after watering or rain. In the process of loosening, remove all weeds, as they interfere with the development of the crop. After loosening the near-stem circle, cover this area with a layer of mulch.

    To increase the yield of mountain ash, carry out its systematic top dressing. From the 3rd year of the plant's life, apply compost (5–8 kg) and ammonium nitrate (50 g) to the soil. At the beginning of June, pour a bucket of bird droppings or mullein solution under the tree. If desired, replace the organic fertilizer with Agrolife solution. At the end of summer, add 0.1 kg of superphosphate and 0.5 kg of wood ash to the trunk circle.

    Rowan pruning

    Prune crops in spring before buds emerge. Remove all dried, diseased and growing shoots inside the crown and those that extend at a right angle. Thinning is necessary for those branches that bear fruit on last year's stems.

    The main purpose of pruning is to improve the uniformity of crown illumination, thereby increasing yields. When forming skeletal branches, try to make sure that they are brought out at a right or obtuse angle.

    If the growth is weak, a rejuvenating pruning is necessary. It is performed on a 2–3 year old crop, as a result of which the growth of new shoots is activated on it.

    Varieties of mountain ash

    If you are wondering where to buy rowan seedlings, the answer is simple! You can do this in our online seedling store. We offer healthy and high-quality seedlings of mountain ash and other fruit, ornamental crops and shrubs at affordable prices and with delivery by Russian post throughout the country.

    Can't decide which rowan variety is right for your garden? We offer to get acquainted with the most popular varieties of culture.

    Chokeberry (Aronia)

    The variety of mountain ash Aronia was bred by IV Michurin. The chokeberry reaches a height of 2.5–3 m. It is highly frost-resistant, grows best in spacious and unshaded areas. It is cultivated as a fruit, medicinal and ornamental shrub.


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