How tall does a beech tree grow
American Beech Tree (Fagus grandifolia): Native Plant Guide
A common specimen in forests of the Eastern U.S., the American beech has a trunk with smooth gray bark, 2 to 3 feet in diameter. The leaves are up to 5 inches across, oval or elliptical in shape, dark green in color with prominent veins that end in toothy edges. Yellowish green flowers appear from April to May, and the female flowers give way to triangular-shaped beechnuts. The foliage turns golden bronze in fall. This is a large tree, often growing to 80 feet or even more. Although sometimes used as a landscape tree, the American beech is not well suited to urban conditions; it does not like even low pollution levels. Left unattended, the shallow roots will readily sucker, gradually forming a thicket of trees.
This is quite a slow-growing tree, generally adding no more than 6 to 9 inches per year, very gradually achieving a mature height. It is normally planted as a bare-root specimen in late winter or early spring.
Though ripe nuts are quite edible, unripe nuts contain small amounts of a mild toxin known as fagin, confined mostly in the skin of the nuts. Large quantities of unripe nuts need to be consumed before ill effects occur, but this does occasionally happen with dogs and grazing animals. The American beech is less toxic than the European beech, but there are instances of poisoning, usually in the fall, when dogs or other animals eat the fallen nuts.
|Common Name||American beech tree|
|Botanical Name||Fagus grandifolia|
|Plant Type||Deciduous tree|
|Mature Size||50-80 ft. tall, 40–80 ft. wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full, partial|
|Soil Type||Medium moisture, rich, well-drained|
|Soil pH||Acidic (5. 0–6.5)|
|Bloom Time||April to May|
|Flower Color||Yellowish-green (not showy)|
|Hardiness Zones||3 to 9 (USDA)|
|Native Area||Eastern North America|
|Toxicity||Unripe nuts are mildly toxic|
American Beech Care
The American beech is a deciduous tree in the Fagus genus, which also includes the European beech (Fagus sylvatia), another popular landscape tree. American beech (F. grandifolia) appeals to native plant enthusiasts, though in many ways is inferior to the much more popular European species.
It can be difficult to find a container-grown American beech tree at your local garden center, because they grow very slowly and a container grown tree would be unreasonably expensive for the nursery. But you can usually buy a bare-root American beech online. Late winter to early spring is a great time to buy and plant a bare root tree (it can also be done in fall). Soak the bare roots overnight before planting. (If you purchased a ball-and-burlap tree, soak the ball thoroughly with a hose as you prepare a planting hole).
Choose a planting spot with deep, well-drained soil and where there is plenty of room. The American beech tree occasionally becomes over 100 feet tall. Even at half that (the more common height for it in the landscape), this is a specimen meant for large properties. Newly planted trees can be susceptible to the wind, so it's a good idea to drive a stake and tie the tree trunk loosely to the stake for the first few months of growth. However, at this point, the stake should be removed, as the tree will develop better long-term strength if the wood is allowed to flex in the wind.
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
The Spruce / Evgeniya Vlasova
Dcrjsr / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY 3.0
Like most large shade trees, American beech prefers full sun (six or more hours per day), but it will also do quite well in partial shade.
Of all the conditions recommended for American beech trees, the most important is a deep, well-drained soil. A soil that drains well will discourage fungi. And furnishing a deep soil may help discourage the shallow rooting so problematic for this tree. Shallow rooting can wreck nearby hardscape features, causing sidewalks and driveways to heave.
This plant has average water needs. Make sure it gets about 1 inch of water per week through rainfall and/or irrigation. Do not allow water to puddle around the tree, as this can cause root rot. Fully mature American beech trees will tolerate short dry spells, but this is not a tree well suited for a long drought.
American beech is beset fed annually with a balanced fertilizer. In early spring, apply 1 pound of fertilizer per 100 square feet. Spread it over the ground directly under the tree's canopy and water it in.
Types of Beech
There are no named cultivars of the American beech, but there are some excellent versions of the European beech that should be considered:
- European beech (Fagus sylvatica): This is a very similar tree to the American beech, but with a slightly darker bark and a less dense growth habit. It is also much more tolerant of pollution and urban conditions. Several good named cultivars are available.
- Copper beech (F. sylvatica 'Purpurea'): This is a notable cultivar of the European beech, with beautiful coppery-purple leaves.
- Tricolor beech(F. sylvatica 'Purpurea Tricolor'): This is another good cultivar of the European beech. It has very unusual variegated leaves with pink, white, and green colors. It is a smaller tree, growing to a maximum of 30 feet.
These trees will readily sucker from the shallow roots. Keep these suckers cut away as they appear. Damaged or diseased limbs can be removed as you notice them. With diseased branches, it is fine to cut them back to a point a foot or so below the diseased area.
American beech tends to develop a low canopy, so if you prefer a more towering tree, cut away low branches. Because large forks tend to be weak, it is best to remove one of the two branches as these forks appear. This will be easiest to do as the tree is young and still developing; mature trees will probably need an arborist to do the trimming.
Late winter or early spring, before the tree has begun active new growth, is the best time to perform major trimming for shape.
Propagating American Beech
The American beech is such a slow-growing tree that DIY propagation is rare. That said, it can be done fairly easily, both by seeds and from stem cuttings. Here's how to propagate a new tree from stem cuttings:
- Using sharp pruners, take 6- to 10-inch cuttings from the tip of the branch, from new wood no more than 1 year old. The fall is the best time for this process.
- Remove the bottom leaves and soak the cut end in a bucket of water. While the branch soaks, fill a small pot with a mixture of potting soil and wood-based compost (such as pine bark composts).
- Dip the cut end of the branch in rooting hormone, then plant it in the prepared potting mix.
- Moisten the potting mix and cover the pot with a loose clear plastic bag. Place the pot in a bright location and continue to grow it until roots begin to develop and new leaves begin to sprout,
- Once the cutting is rooted, remove the plastic bag and continue to grow it indoors over the winter (or on a patio, if you live in a warm climate). By the following spring, the cutting can be planted in the landscape to grow into a tree.
How to Grow American Beech From Seed
Gather some dried, ripe beechnuts from the tree in the fall, and plant each one in a container filled with potting mix. Cover the seeds with 1/2 inch of potting mix and place them in a sunny indoor location. Keep the potting mix moist but not wet until the seed sprouts, then continue growing in a bright location.
At the end of the first year, transplant the seedling into a larger pot and continue growing it until it reaches a height of 1 to 3 feet, at which time it is ready to plant in the landscape. You'll need patience, as this can take several years.
American beech is a very hardy species that requires no special cold protection. When the tree is young, you may want to protect the trunk of the tree with hardware cloth or a metal guard to shield the bark from rabbits and other gnawing animals. After a few years, this kind of winter protection will no longer be necessary.
Common Pests & Plant Diseases
Like the American elm tree (Ulmus americana) and the American chestnut tree (Castanea dentata), the American beech tree has been under attack from a foreign invader and suffers from a serious disease: beech bark disease. Two things working together cause this disease: a non-native insect (the beech scale) and certain fungi (Nectria species). The beech scale insects pierce the bark (the bark is thin, making their task easier) to remove sap. These piercings give the fungi open access to the insides of the tree. The result is bark cankers. At worst, death can result from beech bark disease. At best, the tree's looks will be marred. Control of the disease is possible, but it is difficult and best left to professionals.
Understanding what causes beech bark disease should dissuade you from engaging in the time-honored practice of carving initials in the bark that will be visible for decades. The thinness of the bark is what has made this tree the preferred target of such carving: A knife easily pierces the bark, leading to scarring that never heals. Just as piercings from an insect can open the way to damaging fungi, human-made injury has the same effect.
How to Get American Beech to Bloom
American beech is a monoecious species, producing both male and female flowers on the same plant. They are not showy, so the only reason to be concerned about flowers is if you want the plant to produce nuts, which are the product of the female flowers. But it's possible that you'll never live to see a tree you plant produce nuts. That's because it can take 40 years or more before a beech tree is sufficiently mature to begin flowering and producing nuts.
If you have a mature tree that is already producing flowers and nuts, be aware that it's common for the yield to vary from year to year. Typically, there's a heavy flower/nut production every two or three years, with a much sparser yield in other years.
To encourage flower and nut production, simply keep the tree as healthy as possible, especially when it comes to providing adequate water. These trees don't like extended drought.
Common Problems With American Beech
Roots Are Disrupting the Lawn
American beech is notorious for developing shallow, exposed roots that can extend quite a distance. While deep soil preparation can encourage the tree to root itself downward rather than out, once a tree begins to exhibit an extensive exposed root system, there's little you can do about it. At this point, the best strategy might be to convert the area below the canopy from lawn grass to a shade-garden bed covered with thick mulch to hide the roots.
Canopy Is Too Low
Beech trees are known for having low limbs that can interfere with pedestrian movement and create such dense shade that lawn grass won't thrive beneath it. A beech tree's canopy can be raised by pruning away the lowest limbs, but this is best done on a young tree over a period of several years. With an older, mature tree, it can be damaging to cut away many large limbs all at once, so if it must be done, spread the pruning over several years.
Tree Suckers Constantly
One of the big drawbacks of the American beech tree is that it spreads by sending up suckering sprouts from its extensive root system. In native habitat, this can allow a single tree to colonize into an entire dense thicket of trees, but in a traditional landscape, this habit can be an annoyance. These suckers should be cut away as they appear to prevent them from diverting energy away from the main tree.
This massive, long-lived tree with the broad, oval-shaped canopy is normally planted as a shade tree, but it also has ornamental value as a specimen tree for large properties. However, it has a tendency toward shallow broad-reaching roots, so it should be planted well away from hardscape structures.
Yes. Creatures such as squirrels, chipmunks, and many birds love to feed on the ripened nuts of this tree. In wilder regions, the nuts may even be popular with bears.
The clearest difference is that the American beech has leaves with serrated edges, while the European beech has smooth-edged leaves. On the unripened fruit, the spines on American beech are usually straight, while the spines on the fruit of European beech are often curly. Finally, the leaves on American beech are longer and narrower, while European beech has leaves that are more oval-shaped.
European beech is a slightly smaller tree, and as a landscape tree, it may be preferable to the American beech, which is somewhat sensitive to urban conditions and has a troublesome suckering habit.
Yes, the nuts are edible, though not as desirable for humans as they are for animals. Full ripened nuts can be roasted and eaten whole, or they can be ground into flour and added to corn meal for baking.
It's quite common for an American beech in good health to live more than 150 years. There are some existing specimens believed to be more than 300 years old.
American beech turns a golden bronze color in fall. It is not especially showy on its own, but can provide a nice contrast with other, more colorful trees.
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Fagus grandiflora. North Carolina State Extension.
American Beech | Department of Horticulture
Introduction: American beech is a distinctive and elegant forest tree in Kentucky and throughout eastern North America. In early spring new leaves emerge from buds as feathery tassels. Handsome foliage develops a golden bronze color in the fall. American beech's graceful, spreading form is superior to other beeches and is attractive throughout the year. Winter, however, emphasizes this tree's other notable attributes - its long, thin, pointed, brown leaf buds and its smooth, thin, light gray, "wrinkled" bark that resembles an elephant's hide. American beech bark is nearly white and is much paler than European beech. Like oak, beech often holds on to its bottom leaves throughout winter.
Culture: This tree should be reserved for large areas or naturalized settings. It may be used as a specimen or allowed to sucker and used as a hedge. American beech prefers moist, well-drained soil with a
pH of 5 to 6.5. It prefers full sun but will tolerate shade. It will not tolerate wet or compacted soils. This tree has a shallow root system that makes growing grass under it difficult. Beech is prone to decay if wood is damaged andimproper pruning will decrease its life span. It should be pruned in summer or early fall. American beech has no serious insect or disease problems, but nectria canker and beech scale are potential problems.
- Native habitat: Rich, well-drained upland woods of eastern North America.
- Growth habit: Broad, spreading crown with a short trunk.
- Tree size: Reaches a height of 50 to 70 feet with a spread equal to or less than the height. It can grow to 120 feet tall.
- Flower and fruit: Small male and female flowers bloom on the same plant but in separate clusters. Fruit is an edible nut or nuts enclosed in a prickly covering.
- Leaf: Ovate leaves are 2 to 5 inches long, glossy dark green above and pale below. Leaves have up to 15 pairs of prominent parallel veins, each ending with a sharp tooth at the margin. Fall color is golden bronze.
- Hardiness: Winter hardy to USDA Zone 4.
This beautiful forest tree grows best on the alluvial bottom lands of the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. Beech is often seen in groves because of its propensity for reproducing itself asexually by root suckers. Most beech seeds are eaten when they mature by one of a number of wildlife species that rely on them as a food source. Passenger pigeons, before their extinction, were among those species. The pigeons were known to converge upon beech groves in such large numbers that their weight would frequently break large limbs.
Huge forests of American beech were thriving in Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana and central Michigan when colonists arrived. The beech tree's exacting requirements for growth made it an indicator of good farm land and as colonists began clearing land, the beech disappeared.
American beech wood was used as a source of fuel for their large, open fireplaces. It is now used to make household items such as wooden kitchen utensils and clothespins. Pioneers used beech leaves to stuff mattresses. Beech ashes were used to make soap.
Beech has paper-smooth bark and, unfortunately, many people are compelled to carve into it. These carvings remain on the tree indefinitely. In 1916, a 365-year-old, 70-foot tall American beech in Washington County, Tennessee finally died. The scars of an inscription ("D. Boon Cilled A Bar On Tree In Year 1760"), which had been legible some 35 years before, remained on its trunk. Daniel Boone could read and write, and scholars have dismissed the inscription as the work of someone else. Still, the longevity of American beech bark and its irresistible resemblance to paper cannot be dismissed.
The national champion American beech (115 feet) is in Maryland. American beech is more difficult to propagate and produce in the nursery than European beech so it is not often sold in commercial nurseries.
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Beech wood.Description. Where it grows in Russia. What looks like
Beech is a deciduous tree belonging to the Beech family. The distribution range of the species is outlined by the temperate zone of Europe, Asia and North America. European beech represents huge populations on the territory of modern Europe, often grown for landscaping cities in park areas. The plant can be found high in the mountains, the forest beech develops well at an altitude of up to 2300 m above sea level. The beech tree is not only hardy, it dominates the forests over deciduous representatives of other species.
- Botanical information
- What does a beech fruit look like?
- Growing beech outdoors
On different continents, beech forests of different types of trees are common. Forest beech can be found on the European continent, B. large-leaved is more common in North America. Beech trees are endemic to China and Japan, the Chinese variety of the tree is B. Engler, in Japan there are two species - B. Japanese blue and B. jagged.
The beech tree often reaches a height of up to 30 m, the girth of the trunk can exceed 2 m. An adult growing beech tree is a giant tree, its trunks, which are gray in color, are covered with smooth bark. Almost to the very top with a powerful crown, beech stems do not have branches. This tree has such a dense crown that the lower branches are never illuminated by the sun, and therefore, the process of photosynthesis is disrupted. That is why the lower branches gradually die off, leaving the beech trunk bare.
Beech leaves have the shape of an oblong oval, along the edge are often decorated with serrations or frequent teeth. The length of the leaves is from 5 to 15 cm, the width often reaches up to 10 cm. The leaves fall off in winter.
Beech giants bloom in spring, the color is loose catkins that appear from the buds at the same time as the leaves. Pollination of flowers occurs with the help of wind, while fruiting may occur late. Single strong specimens bear fruit in 20-40 years, in group plantings - by 60 years.
The beech tree is a long-liver, some individuals reach a respectable age of 400 years and more.
What does a beech fruit look like?
Harvest of beech soil ripens in boxes.
Beech fruits look like a trihedral acorn up to 15 mm in size. Beech nuts are covered with a hard wooden shell, the seeds ripen 2-4 pieces in a common nest box. Fresh beech fruits are suitable for crop propagation.
In Russia, European beech is widely cultivated, which is planted for landscaping urban areas, and is also used to form figured hedges. Culture is often included in group park plantings when forming a green landscape. The dense foliage makes this crop most suitable for planting in industrial areas.
Where beech grows, soils are protected from erosion, silting and flooding. The branched root system of beeches helps to increase soil fertility, saturating the soil layer with organic matter and inorganic compounds.
Beech wood is valuable for the furniture industry, it is used to make curved details of Viennese chairs, figured backs of sofas and other products. Beech wood is used to make musical instruments, plywood, parquet boards, and finishing veneers. Processing of beech raw materials is used in the manufacture of alcohol and beer.
Beech wood develops a unique pink color over time, but may only be used indoors.
Growing beech outdoors
When planting a beech tree in the garden, it is useful to remember that the plant is able to live in one place for centuries, requiring more and more free area around the trunk every year. Beeches can develop well in partial shade and in the open sun, but for favorable growth, it is necessary to choose places protected from the wind for planting.
In the southern regions, the culture does not feel well in the summer heat, it is useful to water the beeches often and spray the crown.
The tree is undemanding to soils, but it is necessary to allocate the wettest area with fertile soil for planting beech seedlings. The culture reacts negatively to soil salinization, prefers fertile loams with the addition of lime.
Spring flowering beech tree.
Beeches are sensitive to temperature changes, the tree feels oppressed when the air temperature drops below -5C. In the northern regions, this crop should not be planted for cultivation in open ground. Considering that the tree reaches a considerable height, it is unrealistic to provide shelter for the trunk for the winter, so beeches should not be grown in the middle lane.
After planting beech seedlings in the open ground, it is necessary to provide young trees with regular watering and spraying. To reduce the growth of weeds and the evaporation of moisture from the near-stem circle, it is worth mulching the soil under the planted trees.
Fertilizer for deciduous trees is applied to tree trunks in early spring and late autumn.
Autumn beech forest.
Beech can be propagated by root shoots, which are formed in abundance near the stumps of felled trees 2-3 years after felling. The shoots are separated with part of the roots, after which the young tree is planted in a permanent place in a well with good fertile soil. The dimensions of the planting hole should correspond to the size of the roots. After planting, the tree is watered abundantly. In the first years after planting, young beeches grow very hard, reaching their maximum height by the age of 50.
Beech nuts ripen on mature trees that have already reached the age of 60-80 years. They can be planted in greenhouses in light fertile soil in the spring. Sometimes root growths form on nuts when stored in a humid room. It is very important to plant beech seeds in the ground in time, until the root seedlings have dried up. You can accelerate the germination of beech nuts by soaking them in stimulating solutions (Epin, Gumat, Zircon, aloe juice).
Young seedlings should be shaded from the burning summer sun, provide plants with uniform abundant watering, when grown in separate pots, strictly monitor the increase in capacity as the roots grow.
It is difficult to describe the splendor of an adult beech tree, because such power and beauty of luxurious foliage distinguish a spectacular deciduous plant from other inhabitants of the park area, beeches are especially beautiful in autumn, when the leaves turn into all colors of a fiery yellow palette.
where it grows, types and varieties, planting and care, photo
The beech tree is considered a valuable species all over the world. In modern Europe, it is often planted for landscaping the areas of city parks. In the wild, you can meet pure beech forests. Beech grows even in the mountains, the habitat of this tree is limited to a height of 2300 m above sea level.
Beech - what kind of tree is it
Beech is a broad-leaved, tall, deciduous, slow-growing tree belonging to the Beech family. In many languages, the name of the beech tree is similar to the word for "book". This is due to the fact that bark and wooden sticks carved from beech were used in ancient times to write the first runes.
How a beech tree looks like
The height of a beech tree reaches 30 m, the girth of the trunk is approximately 2 m in diameter. The trunk is covered with a thin layer of smooth gray bark. The beech crown has unusual properties, it is so thick that sunlight simply does not reach the lower branches, as a result of which photosynthesis processes are disrupted, the branches die and fall off. That is why they are located only in the upper part of the crown, almost to the very top of the tree, the trunk remains bare.
The beech tree is a cozy home for birds. It looks stunning at any time of the year. In autumn, the beech forest is full of juicy, bright shades, and in summer and spring it pleases the eye with lush green foliage.
Botanical description of the beech tree
Strong beech branches covered with oval or oval-oblong leaves, 5 to 15 cm long, 4 to 10 cm wide. They may have slight serrations or be entire. In the autumn-winter period, the beech sheds its foliage.
Scaly buds are elongated and sprout to replace leaves in winter. The flowering of the tree begins in the spring months, when the first leaves begin to open. The flowers collected in earrings are unisexual and are pollinated with the help of the wind.
The triangular beech fruits are shaped like an acorn. Their length is 10 - 15 mm. The fruits have a dense, woody peel, collected 2-4 pieces in a shell consisting of 4 blades, which is called a plush. The fruits are considered edible, despite the high content of tannin, which has a bitter aftertaste. In the people they received the name "beech nuts".
Important! Beech fruits may contain a poisonous alkaloid called fagin. It decomposes and becomes toxic when roasted.
Solitary trees begin to bear fruit after 20 - 40 years. Fruiting of beeches growing in groups begins at least 60 years later.
Beech roots are strong and close to the soil surface, there is no pronounced tap root. Often the roots of several adjacent trees are intertwined.
Where the beech tree grows in Russia
Beech is considered one of the most common tree crops in Europe. The territory of mixed and deciduous forests in Europe, North America and Asia is literally strewn with beech trees.
In Russia, you can meet forest and oriental beech, they grow on the territory of the Crimea and the Caucasus. In central Russia, growing this tree will not be easy. Without damage, it can only withstand short-term frosts down to -35 o C even at rest. The plant does not tolerate prolonged frosts. For young shoots, leaves and seedlings, even cold snaps down to -2 9 are detrimental0167 o C.
Beech in landscaping
Beech is used in landscaping for urban parks and alleys. Curly hedges are often formed from it. Trees are planted both singly and in groups, thereby creating an unusually beautiful green landscape of parks and forest parks.
The lush beech crown forms a pleasant partial shade under it, in which you can place a summerhouse or a bench to enjoy a slight coolness on hot summer days.
Due to its dense foliage and dense crown, beech is perfect for planting in industrial areas of the city. The benefit of beech is that the tree cleans the water and air around it, protects the soil from erosion. Its roots are able to release mineral and organic substances into the soil, which make it more fertile.
Important! Spreading beech branches form a strong shadow under them, so planting light-loving plants next to it is not recommended.
Sowing chestnut, oriental and common spruce, weymouth pine, oak, birch, white fir, berry yew, juniper, mountain ash, hornbeam get along well with this plant.
Types and varieties of beech
The most widespread both in the wild and in horticulture are the following types of beech:
- Oriental beech (Caucasian). It is found in the vast territories of the Crimea, the Caucasus and the north of Asia Minor. Often grown in protected natural complexes of the European part of Russia. It grows in beech forests or in proximity to other broad-leaved crops. The height of the tree can reach 50 m. It is distinguished from the forest beech by a more rounded and even crown and larger elongated leaves, reaching 20 cm in length. Oriental beech is also more thermophilic;
- European beech (forest). It is the most common member of this family. It grows wild in Western Ukraine, Belarus and Western Europe. In Russia, it is also present in some reserves in the European part. The height of the forest beech reaches 30 m, its crown is powerful, has an ovoid shape. On the branches are oval leaves up to 10 cm long;
- Engler. Considered a rare breed, in the wild this type of beech grows only in China. Cultivated specimens are used in park and garden landscape design in other countries. The height of the Engler beech tree reaches 20 m, its trunk is divided into several branches, thereby forming a wide oval crown. The plant is also distinguished from other species by the elongated oval shape of the leaves;
- Large-leaved beech. Most common in eastern North America and Western Europe. Prefers mixed deciduous forests, gets along well with maples, birches and lindens. The main feature of the species is large, elongated leaf blades and buds, stretching up to 2.5 cm in length.
Beech planting and care
It is possible to grow a beech in a summer cottage. This is a very shade-tolerant culture that can withstand even a long stay in the shade. However, the plant feels comfortable in the sun. The beech tree does not tolerate drought and needs abundant watering. It is not demanding on the soil, wet and dry, slightly acidic and alkaline - at least somewhat fertile lands are suitable for it. Planting work usually begins in the spring.
Seedling and planting preparation
Despite the fact that beech can grow on almost any soil, it prefers loamy, calcareous soil. Polluted and saline soils have a negative impact on beech. Beech seedlings are best purchased in specialized stores, but you can also germinate them yourself from seeds.
Important! When choosing a place for growing beech, it must be taken into account that the root system of the tree is quite powerful and voluminous, it needs a lot of space. Trampled areas are also not suitable for beech.
How to plant a beech
The main thing when planting a beech is to choose the right time, the seedlings are planted in the spring before the first buds appear. Otherwise, the tree will have a weak immunity to diseases and grow slowly.
- Dig a hole measuring 80 by 80 cm. A large hole will help the roots grow faster.
- Drain the beech planting hole with stones.
- Add a fertilizer that stimulates the active growth of the root system.
- Place the beech seedling in the planting hole.
- Sprinkle with earth and water thoroughly.
- To better preserve the soil, the surface around the young beech trunk should be mulched with dry grass.
Watering and fertilizing
Young beeches should be watered once a week. Twice a month, they also need spraying, which allows you to wash off all the dust and pests from parts of the plant.
Top dressing after planting is carried out only while the beech tree is small. Plants are fed twice a year: in autumn and spring.
Mulching and loosening
Twice a month, after spraying, the soil around young beech seedlings must also be loosened. After loosening, the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of dry grass, which allows you to keep the soil moist for a long time.
The beech crown lends itself well to pruning and shaping. That is why the tree is so highly valued and is often used in landscape design to form green hedges and various compositions with other plants.
Regular pruning also helps to rejuvenate the plant. However, beech branches and leaves grow very slowly, so pruning is infrequent. Usually annual pruning is carried out in the spring.
In addition to the decorative function, pruning allows you to free the plant from old and unnecessary branches. The need for such procedures disappears only when the tree becomes an adult.
Preparing for winter
To survive the autumn-winter period, the beech tree needs a lot of moisture. Mature plants are not afraid of short-term cooling down to -35 o C. However, young seedlings are not suitable for such temperatures. For the winter, they need a thick layer of mulch and extra shelter.
The beech tree is propagated with:
Experienced gardeners recommend propagating beech seeds. Seeds for planting can be harvested independently. To do this, the fruits, as they ripen, must be collected and stored until planting in semi-moist sand. Immediately before planting, they are placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, after which they are planted at home in seedling containers. Only with the advent of warm, sunny days, seedlings can be transplanted into the ground.
Important! Beech seeds retain their germination capacity throughout the year.
Other methods of propagation are diversion, grafting and cuttings. However, the rooting of plants in this case is reduced to 12%. For three years after planting, the tree will grow very slowly, subsequently the growth rate will accelerate significantly. A good shoot is obtained from a stump.
Diseases and pests
The beech tree can be affected by a number of parasitic fungi that are extremely dangerous to the health and life of the plant. They cause diseases such as trunk cancer, brown spot, and various types of rot.
Its causative agent is marsupial fungus. The disease can be detected by the presence of cancerous ulcers on the trunk. The mycelium of the fungus contributes to the death and damage to the cells of the tree. Every year, cancerous ulcers increase in size, they can even provoke the death of a tree. Small wounds must be cut and smeared with creosote mixed with oil. Running trees are to be cut down and destroyed.
Brown leaf spot
A fungal disease that is detected by the presence of brown spots on the leaves. Usually it threatens only young trees. In case of spotting, the trees are sprayed with special solutions (Bordeaux liquid, Chorus, Barrier)
White marble rot
It is caused by the tinder fungus, its mycelium penetrates the wood, destroying it and forming rot.