How tall does a cherry tree get


How to Grow a Cherry Tree: The Complete Guide

Have you ever wondered how to grow a cherry tree or why you would want to grow a cherry tree at all? The answer to “why” is because cherry trees are invariably attractive and produce useful fruit. Cherries are particularly lovely fruit trees — the blossoms are beautiful (the reason for cherry blossom festivals all over the world each year), the fruit is tasty, and the trees are quite easy to grow, with just a little care and knowledge.

As for “how,” this article will share what you need to know order to grow a cherry tree and enjoy the (literal) fruits of your labor!

When To Plant Cherry Trees

Cherry trees prefer sun and will grow strongly during the warmer month. When the tree is established, it will adapt its growth to the seasons, but when it is younger it may need some more tending.

To give your tree an advantage when it is young, plant it in spring, so that it can become relatively established over the spring, summer and early fall. If you live in a warmer climate, then you can plant in late winter, if the ground has not been frozen.

If the ground is frozen in the area where you live, wait until the ground is workable before planting. Always look out for the warning of a late frost. Take note of the general climate in your area and plan the planting accordingly.

Where To Plant Your Cherry Trees

When you choose to plant a cherry tree, there are a few things to consider. One is the size of the tree. Cherry trees can grow tall (up to 35 feet/10 meters) and most have a broad spread of branches (12-14 feet/ 3.5-4.5 meters) and have widespread branches.

This means that you must make sure you plant your tree far enough away from other trees, or larger plants, to allow the tree room for its fully mature spread.

The other thing to consider is the root system. You don’t want the roots to cause trouble with any structure in your garden, particularly a wall or even your house. Cherry trees tend to have a relatively shallow root system, but it does grow outward quite substantially as the roots look for oxygen.

The roots of a cherry tree can spread underground over an area that is even wider than the spread of the branches. So you must consider the spread of the tree above and below ground when you choose where to plant the tree.

Soil 

Cherry trees prefer a soft, well-drained soil that is quite fertile. Trees with sweet fruit require better drainage, while sour cherries are not quite so fussy.

When you plant a tree, the soil should be kept moist for a few days. This will keep the soil soft and draining effectively, but the tree will have enough water to absorb.

Light

Cherry trees need a lot of light, so make sure you plant your tree in a sunny spot, where they will receive at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight a day.

Water

Once cherry trees are established, they don’t need a lot of water. However, for the first year, or so, after planting, you will need to make sure that the sapling is watered regularly, keeping the soil damp. 

When you water your cherry tree, remember the broad spread of the roots and don’t only concentrate the water around the trunk. You don’t need to dampen the entire area of the roots, but do try to keep a slightly wider spread of water, possibly up to a meter around the trunk.

Because the root system of a cherry tree is relatively shallow, it will need to look for water mostly above the water table, so it is important that it receives water from above the soil as well – including rain, of course, but also from you watering it. Usually, cherry trees will be able to access water from a greater number of sources in summer, so take this into account when you water the tree.

Temperature and Humidity

Cherry trees are quite hardy and different cultivars, or varieties can tolerate different temperatures and weather conditions. Generally, though, cherries prefer generally cooler, drier climates. In fact, part of their growth cycle is to have a period of dormancy during a cold winter, which they will not get in a hotter, humid climate.

Even younger trees can tolerate frost quite well, but they can be sensitive to a late frost. This is because they come out of their dormancy period as the weather warms up and are not prepared to cope with very low temperatures.

Sweet cherries, in particular, are susceptible to a late frost. If a tree has started to bud when the late frost arrives, it will be hit harder than before budding. This makes late frost an important thing to take into consideration when you plan to plant your tree. With younger trees, protect your tree by using something like a burlap tree wrap.

Planting Multiple Trees: Cross-Pollination

Most cherry trees are not self-pollinating, so you need to have two trees, of different varieties, so that they can pollinate each other. Some types of cherry trees are not compatible, so you will need to do some solid research to make sure that the varieties of trees you choose will be able to cross-pollinate.

There are some varieties of sour cherries that are self-pollinating, but sweet cherries are generally not self-pollinating. However, the BlackGold and WhiteGold varieties are self-pollinating and can even be used as ‘universal pollinators’, as they are compatible with any variety of cherry.

Bees pollinate cherry trees and the period of blossoming and fertility is quite limited. Bees usually work in the earlier morning, so keep away from the trees during this period. Cooler weather may prolong the period of fertility, so keep an eye on your trees and the bees’ activity.

Varieties of Cherry Tree To Plant

Where you live will determine, to a degree, what variety of cherry tree you plant.

The Benton Cherry tree is a popular variety of cherry to grow in your garden. This is mainly because it is a relatively easy tree to grow. They are quite big trees, with wide-spreading branches and are remarkably hardy, requiring almost minimal maintenance. They are also quite resistant to frost. 

The Blackgold Cherry tree is another popular and hardy cherry to consider grow at home. It is quite frost-resistant and not as susceptible to diseases and pests as some other varieties. The tree needs to be watered regularly in the first year of growth. As they grow, the trees do not need to be watered very regularly.  

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How To Grow Your Cherry Trees

Cherry trees can be grown from three basics: the pit, a seedling/young tree, a bare root tree.

Bare root trees

Bare root trees are small trees that have had the soil removed from their roots, which are covered in plastic to protect them. These trees are usually available during winter and should be planted when the weather is still cold.

The soil you plant your bare root tree into cannot be hard, so you will either have to prepare a patch by working on it and making sure it is loose before you buy the trees, or you can place the trees in a small patch of loose soil until you are ready to plant them. This should not be longer than a few days.

Seedlings or young trees

You can buy cherry tree seedlings, or a young tree, to plant out.   Seedlings will need more care, so keep them in a pot in a protected area until they are ready to establish themselves. Young trees can be planted out quite easily.

From the pit

If you really do want to grow your own cherry tree from the beginning, then you can do so from the pit. You should begin with a few pits, as some of them may not sprout.

Make sure that the pits are clean of any trace of the fruit by soaking them thoroughly. Leave them to dry for a few days. After that keep them in a sealed container in the fridge for 7-10 days. This will simulate the dormancy period of winter.

The pits can be planted in pots that are full of loose soil, that is mixed with fertilizer. Before you do this, you must take them back to room temperature. Push the pits into the soil and water them enough so that the soil is moist. Do not over-water them. When the pits sprout and establish themselves as seedlings, you can plant them out

Planting the Trees

To plant your tree from any of these sources, you must make sure that the soil is loose. Do this by working the soil over with a garden fork. It should be loose to at least a foot (30cms) below the surface.

Dig a hole that is deep and wide enough to accommodate the root ball. This will usually be about 18 inches (45 cms) in diameter and 24 inches (60 cms) deep.

Place the roots of the plant into the hole and cover them, but keep some of the root ball showing – about 1 inch (2.5 cms) above the surface. Compact the soil around the tree gently, making sure that it does stay relatively loose. Do not tamp it down.

The level of the soil around the tree must be the same level as the surrounding area. Fruit trees must not sit in water, so there can’t be a hollow around the stem.

Make sure that you water the tree thoroughly for the first few weeks after it is planted. This does not mean keeping it in a pool of water, but making sure that the area around the stem is kept damp.

How To Grow a Cherry Tree In a Pot

There are some varieties of cherry trees that are dwarf, which can be grown in pots. Remember that these can grow to about 6 feet high, so you will need to prune and contain the trees carefully, to make sure that they don’t grow too big for your house.

One advantage that growing a cherry tree in a pot is that you will be able to move it inside during cold weather.

When you plant a young tree/seedling in a pot, make sure that you water it regularly to keep the soil damp. Do not overwater it, because if the roots sit in water, the tree’s growth will be affected. You will need to fertilize the tree at least every couple of months.

Fertilizing your cherry Tree

To keep your cherry tree healthy, you need to feed it regularly, by using the appropriate fertilizer. Cherry trees are ‘light feeders’, which means that they don’t use a lot of nutrients.

Like most plants, cherry trees need nitrogen, phosphate and potassium to grow, so make sure that the fertilizer you use contains all of these (just make sure the fertilizer is low in nitrogen). Phosphate and potassium boost the tree’s ability to fight diseases.

You can use a chemical fertilizer, but you could prefer to use organic options, which are based on compost and natural additives.

Pruning your cherry tree

All fruit trees need to be pruned regularly during the winter months. This promotes new growth in the spring and you’ll have a good crop of fruit in summer. For our complete guide to pruning your cherry tree, visit this link.

Harvesting your cherries

The whole point of growing a cherry tree is to enjoy the fruit, isn’t it? Once you have a lovely crop on your tree, you’ll need to harvest them. Knowing when and how to pick them will keep you from damaging the fruit.

You’ll know your cherries are ripe when they turn red. The darker red they are, the riper they are. If you pull gently on a cherry and it comes away easily, then it’s fully ripe. Don’t pick cherries when they still have any green on them, because they don’t continue to ripen once picked off the tree.

For more in-depth information about harvesting cherries, read our guide on picking cherries.

However, if you’re harvesting sour cherries for cooking, you can pick them when they’re not quite ripe. Make sure you cut the fruit off the tree, though.

Put the harvested cherries into a container, but don’t over-fill it or squash the cherries because you may damage them. Keep the cherries in the fridge as soon after as picking them as possible. This will keep the fruit fresh longer.

Cherry Tree Pests and Disease

Cherry tree pests and disease can come in a variety of forms and each one requires specialized action to treat and prevent them. Some pose greater threats than others to your cherry harvest, so educating yourself about each one is a necessary part of growing cherry trees in your garden.

Pests

Leaf damage caused by black cherry aphids.

Here are some of the common types of pests that you may have to deal with as you grow a cherry tree.

Birds

One of the greatest threats to the fruit on your cherry tree are birds, which are not easy to control. The best protection against losing your cherries to birds is to cover your tree with netting.

Black Cherry Aphids

In winter, keep an eye out for tiny black bugs clustering on the stems or under the leaves on your cherry tree. If your tree is a sweet cherry, then you must be even more vigilant, because they are more susceptible to this pest.

You should treat your tree for black cherry aphids by spraying it with horticultural oil. If you notice the leaves on your tree curling, then you must treat it. It is easier to get rid of the aphids before the leaves actually curl.

Borers

The American Plum Borer bores into the trunks of weakened trees.

The Peachtree borer goes for the base of the trunk of a cherry tree and affects the flow of nutrients to the tree. You can dig out the larvae, but it may be more effective to use a pesticide. You will need to get advice on what to use.

Shot hole borers dig into weakened branches in the tree, or into the trunk. If they are only in one/two branches, they can be removed. However, if the whole tree is affected, then it may not be possible to save the tree.

Pests tend to attack cherry trees that are weakened, so you keep your tree properly watered and fertilized.

Want to know more about other pests you may encounter? Click here to read our blog post on how to identify, treat, and prevent ten common cherry tree pests.

DiseasesCherries suffering from brown rot caused by a fungus.

Any plant can be infected by diseases, and cherry trees are no exception.

Leaf spot, canker and brown spot are some of these diseases. You will recognize these by leaves that develop dark spots, or begin to die. You should remove any diseased leaves, or even branches. When you do this, dip the pruning shears in a bleach solution to sterilize them before making the next cut, so that the disease doesn’t spread.

You can spray your tree with a fungicide to protect against these diseases. A fungicide will also help to prevent ripe fruit rot, brown rot, or twig blight. Consult your nursery or garden center to find out what fungicide you should use. If there is a lot of rain, you may need to repeat the spray of fungicide.

Most of the diseases that affect cherry trees are the result of over-watering. Make sure that the soil is kept moist, not very wet. The soil must be well-drained and kept quite loose.

For a more in-depth read about the identification, treatment, and prevention of the ten most common cherry tree diseases, visit our blog article here.

FAQs

Are cherry trees easy to grow?

Cherry trees need to be established carefully. After that, they are relatively easy to look after. Keep them healthy by watering regularly, but not too much, and fertilizing them periodically.

Can I grow a cherry tree at home?

Cherry trees tend to be large trees, so you’ll need a good size space in your yard to grow one of them. As long as you have the right conditions for the tree, including at least 6 hours of direct sunlight, then this is a lovely tree to have at home.

What kind of soil do cherry trees prefer?

Cherry trees prefer to grow in well-drained soil that contains nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

Make Cherry Trees Part of Your Garden!

A cherry tree makes a great (and tasty) addition to a home garden. Our guides can help you pick just the right one.

Now that you know how to grow a cherry tree, visit our Cherry Trees hub page to read about different cherry tree varieties you can grow, plus other cherry-related informational articles.

Cherry Tree Height: Averages, Influencing Factors, Examples

So, you’re thinking of planting some cherry trees but aren’t sure about the right cherry tree height to go with your yard, garden, or farm?

With so many types of cherry trees, there are a lot of choices. But, don’t worry, we’re going to walk you through the process.

How tall are cherry trees? The height of cherry trees ranges from 6 feet to over 100 feet. Standard cherry trees reach heights of 12 to 20 feet, while larger species grow up to 50-plus feet tall. Furthermore, dwarf trees in containers grow between 6 feet and 10 feet tall, and wild cherry trees reach 130-plus feet tall.

Read on below and explore cherry tree heights and everything you need to know about selecting and caring for a cherry tree!

Cherry Tree Size

Choosing the right cherry tree size for your property is crucial, whether it’s a yard, garden, orchard, or farm.

There is an enormous difference between a 100-foot tall cherry tree and a 15-foot tall tree. This quick guide lays out the differences in height in all of the most popular varieties and species.

Ornamental Cherry Tree Size

The average size of ornamental cherry trees is between 20 and 30 feet. They do well in just about any soil and sun conditions as long as the soil drains well and stays moist.

Ornamental cherry trees are preferred for landscaping because they are low maintenance, look great, and live for up to 50 years.

Edible Cherry Tree Size

Sweet cherry trees, or “edible” cherry trees, reach sizes of 15 to 25 feet on average. However, under the right conditions, they may grow as much as 10 or 15 feet taller.

Dwarf species are also available and reach max heights and widths of 10 to 15 feet.

Wild Cherry Tree Size

A fan favorite, wild cherry trees are actually among the tallest, with an average height variance of 50 to 80 feet.

That said, the tallest wild cherry trees are over 130 feet tall and have a spread between 50 and 70 feet wide.

Dwarf Cherry Tree Size

The term “dwarf cherry tree” is more of an umbrella phrase than an actual species; it refers to miniature cherry trees of any species.

Most dwarf cherry trees are engineered to grow no taller than 12 to 15 feet with an equal spread width.  

But, there are even much smaller dwarf cherry trees. The Hiromi weeping cherry tree, for example, is a Japanese dwarf tree that only reaches heights of up to 6 feet tall.

Factors That Affect Cherry Tree Mature Size

There are several significant factors to take into consideration when it comes to the size of your mature cherry trees: 

  1. No less than 8 hours of sun per day is best for optimal growth.
  2. Trees need watering several times per month after planting.
  3. Trees require extra watering through the year while they are young.
  4. Trees require regular pruning to stimulate vigorous growth.
  5. Fruit trees in particular benefit from receiving fertilizer/nutrients.
  6. The pH of the soil affects the health and growth of the tree.
  7. The roots may need irrigation depending on the environment.
  8. Producing too much fruit slows down the overall growth of the tree.

Sizes of Popular Cherry Tree Varieties

There are dozens of cherry tree varieties. The 10 species below are the most popular.

Guide To Selecting a Cherry Tree

The first step to selecting a cherry tree for your yard, garden, or farm is deciding whether you want cherries for cooking or for eating. One type of cherries is acidic, and the other is sweet and edible raw.

After you decide which type you want, have a look at the available rootstock. Keep in mind that each species has its own maximum height and width, as pointed out throughout this article.

Also consider the particular sun, water, and pH requirements of any cherry tree species you’re considering planting on your property.

Make sure that you have the right sort of environment to promote healthy growth.

Another consideration is that some species, mainly the dwarfs, may be grown in pots if you prefer.

That way you can move them around throughout the year and even take them inside for the winter.

Be sure that you only purchase cherry trees from a reputable, trusted supplier. Check with our list of online sources if you can’t find quality cherry trees locally.

Cherry Tree Basic Care

Caring for cherry trees is pretty basic. In fact, as far as fruit trees are concerned, cherry trees are one of the lowest-maintenance groups of trees there is.

Following these basic care guidelines and your tree will thrive:

  • Water new trees 2-3 times per week.
  • Water young trees every other week during the spring, summer, and fall.
  • Water older trees in the spring and fall.
  • Apply fertilizer/nutrients to trees once per year.
  • Prune branches so the sun penetrates more of the tree.
  • Make sure your trees receive 6 to 10 hours of direct light.
  • Use organic pest control.
  • Keep birds away from your ripening cherries.

Related Questions:

How Fast Do Cherry Trees Grow?

Depending on the species, a cherry tree may grow anywhere from 8 to 15 inches or more per year.

In less optimal environments, cherry trees may grow as little as 5 to 6 inches or less per year.

How Long Do Cherry Trees Live?

Cherry trees don’t have the longest lifespan; they live approximately 20 to 30 years or so. Some species die after 15 years, and others live to well over 50 years.

That said, there are numerous examples of black cherry trees that are between 250 and 2,000 years old and are still living and flowering.

Conclusion

The average minimum height of cherry trees is between 10 to 20 feet with some species reaching minimums of 40 to 50 feet.

The average maximum height is roughly 30 to 50 feet, though some trees easily reach over 100 feet tall.

The biggest factors that influence the height of a cherry tree, other than its species, include the pH of its soil, the amount of sun it receives, how well watered it is, and whether pests are infesting it or not.

Cherry - refers to a tree or shrub. The cherry tree is a complete description of the fruit and the tree. Photo, planting, care, diseases, cultivation

Shrub or tree

All tall plants are usually divided into shrubs and trees. They have a number of differences, on which they draw a distinction.

Wood

This plant form must have the following mandatory features:

  1. The presence of a bole or trunk. The trunk is a large section of a tree along which nutrients move and are stored for the winter. It serves as a support for the crown.
  2. Crown - a massive part of a tree, in which shoots, foliage and fruits are concentrated. Its main function is photosynthesis.

The branches of trees are usually elongated and located at the top, forming a crown. They are long frame and short fruiting. If the cherry has a distinct trunk, crown, long branches up to 7 m, then these species are classified as trees.

The following species can be attributed to the cherry tree:

  1. Common cherry is a tall tree with branches forming a crown. The leaves are dark green, oblong-oval in shape. Common cherry is the leader of Russian gardens. Today it has many varieties and hybrids that are grown not only because of the fruits, but also as a decorative decoration for gardens.
  2. Japanese cherry or sakura - grown to decorate park areas, suburban areas. Height, in some cases up to 10 m.
  3. Black - a fruit tree up to 4 m high, with a pyramidal spreading crown. The bark of skeletal branches and trunk is dark gray. Black cherry has large fruits, weighing up to 7 g.
  4. Sakhalin (sargent) - at the age of 3, the tree reaches a height of 8-10 m. A variety of Japanese cherry. The fruits have a strong acid, which is why they are rarely used in food.
  5. Bird (cherry) - the height of the tree reaches 20 m, with a strongly spreading crown with a diameter of 10 m. The color of the bark is usually reddish. Fruits are located on one internode of 4-6 pieces.
  6. Maksimovicha is a very tall tree, up to 20 m. The fruits are very small and are not eaten. Used to create a hedge.

It should be noted that the life expectancy of trees is an order of magnitude higher than that of a shrub and is 25-35 years, in contrast to a bush - 15-20 years.

Shrub

Shrub - a modified tree that has several lignified shoots coming from the soil surface, having one root system. The duration of this form of the plant does not exceed 20 years, but the advantage is the fact that the bushes rejuvenate annually, and the tree does not have such an opportunity.

The root system of the shrub is capable of producing new shoots that can become a separate plant. The height of shrubs cannot exceed 6 m, and the smallest sizes up to half a meter.

Cherry shrubs have a place to be and the following shrub species are grown on the territory of Russia:

  1. Ferrous - dwarf cherry, not more than 1.5 m high. The distribution area is Japan and Korea. Grows in single bushes or whole walls. It has thin, very flexible red shoots. The branches strongly lean towards the soil, which is why they give the bush the shape of a ball. Fruits with a predominance of bitterness, having an almost black color.
  2. Warty - meter plant with straight shoots and stems. The fruits are burgundy, small, sweet-sour.
  3. Gray - undersized shrub, up to 1.5 m in height, with white bark, which is why it is called gray. The branches have hairs, so they seem to be fluffy. The berries are small, located close to the branches, on short petioles. They have a dark cherry color and a sweet and sour taste.
  4. Steppe - another name for shrub. The height of the shoots is not more than 1. 5 m. The branches are very sprawling. The berries are small, are yellow and red.
  5. Kurilskaya - one and a half meter upright shrub. Fruiting occurs at 9year of life, bitterish small berries.

To give a comfortable shape, shrubs are pruned, so that you can highlight the central stem and form a crown, but this will not increase the height.

Characteristic

Cherry is a perennial plant and belongs to stone fruits. The fruiting of the plant begins 2-4 years after planting it in open ground.

Cherry is a fairly frost-resistant crop, and also easily tolerates drought and lack of moisture.

This plant has a high regenerative capacity, so even heavily frozen parts of the plant do not die, and retain their vegetative capacity after being hit by cold. The life span of the shrub variety is 15-20 years, and the tree-like cherry lives about twice as long.

Considering the cherry as a biological object, the following characteristics can be distinguished:

  • root system;
  • fruit type and varieties;
  • kidneys;
  • flowering period;
  • maturity dates.

Root system

The plant has a developed root system, divided into horizontal and vertical parts. Horizontal roots are very developed, so the bush can produce numerous root shoots and, with good care, capture an increasing area of ​​the garden. Vertical roots can go deep into the soil by 3-6 meters and firmly hold the plant. The roots actively absorb moisture and nutrients, providing the aerial part with the necessary elements.

Fruit type and varieties

The fruit is a round berry with one seed. The color of the fruit varies from dark pink to red with a purple hue. The fruits are divided into two main categories. These are Amorels and Morels or Griots. The first ones are pink or red in color and have a clear juice and a sweet taste. Morels are dark red or burgundy in color, and their flesh has a sweet-sour or sour taste. The sizes of fruits differ within small limits.

Kidneys

Leaf and flower buds form on shoots. Flower buds, which subsequently form fruit ovaries, are located on annual and bouquet branches. Kidneys can also be both single and group. They are divided into fruit and growth. In a large group of buds, usually 1-2 are growth, and all the rest are fruit. For cherries, the formation of bouquet branches is characteristic, on which most of the fruits are formed. When such branches bloom, a “bouquet” of 5-6 small flowers is formed on them. If properly cared for, bouquet branches can bear fruit for 6-8 years.

In addition to the buds that form on the above-ground part of the plant, the cherry has adnexal buds. They are located on the roots of shrubs and trees and on basal shoots.

Flowering period

Cherry blossoms until the moment when the buds begin to open. Sometimes flowering may continue during the blooming process. The plant actively responds to an increase in the average daily temperature, and if it is stably kept at + 100C, cherry blossoms begin everywhere. The process itself lasts 6-10 days, but if the weather conditions worsen, the cherry can bloom for up to two weeks.

Depending on the variety, cherries are divided into early-flowering, medium-flowering and late-flowering, so the flowering period can last from late April to early June.

Maturity dates

Similar to the timing of flowering, cherry varieties are early-ripening, medium-ripening and late-ripening. Ripening time depends not only on the variety, but also on climatic conditions. In cold summer weather, the fruits will ripen longer than usual. If there are several trees of the same variety in the garden, then the one that is in the sun will ripen earlier, and not in the shade. Berries should be cut off immediately, as they quickly crumble or birds will peck at them. Fruits intended for transportation should be harvested 3-4 days ahead of schedule.

Plants should be watered two weeks before harvest.

Growing cherries in the garden

For cultivation on the site, it is better to choose varieties that have been tested for a long time at experimental stations. Relatively recently bred varieties may not meet the stated characteristics. Usually the life of a cherry tree is 15 years, but with proper care it can be increased to 20.

Acquiring and planting a seedling

It is necessary to plant a young tree in spring. In this case, the seedling will have time to take root, adapt and grow. Planting is carried out when the buds on the tree have not yet opened, but the earth has warmed up enough. The optimal time is mid-April, in the afternoon, after sunset.

Planting cherries in autumn is inconvenient because the seedling may not take root before frost and die. Nevertheless, it is better to buy a tree in the fall, and then store it until planting as follows: dig an oblong hole in the garden in the place where snow lies the longest in spring. Its depth should reach 30-35 cm, slope - 45 degrees.

Place a seedling in this hole, covering the roots and a third of the trunk with earth. Water the part of the plant covered with soil. Overlay the seedling with pine spruce branches, needles outward so that rodents do not damage it. When the snow falls, you need to throw a layer about 30 cm high on the hole with the seedling. You need to dig up the plant in the spring, just before planting.

Planting a cherry seedling.

Landing preparation

Before planting, inspect the root system of the tree. Remove all rotten, damaged roots, cut to healthy areas. Sprinkle chopped charcoal on top. Soak the roots in water for 3-4 hours before planting. This will help them loosen up and absorb moisture.

The soil should also be prepared in autumn. The tree needs a well-lit place with well-drained, sandy or loamy neutral soil. Cherries should not be planted near groundwater or where meltwater stagnates in spring.

In the event that the site has acidic soil, dolomite flour or lime is preliminarily scattered at a rate of 400 g per square meter. m. Then the soil is dug up to the depth of the shovel bayonet. A week after the application of the deoxidizer, organic matter can be added to the soil. Use compost or rotted manure at the rate of 15 kg per sq. m.

If there are several seedlings, they are planted at a distance of 3 m from each other. For self-pollinated varieties, the neighborhood is not important. But cherries that are cross-pollinated should be planted side by side. Moreover, at least 4 varieties according to the scheme 3x3 m, if tall, and 2-2.5 m, if short.

Planting a seedling

The seedling hole should be 50-60 cm deep and 80 cm in diameter. The top layer of the earth must be removed and mixed with humus, 1 kg of ash, 30 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium chloride. If the soil in the garden is clayey, you will need to add another bucket of sand.

In the center of the hole, place a peg that protrudes 30 cm above the surface. At the bottom, pour the soil mixture with fertilizer in a slide. Place a seedling on this hill on the north side of the peg. The root neck should protrude 2-3 cm above the surface.

Spread out the roots of the cherries, then gradually add potting soil into the hole. Tamp a little so that there are no voids left. When the landing is completed, at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk, make a hole with a roller of earth and pour a bucket of water into it.

When water is absorbed, the root collar will drop to the same level as the surface. After that, mulch the trunk circle with peat, humus or sawdust. Tie the seedling to a peg.

How to care for trees

Treat trees in spring with 7% urea tincture. It is advisable to do this before the buds open. If the movement of juices has already activated, then burns should not be allowed. Therefore, it is better to take a 3% composition of copper sulfate.

After 14-17 days at a temperature of 18-19 degrees, mites and other pests should be destroyed using colloidal sulfur or other commercially available solutions. For the treatment of parasites and diseases in the summer, Fufanon and copper oxychloride are used. In autumn, it is required to treat with a 4% solution of urea. It is advisable to have time to spray before the moment of leaf fall.

In order to have cherry blossoms in your garden, you need to follow the watering regime. It is important to follow the rule here - to prevent acidification of the soil. Water should soak the area near the trunk 45 cm deep.

First watering after flowering. This is done along with the application of fertilizers. As soon as the berries begin to pour, a second watering should be carried out. To do this, 3-6 buckets of liquid are poured under the tree.

Consider the weather in a particular year. After leaf fall in October, the soil is moistened up to 80 cm deep. Watering on the eve of winter will provide a supply of fluid, as a result of which the roots will be able to overwinter. If seedlings are planted in the garden, then they require regular watering - 1 time in 2 weeks. In hot weather, the frequency of watering can be increased to weekly.

Particular attention should be paid to feeding cherries with organic fertilizers once every 2-3 years. They are brought in for digging in the autumn.

Also used:

  • Potassium-phosphorus type fertilizers. For 1 sq. m, 30 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium sulfate are added.
  • Nitrogen fertilizers - requires the application of 17-20 g of ammonium nitrate or 12-15 g of urea per 1 sq. m. The addition of these fertilizers is made in the first weeks of spring, as well as after flowering.

This requires first watering the garden area where the trees are planted. Do not apply the specified top dressing to the near-stem zone. Foliar top dressing is carried out using a solution of urea. For preparation, take 50 g of the substance and dilute in 10 liters of water. It is applied after sunset 2-3 times at weekly intervals.

To enable the trees to overwinter, the area near the trunk is covered with snow and then with sawdust. In autumn, it is imperative to cover the trunk with whitewash from lime and blue vitriol. It is also necessary to whitewash the main branches at their base. Pine spruce branches will help young seedlings successfully winter.

Cherry pruning rules

If you want your garden to look like the one in the photo, you need to do the right pruning work. On seedlings, 5-7 of the strongest branches should be left. The rest are cut in a circle and processed with garden pitch.

Branches should be directed in all directions at intervals of at least 10 cm. And after the second year, branches that are directed into the crown should be removed. A cherry tree should have up to 15 main branches.

After the swelling of the buds in March, it is necessary to carry out the initial pruning. If you are late with these works, then it is better not to cut during sap flow.

These activities can be carried out in the summer when the crop is harvested.

Shoots that are shorter than 35 cm should not be removed. But branches that thicken the crown should be carefully cut. The height of the trunk should not exceed the length of the branches by more than 18-20 cm. Therefore, it must be shortened accordingly.

After the end of the growing season, autumn pruning is necessary. But if you do not have time before the cold weather, you should not do it. Annual trees are not pruned in autumn. Sanitary work to remove diseased and injured branches is carried out regularly.

The cherry orchard will flourish and bear fruit if properly cared for. It is necessary not only to correctly plant seedlings, but also to regularly cut, observe the irrigation regime, and protect trees from pests and diseases.

Cherry berry

Cherry fruit - sweet and sour berry. It is eaten fresh and processed. Berries can be frozen and dried. Dark burgundy fruits are dried, after removing the stalks. The berries are sorted, washed and blanched in a boiling solution of baking soda. After that, they are washed in cold water. Drying is carried out at a temperature of 40-45 ° C, until the berries become shriveled. The temperature is then raised to 80°C. The drying process lasts up to 12 hours.

Cherry fruit

Cherry fruit is used to make jams, compotes, is added to confectionery. The fruits are rich in glucose, fructose, nitrogenous, ash and tannins, pectins, trace elements, organic acids, vitamins A, C, B and PP. Due to their beneficial properties, they have found application in traditional medicine. They quench thirst, improve digestion, and are a mild laxative. They are a natural antipyretic, do not cause side effects. They have expectorant action. Pectins cleanse the body of toxins and heavy metals.

When making jam, the pits of the berries should be removed because they contain amygdalin, a poisonous substance that breaks down in the body.

Growing difficulties

Fruit trees are often attacked by pests and fungal diseases. Cherry is no exception.

Cherry pests

Plum codling moth, bird cherry and cherry weevils, sawflies, subcortical leafworm, hawthorn, cherry aphid are considered the most dangerous for cherries.

Cherry tree diseases

Cherries quite often affect viral and fungal diseases, that is why the preventive treatment mentioned above is so important.

  • Brown spot - yellowish, red or brown spots appear on the leaves with or without a border. Affected leaves fall off. For treatment, the tree and the soil under it are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. This is done in 3 stages: at the beginning of bud break, after flowering, 2-3 weeks after the second treatment.
  • Perforated spotting (clasterosporiasis) is accompanied by the appearance of light brown spots on leaves with a red border. In diameter, they reach 5 mm, gradually begin to dry and become through holes. Depressed purple spots up to 3 mm in diameter appear on the fruits, which turn into warts, gum oozes from them. Cracking spots with a dark border, flowing with gum, also appear on the branches. The affected branches need to be cut down, the wounds should be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and rubbed with sorrel three times, every 10 minutes. After that, treat the sections with garden pitch, and spray the tree with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid, also in 3 stages.
  • Coccomycosis is accompanied by small red dots on the leaves, which are covered with a pink bloom on the reverse side. Leaves turn brown and dry. The fight begins after the flowers fall. The tree is sprayed with a solution prepared from 2 g of the Chorus preparation and 10 liters of water. After 3 weeks, the procedure is repeated. The third treatment is carried out 3 weeks after harvest.
  • The dying off of the branches begins with light pink warty growths appearing on them. They can be located both in groups and singly. Sick branches are removed, sections are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulphate, then with garden pitch.
  • Scab is accompanied by the appearance of velvety olive-colored spots on fruits and leaves. Berries crack, green leaves shrivel. Use the same as described above, Bordeaux liquid in 3 stages.

Gum secretion may indicate the presence of various diseases in cherries. However, if this process is not stopped, the tree may die. Clean the edges of the damage to the bark with a sharp instrument and treat the wound with a solution of 100 mg of oxalic acid and 1 liter of water. You can put gruel from fresh sorrel on the wound, and then treat it with garden pitch.

Gum on cherry stem.

Cherry application

Due to its beneficial properties, this plant is widely used in folk medicine. Cherry berries and leaves of this tree are of high value. The fruits contain coumarins, which reduce the risk of thrombosis and reduce blood clotting. In addition, ellagic acid was found in the berries, which prevents the formation of cancer cells, so the use of cherries is the prevention of cancer.

Leaves contain organic acids, sucrose, dextrose, coumarins. A substitute for tea is made from them, used for pickling vegetables.

Leaves used as a medicinal raw material are harvested after flowering or after they fall off on their own. Use fresh or dry for the winter. From the leaves collected in the spring, vitamin tea is brewed, which has anti-inflammatory, antiseptic properties.

It should be remembered that the bones contain amygdalin, which can lead to poisoning of the body. However, small amounts of the pits can be used to treat gout.

Cherry is a good honey plant. Dense stands of trees provide early nectar and pollen.

The plant is valued for its beautiful wood. The color of the wood of the cherry tree is pink-brown or pink-gray. Darkens over time. Has decorative value. Easy to handle. Used for making furniture and souvenirs.

The bark of the tree contains tannins. Used in the leather industry. Gum (cherry resin) flowing from stem cracks is used in the production of textiles.

Contraindications for the use of cherry fruits

Berries are not recommended for stomach ulcers, intestinal disorders, diabetes and obesity. Before using the fruit for medicinal purposes, you should consult your doctor.

Vitamin pantry

Cherry contains a wide variety of vitamins that are very beneficial for human health.

Cherry even has healing properties. There are especially many vitamins A, C and B in cherries, which allows it to fight colds well.

Cherries also contain many amino acids, including folic acid, which is very useful in the nutrition of pregnant women.

Cherry berries contain a lot of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, but its main noteworthy advantage is that it contains a high content of antioxidants that are useful for healing the human body.

Eating cherries is good for people with heart and vascular diseases. Together with cherries, iron enters our body, which is useful for people with anemia.

Due to the fact that berries contain a lot of organic acids, they are recommended for those who suffer from gastritis with low acidity.

Cherry concentrates are used in many medicines. Since cherries are very common and affordable, people use the presence of a large number of useful substances in them for use in traditional medicine recipes.

Infusions, decoctions are prepared from fruits, leaves, stalks, tree bark, which are used in the form of drinking, compresses and baths.

But it is important to remember that traditional methods of treatment can be used only with the approval of a doctor, since they can be a good addition to medical treatment, but their replacement.

In addition to being used for the purpose of treatment and rehabilitation, cherry has found its application in cosmetology. Her fragrances are very popular and are famous in various perfume lines.

Cooking cherries

Cherries are used in cooking. One of the most famous dishes from it are dumplings with cherries. From cherries you can cook jam, confiture, jam. Use it for filling cakes and pies.

Compotes, kissels, liqueurs and liqueurs made with cherries have a unique taste and aroma. An interesting property is that its leaves are added to cucumbers during preservation to give them the ability to crunch.

But berries and cherry products are not good for everyone. It is better to refuse to use it for those who suffer from allergies, stomach diseases with high acidity.

Due to the presence of a large amount of glucose in its composition, it is not useful for patients with diabetes. They are not recommended to be consumed on an empty stomach and eat a single portion of more than a glass.

You have to be especially careful about the bones. They should not be swallowed, as they contain hydrocyanic acid, which can cause poisoning.

Compotes and jams are prepared from pitted cherries, but they can be stored and eaten only during the year. You can preserve this useful berry in a frozen form using the quick freezing method, which preserves the taste and unique aroma of the berry.

Cherry is not only a tasty and valuable dietary product, but also a fruit that prolongs our youth. Therefore, it should be in the diet of every person.

By eating it, you can not only enjoy its pleasant and delicate taste, but also fill your body with irreplaceable useful vitamins and prolong your life.

Sources

  • https://PoFerme.com/sad/derevya/vishni
  • https://tsvetydoma.ru/sad/plodovyie-derevya-i-kustarniki/vishnevoe-derevo-ili-kustarnik.html
  • https://zelenyjmir.ru/vishnya/
  • https://fermercar.ru/vishnya/vishnya-derevo-ili-kustarnik-botanicheskoe-opisanie-i-harakteristika-k-kakomu-vidu-otnositsya-foto
  • https://dachadesign.ru/derevo-vishnya/

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planting and care, gardening, diseases and pests with photo

Cherry (Cerasus) is a subgenus of the plum genus of the rose family. The Russian and German names of such a plant come from the same base "Weichse", which translates as "cherry". At the same time, the Russian name comes from the Latin word "viscum", meaning bird glue. As a result, the original meaning of the name "cherry" can be determined - it is "a tree with sticky juice". "Cerasus" is the Latin name for cherry, which comes from the name of the city of Kerasunda, it was on its outskirts that a large number of very tasty cherries grew. The Romans called such trees "kerasund fruits", from here also originates the Spanish "cereza", and the English "cherry", and the French "cerise", and the Portuguese "cereja", and the Russian "cherry", while the Romans called it "bird's cherry." Below, we will talk in detail about common cherries ((Prunus cerasus), or sour cherries, this species belongs to the cherry subgenus. Such a plant can be found in the gardens of almost any region. Some experts are sure that this type of cherry is nothing more than a hybrid of cherries steppe and sweet cherry, which was the result of natural selection, and it could have been born in the Dnieper region, in Macedonia or in the North Caucasus. This type of cherry cannot be found in nature.0005

Content

  • 1 Features of cherries
  • 2 Eating cherries in open soil
    • 2.1 at what time to plant
    • 2.2 Eating cherry
    • 2.3 Spring planting
  • 3 Care for cherry
  • 3.2 Care of cherries in summer
  • 3.3 Care of cherries in autumn
  • 3.4 Treating cherries
  • 3.5 Watering cherries
  • 3.6 Fertilizing cherries
  • 3.7 Wintering cherries0012
  • 7.7 Cherry aphid
  • 8 How to limit the growth of cherries in the garden
  • 9 grades of cherries
    • 9.1 Vishen for the Moscow Region
    • 9.2 Vishens
    • 9.3

      Features of cherry

      Cherry grown in a garden plot can be a shrub or a tree, the height of which can reach up to 10 meters. The color of the bark is brown-gray. Elliptical-shaped, pointed leaf plates have petioles, their length is about 8 centimeters. The front surface of the leaves is dark green, and the wrong side has a paler color. Umbrellas consist of 2 or 3 pink or white flowers. Flowering begins in the last days of March or the first - April. Cherry blossoms are among the most beautiful plants in nature. The fruit is a juicy drupe, spherical in shape, reaching about 10 mm in diameter and having a sweet-sour taste. The beginning of fruiting is observed in the period from mid to late May.

      SECRETS OF GROWING CHERRY


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      Planting cherries in open ground

      When to plant

      Planting cherries takes root well in the spring and takes root well before frost sets in growth. The seedling should be planted in warm soil, while the kidneys should not have time to open. In this regard, experts believe that it is best to plant cherries in the garden in mid-April, and this should be done in the evening after sunset.

      Cherries planted in autumn will most likely not have time to take root before the first frosts, because no one can determine exactly when they will begin. In this regard, if the seedlings were harvested in the autumn, then it is recommended to dig them in the garden, and plant them in a permanent place in the spring.

      Cherry. How to Choose the Right Cherry Sapling. Site Selection and Proper Planting of Cherries


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      Planting cherries in autumn

      In the event that the gardener has the seedlings in late autumn, they should be saved until the next spring. Choose a shady spot in your garden where snow stays the longest in the spring. It will be necessary to make an oblong pit, the depth of which should be in the range of 0.3–0.35 m, while it should be noted that it must be dug with a slope of 45 degrees. Seedlings should be laid in the resulting short trench, their roots are directed to a deeper side. Then the seedlings need to be covered with soil in such a way that the root system of the plants and 1/3 of their trunks are covered with it. Then the part of the cherries that is covered with earth must be thoroughly watered. Then you should lay a pine spruce branch on top of the seedlings along their entire length, while its needles should be directed outward, so you protect the plant from rodents. When snow falls on the ground, it must be thrown onto the shelter of seedlings, while the layer thickness should be from 0.3 to 0.5 m. Plants are removed from the trench just before planting.

      Planting cherries in autumn in your garden at your summer cottage. Old rustic way.


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      Spring planting

      If you want to plant cherries in the spring, experts advise buying seedlings in the autumn months. They will need to be stored until spring, how to do this is described in great detail above. It is best to buy two-year-old seedlings, the height of which is 0. 6 m, while the diameter of their trunks can vary from 20 to 25 mm. It is very good if the skeletal branches of the seedling are longer than 0.6 m. Immediately before planting, the root system of the plants should be inspected, while all injured or rotten areas are cut out to healthy tissue, the wounds should be sprinkled with crushed charcoal. 3-4 hours before planting, the root system of seedlings should be placed in a container with water, this will allow the roots to be saturated with moisture and straighten out.

      The soil for planting should also be prepared in autumn. For planting, you need to choose a sunny area with drained sandy, sandy or loamy neutral soil. Areas with a high groundwater table are not suitable for planting cherries, and for this purpose one should not choose a lowland in which stagnation of melt water is observed in spring. You can fix acidic soil by adding lime or dolomite flour, for this, 0.4 kg of the substance should be distributed on the surface of each 1 square meter of the plot, then the soil is dug up to the depth of the shovel bayonet. Lime cannot be applied to the soil at the same time as organic fertilizers. From the moment lime is added to the ground, count 7 days, and then add rotted manure or compost to it (15 kilograms per 1 square meter).

      If you decide to plant several seedlings at once, then you will need to maintain a distance of 300 centimeters between them. If you are planting cross-pollinated seedlings, then you will need to plant at least four varieties next to each other, while planting them using a 3x3 meter scheme (for tall varieties) or 2–2.5 meters (for low varieties). If the variety is self-pollinating, then it will not need pollinators.

      The planting hole should be 0.8 m in diameter and 0.5–0.6 m deep. The nutrient topsoil must be removed and combined with humus (1:1). Pour from 30 to 40 grams of superphosphate, 1 kilogram of wood ash and 20-25 grams of potassium chloride into the resulting mixture. If the soil is clayey, then you need to pour 1 bucket of sand into it. A high peg is driven in the center of the pit, while its height should be such that it protrudes 0. 3–0.4 m above the surface of the site. Ground mixture mixed with fertilizers should be poured around the peg so that a cone-shaped hill is obtained. A seedling is installed on it, it should be placed on the side north of the peg, while its root collar should rise 20–30 mm above the surface of the site. Then you need to carefully straighten the roots of the cherry. Further, the soil is poured into the pit in parts and compacted well, make sure that at the end of planting there are no voids in it. Around the planted plant at a distance of 0.25–0.3 m, it is necessary to make a hole with a soil roller, pour 10 liters of water into it. After the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, the root collar of the plant should be at the level of the surface of the site. Then the surface of the trunk circle will need to be covered with mulch (sawdust, peat or humus), after which it is necessary to tie the seedling to the peg.

      Care of cherries

      Care of cherries in spring

      A cherry seedling planted in the open ground will not need to be fed not only in the current year, but also for the next 2 or 3 years. Caring for a young plant is relatively simple, it needs to be watered, weeded, trimmed in time, and the surface of the near-stem circle should also be loosened shallowly. Those cherries that have already begun to bear fruit should be watered abundantly in the heat. So, for 1 watering per plant, at least 30 liters of water should go. At the same time, it is necessary to water the cherry during the active growth of the stems, during the period of flowering and ripening of the berries. If the spring turned out to be cool and damp, then in order to get a good harvest, it will be necessary to attract pollinating insects to the garden, for this you need to treat the plants with a solution consisting of 1 liter of water and 1 large spoon of honey. During the season, the surface of the trunk circle will need to be loosened 3 or 4 times. Pruning is carried out at the very beginning of the spring period before the buds open, at the same time the entire root shoot is cut out, and the surface of the near-stem circle is covered with a layer of mulch (compost or sawdust). In spring, it is also necessary to spray these trees in order to prevent diseases and pests.

      Cherry care in summer

      During the summer months, cherries will need timely watering, feeding, weeding, and they will also need protection from various diseases and pests. During this period, special attention must be paid to watering, especially in the heat. In the summer, such a plant sheds part of the ovaries, after this happens, nitrogen-containing fertilizer will need to be applied to the near-trunk circle. If the tree is fruitful, then 20–30 days after the first feeding, the plant will need to be fed with potassium and phosphorus.

      Fruit picking takes place during the summer. If the variety is early, then fruit ripening is observed in the second half of June, in mid-ripening ones - in the last days of July, in late ones - in August-September. Fruits are harvested as they ripen.

      Cherry care in autumn

      In autumn, cherries that are already bearing fruit should be fed with mineral and organic fertilizers. They are introduced into the trunk circle for digging to a depth of 10 centimeters around young plants and 15–20 centimeters around trees that have begun to bear fruit. Top dressing should be done at the time, as soon as the foliage begins to change its color to yellow, 2 days before this, the plant must be watered, or this is done a couple of days after the rain. At the same time, the plants are treated for the prevention of diseases and pests, and they also produce winter moisture-charging watering. Bait with poison for rodents should be laid out on the surface of the site, do this in October. At the same time, the surface of the stem, as well as the base of the skeletal branches, should be whitened, this will help protect the plant from various pests. When the ground freezes, as a rule, this time falls on November, it will be necessary to remove the fallen leaves from the site, and cover the surface of the trunk circle with a layer of mulch (peat). The trunks of young plants need to be insulated by tying them with spruce branches.

      Cherry treatment

      In spring, before the buds open, it is recommended to spray the tree with a solution of urea (7%), as a result of which pests and pathogens that have survived the winter in the bark of the tree or in the tree circle will be destroyed. Also, urea will become a source of nitrogen for the plant. But such treatment should be carried out before sap flow begins, otherwise burns may appear on the expanding kidneys. If sap flow has already begun, then a solution of copper sulfate (3%) or a Bordeaux mixture should be used for spraying. After about half a month, the plant is sprayed with Neoron or colloidal sulfur (according to the instructions), which will protect it from powdery mildew, mites and other pests. Such processing can be carried out only when the temperature during the day is about 18 degrees.

      In the summer months, during the active growth of berries, in order to prevent diseases, the plant is sprayed with copper oxychloride, and against pests - with Fufanon.

      In autumn, before the leaves begin to fall off, the cherry must be treated with a solution of urea (4%), which will protect the plant from pests and become a source of nitrogen for it. At the same time, this top dressing will be the last for the season.

      Watering cherries

      The tree should be watered in such a way that the soil in the near-stem circle can get wet to a depth of 0.4 to 0.45 m, but stagnant water in the soil should be avoided. The first watering is done after the cherry blossoms, at the same time it is fed. When the fruits begin to pour, the tree should be watered a second time. For 1 watering under 1 tree, from 30 to 60 liters of water are poured, the exact volume directly depends on the presence of rain and the weather. After the leaf fall ends in October, water-charging winter irrigation is carried out, during which the soil should be moistened to a depth of 0.7–0.8 m. This allows the soil to be saturated with water, as a result of which the cherry root system becomes more frost-resistant, moreover freezing of wet soil is much slower.

      Those plants that have not yet begun to bear fruit should be watered 2 times a month, in the heat, watering should be done 1 time per week.

      Top dressing of cherries

      Organics are applied to the soil for digging in autumn 1 time in 2–3 years. Also in the fall, the plants are fertilized with mineral fertilizers. To do this, use phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, or rather, potassium sulfate (per 1 square meter from 20 to 25 grams) and superphosphate (per 1 square meter from 25 to 30 grams). Fertilizing with nitrogen-containing fertilizers is carried out at the very beginning of the spring period and after the cherry blossoms, urea is used for this (from 10 to 15 grams per 1 square meter) or ammonium nitrate (from 15 to 20 grams per 1 square meter). It should be noted that fertilizers must be distributed over the surface of the entire area where cherries grow. Before you start top dressing, you should water the area.

      Cherry also responds very well to foliar feeding. To do this, use a solution of urea (50 grams per 1 bucket of water). Spraying is carried out 2 or 3 times in the evening after sunset, while the interval between procedures should be 7 days.

      Cherry wintering

      A mature tree that has already begun to bear fruit does not need shelter for the winter, but it is better to protect its root system from freezing. After the snow falls, the trunk circle will need to be covered with a thick layer of snow, its surface is covered with sawdust. In the autumn, it is necessary to make a mandatory whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches; for this, a solution of lime is used, which is mixed with copper sulphate.

      If the plant is young, then after its trunk is whitened, it should be tied with spruce branches for wintering.

      Garden head - How to care for cherries


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      Pruning cherries

      When to prune

      The first time cherries are pruned in March before the buds swell. In the event that the buds have already begun to open and sap flow has begun, then pruning should not be carried out, otherwise those branches that have been shortened may dry out. In some cases, pruning is done in the summer, after all the fruits have been harvested. At the very end of the growing season, pruning is carried out in autumn. It should be noted that pruning for sanitary purposes is carried out at any time of the year, while all branches affected by the disease are cut out.

      How to prune cherries

      Pruning cherries can be a hassle for inexperienced gardeners, most of whom try to avoid this procedure. But it should be remembered that due to pruning, the quality of the fruit can be significantly improved.

      Seedlings planted in open soil this year need shaping. To do this, leave 5 or 6 of the most powerful branches (if the variety is bushy, you can leave about 10 strong branches), while the rest should be cut into a ring, you do not need to leave hemp. Garden var should smear the places of cuts. It is necessary to choose those branches that are directed in different directions, while they must grow from the trunk at a distance of at least 10 centimeters from each other. Starting from the second year, the formation of the plant is carried out as follows: all stems and branches that grow inside the crown are removed, as well as shoots that have grown on the trunk. If the cherry variety is tree-like, then such a plant needs to shorten the branches that grow up very quickly, otherwise the harvesting procedure will become noticeably more complicated. In plants of bushy varieties, the stems should be shortened to half a meter. In treelike plants, new skeletal branches will grow over time, while they will be approximately equally removed from other branches. An adult cherry should have 12 to 15 skeletal branches. During sanitary pruning, it is necessary to remove all injured, disease-damaged and dried branches and stems.

      Spring cherry pruning | How to prune cherries in spring?


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      Cherry pruning in spring

      Cherry pruning in spring is considered very important and should be done every year. If you carry out spring pruning in accordance with all the rules, then it will not be necessary to subject the plant to this procedure at other times of the year. Pruning must be done before the buds swell. However, if very severe frosts were observed in winter or early spring, then this procedure should be performed immediately after the buds swell. In this case, it is necessary to produce not only formative, but also sanitary pruning, removing all branches and stems affected by frost. Immediately after pruning, it is imperative to process the cut points, since after the start of sap flow, the cherry very painfully endures such a procedure. In the event that the length of annual shoots does not exceed 0.25–0.35 m, then their pruning is not necessary. Cut out only competing stems, as well as those that thicken the crown. Shoots growing vertically upwards must be cut at the place of their departure. Shorten the trunk, while it should rise above the ends of the skeletal branches by no more than 0. 2 m. In the summer, when fruiting ends, it will be necessary to adjust the shape of the crown, but only if necessary.

      Autumn pruning of cherries

      Autumn pruning of cherries is infrequent. The fact is that this procedure, carried out in the fall, can significantly worsen the winter hardiness of the plant, and as a result, significant harm will be done to the future crop. But if you cut the plant correctly, then you can not only prevent the development of infection, but also increase the yield. It should also be taken into account that diseased and injured stems will take away from healthy shoots the nutrients they need so much in winter. Pruning in the fall should be done after the growing season ends, but before the frosts begin. If frosts have already begun, and you have not pruned, then this procedure will need to be postponed until the onset of the spring period, since the bark becomes very fragile due to frost, and if it is injured, gum will begin to flow out. In autumn, pruning of annual seedlings is not carried out.

      Cherry propagation

      Cherry can be propagated by seed, as well as vegetatively, namely: root shoots, cuttings or grafting. Seeds of such a plant are propagated, as a rule, only by specialists. But even a simple gardener can easily learn to grow cherries from seed. As a rule, the plants obtained in this way are used as rootstocks for grafting. Amateur gardeners prefer to propagate cherries vegetatively, and grafting is the most popular because it is suitable for any variety. At the same time, it should be taken into account that only self-rooted plants can be propagated by root shoots.

      Cherry seed propagation

      Sowing seeds in open soil is carried out in autumn. In the spring, after the seedlings appear, they will need to be thinned out, while adhering to the scheme of 20x20 centimeters. They need to be well looked after until the very frosts, while the seedlings must be watered, weeded, fed in a timely manner, and it is also necessary to loosen the soil surface on the site. With the onset of the spring period, when the period of bud swelling begins, the plant can be used for replanting a cultural scion.

      Cherry grafting

      As mentioned above, the grafting method is quite popular with gardeners. However, before proceeding with the vaccination itself, it is necessary to grow a stock from the seed, and the variety should be frost-resistant. The graft is taken from the cultivated variety of cherry. Felt cherry seeds are ideal for growing rootstocks, as this plant does not form root shoots. The cultivation of rootstock from seed is described in detail above. There are several ways of vaccination:

      • split;
      • under bark;
      • improved copulation;
      • side cut.

      GRAVING CHERRY CHERRY. TWO SIMPLE WAYS. Visually


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      Propagation of cherries by green cuttings

      To date, this method of propagation of cherries is relatively popular among gardeners. The fact is that in the future, it will be possible to use root shoots for cutting cuttings in a cherry grown from a cutting. Harvesting cuttings should be done from mid to late June, at this time there is an intensive growth of the stems of this plant.

      Take a not very deep box (from 10 to 12 centimeters), while its size should be 25x50 centimeters. It is also necessary that at the bottom of the container there are small holes for drainage. A substrate consisting of coarse sand and peat (1: 1) should be poured into the container. Next, it must be shed with a solution of potassium permanganate of a dark pink color, then the substrate is poured with plenty of water.

      For cutting cuttings, choose upright stems that are not drooping, located on the southwestern or southern side of a tree or shrub that is 3-5 years old. The cuttings should be sprayed with water and cut off their upper part, on which the underdeveloped leaf plates are located, because it takes root rather poorly. In length, the cuttings should reach from 10 to 12 centimeters, while on each of them there should be from 6 to 8 leaf plates. In finished cuttings, cut off all the leaves located below. The top cut is made just above the kidney and should be straight, the bottom cut is made 10 mm below the node. The cuttings should be stuck into the soil, deepening them by 20-30 mm, the distance between them should be from 5 to 8 centimeters, the soil should be compacted around them. A wire frame should be put on top of the box, while it should rise 15–20 centimeters above the container. On this frame it is necessary to stretch a film of polyethylene. A homemade greenhouse should be removed to a well-lit place, but at the same time it should not be exposed to direct sunlight.

      After the leaf blades on the cuttings return turgor, this will mean that the rooting was successful. From this time on, the film begins to be lifted for a while in order to ventilate the plants and at the same time harden them. For wintering, these cuttings should be dug in the garden. With the onset of spring, they will need to be planted in a permanent place or for growing.

      Propagation of sour cherries by root shoots

      This method of propagation is applicable only to a native root plant, and is also used for growing rootstocks. In order to propagate cherries, one should choose a two-year-old root shoot of self-rooted high-yielding trees with a well-developed root system, while their aerial part should be branched. Only those offspring that are far from the parent tree should be cut off, otherwise, you can injure its roots. In autumn, the root that connects the tree with the offspring should be cut, stepping back from it quite a bit. At the same time, the offspring is not jigged, it must remain in the soil. With the onset of spring, the offspring must be dug up, then they are sorted. So, a plant with a well-developed root system should be planted immediately in a permanent place, and weak ones should be planted on a training bed for growing.

      Propagation of fruit trees


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      Diseases of cherries with photo moniliosis, root cancer, gum disease and witch's broom. Below will be discussed in detail about those diseases that are most common.

      Brown Spot

      If spots of light yellow, brown or pale red color appear on the leaf plates, this means that the plant is infected with brown spot. Such spots may or may not have a border, as the disease develops, fungal spores form on their surface, which are black dots. Over time, the fabric in these places dries up and falls out, from which holes appear on the plate. Infected leaf blades die off. To cure the affected specimen, first you need to cut off all the infected foliage from it, which must be destroyed. Then the plant and the surface of the near-stem circle should be treated with a Bordeaux mixture (1%), while the cherry will need to be sprayed 3 times: when the buds just start to open, when the plant fades and 15–20 days after the second spraying.

      Clusterosporiosis

      Cherries, like other stone fruits (plum, peach, sweet cherry and apricot), can get perforated spotting, or clusterosporiosis. First, in the affected specimen, small (diameter about 0.5 centimeters) brownish spots appear on the leaf plates with a light red border. Half a month after their appearance, these specks begin to crumble, from which holes appear on the leaf plates. Then the foliage begins to dry and fall off prematurely. Depressed spots of purple color appear on the surface of the berries, the diameter of which gradually increases to 0.3 cm, and then they take the form of warts. Gum begins to flow from these spots. Cracking spots of light color with a dark border appear on the surface of the branches, from which gum flows. Affected kidneys become black and outwardly look like varnished. Infected branches should be cut and burned. Then the wounds are disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate (1%), and then they are rubbed with fresh sorrel leaves 3 times, the interval between such procedures is 10 minutes. At the very end, the wounds are coated with garden pitch. The plant itself should be treated with Bordeaux mixture (1%) in 3 stages, in the same way as during the treatment of brown spot.

      Coccomycosis

      If small red dots appear on the surface of the foliage on the underside of the plate, covered with a pink bloom, this means that the cherry is affected by coccomycosis. Affected foliage turns brown and dries up. Most often, this disease occurs in regions with a humid climate. Treatment of the plant should begin after the petals fly around the flowers, it is treated with a solution of Horus (2 grams of the drug per 1 bucket of water). This treatment is repeated 20 days after the end of flowering. The third spraying should be carried out 20 days after harvest.

      Branch dieback

      If a plant becomes infected with branch dieback, small warty growths of a pinkish color will appear on the surface of its bark, which can be located singly or in groups. Also, horticultural crops such as currants, plums, apple trees, cherries and apricots are susceptible to this disease. The affected branches must be cut and destroyed, the cut point is sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (1%), and then it is smeared with garden pitch.

      Scab

      If brown-olive velvety spots appear on leaf plates and berries, this means that the plant is infected with scab. Cracks appear on ripened fruits, and green berries stop developing and wrinkle. This disease is fungal, so it is necessary to treat the plant in 3 stages in the same way as described above.

      Moniliosis

      Due to gray rot or moniliosis, the plant begins to dry out. Its stems and branches wither and outwardly look like burnt, the berries rot. On the surface of the bark and fruits appear small chaotically located outgrowths of a gray color. You can distinguish fruit rot from gray rot by the location of these growths, so, in the first case, they are placed in concentric circles. Cracks appear on the branches, from which gum flows, resulting in sagging. In order to cure gray or fruit rot, Bordeaux mixture is used. However, it should be noted that it is possible to cure fungal diseases with such drugs as: Nitrafen, iron and copper sulfate, Oleocuprite, copper oxychloride, Kaptan, Ftalan and Kuprozan.

      Gum disease is most often a symptom of other diseases. At the same time, a thick resinous substance of a light color begins to flow out of the cracks located in the bark, which solidifies in air. Often, such cracks form in the bark of plants affected by perforated spotting, as well as in cherries that have received a sunburn or suffered from frost. If nothing is done in the near future, then the branches from which the gum flows dry out, and this can lead to the death of the entire plant. The edges of the cracks should be cleaned using a sharp tool. After that, the wound is sprayed with a solution of oxalic acid (100 milligrams per liter of water) or soaked with gruel prepared from fresh sorrel leaves. Then they are smeared with garden pitch.

      Witch's broom

      A fungus such as witch's broom parasitizes fruit trees. It contributes to the formation of a large number of barren thin shoots. On affected specimens, the foliage becomes faded and takes on a pale red tint. Leaf plates shrink, become brittle and wrinkled. At the end of the summer period, on the underside of the foliage, a gray coating can be found, in which there are spores of the fungus. Cut off all the affected stems with thin shoots that have appeared. The plant itself must be sprayed with a solution of iron sulfate (5%).

      Root cancer

      Root cancer is a bacterial disease. In an affected specimen, soft small growths appear on the roots. As the disease develops, they become large and can reach 10 centimeters in diameter, and such growths also harden. As a result, the roots weaken, they do not grow well on sandy soil. The root growth emerging from them does not form its own roots. An adult specimen cannot be cured. If the seedling falls ill, then it should be dug up and cut off all the existing small growths with a tool that is previously treated with a formalin solution. Then the root system is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate (1%).

      Mosaic disease

      Mosaic ringing and mosaic disease are caused by a virus. If the cherry is affected by the mosaic, then clear strokes and yellow stripes appear on its leaf plates, which are located parallel to the veins. The affected foliage curls, changes its color to red, then to brown, and eventually dies off ahead of schedule. If the plant is affected by ringing, then whitish circles form on the surface of its foliage, in these places the plate begins to crumble, holes may even appear. Such diseases cannot be cured. Affected specimens are removed from the soil and destroyed.

      Cherry diseases. Coccomycosis. Site "Garden world".


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      Cherry pests with photo

      The following pests are the most dangerous for cherries: plum codling moth, cherry and bird cherry weevils, slimy, social and pale-footed sawflies, subcortical leafworm, cherry aphid and hawthorn.

      Plum codling moth

      Plum codling moth caterpillars damage the berries of the plant, they eat the kernels from the stones, and also eat the pulp. If such a pest was detected in a timely manner, then plums and cherries, and the surface of the tree circles should be sprayed with solutions of such agents as: Ambush, Anometrin, Citkor or Rovikurt.

      Cherry Weevil

      The Cherry Weevil is a small green-bronze beetle with a crimson sheen that emerges from the pupa in mid to late May. Such a beetle eats the buds, foliage, buds and ovaries of the plant. The female weevil lays eggs in the shell of the stone, and one individual can harm about 200 berries. The eggs hatch into larvae that feed on the kernel. Those fruits that were damaged by the larvae fall off. To get rid of such a pest, you need to spray the plant after it has faded, re-treatment is carried out after 1.5 weeks. For processing, use Rovikurt, Ambush or Aktellik at the dosage indicated in the instructions.

      Bird-cherry weevil

      Bird-cherry weevil is a small, brownish gray beetle that behaves much like the cherry weevil. His appearance occurs at the same time, while he is able to cause the same harm to the cherry. For spraying plants use the same means. The first spraying is done before the cherry blossoms. After flowering, re-treatment is carried out, but only if necessary. Aktellik copes best with such a weevil.

      Sawflies

      Absolutely all varieties of sawflies devour the leaf blades of the plant, from which often only a skeleton of veins remains. If there are a lot of pests, then they will be able to destroy about 70 percent of all leaf plates, this will have an extremely negative effect on the yield and frost resistance of the plant. The affected cherry after it has faded should be sprayed with Karbofos or Aktellik.

      Subcortical leaf roller

      In June, the subcortical leafworm lays eggs in cracks in the bark, which covers the branches or stem of the plant. The eggs hatch into caterpillars, which begin to gnaw their way under the bark. During the summer of butterflies, cherries should be sprayed with a solution of Karbofos (10%) or Aktellik (50%).

      Hawthorn

      Hawthorn is a large white butterfly. The appearance of its caterpillars occurs in the last days of April or the first - May. They get out of the web nests, have a black head, and 2 yellow-gold stripes on their backs. The length of the caterpillars can reach 45 mm. Most of these pests are usually eaten by birds, but the small part of the individuals that remains can significantly harm horticultural crops. As soon as the caterpillars are seen on the cherry, it should be sprayed with Rovikurt, Ambush, Actellik or Corsair.

      Cherry aphid

      The cherry aphid is a small insect that can cause severe damage to cherries. Because of these pests, young shoots are bent and their growth is stopped, as well as twisting, blackening and drying of leaf plates. Young plants become less frost-resistant, and in winter they freeze. Aphid secretions are eaten by ants, so they also settle on cherries in large numbers. The first treatment should be carried out at the very beginning of the spring period. For spraying, you can use Aktellik, Ambush, Rovikurt or Karbofos. Processed cherries will require a systematic inspection. If you notice even a few insects, spray the plant again.

      PESTS OF CHERRY


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      How to limit the growth of cherries in the garden

      Cherries often develop roots. It takes some of the nutrients from the parent plant, which negatively affects the yield. Root offspring will begin to bear fruit relatively soon, and the parent plant will weaken at this time. To prevent this, you should resort to the following methods of dealing with overgrowth:

      1. To get rid of cherries completely, it is necessary to cut down the tree that gives growth. Several holes should be drilled in the surface of the saw cut. Saltpeter is poured into them, and the stump itself is covered with roofing material. After a few months, the stump should completely rot, after which all root suckers should be uprooted.
      2. Root suckers should be sprayed twice a month with a herbicide such as Hurricane, Glyphos, Regent, Pruner or Tornado. This will lead to the death of both the growth and the plant from which it comes.
      3. If you do not wish to destroy the cherry tree, then you will need to dig up the branches to where they join the root of the parent plant. They are cut at the root, while the stumps should not remain.

      Experienced gardeners recommend getting rid of those plants that are prone to overgrowth. Instead, it is recommended to plant seedlings on seed stocks on the site, since they do not have root shoots. At the moment, buying such a seedling is quite simple. If you do not know for sure whether this cherry gives root offspring or not, you should dig pieces of roofing material or slate within a radius of half a meter around it, deepening them into the soil by half a meter. The fact is that the shoots of cherries appear at a depth of 0.3 m.

      Cherry varieties

      Cherry varieties for the Moscow region

      For planting in the Moscow region, you should choose such cherry varieties that are resistant to coccomycosis, have high winter hardiness and productivity. The best grades:

      1. Lyubskaya . This variety has been grown for a long time, it is self-fertile and gives a rich harvest. The height of the plant is about 250 centimeters, making it easy to pick berries. The shape of the crown is spreading, the color of the bark is brownish-gray. Dark red fruits have a sweet-sour pulp.
      2. Apukhtinskaya . Late self-fertile variety of shrub type. The height of the plant is about 300 centimeters. Large fruits of dark red color are heart-shaped. Sweet-sour pulp has a slight bitterness.
      3. Youth . A frost-resistant variety with a high yield, which was obtained using the Lyubskaya and Vladimirskaya varieties. The height of the plant is about 250 centimeters. The form can be tree-like and shrubby. It is resistant to fungal diseases. Sweet-sour juicy berries are dark red.
      4. In memory of Vavilov . This tall, self-fertile variety is frost resistant. The berries are rich red, have a sweet-sour taste.
      5. Toy . This hybrid between cherries and sweet cherries has a high yield. Fleshy, rich red fruits have a refreshing taste.
      6. Turgenevka . This variety is characterized by high yield and resistance to coccomycosis, it is common in the Moscow region. The height of the plant is about 300 cm, it has a crown that has the shape of an inverted pyramid. Heart-shaped large burgundy fruits have a sweet-sour taste. However, for pollination of this variety, pollinating varieties should be grown in the garden plot, for example: Lyubskaya or Molodezhnaya.

      Even in the Moscow region you can grow such varieties as Almaz, Shchedraya, Kristall and Shubinka.

      Early varieties of cherries

      Early ripe varieties ripen in the second half of June. Popular varieties:

      1. Early Oryol . The variety is resistant to coccomycosis and frost. Red berries are medium in size.
      2. English early . This variety, which appeared in England, has been known for a very long time. It is tall, has moderate frost resistance. Dark red juicy berries are very sweet.
      3. Consumer goods . A small variety with large juicy dessert berries of a dark brown color. They are sweet in taste and have a slight sourness.
      4. Memory of Enikeev . This is a self-fertile, medium-sized variety. The height of the plant is about 300 cm, it is characterized by an average yield and berries for universal use.
      5. Waiting . The variety has a high yield. The berries are dark red, almost black. They can be eaten fresh or used to make compote, jams and liqueurs.
      6. Early Dessert . This variety is ultra early. Fruit color is red-yellow.

      Medium cherry varieties

      Popular mid-ripening varieties:

      1. Malinovka A self-infertile medium-sized variety, characterized by productivity and resistance to frost and coccomycosis. Sweet-sour berries have a dark red color. The following varieties are used for pollination: Shubinka, Lyubskaya, Vladimirskaya, Bulatnikovskaya.
      2. Chocolate girl . Low-growing, self-fertile variety, resistant to drought and frost. The berries are dark red.
      3. Morozovka . Srednerosly self-fertile variety is resistant to frost, coccomycosis and drought. Dessert sweet berries have a rich red color.
      4. Vladimirskaya . Self-infertile tall variety. Small, slightly flattened, flat-round berries have a sweet-sour taste and a dark red color.
      5. Rossoshanskaya black . This medium-sized variety is characterized by high yield and resistance to drought and frost. Large sweet-sour berries have a maroon, almost black color.
      6. Chernokorka . Self-infertile medium-sized variety, hardy. Sweet berries of almost black color have a slight sourness.

      Late Cherries

      Popular Late Cherries:

      1. Belle . The grade differs in productivity and winter hardiness. Medium-sized dark red berries have juicy, tender sweet and sour flesh.
      2. Fertile Michurina . A medium-sized variety, characterized by productivity and frost resistance, is susceptible to fungal diseases. The crown is spreading. Medium-sized glossy rich red berries have a rounded shape.
      3. Nord Star . Weak growing self-fertile variety. Possesses resistance to fungal diseases and high frost resistance. The berries are dark red.
      4. Memory . The variety is frost-resistant and has a high yield.

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