How tall does a pear tree grow
Growing pears in the home garden
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- Pears are related to apples, but can be easier to grow than apples.
- Two varieties are generally needed for successful pollination and fruit set.
- They can be grown organically in Minnesota.
- Pear trees require full sun to produce the most fruit.
- Prune annually to keep the tree healthy, productive and looking its best.
- It can take 3 to 10 years for trees to begin flowering and producing fruit.
- Mature pear trees are large and produce a lot of fruit in a short window of time.
- Fruit should be picked at a mature stage and then allowed to ripen indoors.
Pear trees originated in central Asia. They are relatives of the apple and are propagated and managed in a very similar way. But pears are in some ways easier to grow than apples. Apples can be pestered by many insects and diseases, but pears are relatively trouble-free.
Pear trees can be grown organically simply because they don't require any sprays to keep them healthy and pest-free. Fireblight is the only disease that challenges pear trees, but this is easy to diagnose and manage.
Commercial pear production in the U. S. is centered in Washington and California, where varieties such as Bartlett and Bosc are grown. Those varieties would not survive winters in the average Minnesota garden.
Thanks to cold climate fruit breeders at the University of Minnesota and other northern research stations, there are several varieties that are hardy to our region. Most are best suited to USDA zone 4, but there are a couple varieties that will grow well in USDA zone 3.
If you want consistent fruit it is best to plant two pear varieties with compatible pollen or be certain there is a pear tree in a neighbor's yard. If you're a fan of pears, find an open space in your yard for a couple of these beautiful trees and you'll have fruit for years to come.
Select the right tree for your location and use these step-by-step instructions to plant and care for your young trees.
Pear varieties recommended for northern gardens
|Variety||Hardiness to zones 4 and 3||Fireblight resistance||Harvest||Description|
|Golden Spice (1949)||Excellent to very good||Very resistant||Late August||Recommended as a pollen source for Ure. Small 1 3/4 inch fruit. Not recommended for zone 4 where other, better flavored varieties grow well. Grows to 20 feet tall. Good for canning.|
|Gourmet||Very good to poor||Tolerant||Mid to late September||Medium-sized fruit that are juicy and sweet with a firm, crisp texture. Cannot be used to pollinate a second pear tree.|
|Juicy Jewel (2021)||Very good in Zone 4, not recommended for Zone 3||Mid-August||Best for fresh eating.||Asian-type pear. Fruit is attractive with an occasional orange-pink blush. Should be picked ripe, while crisp and with a yellow-green background color. May be used as a pollinator for Summercrisp and vice versa. Available by 2022 or 2023.|
|Luscious||Very good to poor||Tolerant||Mid to late September||Medium-small fruits with a flavor similar to Bartlett. Texture is firm but melting. Cannot be used as a pollen source for another tree.|
|Parker (1934)||Good to poor||Susceptible||Mid August||Fruit similar in size, flavor and texture to Bartlett. May set some fruit without a second variety. Good pollenizer for Luscious. May not be hardy north of the Twin Cities.|
|Patten||Very good to poor||Susceptible||Mid to late September||Large fruit has excellent fresh eating quality, similar to Bartlett. Hardiness is slightly better than Parker. May produce some fruit without a second variety.|
|Summercrisp (1985)||Very good to poor||Resistant||Mid August||Medium-sized, red-blushed fruit with mild flavor and crisp texture strongly reminiscent of an Asian pear.|
|Ure||Very good to good||Susceptible||Mid August||Smaller tree (to 15 feet) produces small Bartlett-type fruit with good flavor. In areas too cold for other pear varieties, Ure can be grown with Golden Spice for pollen.|
How to keep your pear trees healthy and productive
Watering, weeding, mulching and pruning will keep your pear trees healthy for years to come.
Diseases, insects and other challenges
Fireblight is the major disease of pears in Minnesota.
In other areas of the U.S., pear trees are susceptible to a number of insect problems. Because these trees are not common in Minnesota, insect problems are usually not severe for home gardeners.
As more people add pears to their gardens, this may change. But for now, promptly removing and destroying fallen fruit and leaves, and pruning to promote good airflow through the tree are all that is normally needed to grow a satisfying crop in most years.
Emily E. Hoover, Extension horticulturalist; Emily S. Tepe, horticulture researcher and Doug Foulk
Reviewed in 2018
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Tips For The Care Of Pear Trees
Growing pear trees can be a rewarding experience for the home gardener, but before you begin, there are a few things you need to know about how to plant. Read on to learn what those are.
Planting Pears in the Home Garden
Prior to planting pears in the home garden, pear tree size should be considered first. A full size tree can grow to 40 feet (12 m.). Depending on the size of your lot, you may want to consider a dwarf or semi-dwarf variety. While Bartlett is probably the most common home grown pear, there are several varieties available. Check with a trusted nursery in your area to discover which variety grows best.
While growing pear trees from seed is possible, you’ll get faster crop results by buying a young tree. When planting pears, a smaller well formed tree will give you better results that a tall spindly one.
How to Plant a Pear Tree
Now that you’ve chosen your tree, the next step is planting. Pears require full sun. Be sure to choose a spot that will ensure at least six to eight hours of sun, not only for your sapling but for your full grown pear. Tree care will be easier if you plan ahead.
Dig your hole wide and deep, mixing mix plenty of compost into the soil. Remove the tree from its container, including the burlap, and set it in the hole to the same depth it was in its container. Gently spread the roots and refill the hole with the amended soil. Water well and continue to water regularly — once or twice a week — until the roots are well established.
Knowing how to plant a pear tree isn’t quite enough. An important part of pear tree care is pruning, and the first pruning should occur as soon as your tree is planted. Leave a central leader and choose three to five branches with outward rather than upward growth and prune out the rest. Trim off the ends of the remaining branches to encourage growth. There are many books and articles written about pruning, but for the home gardener, pruning care of pear trees can be limited to removing crossed branches and fast sprouting upward growth.
Your pear tree will bear fruit in three to five years.
Tips for Growing Pear Trees
Compared to other fruits, care of pear trees is simple and straightforward. They don’t suffer from as many diseases or insect problems, thus are easier on the grower. Care of pear trees begins right after planting. Pears should be staked with a sturdy post driven into the ground to help the tree grow straight and withstand wind damage. Mulch at a depth of 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cm.) in a three foot (91+ cm.) circle around your tree to prevent weed competition for nutrients and water.
Unless your soil is extremely poor, fertilizing once a year should be enough for your pear tree. Care, in fact, must be taken to avoid over fertilization which produces a lovely tree, but no fruit. For the home garden with only one or two trees, fruit tree fertilizer spikes are perfect for the job. They’re easy to use and provide a slow release of fertilizer that will be enough for the year.
Some gardeners will insist that insecticides and dormant oil spray just before buds blossom are essential to the proper care of pears trees. I’m not one of them, though I’m not necessarily against their use. For growing pear trees, however, I’d wait and see if they were necessary before instituting their use. As stated earlier, pears have fewer insect problems than other fruits. One of the reasons for this is their flower nectar, which isn’t as attractive to insects as other fruits; and as bees are the main pollinators of your pear tree, care should be taken not to drive them away or, worse, kill them.
If your first crop, which is usually small and often inedible, is badly damaged, then you’ll have plenty of time to re-evaluate before the next season. Why work harder or spend more money than you have to? See what nature has to offer first.
Remember, folks have been growing pear trees in their backyard gardens for a long, long time. Grandma loved them for their delicious fruit and Grandpa loved them because, once established, they were very little work!
Note: Chemical controls should only be used as a last resort. Organic approaches are safer and more environmentally friendly.
Pear for beginners - care and pruning in autumn
Winter is coming! It's time to dedicate a few hours to the queens of the orchard - pears. Learn how to care for pear trees in the fall, how to prune and feed. Our instructions will not allow even beginners to make mistakes.
Pear is one of the most favorite trees of summer residents. Sweet juicy fruits with a characteristic aroma adorn the site from mid-summer to late autumn. Winter varieties are perfectly stored in the cellar until spring.
But it is important to understand that the pear has character. If you leave it to itself, there will be no harvest. A pear tree needs careful care: pruning, fertilizing and watering.
How a pear tree grows
Pears grow slowly. The first single fruits can be plucked only in the fourth year after planting. There are a few early-growing varieties that set fruit in the second or third year. These include Lada, Chizhovskaya, Marble. But in most cases, the tree has been growing vigorously for six years and is not up to fruiting. By the seventh year, the growth rate decreases, and the plant directs its forces to the development of fruits. Since that time, you can get decent harvests every year. At the age of 20-25 years, fruiting is greatly reduced, the growth of branches and trunk stops. Such a tree needs to be sawn or rejuvenated pruned.
Pear fruits are tied on a three-year and older growth. Ringlets depart from it - short twigs from 1 to 3 cm long - it is they who carry flower buds.
Pear pruning for beginners
Pear trees are usually grown in unstory form. This is the easiest type of shaping - even a beginner can handle it. Tierless crown is strong, well lit. Its branches do not break off under the weight of snow and fruits.
A tree, formed according to a non-tiered type, consists of a trunk, from which 6 or 8 branches depart at an angle of 45-65 degrees. The lower branches are located at 15-20 cm, the rest - at 25-40 cm. Stem height - 40-50 cm. If the seedling does not have side branches, simply shorten it to 80-90 cm. If there are side branches, leave the top three, looking in different directions, and cut them to half. Cut out all the rest. Don't forget to cut off the top.
Step 2 - first year in the garden. Tie the shoot that appeared in the spring from the upper bud of the stem to a spike - the area between the upper bud and last year's cut made after planting. It should grow vertically.
Step 3 - second to fourth year in the garden. In the summer, on each branch extending from the trunk, lay two or three branches of the second order, pluck everything else. In autumn, cut the tip of the top to lay the next side branch.
Step 4 - fifth year in the garden. The main formation is completed. Trim the top of the trunk just above the top skeletal branch to prevent the tree from growing upward again. In the future, do only sanitary pruning and thinning.
Shorten the shoots every year to maintain subordination: the branches of the first order should not rise above the central conductor, and the branches of the second order located on them should be even shorter.
Sanitary and thinning pruning
After leaf fall, you can clearly see which branches in the crown are healthy, and which are sick, broken, dry out. Everything unhealthy must be removed. Shoots that grow close to others and thicken the crown are also subject to cutting.
Be sure to remove tops that have grown this year. This should have been done in the summer when they were still small. But it's not too late to take the pruner and put away the long pesky whips.
Pear for beginners - rejuvenating pruning
Unformed, heavily overgrown or old trees need to be rejuvenated - then they will live for many more years and will produce a good harvest every year. On such specimens, skeletal and semi-skeletal branches are bare, not covered with growing branches. After cardinal pruning, nutrients will be directed to the formation of young branches. They will grow quickly and soon bear fruit.
How to prune an old pear tree in autumn:
- Cut 1-2 of the oldest skeletal branches into a ring.
- Shorten the remaining skeletal branches by 2/3.
Important. Anti-aging pruning cannot be done in one year. Saw off the branches gradually - for 2-3 seasons.
Care after pruning
Once every 3-5 years in the fall, pear trees should be covered with organic matter. Humus is laid in a layer of 10-15 cm, the soil is not dug up.
It is better to add mineral water little by little every year. An adult fruit-bearing tree in the fall will need 500 g of superphosphate and 250 g of potassium sulfate. Instead of chemical granules, you can add wood ash - sprinkle 5 liters of powder over the soil surface and loosen well with a rake.
Important. Fertilizers are placed not close to the trunk, but at a distance. The suction roots of the tree are located along the projection of the crown perimeter. It is here that you need to lay the main part of organic matter and fill in mineral top dressing.
If autumn is dry, trees should be watered generously in late October/early November. Late autumn irrigation will prevent them from drying out in winter due to lack of moisture in the soil.
Dear friends! Tell us how you take care of your pear trees, what do you do for them in the fall?
If you are just planning to plant fruit trees on the plot, study our catalog - we present both classic, time-tested varieties and interesting new selections. To see how the seedlings will be delivered, watch the short video:
Published: 15 Oct 2021
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planting, care, pruning, varieties.Photo — Botanichka
Pear as a horticultural crop is in the top five garden fruit trees. Pears are not just tasty fruits, but they also have a wonderful (special) property. Allergy sufferers can fearlessly eat them both fresh and processed. The perfect combination of granular pulp with a pleasant aroma gives pears an exquisite taste. The amazing qualities of pear fruits are revealed gradually. The entire aromatic and flavoring bouquet of the fruit appears only after ripening and “aging”. Pears are called a delicious remedy for the urinary system. This is the only crop whose fruits contain arbutin. A substance necessary for the treatment of the bladder and kidneys. Pear fruits contain a large list of trace elements and substances, the combination of which counteracts the deposition of salts in the liver and kidneys. Chlorogenic acids strengthen capillaries and help remove bile from the body.Pears on a branch
In general, a pear is a crop that should be grown in every dacha. It's easy to grow. The pear is not capricious, although it has features that must be considered when selecting varieties, growing and forming pruning. Recently bred varieties and hybrids of pear have made it possible to expand the area of cultivation of the crop to the northern regions of Russia.
Selecting a site and planting a pear tree
A pear tree has several features. Culture refers to light-loving. It is tolerant of high moisture content in the root area, but does not tolerate prolonged damp fogs. A few wet days and the pear becomes ill with fungal and bacterial diseases. Therefore, in mixed country gardens, it is better to plant it in the extreme rows, in the most illuminated places accessible to winds (but not drafts).
When planted in lowlands, places with high standing groundwater, in drafts, pear trees develop poorly and quickly die. In areas occupied by a garden, it is rational to allocate a place for a pear on the south, west or southwest side. The pear is a cross-pollinated crop, so usually 2-3 trees of different varieties are planted.
Soil requirements of pear
Like other crops, pear normally grows and develops on fertile lands with good moisture and air permeability. The clay layer does not affect the development of the pear, which needs some moisture retention at the base of the root system. If the soils are dense in physical terms, but depleted in nutrients, then a mixture is prepared from the upper layers of the earth when digging a planting hole, adding humus or compost for loosening, and mineral fats.
Planting period for pear seedlings
Depending on the region, pear is planted in autumn or spring. Spring plantings are preferable in the northern regions and central Russia with cold winter temperatures. Pear plantings begin in April, when warm weather sets in without return frosts.
In southern and other regions, with snowy winters and relatively long warm autumns, it is better to plant pear seedlings in autumn. The sultry spring of warm regions often depresses the seedling, causes the aerial part to dry out and die. The optimal period for planting seedlings in the south is the end of September, the first half of October. With a long warm period, pear seedlings have time to take root and adapt to new living conditions. The culture does not like transplants, so seedlings are planted immediately in a permanent place, especially 3-4 year olds.
Preparing the soil for planting pears
The area for a pear orchard or individual plantings must be prepared in advance. For digging, compost or humus is added up to 10 kg / sq. m and up to 100 g of nitrophoska or 50-60 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium salt. If the soil is acidic, add dolomite flour or 2 cups of ash.
Preparation of planting pits
For spring planting of pear seedlings, a planting pit is prepared from autumn. It is dug out quite capaciously - 70x70 cm and up to a meter deep. A 10 cm layer of clay is laid at the bottom of the pit on light soils to retain irrigation water or precipitation. A 10-15-20 cm layer of compost or humus (not manure) is placed on top. The layers are covered with prepared soil mixture and left until spring.
For autumn pear planting, the planting hole is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting. In the same way, a pillow is prepared at the bottom of the planting pit, the dimensions of which correspond to the volume of the root system. A wooden support is installed in the center of the pit, to which a pear seedling will be tied after planting. Planting a seedling in prepared pits is carried out as usual.Digging a hole for a pear seedling. © NellePlanting a pear tree. © NellePumping the earth around a pear seedling. © Nelle
The soil mixture for filling the pit when planting pear seedlings is prepared from the top most fertile soil layer, which is mixed with humus, compost or high-moor peat, 50-60 g of nitrophoska or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are added to a bucket of this mixture, respectively 30 and 20 g , and about 100-150 g of wood ash.
Preparation of pear seedlings
For planting, it is better to buy 1-2 year old seedlings. When buying, you need to pay attention to the quality of the pear grafting and the condition of the seedling itself. The bark should be smooth, uniform. The pear seedling itself is elastic, not dry. The root system is alive - on the cut it is light, moist, shades characteristic of the variety. The day before planting, the roots of the seedling are lowered into a bucket with a solution of root or other root stimulant. It is also added to the water, which is poured into the landing pit.
Before planting, the central and lateral long roots are cut to 10-12 cm. If there were leaves on the stem, they are cut off, and the side branches are cut off. The finished pear seedling is a shoot 75-85 cm high without side shoots.
Rules for planting pears
The roots of a prepared pear seedling are spread over a hill of soil mixture (in a pit) and sprinkled with earth. The stem of the seedling is shaken or lightly trampled in the hole so that there are no air voids. Having fallen asleep 2/3 of the pit, a bucket of settled water is poured out (so that it is not excessively cold). After soaking up the water, continue backfilling the landing pit to the top. Be sure to monitor that the root collar of the pear seedling is 3-4-5 cm higher than the soil. The root collar is located above the first roots and differs in the color of the bark on the stem.
The transition from greenish stem bark to light brownish roots is the location of the root collar.
If the pear seedling is grafted, then the grafting site is above the root collar (for beginner gardeners). After planting, the soil is lightly tamped with hands, a roller 3-5 cm high is prepared in a circle with a diameter of 40-50 cm, where another 1-2 buckets of water are poured. After soaking, the soil around the trunk is mulched, not reaching the central shoot 8-10 cm. At the end of planting, a young pear seedling is tied to a support through a figure eight. The entire warm period of autumn or, during spring planting, the entire growing season, the soil is mulched after watering. The mulch should not envelop the trunk of the pear: the rotting of the young bole may begin.
Under the crown of a young pear seedling and subsequently under a mature tree, the soil must be constantly kept free of weeds. The best neighbor for a pear is an apple tree. It is undesirable to place rowan plantings next to the pear, as they are affected by the same types of pests.
Pears, even winter-hardy, planted in regions with long frosts, need winter shelters at a young age. The trunk of a young tree is wrapped with burlap or other materials previously treated with anti-mouse drugs (diesel oil, dust, birch tar). Insulation is used with straw mixed with stems of black root, wormwood, tansy, black elderberry, red, herbal, mint and others that repel mice. The lower end of the insulation is buried 3-4 cm into the soil and in winter freshly fallen snow is trampled around.Planting a pear tree. © ventrue21
Watering the pear tree
In the first year, the pear tree is watered once a week. Enough 1-2 buckets per plant. In subsequent years, the water rate is increased, and the irrigation time is reduced to 1-2 per month. 1-2 grooves are dug around the tree, which are filled with water from a hose. It is preferable to water adult pears by sprinkling. After watering, loosening and mulching is required. The plant needs oxygen and a moist, crust-free soil surface.
Pear top dressing
Pear does not like high amounts of nitrogen. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers are applied annually in small doses in the first 2-4 years when the leaves bloom. In the future, nitrogen fertilizing is carried out only with obvious nitrogen starvation, when the tree lags behind in growth, annual growth is insignificant, the leaves are clarified (the exception is the varietal color of the pear), and sheet plasticity is not sufficiently developed.
For pear top dressing, organic matter is applied once every 3-4-5 years, depending on soil fertility. Mineral top dressing, including microfertilizers, is necessary for the culture every year due to the large removal of nutrients by the crop.
It is most rational not to scatter organic and mineral fertilizers over the soil surface, but to bring them into shallow trenches dug around the tree crown. In the year of organic matter introduction, first, a phosphorus-potassium mixture is introduced into the trench, respectively, at 40 and 20 or 60 and 30 g per linear meter, depending on the age of the pear, mixed with the soil so as not to burn the roots, then they are covered with humus or compost from above (0 , 5 buckets) and cover with a layer of soil. In other years, you can limit yourself to applying a full complex fertilizer with a minimum nitrogen content.
Gardeners often use nitrophoska or kemira, which also contains a number of trace elements. Instead of microelements, at the beginning of the fruit growth phase, 1-2-3 cups of wood ash can be added for loosening under a tree around the circumference of the crown. For autumn digging, complete mineral fertilizer is applied, humus can be added or individual recommendations for a particular crop variety can be used.
It is good to use green manure in garden plantings. Green manure can be sown between rows and mowed or left until spring for digging.
Pear protection from pests and diseases
Pears, like other pome fruit crops, are affected by fungal, bacterial and viral diseases and pests - sucking and gnawing. Moreover, diseases affect separately pear leaves and fruits.
In order to harvest a full-fledged crop, crop protection should be started in early spring, using all recommended agrotechnical measures, and carried out before harvesting. A huge role in maintaining the health of the pear, and hence in obtaining a quality crop, is played by preventive protection measures.Growth direction of young fruit trees. © Stark Bro's
Preventive and agrochemical protection measures include: keeping the site free of weeds, timely top dressing, watering, tree treatments. Timely cleaning of carrion and leaf litter. All leaves are taken out of the garden plot and used: healthy ones - for laying on compost, for digging, and sick ones are burned or put in a separate compost pit for rotting, pouring in layers or spilling solutions against diseases.
When pruning, all waste must be removed and burned. Treat trees after complete leaf fall with copper or iron sulphate (2-3%) or 3% Bordeaux liquid. Repeat treatments in spring until the kidneys wake up from winter rest. Timely and high-quality implementation of preventive measures reduces the likelihood of diseases or damage to trees by pests up to 70%.
Types of pear diseases and protection measures
Pear is affected by diseases that are also characteristic of other pome crops. The most common and malicious are:
- scab (leaves and fruits),
- moniliosis (leaves and fruit),
- black crayfish (leaves and fruits),
- stem rot (cytosporosis),
- fire blight,
- powdery mildew,
- leaf rust,
- white spotting (septoria),
- milky shine.
Of the protective measures, the safest in private ownership is the treatment of horticultural crops with biological preparations. They can be used for treatments throughout the growing season from leafing out to harvest, and fruits are also treated with some biological products during winter storage to extend their safety.
Some hasty gardeners use chemicals. Yes, using chemicals, 2-3 treatments are enough and the disease will be defeated, but ... If chemicals are used incorrectly or carelessly, you can get poisoning and damage to the internal organs of both the handler himself and family members, cause the death of pets and useful insects.
Therefore, it is practical and safe to use the following biological products in tank mixtures against diseases: trichodermin (gliocladin), phytolavin, hamair (bactericide), planriz, pentophage-S, phytosporin-M, farmayod, alirin-B, gaupsin. The last drug has a double effect. It is a good fungicide and insecticide. All of the listed biological products interact well in tank mixtures and are broad-spectrum drugs, destroying up to 4-9types of diseases. They destroy, in particular, fungal, bacterial and viral infections.
Use of biological products to protect pears from pests
The main pests of pears are:
- green aphid,
- codling moth,
- blotch leaf (pear sucker),
- pear mite,
- leaflet and others.
To effectively protect pears from pests, it is enough to have 2 biological products in the garden first-aid kit - actofit (akarin) and bitoxibacillin. These 2 biological products destroy almost all of the above named pests. Biological preparations fitoverm, verticillin, lepidocid are also effective. Bioinsecticides and biofungicides can be used in tank mixes. Mixtures allow you to reduce the number of treatments and increase their efficiency.
When using biological preparations, it is necessary:
- strictly adhere to the recommendations when preparing working solutions; when spraying, add adhesives (soap, etc.) to the solution,
- carry out treatments only in warm weather (air temperature is not lower than +16. .+18 °С) biological preparations are effective up to +32 °С,
- treatments to be carried out after 7-12 days, unless otherwise recommended,
- the action of the biological product appears on the 3rd-6th day under optimal conditions; if precipitation has passed, abundant dew falls, the treatments must be repeated.
Pear pruning is one of the main techniques for obtaining a high yield of good quality. There are 3 types of cutting:
- sanitary maintenance,
Formative pear pruning
Formative pruning is used in the first years of growth and development of the seedling. It is aimed at creating a crown. Pears form high yields, but with an improperly formed crown, skeletal branches can break off, the tree will bend or develop one-sided. There are quite a lot of types of forming pruning in pear gardening - palmette, column, pyramid and others. To properly form a crown, it is better to invite a specialist. With independent shaping pruning, the most accessible and easy-to-use types are usually used:
- whorled-tiered or sparsely-tiered.
When forming the crown of a pear, several rules must be strictly observed:
- the main skeletal branches must be directed evenly in different directions,
- the angle of divergence of the skeletal branch (first tier) from the stem must be obtuse and be at least 90-120 degrees,
- the optimal number of skeletal branches in longline formation is 3-4 in the first and 2-3 in the second,
- branches of the second tier should always be positioned so that they grow in the free space of the branches of the first tier, so as not to obscure it.
Layerless formation of the pear crown
The next year after planting, in the bud swelling phase, all shoots are cut off on the central stem to a height of 40-45 cm. This is a bole. Above will be the branches of the crown. A well-developed eye is left at the top of the trunk. This will be the lowest skeletal branch of the first order. 25-30 cm are measured from this kidney and the next kidney is found for the second skeletal branch. It is necessary that this bud be located spirally on the other side of the central shoot and, as it were, balance the future load of branches with fruits.
If the height of the pear seedling allows it, you can arrange the third bud in a spiral - the third skeletal branch and leave the continuation shoot. He is leading and ensures the growth of culture. So that the tree is not too tall (preferably no more than 3 m), over time, the central shoot is shortened by 20-25-35 cm and the nearest well-developed bud or branch is left in the lead. A pear with this technique stops growth in height.
With this formation of the crown, all branches between the main skeletal branches are cut into a ring. Form 2-3 shoots of the second order. Adhering to the same rules - uniform load of the tree from different sides. In subsequent years, sanitary, thinning and rejuvenating pear trimmings are performed.
Whorled-tiered pear crown formation
1st year after planting.
In the spring, in the phase of swelling of the buds, a pear trunk is formed 40-45 cm high. All side shoots on the stem are cut into a ring.
Then measure 70-90 cm up from the trunk on the central shoot for the first layer. In this space, 3-4 most developed pear buds are noted, located 15-25 cm apart on opposite sides of the central stem (through 90-120 degrees). These branches are cut by 1/2-1/3 so that they are approximately the same length. The remaining intermediate branches are removed to the ring. Some gardeners cut short and leave them on a fruitful link.
After 15-20 cm above the third bud of the first tier, cut off the central shoot of the pear, which serves to continue the growth of the tree.
2nd year after planting
The formation of the first tier of the pear crown is being completed. The central stem and skeletal branches are not touched. The growth of the central stem between the skeletal branches of the first tier is removed to the ring. Lateral shoots on the central trunk above the first tier are shortened.
3rd year after planting
In the spring, in the phase of bud swelling, about 40-45 cm are measured from the upper skeletal branch of the first tier and all pear branches are cut into a ring.
From the opening buds, 2 buds are selected higher along the central shoot, located 20-25 cm apart on different sides. By location on the central shoot, they should not coincide with the branches of the first tier, so as not to obscure them in summer. The branches of the 2nd tier of the pear are placed at intervals in relation to the skeletal branches of the first tier.
All branches between the skeletal branches of the second tier are also removed or shortened, as in the formation of the first tier. Skeletal branches are cut to 1/3, aligning in length. The central stem is shortened by 15-20 cm.
4th year after planting
The central stem of the pear is shortened to a side branch to weaken the growth of the tree upwards. Pruning is carried out at the level of 40-45 cm from the upper skeletal branch of the second tier. Shorten all skeletal branches by 1/3-1/4 and some branches that have grown between tiers. The rest of the growth in tiers, on the trunk and thickening the tiers, is removed on the ring.
5-6 years after planting
By this time, the height of the pear reaches 2.5-3.5 m. Above the upper skeletal branch, the central conductor must be cut so that the tree stops growing upwards.
In the formed crown branches of the 2nd order should be at a distance of 90-100 cm from the central trunk and 50-60-70 cm apart.
With normal growth of mature trees, thinning of the crown is carried out after 5-6 years (if necessary, the branch is cut into a ring) and limiting pruning of skeletal and semi-skeletal pear branches. Growth and branches shorter than 25-30 cm are not cut or shortened, left for fruiting.
In order for a tree to form properly, it is necessary to create a strong crown, on the skeletal branches of which annual growths and fruit links will develop. To do this, at the beginning of summer (July 10-20), by the middle of 1-2 summer skeletal branches, pears are tied, without tightening, strong twine, bent down and tied to the central trunk. The skeletal branch should form a horizontal line, and not bend in an arc. The following year, the same procedure is done with the skeletal branches of the second tier. In the tied state, the branches are until lignified.
The twine is removed and the pear branches remain horizontal. Some gardeners tie the lower end of the twine to heavy objects at the base of the trunk (bricks, cauldrons, etc.). With this method of bending, you need to monitor the preservation of the horizontal arrangement of the branches. Some gardeners cut branches with a small deviation angle annually to the outer bud. The skeletal branches of the second tier of the pear are subordinated to the length of the branches of the first tier (left shorter).Pear trees. © own
Sanitary maintenance pear pruning
Pruning is carried out annually after leaf fall and in early spring. The main goal is to remove thickening, inward-growing crowns and diseased branches. Regulate the growth of skeletal branches. With spring pruning, annual growths of the previous year are shortened.
Pear rejuvenation pruning
Pear rejuvenation pruning is carried out when the tree is very dense, the annual growth is greatly reduced. The skeletal and semi-skeletal branches of the culture on both tiers are little covered with fouling branches and stand bare. During this period, the crown is greatly lightened by removing some skeletal branches. The central trunk of a pear is shortened to a lateral branch, which allows redistribution of nutrients to longline branches and overgrown branches. Shortening and thinning contributes to a more intensive supply of nutrients to the fruit-forming branches, which helps to increase fruit set and improve their quality.
Varieties of pears for different regions of Russia
The varietal variety of pear selection of recent years made it possible to promote the culture even to the northern regions with frosty winters. The success of growing and obtaining good yields of excellent quality depends on properly selected zoned varieties and hybrids of the crop. For the northern regions, it is necessary to select frost-resistant pear varieties with early fruit ripening.
For the northern regions, the most common frost-resistant varieties of pear: "Cathedral", Severyanka, Polya, Lada, Otradnenskaya.
In the Moscow region and other regions of central Russia, pear varieties form good yields: Lada, Bugristaya, Chizhovskaya, Tenderness, Moskvichka, Skazochnaya. Muscovites especially single out the Skazochnaya variety for large-fruitedness and keeping quality, good taste and transport qualities. The Chizhovskaya pear variety is self-fertile, does not require a partner for pollination, is resistant to fungal diseases and begins to bear fruit early.