How tall does hibiscus tree grow
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Hibiscus include a very wide variety of plants grown not only for their ornamental flowers but also as vegetables and fiber plants. Some are hardy perennials, while others are annuals, shrubs or tropical plants. This fact sheet covers perennial and annual hibiscus, as well as closely related plants commonly grown for ornamental purposes in South Carolina.
One of the brightly colored ‘Disco Belle’ hibiscus hybrids.
Photo by Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
Mature Height/Spread: While dwarf varieties may only grow two to three feet tall, many varieties and species can attain heights of eight feet or more each growing season once established. Young plants are generally narrower than they are tall, but mature clumps will often spread as wide as their height.
Growth Rate: Perennial hibiscus generally reach mature height within two or three years, and return to that height each year. Best growth occurs when plants have ample moisture. Many hardy hibiscus are capable of blooming the first year from seed started in early spring.
Ornamental Features: Hibiscus are grown primarily for their strikingly beautiful and often amazingly large flowers. The foliage of many is often bold and remarkable as well, but is less noticed because the mid to late summer blossoms are so prominent. Hibiscus give a bold, tropical effect to a garden. They are also highly attractive to butterflies and hummingbirds.
Culture: Many of the perennial hibiscus are natives of South Carolina and the Southeastern US. They prefer a sunny location and well drained soil containing plenty of organic matter. These conditions result in the most vigorous growth. Hibiscus will tolerate light shade and less desirable soils, but their vigor and flowering will be reduced. Plenty of water is necessary for the most abundant blooming. Water plants deeply and thoroughly, but allow some time between drenchings on established plants. Newly planted hibiscus will need more frequent watering, like other newly planted perennials. Some species and varieties will actually tolerate permanently damp soil and flooding.
Tall hibiscus should be sited where they are not exposed to strong winds to avoid breaking of the long stems. Stems that break can be shortened and new side shoots will grow and produce more blooms.
To encourage rebloom, either remove old flowers before they form seedheads or prune plants back by one third after a flush of bloom is finished.
Perennial hibiscus will freeze back to the ground each winter in all but the warmest parts of South Carolina. Old stems can then be cut back to the ground. New shoots emerge by mid spring.
Propagation: Hibiscus are easy to propagate by several methods, making them a common passalong plant, especially since some popular types such as Confederate Rose can be difficult to find in stores.
Cuttings: Cuttings can be rooted at anytime that new growth is available, although rooting is usually quickest in spring. Start with pencil thick, five to six inch long cuttings of firm new growth. Strip off lower leaves and insert the cutting in a mix of three parts sand and one part peat. Roots should form within four to five weeks. Once roots are formed plants can be moved into a larger container or transplanted to a permanent location.
Seeds: Seed can be sown indoors 12 weeks before the last spring frost. Soak seeds in very warm water for one hour before sowing. Seed can also be sown in place outdoors after the last expected frost date or fresh seed can be sown in fall. Collect seed for fall sowing once the papery seed capsules brown and start to split. Plants often bloom from seed in their first year and will often self seed in suitable soil conditions.
Division: Perennial hibiscus can be divided in spring. Be careful working around the soft new shoots. They do not usually tolerate fall division or transplanting.
Problems: Leaf spots may be caused by several fungi. In most cases, cleaning up plant debris and removing infected leaves will provide adequate control. Southern stem blight may occur on hibiscus. To help prevent southern blight, keep mulch from touching the stems.
Insect pests of hibiscus include aphids, whiteflies, and Japanese beetles.
Species & Cultivars
Scarlet Swamp Hibiscus (Hibiscus coccineus): This southeastern native hibiscus also commonly known as Texas Star. The six to eight inch wide flowers are brilliant red, with petals more separated than those of other hibiscus, giving the blossom a star shaped look. Individual flowers last only a day but new blooms open throughout summer and fall. The leaves are deeply divided into narrow, toothed, finger-like lobes. This plant is often passed along from gardener to gardener.
Bright red flower of Scarlet Swamp Hibiscus
Photo by Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
Established plants grow to seven feet each growing season. Plants die back to ground level in winter and resprout in spring.
Scarlet swamp hibiscus prefers full sun and moist soil. Naturally occurring in swamps, marshes and ditches, this hibiscus will even tolerate some flooding, although it will also thrive in ordinary garden soil.
Divide plants in spring. Plants often self seed from seeds produced in fall.
Rose Mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos): Rose mallow is native to marshy areas throughout the southeast. It has been extensively bred and is the parent of a number of popular hibiscus hybrids, often referred to as dinner plate hibiscus due to the large size of their flowers. The large, fast-growing plants bloom from August to October. Individual flowers last only a day, but each plant may flaunt several 10 to 12 inch wide flowers at once.
Grow rose mallows in rich, well-drained soil with full sun for best results. At the end of autumn, cut old stems back to three to six inches above ground level.
Propagation is possible from seed, tip cuttings and root division. Rose mallows will flower from seed the first year if started very early in spring. Favorite cultivars may be rooted from cuttings during the growing season.
Rose Mallow is highly variable and the parent to many hybrids.
Photo by Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
Confederate Roses (Hibiscus mutabilis): These large shrubs grown as very tall perennials in most of the state. Near the coast they will leaf out on old stems, but in most areas, the tops will die back and the plant will regrow each spring from the base. Oddly enough, Confederate roses are not native to the South but come from China. They thrive in the South anywhere that they have time to open their very late flowers before fall frost. This species is a popular passalong plant.
Height varies from about eight feet in the upstate to up to 15 feet on the coast.
There are several color forms, including one commonly called Blood on the Rose, which opens white and changes to a deep pink that is almost red by the second day after opening. A double pink type is also common, but double white, and single pinks and whites are also seen. The four to
Confederate Rose is an old favorite passalong plant.
Photo by Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
six inch wide flowers open in September or October. Confederate Rose is an eye-catching foliage plant even before bloom, with large, soft, gray-green leaves.
Confederate Roses are often rooted in damp sand during winter cuttings taken in fall. Cuttings 12 to 18 inches long are very easy to root in a bucket of damp sand, stored in a cool, but not freezing area such as a garage through the winter. Success rates may be even higher from spring taken cuttings.
Great Rose Mallow (Hibiscus grandiflorus): Large, felty grey leaves on eight foot stalks, topped with 10 inch wide, light pink flowers in late summer. Like those of the scarlet swamp hibiscus, flower petals do not overlap. It is native to brackish wetlands in the Southeast, and can be grown where other plants succumb to salty soil.
The two hibiscus most commonly grown as annuals are not true annuals, but tropical shrubs that thrive outdoors during hot South Carolina summers. They are grown as container plants.
Chinese Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis): This tropical shrub that is often grown outdoors in the summer and as a houseplant in winter. It is not hardy in any part of South Carolina, but can be brought inside to a bright, sunlit area for the winter and planted out each spring. Chinese hibiscus are ideal for use as seasonal container plants.
The flowers are available in many colors, ranging through the entire spectrum except blue. The yellow, apricot and orange varieties provide colors not seen in hardy perennial hibiscus. Flowers are typically four to eight inches wide, and may be single or double.
Move Chinese hibiscus outside after all danger of frost is past. Be sure to acclimate plants gradually to the increased light and lower temperatures outside. They prefer rich, well drained soil with plenty of organic matter, in full sun or light afternoon shade. Water the plants freely during the growing season, and fertilize with either a time release fertilizer every eight weeks or with a water soluble fertilizer every two weeks. To keep mature plants growing vigorously prune old wood back by about one third in spring.
Bring Chinese hibiscus indoors when nighttime temperatures fall into the lower 50s F.
Red Leaf Hibiscus (Hibiscus acetosella): The most commonly seen cultivar is ‘Red Shield’. This hibiscus is a tropical shrub, grown as an annual for the beauty of its deep burgundy red, maple like leaves. It can reach five feet tall by the end of summer. Purple flowers may appear late in the growing season. Plant outside after danger of spring frost, in full sun in well drained, moist garden soil. Propagation is mainly through seed planted in the spring.
Red Leaf Hibiscus is grown mainly for foliage color.
Photo by Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
Flower of an Hour (Hibiscus trionum): This true annual that is more a curiosity than a truly ornamental plant. It grows about two feet tall, with two inch wide, white to pale yellow blooms with dark centers. The flowers close in shade and typically bloom for only a fraction of a day. It is easily grown from seed, and may self-sow and return each year, sometimes to the point of weediness.
There are many ornamental plants closely related and similar in appearance to hibiscus. These include hollyhocks (Alcea), mallows (Malva and Kosteletzkya species) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus).
Hollyhock (Alcea rosea): Hollyhock is one of the most popular old-fashioned cottage garden flowers, with a distinctive upright pillar of large, brightly colored blooms for a few short weeks in summer. Hollyhocks are biennials, with young plants appearing from seed in late summer or fall and blooming the following summer.
Plants typically grow from three to six feet tall, but eight foot tall giants are not unusual, especially if grown in rich, well drained soil with ample moisture. Flowers range from three to five inches wide, and come in a full spectrum of colors.
Hollyhock rust is the main problem affecting these plants. Removing infected leaves and cleaning out old plant debris will help prevent over-wintering spores from infesting the next year’s plants. Newer varieties are less susceptible to rust.
Plant hollyhocks from seeds or plants in late summer or fall. If using your own collected seed, sow it as soon as it is ripe.
Seashore Mallow (Kosteletzkya virginica): This perennial hibiscus is native to salty or brackish marshes all along the eastern seaboard. It is a useful plant near the beach, but also thrives in ordinary garden soil if given adequate irrigation. Plant in full sun.
Small, 2½ inch wide lavender-pink blossoms appear in abundance from June through October. The variety ‘Immaculate’ bears pure white flowers. Plants grow three to six feet tall depending on the amount of soil moisture.
Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris): This plant generally behaves as a biennial in the southeast, with young plants appearing from seed in late summer or fall and blooming the following summer. It looks much like a miniature hollyhock with 1½ to two inch wide flowers in shades of purple or lavender. Plants are variable in height, reaching anywhere from two to five feet tall. Many varieties are available from seed. The most commonly seen is ‘Zebrinus’, with flower petals striped purple and white. Common mallow is a native of Europe, but has become naturalized in much of the US. It readily self seeds. Plants perform best in the Piedmont, and prefer full sun, and good garden soil.
The surprisingly ornamental flower of okra.
Photo by Karen Russ, ©2007 HGIC, Clemson Extension
Turk’s Cap (Malvaviscus arboreus): This perennial is grown for its constant blooms that resemble a Turkish turban. The bright red, three inch long hibiscus-like flowers never fully open. It is hardy near the coast in South Carolina, but may survive farther inland with a thick, airy winter mulch. Turk’s Cap can easily be planted from cuttings or seed, but is not frequently found in nurseries. It is usually passed along from gardener to gardener.
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus): Okra is a surprisingly (for anyone who has not grown it) ornamental vegetable. Like other relatives, it has a typical showy hibiscus type flower – light yellow with a dark burgundy center. The purple leafed varieties are especially attractive as focal points or as a backdrop in flower borders. Okra is an annual and is grown from seed sown after the soil has thoroughly warmed in spring.
Originally published 12/04
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How to Grow and Care for Hibiscus Trees
Our experts discuss their best tips for growing and caring for the plants.
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Hibiscus trees are part of a large genus of flowering plants that includes over 200 varieties—some edible, some not—which include everything from tropical ones that thrive best in heat to hardy options that can withstand the cold. Hibiscus is a small-to-medium-sized plant that can be pruned to appear shrub-like or its stems can intertwine giving the appearance of a tree, says Nandita Godbole, botanist, landscape architect, and cookbook author of Seven Pots of Tea: An Ayurvedic Approach to Sips & Nosh (from $35, amazon.com). A well-maintained hibiscus tree can grow up to eight feet tall, she adds, and its dark green leaves are about four to six inches long, with a toothed edge and a slightly stringy sap (because they belong to the okra family). "A healthy hibiscus bears large and showy flowers, of a minimum of five petals and a central stalk containing both the male and female parts of the flower," says Godbole.
close up of hibiscus flower
Credit: Sirapat Saeyang / EyeEm / Getty Images
Where to Grow Hibiscus
If you live in the southwestern part of the country, Quita Jackson, gardener and educator at GreenDesert.org, says that you can grow hibiscus all year long. If located in cold temperatures, she encourages that the plants be potted and moved inside for the winter months. According to Godbole, as a plant native to the tropics, hibiscus is a perennial in zones eight and up, or where temperatures do not drop below 50 degrees at night. "It can do fine in a greenhouse setting but thrives outdoors. In all [USDA hardiness plant] zones numerically below eight, hibiscus is an annual and must be replaced every year."
How to Grow Hibiscus
Hibiscus does not produce viable seeds. Nurseries produce healthy plants from a "stock plant" by either grafting or air-layering, says Godbole. These plants are more reliable than trying to start from seed or propagate. Jackson says that as a hardy plant, depending on the USDA hardiness zone, hibiscus can be planted directly into the ground, or you can put it in a pot or a bed. Either way, make sure your hibiscus is placed in an area with full sun, says Jackson—while some varieties can thrive in full morning sun with afternoon shade, most prefer stronger light conditions. With that in mind, Godbole recommends choosing a planting location that gets six to eight hours of direct sunlight and enough air circulation. "If the area is too hot, or if the soil drains away too quickly, it will need more frequent watering," she says.
Hibiscus requires soil that drains well, says Jackson, as hibiscus does not do well sitting in a bunch of water. For fertilizer, she makes a worm cast tea, and fertilizes the plants every two weeks. Godbole says that there are many well-balanced (with equal amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and specialized fertilizers on the market created specifically for hibiscus.
Tips to Consider Before Growing
It's important to give the shrub plenty of space when planting in the ground, Jackson recommends digging a hole one foot by two feet deep to provide the roots with space before filling it in with compost. She also says to ensure each plant has about four feet between them to provide enough room for the branches to grow.
But giving hibiscus trees enough room to grow isn't the only thing to consider when planting. According to Godbole, pests happen more often on a hibiscus if its roots are wet or if two plants are planted too close to each other or to a structure. "The most common problems include mealy bugs, which cover the plant in white cottony spots. It is also susceptible to aphids, scale, ants, and whiteflies." These can be controlled with appropriate pesticides by inviting beneficial insects like ladybugs to the garden and/or pruning to improve air circulation in the hibiscus.
Hibiscus - peculiarities of growing in the garden
A few years ago I planted a bush under the exotic name Syrian hibiscus on my plot. Visiting the dachas of my friends, walking along the streets of the city, I, to my surprise, noticed that this wonderful shrub practically does not participate in landscaping. It is not clear why he still remains out of sight. After all, hibiscus grows well in our climate, is quite unpretentious, and most importantly, it blooms very beautifully. Actually, it was these observations and growing experience that prompted me to write an article about him. Usually, when it comes to hibiscus, we think of the Chinese rose, a popular indoor plant from the genus Hibiscus. But, for example, hybrid hibiscus (it is also called grassy, because its shoots do not hibernate in our conditions, only the root system hibernates) feels good in the open field in the garden. This is a really wonderful plant, which is better to talk about separately in the next article. And now I want to dwell on the Syrian hibiscus, or, as it is also called, the Syrian rose.
Syrian hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus) is a deciduous shrub from the mallow family, its homeland is Korea, China and Western Asia, where it reaches a height of 5–6 m. It is cultivated in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden in the Crimea, as well as in the south of Russia and in Moldova. The leaves are bright green with carved edges, turn yellow in autumn, the flowers are solitary, funnel-shaped, simple. The diameter is 7–10 cm, and in some varieties up to 20 cm. The color of the flowers is varied: pink, white, raspberry, lilac, purple, often with an eye in the middle. The decoration is its charming golden stamens, fused into a long tube that looks out of the flower. Each flower blooms in the morning, and in the evening it closes and stops its life. However, there are a huge number of buds on the bush, and the next day more and more very fresh flowers appear. And so on until autumn. The plant blooms on the shoots of the current year, which is very significant, because in the event of a possible freezing of some of the shoots in severe winters, we will not lose flowering.
Cultivation and care features
- Grows well in fertile, breathable soils.
- Must be planted in open, sunny places. It grows well in partial shade, but produces fewer flowers.
- The best time for planting seedlings is spring.
- Watering is moderate, in drought and heat it needs to be increased.
- To enhance flowering, you can feed with phosphate fertilizers.
- For the first 2 years after planting, young plants are recommended to be wrapped with white spunbond for the winter. It protects the plant from frost and weathering. They take shelter at the end of March - April, depending on the nature of spring. Terry varieties are less frost-resistant.
- For the formation of a beautiful dense bush, every year it is necessary to make a formative pruning, shortening the shoot by 1/3 of the length. Shrunken and frozen branches are also cut out. Here, in fact, this is the end of the chores with hibiscus.
About some features of hibiscus from personal experience
The leaves of the Syrian rose wake up late, in spring the bush looks lifeless, until the end of May. Some fans have a premature desire to deal with the "shrunken" plant. Do not rush to do it! Sometimes, in cold spring, leaves may appear even in early June. The bush comes to life, the shoots grow rapidly and the buds are immediately laid. There are so many of them that during the subsequent flowering, the branches bend. That's why it's better to shorten the shoots. Sometimes the lower leaves turn yellow and fall off the hibiscus. This suggests that the plant lacks nitrogen and iron, but too much calcium. In the case of overfeeding with nitrogen, the leaves look very healthy, the bush is lush, but there are few flowers. So don't get carried away! And, of course, for a decorative look, do not forget about watering. If the plant does not have enough moisture, it is immediately noticeable - the leaves droop. Syrian hibiscus is resistant to diseases and pests. For many years I have not had any problems with this. It is indicated that the reproduction of aphids is sometimes possible.
Reproduction. Species hibiscus is well propagated by seeds. Plants grown from seeds bloom in the 3-4th year. I grew my plants without any problems from seeds collected in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. Varietal hibiscus is propagated vegetatively by semi-lignified cuttings.
The Syrian hibiscus is very good, but it has even more beautiful varieties with single or double flowers in different colors. Totus Albus - shrub up to 2 m high with a spherical crown, succulent foliage and elegant dazzling white flowers. Creates a powerful white accent when grown in a group and also sets off brighter varieties well when planted in a group. William R. Smith - a vigorous variety up to 3 m high (in the southern regions), the crown is vertical. The flowers are simple, white with corrugated petals. Hamabo is a shrub 1.5–2 m high, erect, grows slowly, spreads out a little with age. The flowers are large pale pink with red veins and a dark red spot in the center. Pruning of this variety should be done small, as it grows slowly, adding 10–15 cm per year.
William R. Smith
Red Heart - forms a powerful shrub up to 3 m high and up to 1.5 m wide. The flowers are huge, white with a red center, they look very impressive. Coelestis - shrub 1.5–2 m high, simple flower, lavender color with a dark pink center. It grows quickly, frost-resistant, easy to care for. A good variety for beginner gardeners. Woodridge - upright bush, up to 2.5 m high. Intense pink flowers with a darker center. Frost resistant variety.
Duc de Brabant is a wonderful variety with double purple flowers. The bush is medium tall, reaches a height of 1.5–2 m, forms a dense dense crown without forming pruning. The leaves are dark green, narrower than other varieties. Ardens - bush up to 2. 5 m high, dark green foliage, grows in the form of a vase. The flowers are lilac, double. Tolerates light partial shade. Lady Stanley - compact shrub with pink or lilac double flowers with a dark red center.
Duc de Brabant
Speciosus Semi-double white flowers with a ruby centre. Young plants need winter shelter. Blue Bird - a variety with a rare color for flowers, they are purple-blue with a purple center. Flowers simple, large. Bush up to 2 m high, vertical, growing rapidly. Great for hedges. Purpureus variegates is a very original and unusual variety. Its decorative effect is due not only to flowers, but also to variegated leaves - bluish-green with creamy irregular edging and veins. The flowers are dark purple, double, small, not fully open. The bush seems to be studded with precious stones. Height is not more than 1.5 m. This variety, planted in the foreground, well sets off the dark green foliage of other plants.
The descriptions of varieties indicate that hibiscus bushes can reach 3 m in height, however, as experience has shown, this is possible only when grown on the southern coast of Crimea. In other regions of Ukraine, I have never seen plants higher than 1.5 m. But this does not detract from the beauty of hibiscus.
The Syrian rose is a beautiful garden decoration. As I like to say, quoting the classics, this is "a holiday that is always with you."
Syrian rose - a holiday that is always with you.
Firstly, hibiscus is an excellent tapeworm, it can be planted in the most visible place - in the center of the flower bed, in the courtyard, at the entrance to the house. It fits well into various compositions with thujas, spruces and other coniferous plants. Secondly, by planting several bushes in a row, you can create a picturesque hedge. It is especially wonderful if you use varieties with different flower colors. When planting hibiscus for a hedge, do not forget that it grows quite quickly and the distance between plants should be at least 1 m.
hibiscus shrub in the front area
hibiscus on a trunk
hibiscus in hedgerow
Now my big hibiscus bush with a beautiful proportional crown about 1.2 m high. In early - mid-July every year a small miracle happens - hibiscus blooms. Flowering continues for a long time, somewhere until the end of September, and its peak occurs at the end of July. At this time, the whole bush is strewn with flowers - an extraordinary sight! Try planting it in your garden, you won't regret it.
hibiscus, ornamental shrubs, garden design, hedge, summer garden, garden perennials
outdoor planting and care, growing from seed
Hibiscus is a flowering plant from the Malvaceae family. This genus unites approximately 300 species, among which there are shrubs, evergreen and deciduous trees, as well as herbaceous plants. Under natural conditions, they can be found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old and New Worlds. In the open ground in regions with a temperate climate, only ternate hibiscus and Syrian hibiscus are cultivated, as well as garden hibiscus (hybrid hibiscus), which was bred by breeders in the forties and fifties of the twentieth century on the basis of North American hibiscus: bright red, marsh and armed. All forms of garden hibiscus are highly resistant to frost. The well-known Chinese hibiscus (Chinese rose) in the middle latitudes is cultivated only in greenhouses or at home, but in the summer it is desirable to transfer it to fresh air.
- 1 Brief description of growing
- 2 Features of garden hibiscus
- 3 Planting hibiscus in open soil
- 3.1 at what time to plant
- 3.2 Rule of landing
- 4 NECREMENT 9013 4.1 CHINUSED CENTIONS 4.2 Watering
- 4.3 Pruning hibiscus
- 4.4 Transplanting hibiscus
- 5. 1 Growing from seed
- 8.3 Hibiscus hybrida (Hibiscus hybrida)
Brief description of cultivation
- Planting In springtime from mid to late May.
- Flowering . From the last days of June to the beginning of October.
- Illumination. Sunny areas are suitable.
- Primer . The earth should be nutritious, light and pass water well. Hibiscus can be grown in areas where roses grow well.
- Watering . It is necessary to water systematically, especially on hot days, but do this only when the soil dries. During the dry season, watering is carried out every day.
- Trimming . In early spring, before sap flow begins, rejuvenating, sanitary and shaping pruning is carried out.
- Fertilizer . You need to feed hibiscus from June to September 1 time in 2 weeks, for this they use mineral fertilizers with a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In autumn, potash fertilizer must also be added to the complex.
- Reproduction of . Cuttings, grafting, layering and seed method.
- Harmful insects . Thrips, spider mites, aphids and whiteflies.
- Diseases . Root rot and chlorosis.
Features of garden hibiscus
Garden hibiscus is represented by shrubs, trees and herbaceous plants. For example, tree hibiscus (Syrian rose) is cultivated in the garden as a standard tree or shrub, the height of which can reach up to 150 cm. All herbaceous hibiscus are represented by varieties of hybrid hibiscus, among them there are annuals, but perennials are the most popular among gardeners. Despite the fact that there are a large number of different forms of such a plant, they all have common features. Petiolate leaf blades are incised to a greater or lesser extent. Large saturated color flowers can be simple or double. They can be painted in various colors, for example: yellow, dark red, blue, purple, white, crimson, lilac or violet. There are varieties with an eye of a contrasting color or with a border along the edge of the petals. The fruit is a five-leaved box in which the seeds are located. Today, in addition to garden species, there are approximately 500 varieties and forms of hibiscus.
Syrian hibiscus: planting and care
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Planting hibiscus outdoors
When to plant
Before you start planting hibiscus, you need to choose the most suitable place for this. From this, as well as how well you take care of the plant, depends on how long it will decorate your garden. If everything is done correctly, then the bush in the same place can grow for about 20 years.
Planting hibiscus seedlings in open ground is carried out in the spring, after the spring return frosts are left behind. In this case, during the summer, the bush will be able to take root well and acclimatize in a new place. It is best to choose a well-lit place for planting a crop, which is reliably protected from the wind. The soil should be light, rich in nutrients and well-drained, roses still grow well in such soil. If desired, hibiscus can even be planted among roses.
For tree planting, the planting hole should be 2 times larger than the volume of the seedling's root system. After the pit is ready, a layer of drainage from pieces of brick should be laid on its bottom, its thickness should be about 15 centimeters. From above it is covered with a layer of sand 10 centimeters thick, then a fifteen-centimeter layer of compost and again a ten-centimeter layer of sand. To fill the planting pit, you will need a soil mixture; for its preparation, the soil pulled out of the pit, sand and peat are combined in a ratio of 2: 1: 4. Gently place the seedling into the hole, with the root neck only slightly immersed in the soil. Then the hole is covered with the soil mixture that you prepared in advance.
After the tree is planted, it must be well heaped up, as a result, a rather deep hole for water should turn out around it. Pour water into this recess and wait until it is completely absorbed into the soil. Then fill the hole with soil so that the trunk circle is even and flush with the surface of the site.
If you need to plant a seedling in open ground in autumn, then the surface of the tree circle should be covered with a layer of mulch, and the plant itself should be tied with spruce branches.
Caring for hibiscus
Outdoor garden hibiscus is easy to care for. After young green stems appear on the bush, all dried old shoots are cut off from it. Systematically loosen the soil around the tree, pull out weeds in a timely manner, and also prevent the bush from thickening.
During the growing season (June-September), the plant is regularly fed once every 2 weeks, for this, fertilizer with a high content of phosphorus and nitrogen is used. And in the autumn, during the preparation of the bush for wintering, in addition to phosphate fertilizers, it is also fed with potash.
After the flower has blossomed, it will live only 24 hours, and then wither. However, if the bush is well cared for, it will bloom very luxuriantly, and immediately after the wilting of one flower, another will bloom. In order for the bush to always be neat, it is necessary to regularly cut off the flowers that have begun to fade.
In order for a flower to grow and develop normally, it must be watered in a timely manner, special attention is paid to this in hot weather. However, watering is carried out only when the surface of the soil near the bush is completely dry. In the event that there is a long dry period, watering the hibiscus is carried out every day.
The culture needs sanitary and formative pruning, with which you can give the desired shape to the bush. Most often, it is given the shape of a tree, but this will require a lot of time and patience. In a newly planted young bush, the branches are shortened to 2 or 3 buds, while a well-developed trunk does not need to be touched. In subsequent years, in the last winter weeks, prune the side shoots to 1-2 buds, and the stem to 5-6 buds. After the height of the stem suits you, start forming the crown of the plant, for this, strong shoots are shortened by several buds. Cut out all the lower growth, and also trim the upper part of the stem.
In the first weeks of spring, before the sap flow begins, sanitary pruning of hibiscus is carried out. To do this, cut out all diseased, old, growing inside the bush and weak shoots, then shorten last year's growth by 1/3 part, this helps to stimulate the laying of new flower buds. The main rule in pruning hibiscus is that the more the bush is cut, the more young shoots it will grow, and this will lead to more lush flowering.
If you need to rejuvenate a plant, then for this all dried old branches are cut off from it, and the remaining stems inside the bush are shortened by 2/3. In order to make the shape of the bush more attractive, it is recommended to cut the branches around the main stem to different heights.
Sometimes it happens that a mature hibiscus bush has to be transplanted to a new location. Do this in early spring after all the shoots are shortened by ½ part and always before the bush blooms. Transplantation is carried out in the same way as landing (see above).
After the plant has been transplanted, water it well. In the future, he is cared for in the same way as other adult hibiscus. A year later, flowers will appear on the bush. During the transplantation of the hybrid hibiscus, if desired, the rhizome can be divided.
Syrian hibiscus - my secrets of care
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Propagation of garden hibiscus
Propagation of garden hibiscus can be done even by a beginner gardener, as there is nothing complicated in it. Syrian hibiscus (garden) is most often propagated by seed and cuttings, but it can also be done by grafting and layering. Hybrid hibiscus can be propagated by grafting, dividing the bush, and also by green cuttings.
Growing from seeds
Hibiscus seeds are sown in January-March. Before starting sowing, the seed material is poured with a dark pink potassium permanganate solution for 30 minutes. Then they are pulled out and immersed in Epin's solution for 24 hours so that the seeds are only slightly covered with it. Then the seeds are sown. To do this, use a container that is filled with a soil mixture consisting of sand and peat. From above it is covered with glass and cleaned in a warm place (from 25 to 27 degrees). If possible, arrange bottom heating for crops. They will also need systematic ventilation and removal of condensate from the shelter. Irrigate as needed.
After the seedlings have formed their first true leaf blades, they will need to be picked into individual pots. Make sure the plants don't stretch out. This can happen due to excessively poor lighting, so seedlings are advised to organize additional lighting.
Planting seedlings in open soil is carried out in mid-May. Powerful bushes are immediately planted in a permanent place. The same seedlings that are very weak are recommended to be planted on a training bed for growing, while the distance between the bushes should be at least 50 cm. Unlike hybrid hibiscus, garden hibiscus can propagate by self-sowing.
Propagation of hibiscus by cuttings
Cuttings are harvested in the summer. To do this, cut off the shoot with 2-3 internodes. Treat the lower sections of the segments with a growth stimulant. After that, they are planted in a peat soil mixture in a greenhouse for rooting, they will need bottom heating. After 4 weeks, roots should grow on the cuttings, after which they are transplanted into separate containers, which are filled with a soil mixture consisting of peat, sand, soddy and leafy soil (1: 1: 1: 1). Systematically water the bushes, and after they grow young shoots, pinch them, which stimulates tillering.
After the bush grows and gets stronger, it can be planted in the garden. With proper and good care, hibiscus will begin to bloom in the first year after planting it in open soil. Some gardeners manage to root the cuttings in a container of water.
Syrian hibiscus. Propagation by cuttings. Wintering
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Pests and diseases of hibiscus
Hibiscus is quite resistant to pests and diseases. However, if during a prolonged drought it is not watered for a long time, then aphids, spider mites, thrips and whiteflies can settle on it. In order to get rid of harmful insects, it will take 2 times with a break of 7-10 days to spray the bushes with a solution of an insecticidal preparation, for example: Fitoverma, Karbofos, Aktellik or Inta-vir.
The most common hibiscus grown outdoors is affected by chlorosis. In a diseased bush, the lower leaf plates fly around, while young leaves grow immediately of a pale yellow hue. This can happen due to the fact that the soil contains very little iron and nitrogen, in this regard, it is recommended to add iron chelate to the water during irrigation. At the same time, in the spring, it is imperative to introduce a complex mineral fertilizer into the soil, which includes nitrogen.
- Hibiscus turning yellow . In hibiscus, the leaves can turn yellow if its root system was injured during transplantation, and also due to chlorosis. If the yellowing of the foliage is associated with injury to the root system, then during irrigation, Kornevin or Zircon should be added to the water, while following the instructions attached to the preparation, and the agent is also poured into the water used to moisten the leaf plates (6 drops per 1 liter of water ). Also, yellowing of the foliage may be due to insufficient watering during a prolonged drought.
- Hibiscus not blooming . In the event that a spacious, well-lit area was chosen for planting a bush, and the gardener properly cares for it and follows all the rules of agricultural technology, the culture still does not appear on it, then this may be due to the fact that there are very few in the soil boron and phosphorus. And if, in addition to the lack of flowering, the stems also grow very slowly, then the bush still lacks nitrogen. If the hibiscus is fed correctly and in a timely manner, then it will certainly bloom.
- Hibiscus is shedding leaves . Flying leaves in autumn is a completely natural process, and you should not worry about it. However, if the foliage began to fall off ahead of schedule, then this may be due to the fact that the root system is damaged or due to improper watering (both excessive and insufficient). How to fix the situation is described in detail above.
Hibiscus after flowering
Perennial hybrid hibiscus are all highly resistant to frost. They can be cultivated throughout Ukraine, while in Russia such a plant can be grown only in regions located south of Moscow, and then they must be covered for the winter.
The above-ground part of the bush that has died in autumn is cut off almost to the surface of the plot. Then the remaining segment is highly spudded with soil. If a too frosty or little snowy winter is expected, then cover the surface of the near-stem circle with a layer of mulch (covered with dry foliage or sawdust). With the onset of spring, young stems will grow at the hybrid hibiscus, and many spectacular flowers will appear on them.
But what if you grow Syrian (garden) hibiscus? When cultivating in mid-latitudes, the bush must be covered for the winter, especially if you have a terry variety. In regions with a very cold climate for the winter, a bush can be removed from the ground, placed in a large pot or container and put into any cool room (for example, in the basement), where it will stay until spring. Then it is planted again in the garden.
If your plant will winter in the open field, then in the 2-3rd decade of November, after the air temperature is kept at a level of minus 5 to minus 10 degrees, a frame must be made around the bush, spunbond, lutrasil or agrotex. If in the region where you live, in winter, the air temperature does not fall below minus 15 degrees, then nothing threatens the bushes protected in this way. Instead of a covering material that does not breathe well, which can cause the plant to ban, it is better to use spruce branches, which can accumulate snow on itself and prevent the hibiscus from overheating or rotting. To begin with, tie the bush with a rope, and put a sackcloth bag on top of it, then lay the spruce branches in 3 layers, like a hut. But it should be noted that a rodent can get into such a structure, which will gnaw the bark on the plant, and it will die. To protect the bush from such a pest, it is necessary to put mousetraps or baits near it (wheat poisoned with poison from rodents).
Syrian hibiscus. Preparing for winter.
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Types and varieties of Syrian hibiscus with photo
As mentioned above, Syrian hibiscus is most often cultivated in the garden, as well as its varieties. But other types of such a plant and their various varieties are grown in open ground.
Syrian hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus)
The birthplace of such a plant is not Syria, but China. Under natural conditions, this species is a deciduous shrub that can reach a height of 5-6 meters. The shape of the rich green leaf plates is ovoid, and their length is up to 10 centimeters. During flowering, single flowers bloom, which can be painted in various colors. Gardeners cultivate hibiscus with both simple and double flowers, while the shape of the plant can be both standard and bush. Best varieties:
- Diana . The height of the shrub is about 200 cm. White flowers in diameter reach 12 centimeters, the edge of their petals is wavy.
- Vyelite Ilar Double . This upright, powerful shrub is decorated with semi-double or double flowers of a bluish-purple color with red spots in the middle.
- Pink Giant . Pink single flowers have a purple spot at the base.
- Karneus Plenus . The stems of this shrub are very flexible. Terry flowers of a pale pink hue are decorated with a crimson speck located in the middle.
Hibiscus trionum (Hibiscus trionum)
This species is native to North and Central Africa. However, today it is widely cultivated in all areas of irrigated agriculture. Hibiscus has a tap root, as well as a branched straight stem, whose height is about 0.8 m. There is pubescence on the surface of alternately arranged tripartite leaf plates, and they also have a petiole. Pale yellow flowers in diameter reach about 40 mm, their middle is dark red. This species has one characteristic feature: its flowers open in the morning, and close in the afternoon. The duration of flowering of such a plant is more than 30 days. The fact is that new buds are formed in the axils of each leaf plate, and if the bush grows in favorable conditions, then the formation of flowers will occur every day.
Hibiscus hybrida (Hibiscus hybrida)
In addition to these species, which can be found in the garden and in natural conditions, gardeners also cultivate hybrid hibiscus, as well as its varieties. It has already been said above that breeders obtained this plant by crossing 3 North American species, namely: bright red hibiscus, armed (holly) and marsh. Hybrid hibiscus are herbaceous perennials that produce very large and beautiful flowers during flowering. Popular varieties:
- Youth . The height of a weakly branched plant is about 150 cm. The stems are painted in a pale greenish-yellow color, shoots depart from them at an angle of 60 degrees. Three-cut or five-cut sheet plates are painted greenish-yellow. In pink flowers, the bowl and bottom are white, they reach up to 100 mm in diameter and have the shape of a tulip.
- Late . Such a compact densely leafy bush reaches a height and a diameter of about 100 cm. The shape of the leaf plates with a serrated edge is oval-sagittate, their petioles are thick, and the veins are light in color. Pinkish-crimson flowers with a lilac tint are in the form of narrow bells, they reach up to 70 mm in diameter. Flowers are formed on thick short peduncles.
- Pale pink . The height of the herbaceous bush is about 1.7 m, short shoots depart from the stems at an angle of 60 degrees. The foliage is three-cut, it has a greenish-yellow color. Pink tulip-shaped flowers in diameter reach about 12 centimeters, their bowl and bottom are white.
- Porcelain Rose . The height of the bush with greenish-yellow branched stems is about 1.3 m. The average share of deeply incised leaf blades is wide and protruding, they are painted in a dusty greenish-yellow color, and their petioles reach up to 60 mm in length. On short peduncles, large pinkish bell-shaped flowers with a barely distinguishable yellowish tint sit in bunches, they reach about 12 centimeters in diameter.